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Concept of Yajña

-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, M.Sc., AIFC


B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001
+91-671-2304172/2304433, (M) +91-9437034172
Email arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in
(Summary)
Yajña is not merely a procedure of worship or offerings in fire with mantras. It has been defined as
the science of creation or production. This article describes and classifies the universal concept of
production, creation and maintenance at various levels-cosmic, physical and internal. Basic
foundation is the summary given in Gī tā, chapter 3, verses 9-16 and chapter 4, verses 23-33. Yajña
is complete universe as a form of Brahma and that aspect is being explained here. Procedures and
rituals are not explained here which are mostly symbolic.
1.Introduction-Various sects have described yajña as offerings in fire or procedures of worship by
using certain mantras. Sectarian explanations tend to forget the basic meaning and are more
concerned with highlighting their own sect and glorify that path. It surprising that an aspect of
Brahma (Viş ņ u) has been called Yajña-Puruş a, which encompasses the whole universe, still nobody
has viewed it as such. This has resulted in following misconceptions-
(1) Yajña is offer of grains, ghee etc in fire, by reciting some mantras-It is universal aspect of
production, creation and maintenance. All human activities involve Yajña-agriculture, education,
statecraft, eating, breathing, commerce described as 13 types of Yajña in Gī tā, chapter 4, verses
23-33.
(2)Yajña was done by Ŗ ş is only-Even Asuras were doing it and they won because they were more
sincere than devas.
(3) Yajña was done in Vedic period- There is confusion that Vedic period started sometime in past
estimated as 50000 years to 1500 BC and it ended long back in history. But Vedas in form of world
and its description in words-both are eternal and are not creation of a single man. Yajña also has
been created since beginning by Creator (Prajā pati) as per Gī tā (3/10).
(4) Yajña is special type of work in addition to normal works of livelihood-All works are to be done
as a Yajña whose cycle needs to be maintained. To preserve it, we may consume only the residue.
2. Many streams of Vedā nta-Brahma is one and its unity in various terms and descriptions in Vedas
is shown by Brahma-sū tra, called Vedā nta-darś ana. But it is surprising that there are 8 varieties of
Vedā nta-darś ana. Though Brahma is one, created Universe has variety and no single theory can
fully describe it. There is duality in creation called variously as- (1) Ā tmā -Jī va (Adam-eve), (2)
Creator-created (Khudā -Khudā i), (3) Puruş a-Prakŗ ti, or Aja-Ajā (detached and active aspects of
creator, (4) Sañchara-Pratisañchara (forward and backward processes etc. Due to dual destiny
(Niyati), it is called Dvi-niyati or Duniyā. These are observed in 3 worlds-(1) Internal (within human
body-Ā dhyā tmika, (2) Physical-as seen on earth-Ā dhibhautika and (3) cosmic-Ā dhidaivika. Thus,
a total of 6 views (=2x3) are taken, giving rise to 6 Darś ana (philosophy) and 6 Darś a-vā k (visible
word or script). This is also due to 10 dimensions of universe called 10 Mahā -vidyā, out of which 5
are needed for description of mechanical world of physics-giving 5 basic units of measurements.
5 aspects of Chetanā (consciousness), which do chayana (ordering) give 5 more dimensions from
6 to 10. Still, we expect that at least Vedā nta should have only one version. But, universe is created
by 3 Guņ as of Prakŗ ti, whose combination can be of 23 = 8 types. Thus, visible universe has 8 fold
theories of unity. Creator has been explained by Advaita of 2 types-one is without any attributes,
whose actions and forms are beyond perception. By combination of same source, different varieties
are formed. The special feature is called Viś eş a and the philosophy which explains transformation
by different combination of same atoms is called Vaiś eş ika. For example, same gold can be shaped
into various types of ornaments. Same wheat is used for bread, chapati, paratha etc. Viś eş a aspect
was explained by Rā mā nuja and Nir-viś eş a was explained by Ś ankara. Both have been made clear
by Ś ukadeva in his comment after Gajendra-mokś a, in Bhā gavata-purāņ a (8/3). Gajendra
(Elephant king) had prayed Nir-viś eş a aspect, so no aspect with visible form (Deha-abhimā nī =
having body awareness) came, thinking that he was not being prayed. Finally, Nā rā yaņ a (living in
the original water = nā ra of universe) had to come on Garuɖ a. Here, it appears, that Ś ukadeva is
supporting formed aspects described by Rā mā nuja, but Garuɖ a has been called Chhando-maya
(In form of Chhandas, various measures of world).





