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All content following this page was uploaded by Kamila Cabová on 03 April 2017.

EUROSTEEL 2011, August 31 - September 2, 2011, Budapest, Hungary

Kamila Horová a, František Wald a and Zdeněk Sokol a

a

Czech Technical University in Prague, Dept. of Steel and Timber Structures, Prague

INTRODUCTION

This paper describes the mechanical behaviour of steel column base of circular hollow section

(CHS) composed of a base plate and anchor bolts subjected to bending moment and an axial force.

The analytical model based on component method, uses the behaviour of each part of the joint to

build a realistic picture of a connection’s characteristic, the resistance and rotational stiffness, is

introduced. By component method the connection is disintegrated into two parts: base plate in

bending and concrete in compression and base plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension. The

effective length of T-stub in tension is described analytically (by the yield line theory) and

evaluated by finite element simulation in ANSYS with non-linear behaviour of material. The

influence of bolt position on the propagation of yield line patterns is compared by the help of four

simulations. Formulas for all possible failure cases which can arise thanks to different bolt position

for CHS column base are stated. Finally, the distribution of yield line mechanism depending on

position of bolt is summed into one figure. Procedure of base plate design follows rules in Eurocode

3, Part 1–8: Design of joints.

1 ANALYTICAL MODEL

Joints as well as base plates are solved by the help of component method. This method is based on

classical evaluation of resistance and stiffness, which are derived from the resistance and stiffness

of each parts of joint. The first step of the component method is an identification of individual

connection parts (components). The base plate connection is disintegrated into two parts: base plate

in bending and concrete in compression and base plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension

(column web and flange in shear and compression as well as bolts in shear are neglected, the work

is focused on the base plate only).

1.2 Base plate in bending and concrete block in compression

The components concrete in compression and base plate in bending represent the behaviour of the

compressed part of a column base. The strength of these components depends primarily on the

bearing resistance of the concrete block, see [5]. The deformation of concrete is important only in

case of dominant axial compressive force. This paper is focused on the flexible base plate which

can be considered as the area Ap. This area of the plate can be replaced by an equivalent rigid plate

with area Aeq which consists of the column area and a width c which lies around the column as

shown in Fig. 1. Then the resistance of the component, expecting the constant distribution of the

bearing stresses under the effective area is given in Eq. (1).

FRd ,u = Aeq ⋅ f jd (1)

where FRd,u is the strength of the component, fjd is the design value of the bearing strength.

The proposed design model for resistance of the components base plate in bending and concrete in

compression as well as all needed formulas are given in [5].

The proposed design model for stiffness of the components base plate in bending and concrete in

compression is given also in [5]. From the deformation of the component the formula to calculate

the stiffness coefficient given in Eq. (2) can be derived.

E c a eq.el L

kc = (2)

1,275 E

where Ec is the Young's modulus of concrete, aeq,el is the equivalent width of the T-stub, L is length

of the T-stub, E is the Young's modulus of steel.

1.3 Base plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension

The base plate in bending and anchor bolts in tension are the main components of the base plate

connection [4]. The behaviour of these parts is described similarly to the beam to column end plate

connection, by the help of T-stub model. The design model of this component for resistance as well

for stiffness is given in [4]. When the base plate is in contact with concrete surface, the prying of

bolts appears and on the contrary no prying forces occur in the case of separated base plate from the

concrete block due to the deformation of long bolts. In [1] prying forces are neglected. When the

column base is loaded by bending moment as it is shown in Fig. 2, anchor bolts transfer tensile

forces. This case of loading leads to elongation of anchor bolts and bending of the base plate.

Deformed bolts can cause failure as well as reaching of the yield strength of the base plate.

Sometimes failure in this tensile zone is caused by both, see [6]. The design resistance of a T-stub

of flange in tension of effective length ℓeff is determined as minimum resistance of three possible

plastic collapse mechanisms. Because of the long anchor bolts and thick base plate different failure

mode arises compare to an end plate connection. When the T-stub is uplifted from the concrete

foundation (there is no prying), new collapse mode mode 1-2 is obtained. In cases where no prying

forces develop, the design resistance of the T-stub is given in Eq. (3) [6].

FRd = min( F1−2.Rd , F3.Rd ) (3)

where F1− 2.Rd is minimum resistance of mode 1-2, F3.Rd is minimum resistance of mode 3.

The equivalent length of T-stub leff, which is very important for the resistance determination, is

calculated by the help of the yield line method.

Fig. 1. Flexible base plate as a rigid plate of Fig. 2. Tensile zone – equivalent T-stub after

effective area with effective width c loading by bending moment

Table 1. Failure cases of CHS column base plate

b (a − a1 )

2

b1 + 1

2

b

l eff ,1 = π m l eff , 2 = b − b b1 − e b a1 − e a

1

2 l eff ,.3 = +

4 a1 − e a b1 − e b

a (b − b1 )

2

a1 + 1

2

a

l eff , 7 = π m l eff ,6 = ( a − a ) b1 − eb a1 − ea

1

2 l eff , 4 = +

4 a1 − ea b1 − eb

a1 + b1 eb e a

2 2

l eff ,5 = + Partition of the yield line mechanism for different bolt positions

4 e a eb

The yield line method is based on work (or energy) method which gives an upper-bound solution to

the critical load at which the slab, with a certain ultimate resisting moment, fails. A particular

configuration, in this case the effective length leff of a T-stub, is searched from a family of possible

yield-line patterns which gives the lowest value of the ultimate load. The solution is based on the

principle of virtual work. In [1] there are taken into account only the modes without the contact of

the edge of the base plate to the concrete foundation. According to calculation procedure of the

effective length of the T-stub given in [4] and [6] all possible failure cases for CHS column base

plate are derived and summarized. With modes without prying of the anchor bolts, seven cases of

failure shown in Table 1 could be reached. The effective length of the base plate T-stub is given as

the smallest one as given in Eq. (4).

l eff = min (l eff ,1 ; l eff , 2 ; l eff ,3 ; l eff , 4 ; l eff ,5 ; l eff , 6 ; l eff ,7 ) (4)

The calculation of the effective length is a function of the position of the anchor bolt. By moving

the anchor bolt around the column corner (changing ea and eb), distribution of the yield line

mechanism, which is also summed up in Table 1, is obtained.