(ग



व5 Mā -chhandas indicate 5 basic measures in physics. But there are many Vayah-chhandas. Vayana



means weaving and vayas is bird also. This means 19 types of Vayah-chhandas in Yajurveda chapter

व and many other types elsewhere.
14

Yajurveda
म Vā jasaneyī Samhitā, Chapter 14, verses 9-10 list 19 Vayah-chhandas. Verses 18-19 list 5



व ā -chhandas and their links-(1) Mā chhanda-Pŗī thvī (earth = compact structure), (2) Pramā-
M


Antarik
व ś a (intermediate between earth and vacant space), (3) Pratimā -Dyau (vacant space), (4)

रAsr
न ī vi =Link, (5) Samā =space. A total of 24 chhandas are listed there, including Mana chhanda.

Mana (mind) is one of the 9 dravya (object) which is 1 of 6 padā rtha (entity) in Vaiś eş ika Darś ana,









where atoms of mana also are defined. 40 chhandas are in chapter 15 verses 4-5. Vayah chhandas
are explained in Ś atapatha Brā hmaņ a (2/3/4/21, 8/5/2/6, 3/3/3/3). Maitrā yaņ ī Samhitā chapter 39
which explains meaning of various chhandas.
3. Brahma, Karma, Yajña-These are indicated in Gī tā, chapter 8 along with 3 world spaces-inner,
physical, cosmic called Ā dhyā tmika, Ā dhibhautika, Ā dhidaivika.
Brahma is the whole world-It has minute and visible motions at all points.
Karma is visible motion of objects relative to each other. All forces do not result in desired motion
or action-that is called Akarma. All acts or karma are not useful.
Any action which produces desired object or result is called yajña, which occurs in cycles. It has
existed since creation by Prajā pati. At any world level, it maintains the existence, so Viş ņ u has
been called Yajña-Puruś a, as world order is maintained by that aspect of Brahma. Some part of
the product is used by yajña process itself to continue the action, so we should consume only the
residue, so that yajña cycle or world order does not stop.







न ā pati had created yajña along with creation of Prajā (beings) itself and directed them at start-
Praj

you produce by it and let it satisfy all your desires. (10) Those who eat only the remains of yajña



व freed of all sins. (13) The cycle of yajña needs to be continued, non-follower of the dictum leads
are


useless life only for satisfying his organs. (16)

र4.
व Cycle of Yajña-Its 7 parts are defined in Gī tā (3/14-15)-

रस






रChain
व of creations is-(1) Akś ara, (2) Brahma, (3) Karma, (4) Yajña, (5) Parjanya, (6) Anna, (7) Bhū ta-


which is same as Akś ara (1).

व Here, Brahma is not the ultimate creator. Rather, it is inert matter, called Brahmā in Purāņ as.



Brahm
व ā kś ara = Brahmā + Akś ara as well as (Brahma + Akś ara). The Great Being is called Puruş a,


which means man at individual level. The whole world is a great man. Universal or individual aspects


भ seen at 4 levels-(1) The outer form is always decaying, so it is called Kś ara. (2) Creative or
are


रस
functional
व identity is called Akś ara. That is hidden, so it is called Kū ţ astha. Kū ţ a also means hill-



व which is named as identity of a hill. (3) Avyaya is link of change due to surroundings. Total
top,



remains the same, so it is not spent or avyaya. (4) Parā tpara is same for all objects-there is no




distinction at any level. (see Gī tā, 15/16-18)












Akś ara at grand level started material creation by its desire. At individual level also, a conscious
being is needed for action. Firstly, it arranges matter and then does work-called Karma. That
involves some movement. The process of creation of desired object is called Yajña. It creates
unnecessary things also. That creation is in an enclosed space-called Parjanya = pari + janya. Pari
=surrounding, janya =creative. In agriculture, most important is rains, so parjanya =rain also.
Parjanya creates Anna which means food. This is term for agriculture. In other Yajñas, anna means
any desired goods or services-as stated in modern economics. Finally, all beings are created or
maintained by consuming that Anna, and is able to engage in another Yajña, as Akś ara.
5. Cosmic Yajña-(A) Order-Its sequence is given in Taittirī ya upaniş ad (2/1)-


Sequence of creation is-(1) Ā tmā = Original conscious being. It had mind living in vacuum-called
Śवvo-vasī yasa-mana, (2) Ā kāś a = vacant space, (3) Vā yu = motion, (4) Ā p = uniform spread of

matter, (5) Pŗ thivī = compact (= pŗ thu) structure, (6) Oş adhi = Plants. Normally, these are divided
व 2 classes. Oş adhi is annual plant which dies after fruit. Others are vanaspati. Here both are
into

included. (7) Anna = Food. In general, it means anything which is consumed for existence. (8)
व ş a, which is same as (1), but a local form.
Puru
व 7 stages of yajña cycle are called 7-fold sā ma in Chhā ndogya upaniş ad, chapter 2, parts 8-10.
The
Sवā ma is of 3 types-(1) of Vā k = space, (2) of Ā ditya = initial form of world (ā di = start), (3) of
eternity beyond death. Parts 2-7 state 5-fold sā ma of 6 types-(1) Loka = structures of space, (2)

Lower worlds = Micro structures of 7 levels starting with cell, atom, nucleus, (3) Varşā = rains. In

general, it means any radiation or outflow. The source is called Vŗşā = male. Receiving field is

called Yoşā = female. (4) Jala = Uniform spread of matter at various levels. In universe it is Rasa or

Ā nanda. In galaxy, it is Ā p. In solar system it is Mara. (5) Ŗ tu = seasons. Parallel to 6 seasons on

earth surface, there are 6 Vaş aţ kā ras (Vā k + ş aţ) or zones in solar system having varying levels of

energy. In all cosmic structures, different levels of energy create objects and are called-Ŗ tu-pitara.

Pitara means Pitā + mā tā = father and mother. (6) Paś u = animal. It is derived from Paś ya = to

see. Whatever is seen is called paś u = which is consumed in any process of creation. Creator is

Kaś yapa, i.e. reverse of paś yaka. (7) Prā ŋa = energy. For each creation some energy is needed.

(B) Prā ŋa - Prā ŋa is stated of 7 types in Muŋɖ aka upaniş ad (2/1/8) from 7 types of tongues of Agni

(Agri = first created). Thus, the first yajña farming is called agri-culture. Prā ŋa of 5 types is stated

in Ś vetāś vatara upaniş ad (1/5) etc. Out of 7 prā ŋas-2 are beyond perception-(1) Paro-rajā is
beyond rajas = lokas or places of creation, (2) Ŗ ş i is asat-prā ŋa or invisible as it is smallest level of

creation of string (rassi) 10-35 meters, called primordial string in string theories of physics. Tongues