The prediction of the base plate stiffness is based on [4]. In case of no prying the stiffness of the

component of base plate in bending and bolts in tension is summarised in Eq. (5).

where kT is the stiffness of the T-stub, kb is the stiffness of the bolt, kp is the stiffness of the plate.

1.5 Resistance and stiffness of CHS base

The calculation of the column base resistance, based on the force equilibrium on the base plate, is

given in [3]. In case the connection is loaded by axial force NEd and bending moment MEd, the

equilibrium of internal forces is shown in Fig. 3. The position of the neutral axis is calculated

according to resistance of the tension part FT,Rd. Then the bending resistance MRd can be determined

providing the plastic distribution of internal forces. The effective area Aeff under the base plate,

which is demonstrated in Fig. 3 like an active part of equivalent rigid plate, is calculated from an

equivalent T-stub, with an effective width c. The compression force is assumed to act at the centre

of the compressed part. The tensile force is located at the anchor bolts or in the middle when there

are more rows or bolts [3].

For circular hollow section formulas given in Eq. (6), (7), (8) are used.

Aeff = 2θ ⋅ r ⋅ c (6)

θ

z c = r ⋅ cos (7)

2

Fc ,rd = π .r.c (8)

The calculation of stiffness of the base plate is compatible with beam to column stiffness

calculation. According to the eccentricity two possible basic collapse modes can arise: with

activation of anchor bolts, without tension in anchor bolts. The stiffness coefficients can be revised:

bolt in tension kb, base plate in bending kp, concrete in compression kc.

The propagation of plastic areas depending on different position of the anchor bolt and its

correlation with the yield line theory introduced in analytical part are verified by CHS column. By

the help of ANSYS, the component base plate in bending and anchor bolt in tension with non-

elastic behaviour of material is studied. Four simulations with different position of anchor bolt of

quarter of the component which is in tension and loaded by tension force are introduced. The

propagation of plastic zone, this area is defined by white line, is shown in Fig. 6 – 9.

In these models it is possible to trace the location of plastic zones as well as their shapes. By

comparing with Table 1 in analytical part, it can be stated, that the numerical simulation of CHS

column base plate confirms the prediction of the analytical model. It confirms the fact that the yield

line depends, among other things, on position of bolt. For the range of effective lengths there are

also small difference between finite element simulation and analytical model. It is caused by the

fact that the yield line is not a straight and continuous line.

Fig. 6. Max. stress area with bolt in [80; 80] Fig. 7. Max. stress area with bolt in [260; 80]

Fig. 8. Max. stress area with bolt in [210; 80] Fig. 9. Max. stress area with bolt in [210; 40]

3 SUMMARY

The introduced analytical model shows a good prediction of the behaviour of CHS column base

plates. It allows the prediction of resistance and stiffness for engineering purposes. The yield line

patterns which can arise thanks to different bolt position are summed up to show its partition better.

In case of no-prying, the yield line mechanisms of CHS column base plate are evaluated by the help

of software. The materially non-linear analysis, worked out in ANSYS, shows good agreement with

results obtained from analytical model.

REFERENCES

[1] Horova, K, “Base plates of hollow sections”, Diploma thesis, Prague, 2010.

[2] EN 1993-1-8, Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 1-8, Design of Joints, CEN, Brussels 2005.

[3] Wald, F, Sokol, Z, Steenhouis, M, Jaspart, JP, “Component Method for Steel

Column Bases”, Heron. 2008, vol. 53, no. 1/2, s. 3-20, ISSN 0046-7316.

[4] Wald, F, Sokol, Z, Jaspart, JP, “Base Plate in Bending and Anchor Bolts in

Tension”, Heron. 2008, vol. 53, no. 1/2, s. 21-50, ISSN 0046-7316.

[5] Steenhouis, M, Wald, F, Sokol, Z, Stark, JWB, “Concrete in Compression and Base Plate in Bending”,

Heron. 2008, vol. 53, no. 1/2, s. 51-68, ISSN 0046-7316.

[6] Gresnight, N, Romeijn, A, Wald, F, Steenhouis, M, “Column Bases in Shear and Normal Force”, Heron.

2008, vol. 53, no. 1/2, s. 87-108, ISSN 0046-7316.

[7] Wald, F, Bouguin, V, Sokol, Z, Muzeau, JP, “Effective length of T-stub of RHS column base plates”.

[8] Wald, F, “Column bases”, CTU Prague, June 1995.

[9] Wald, F, Sokol, Z, “Navrhování styčníků”, Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1999.

[10] Wardenier, J, Dutta, D, Yeomans, N, Packer, JA, Bucak, O, “Design guide for structural hollow section

in mechanical applications”, CIDECT, Construction with hollow section steel sections, Verlag TUV

Rheinland Gmbh, Köln, 1995.

[11] Bouguin, V, “Column Bases of the Rectangular Hollow Sections Columns”, Diploma theses, Clermont

Ferrand, 2000.

[12] Manenc, G, “Base plates of circular hollow sections”, Diploma thesis, 2004.

[13] Wardenier, J, “Rectangular Hollow Section Joints”, Delft University of Technology, Oslo Course 2009.

[13] ANSYS Release 11.0: Documentation for Ansys.

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