are of 7 types for consuming (lelā yamā nā) and 7 types for radiating (archi) in Muŋɖ aka (1/2/4) and
(2/1/8). Thus, total is of 14 types as stated in Svasti-pāţ ha (agni-jihvā manavah, manu = 14).
(C) Reverse Tree-Visible levels of world are 5 corresponding to 5 chakras (nerve-junctions for
control of each level of body) in central nerve of back-bone. 2 source levels are invisible,
corresponding to Sahasrā ra and Ā jñā chakras in brain. Their sequence is called reverse tree in Gī tā
(15/1), where source is called root and up and creation types are called branches downwards. End
products are leaves. Cosmic tree and human tree as its image-
No. Cosmic tree Element Human Tree
1. Abstract source rasa- Vindu ( invisible 4th level of ॐ) Sahasrā ra (top of head)
(Sahasra-balś ā =1000 possibilities)
2. Ś vo-vasī yasa-mana ॐof 3 parts A+U+M Ā jñā -2 parts of brain and link
(The desire which created world, mixture of matter and energy). (Behind eyebrow center)
3. Universe = Idam (This) Ā kāś a (space) = almost vacant. Viś uddhi in neck.
(¼ of total rasa, 1011 galaxies, Svayambhū =self created)
4. Galaxy of 1011 stars, Vā yu =start of motion Anā hata (heart region)
(Parameş ţ hī =largest brick, Brahmā ŋɖ a =1 egg of Brahma) (center of blood and air circulation)
5. Solar system Teja (radiation energy) Maŋipū ra (navel region)
(Saura maŋɖ ala is ā tmā =soul of world as source of energy) (Center of digestion and energy)
6. Sphere of moon orbit Ap (water, cool spread of matter) Svā dhiş ţ hā na (base of backbone)
Chā ndra maŋɖ ala is creating plant life. (Discharge of mala, procreation)
7. Earth=Bhū maŋɖ ala Agni (agri =first created, base=pada or foot) Mū lā dhā ra (seat center)
Compact or dense base of world. Center of physical body.
(D) Letters-All the visible stages 3-7 are called Agni in general. Last 3 stages-sun-moon-earth have
visible effect on us and are called 3 eyes of Ś iva. 5 visible stages of world are indicated by 5 basic
vowels-A, I, U, Ŗ , Ļ . Thus, Ś iva is expressed as U+ Ŗ +Ļ = Hulhuli (continuous chanting of these
sounds) or Holi. Corresponding 5 chakras of back-bone are indicated by 5 internal letters called
Bī ja =seed of chakras-h, y, v, r, l. These are in sequence of Mā heś vara-sū tra which is basis of
Sanskrit grammar of Pā ŋini. Last letters in each sū tra are markers.

These
इ sū tras are also described as sequence of creation in Nandikeś vara-Kāś ikā.
ऊ Ā ditya-3 Ā dityas or initial forms of world are-Aryamā , Varuŋa, Mitra in 3 dhā ma or spaces of
(E)

Universe, galaxy and solar system, called upper, middle and lower dhā ma. They are now visible in

intermediate regions (antarikś a) between 3 dhā ma as sky and last base earth. Uniform source all
over is Parama-dhā ma. Parallel to that, there are 4 dhā ma on earth. There are 3 earths, defined



by zones lighted by sun and moon in Viş ŋu purā ŋa (2/7/3-4)-(1) Earth planet lighted by both sun-
moon. (2) Earth of solar system which is exclusive zone lighted by sun. Zones formed around earth
by motion of planets up to Uranus are named as Dvī pa (continents) and oceans as named on earth
surface. Loka (lighted part) of 50 crore yojana diameter and. Aloka (dark) zone of double size-are
2 steps of Viş ņ u-third step is up to end of solar system. (3) Galaxy is the largest earth, last limit of
visibility of sun as a point, called Kāś yapī. The central rotating disc is called a river-ā kāś a-gangā.
Sky for these 3 earths are-solar system, galaxy and universe.
(F) Lokas-4 spheres and 3 intermediate spaces are 7 lokas-Bhū (Earth), Bhuvar (planetary system
of sun), Svar (solar system of 1575 million sun diameters, or 230 of earth size), Mahar (sphere of
width of spiral arm of galaxy near sun = 240 earth size), Janah (Galaxy). It is Parā rdha = half of
1017yojana as in Kaţ ha upaniş ad (1/3/1) etc. = 97000 light years. Yojana here is 1/20 circumference
of earth), Tapah (visible universe of 864 billion light years diameter), Satya (Infinite universe which
is same = satya in all directions, places and times).
(G) Varā ha-Uniform spread is water, compact structure is earth-in between is mixed called Varā ha
or cloud. On earth, it means boar which is an animal of land and water both. Creative intermediate
form of universe was vague forms of galactic clouds-that is Ā di-Varā ha (initial). Creation process
or Yajña started with formation of galaxies-that is called Yajña-Varā ha. Formation of solar system
started with radiation of light, which is white, so its formative shape was Ś veta-Varā ha. Earth was
created by scattered rocks spread near its orbit in zone of 10 sun-diameters as per Vā yu purā ŋa
(6/12). It contains earth of 1/109 sun diameters, thus it is a mere dot on white teeth of that boar
called Bhū -Varā ha, that may be lighted zone called Gojā (born of go = sun rays). All life forms on
earth are maintained by atmosphere of width of 1/24 radius of earth, that is adjacent or Emū ş a-
Varā ha. Cycles of creation and destruction of each level of world is maintained in time cycles of
Brahmā , Viş ŋu, Ś iva, Ś akti.
Yajna of last Emū ş a-Varā ha is maintenance of our atmospheres, i.e. avoiding pollution of gases,
heat etc.
6. Yajñas in Gītā-Gī tā (4/23-30) describe 13 types of yajñas. Worship by yajña has been called
Bhā va yajña in Gītā (3/11). These are-
(1) Brahma-yajña-That is basic attitude of considering everything as Brahma. That is indicated by
example of tree in many ways- (a) Brahma is unattached, un-involved observer like a static tree. (b)
Brahma is the creator like creation of life forms by a tree. (c) Brahma is the material for creation
like wood of tree is made into furniture. (d) Brahma is chain of creation like parts of tree-root =
source, branch = many directions of creation, leaf = end structure, which decays. (e) Brahma is
forest, i.e. collection of various chains of creation and also the place for that. (f) All chains of action
and reaction.



=There in none other beyond Him. There is neither smaller nor greater than Him. That one

complete Puruş a oversees whole world in space, standing like a static tree.



=The
ष knowledge starts with enquiry about Brahma. That is from which this (world) is born etc.
(grows, decays and merges in it after death)








(व



व (Question)-What was that forest and the tree out of which sky and earth were formed. Thinkers
=



questioned within mind as to who held this world.

तव
रव

,व





(व

१व
रव

व (Answer)-Brahma was the forest and Brahma was that tree from whose cutting sky and earth
=





व formed. Thinkers reasoned within mind that it was Brahma only which held all the worlds.
/were











१व


/=
व What was the foundation, starting point, and source matter from which the creator (Viś vakarmā)





created earth and set them in space.



,ऊ













=The eternal tree has roots upwards and branches downwards. All structures enclosed in a





boundary
स (Chhanda) are its leaves (transient products). Knower of this (reverse) tree only knows

।वव
रछ

Vedas.
वव
१व



/व

व verse of Gī tā is recited at start of food, though its meaning is much general-Brahma is all
This
१व




रव
offering process and material. That is consumed by Brahma by fire in form of Brahma. That reaches
/





Brahma

१स only by unity of Brahma and all actions.
वव
रल




For creation of world, Puruş a (Brahma) itself is used as material also, so it has been called Paś u
।य






(व Puruş a-sū kta, Ŗ k 10/90/9). Puruş a-medha is also called Sarva-medha. Creation needs calm or









/व







(य


/व





१म




steady state, that is termed as Rā tri (night). 10 cycles of day-night are needed for complete creation
called Daś a-rā tra. See-Ś atapatha Brā hmaņ a (12/1/3/20), Gopatha Brā hmaņ a pū rva (5/7),Taittirī ya
Brā hmaņ a (2/3/1/11), Tāņ ɖ ya Mahā -Brā hmaņ a (4/8/6). Man as image of world is produced in 10
cycles of moon in about 273 days. Pitar body is of moon, it is created in 10 revolution of earth.
Atharva-veda, chapter 18 is only for rites of Pitars.
(2) Daiva-yajña-Deva is the creative energy or Prā ŋa. Non-productive in called Asura. Jagat
(dynamic world) has been created by Devas only, not from Asuras. Rasa has the root Prā ŋa Ŗ ş i,
which creates Pitar Prā ŋa. That is proto-type giving Deva and Dā nava (Asura) both. Only Deva
creates Jagat.


As Devas create us, we have to maintain them. By caring for each-other, deva and men-both groups

will
व achieve ultimate good



Good
व is of 2 types-ś reya (which gives lasting good and fame) and preya (pleasant). A thoughtful
man

व discriminates and selects ś reya while dull men care only for sensory needs.




व people who try creative work are Devas, while Asuras do not try to produce, but loot others

The

व destroy. Ultimate Creator Deva is only the Brahma. Creative energy of 33 regions of solar
and



system

व (3 within earth and 30 outside-each double of previous starting with earth) are 33 Devas.
व each zone, there are 3 types of Asuras which are forms of ‘water’ of galaxy ruled by Varuŋa-(1)
In
जŗ tra -This encloses body in a vŗ tta = circle. This restricts contact with others, preventing creation.
V



ग Namuchi -This is like foam which is opaque boundary between water, air and some mud. (3)

(2)


व -This bends (Balana) or obstructs motion-that is definition of force in Newton’s laws of motion
Bala


also. Thus there are 33x3 = 99 Asuras. Devas being one fourth, the created world in only one out

स 4 parts of Puruş a (Puruş a-sū kta, 3, 4). 33 Devas are in 3 groups-8 Vasus which are forms of agni

of

व compact matter/energy. 11 Rudras which are form of Vā yu =motion, and 12 Ā dityas, called Ravi
=



=field of sun’s radiation. At 2 junctions of the 3 groups, there are 2 Aś vins (formed by Aś va =




driving energy of sunrays). Beyond solar system Devas are called Viś vedeva. Outside galaxy are



व ā ja-devas.
Vair


There are physical and internal forms of these Devas. Solar system is indicated by chakra at navel



region, controlling digestion. There are 30 dhā mas of solar system beyond earth. By creation,


original source Rasa or Ā nanda is depleted. It is minimum on earth-which is densest in solar system,



वव ववव ववनववव ।





It increases by 100 times in successive dhā mas as per Taittirī ya upaniş ad (2/8). Whole solar system
is floating in ocean of galaxy which is mostly ethyl alcohol (Ŗ k 1/154/4,5)- it is also called Vā ruņ ī or
soma. Thus, medicines are dissolved in alcohol and diluted 100 times at each step giving 1 power.
30 power is related to most deceases related to digestive system. Parallel to 33 dhā mas, there are
33 joints in back-bone. Solar system is separated in dense zones like curd (dadhi), so it is Dadhī chi
zone. Orbit of solid planets is called ocean of dadhi n Bhā gavata purāņ a, part 5. Inner space of
solar system is filled with glucose (madhu) and outer zone is with fat (ghrita) molecules. Thus,
dadhi, madhu, ghrita are offered in fire in yajña rituals.
(3) Brahmā gni-yajña-That is chain of yajñas, i.e. product of one yajña is used for next yajña. Within
man, physical body (kś ara) is under control of Akś ara, i.e. intellect and personality. That is
consumed by Avyaya -i.e. surrounding of family, society, house etc. Finally all is consumed by
Parā tpara-or the Universe. That is sacrifice of self in Kurā n by 4-footed Bakar-each part is
consumed by next level. In society, man is used or consumed by family, family by village, village by
district and state. Product of basic yajña agriculture is grains, which is used by next yajñas of trade,
food-processing industries. Crust of earth is an ocean of soil, its churning gives minerals-called
samudra-manthana. Product of that yajña is used for next yajña of metal and then machines etc.
That is called offer yajña of in next yajña.






Before Devas, it was period of Sā dhyas (before 29102 BC) who worshipped yajña by yajña only and
reached the top. It was maintaining chain of yajña. But one chain should not obstruct the others.



That grand co-ordination was arrived at by Brahmā, one of the Sā dhyas.
(4) Sanyama-yajña-In all actions, we are diverted from main path due to desires of senses.




Withdrawal from unnecessary and irrelevant acts is called Pratyā hā ra. Concentration on main



object is Dhā raŋā, and its continuation is Dhyā na. Their joining with Samā dhi = equanimity is


called
न Sanyama in Pā tñjala Yoga-sū tra (2/54, 3/1-4). Chapter 3 describes 52 types of sanyama for


व achievements called Vibhū ti. All the sense organs are merged into fire of sanyama for working
52

प co-ordination. That is related to the next yajña.
in


व Indriya-yajña-All sense organs are withdrawn from their senses of 5 types-ś abda (sound), sparś a
(5)



(touch-by tvachā), rū pa (form), rasa (taste), gandha (smell).


(6) Prāņ a-karma-yajña-There are 5 prāņ a and 5 upa- prāņ a –related to functions of organs of



body. By knowledge of their functions, they are consumed by fire of self-control (Ā tma-sanyama-


yoga ). We maintain co-ordination among organs and their prāņ a for their optimum use










(7) Dravya-yajña-This is investment of dravya (materials and money) for production and earning
more dravya. Some part of earning is used to maintain cycle of production or tread, remaining
(ucchiş ţ a) is consumed.
(8) Tapo-yajña-Tapa means labour, expenditure of energy for desired work. As every energy finally
becomes heat, tā pa (=by tapa) means heat. Original zone in space is Tapah-loka, whose radiation
reaches other parts. No light comes to us from beyond that zone. For us, nothing beyond that
exists-it is called visible universe. In nation, collection and use of energy sources is tapa. By that
tapa, Asuras had defeated Devas. For individual, regular hard work increases physical and mental
capacity.
(9) Yoga-yajña-Yoga means adding, it is co-ordination between two things. At physical level, it is
co-ordination of breath and motion. It has 8 stages described in works of Yoga-(1) Yama, (2)
Niyama, (3) Ā sana, (4) Prāņ ā yā ma, (5) Pratyā hā ra, (6) Dhā raņ ā, (7) Dhyā na, (8) Samā dhi.
(10) Svā dhyā ya-yajña-It is improvement and maintenance of mental strength by regular study and
thinking.
(11) Jñā na-yajña-This is of society. Treasure of knowledge is passed on to next generation by chain
of guru (teacher) and ś iş ya (disciple), to keep it perpetually and improve it.
(12) Prāņ ā yā ma-yajña-As control of breadth, it is fourth stage of yoga. Here, the process is used
to improve health and capacity of body with minimum resources and effort. We control input of
energy (prāņ a) and its output (apā na). At physical level, intake of food is to be done at regular
times as per need only-not for taste only. Sense of taste is to check quality of food. Essence of food
is to be spent at regular intervals for profession and exercise. It is to be done at breathing, mental
levels also.
(13) Prāņ a-yajña-That is ascent of prāņ a at 7 levels starting with food. As per Bŗ hadā raņ yaka
upaniş ad (1/5/1) we take 7 types of food-(1) Mana or jñā na (knowledge), (2) Prāņ a (energy), (3)
Pŗ thivī (solid), (4) Jala (liquid), (5) Teja (light), (6) Vā yu (breath), (7) Ā kāś a (space). Vaiś eş ika
philosophy adds Kā la (time) and Ā tmā (soul) to count 9 dravyas.
Chhā ndogya upaniş ad (6/5/1) tells that Anna is digested in 3 parts-solid waste is expelled, medium
is used for nourishing body and finer part becomes mind. Ā yurveda indicates digestion at 7 levels-
(1) Rasa (liquid)-It nourishes body, mala (useless) is expelled from body. (2) Asŗ k (solid particles in
liquid)-Blood-Its mala is pitta (bile). (3) Mā nsa (muscles, flesh, skin)-This fills and covers. Its mala is
wax of ear etc. (4) Meda (fat) It lubricates body. Its mala is sweating. (5) Asthi (bones)-It is frame of
body. Its mala is nail and hairs. (6) Majjā (inner marrow of bones, nerves and brain)-It fills. Secretion
of glands is excreta. (7) Ś ukra (Raja, Vī rya =seminal fluids of woman, man)-It gives Ojas (shine,
inner strength). These combine in womb to produce child.
7. Yajña and time-Sū rya Siddhā nta (1/10) defines 2 types of time-Nitya Kā la (eternal time) decays
objects and is also called death. Janya (creative time) is time of yajña cycle which measures time.
Time is perception of change. Perception part of Brahma is Ś iva, so it is also called Mahā -kā la and
in form of yajña. Change is of 3 types-(1) Irreversible change -what has been done cannot be
reversed. A man can become old, old can never become young. That is called Thermodynamic
arrow of time-a system always moves from order to disorder. (2) Some changes are in cyclic order.
All our cycles match natural time-cycles-day-night, month, year. Its measure is janya kā la.
Measurable time is used in equations of physics. This is different for observers in mechanics, but
same in electromagnetic theory-where speed of light is same for all observers. But we are using
same concept in both equations. This contradiction has not been resolved so far, so Kā la is called
most difficult in all calculations. (3) There is no change for a system as a whole due to 5 types of
conservation laws in classical and quantum physics. That is called Akś aya-kā la.That is source
(mukha) and upholder (Dhā tā) of world. Kā la word has been used in Gī tā only at 3 places-they are
as per 3 meanings indicated above-




व times are related to 3 types of Puruş a
3

ऽ ş a - Kś ara
Puru
व Akś ara, Avyaya
वā la
K - Nitya Janya Akś aya

व our cyclic works of production are related to natural time cycles-
All

व Axial rotation of earth-That is day-night circle. Daily routine is called Agnihotra as earth itself is
(1)


called Agni-




There

ष are 2 natural fire cycles in a day-digestion within human body-that is by fire of stomach.
Cooking

म of food by fire of hearth is also called digestion.

Corresponding

ह to 5 stages (parva) of world from Svā yambhuva (Universe) to Pŗ thivī (earth), 5 daily

rituals
व are prescribed in Rudra-yā mala-tantra. That is followed as 5 Namā ja in Islam each day.


There
व are 4 junction points of day or year for 4 quadrants of circle. In day, these are-


morning/evening-junctions
व of day and night, noon/midnight-junctions of up and down motion of

sun.
।ष
व One Namaj is for whole day. As we sleep at midnight, that is substituted by pre-sleep Namaj.

For

व whole day, that is done just after awakening. In day time, there are only 3 Sandhyā-morning,

(

noon and evening. Daily acts involve 5 Mahā -yajñas indicated in Ś atapatha Brā hmaņ a (11/5/6/1-

व etc.-(1) Deva-yajña, (2) Bhū ta-yajña, (3) Manuş ya-yajña, (4) Pitŗ -yajña, (5) Brahma-yajña. That
3)



वव १०/३०)





can be taken as images of 5 stages of universe-Brahma is whole universe, galaxy is Pitar seen at
night time with moon, Devas are Prāņ a of solar system-zones, Plant and thereby animal life is
maintained by moon, and finally man lives on earth. These are explained as removal of 5 types of
sins in daily acts-by killings with hearth, grinder, broom, water-pot and knife. But it is actually
repaying loans from 3 sources-Deva, Ŗ ş i and Pitar. Two loans are in day-today dependence on
men (manuş ya) and other plant animals (Bhū ta). Deva-yajña is paying loans to energy of
surroundings. Brahma-yajña is to repay loan of Ŗ ş i by continuing chain of knowledge-that is self
study and teaching. Pitar yajña is paying loan of different forms of pitars or production sources-
Deva, Ŗ ş i Ŗ tu (season) and human parents and our source of soul in space (moon, Saturn = yama-
loka).
(2) Month- That is cycle of phases of moon formed by differential motion of moon relative to sun.
Its 2 parts are called Darś a-pū rņ a-mā sa, i.e. from Darś a (start of visibility-new moon) to Pū rņ a
(full moon) and from Pū rņ a to Darś a-each in about 15 days. In general, it indicates any cycle of
micro or mega size which can be viewed in 2 halves. Time is measured by cycle of yajña, so month
is called-Mā sa (=measured). Combination of these cycles tallying with seasons is named reverse-
Samā (year). More specifically, samā means equalized year of 12 months each equal to 30 days.
Moon revolution is linked to cycle of menses in young women. Moon creates fluctuation in field of
mind which is an image of galaxy-both have same number of particles-1011. So mind is said to born
from moon-

व worship is done by Mana (mind) or mastiş ka (brain), so its place is called mandira (temple) or
All
maszid
व (mosque). All our festivals and fasting are linked to lunar cycle-usually on 11th day of

fortnight-its later part joining 12th is more proper, followed in Vaiş ņ ava ekā daś ī or Idd.
व Year-That is cycle of earth round sun. Cycle of seasons is slightly shorter by about 50 second
(3)
motion
र as earth axis is rotating in reverse direction in cycle of 26000 years. In Taittirī ya Brā hmaņ a

(3/1/1/11-12), Devī-bhā gavata purāņ a (9/12/47)-that has been called grand Rā sa in space from
वŗ ttikā star, so Kā rttika Pū rņ imā is called Rā sa-Pū rņ imā.
K
Samvatsara has been called yajña in 2 senses-(1) We move (sara) in tune with year (sam-vat), so it

is called samvatsara. Annual days are called Samavasaraņ a in Jain tradition. All agriculture, trade,

education and industry is in annual cycle. It is apparent motion of sun around earth. Seasonal cycle

is motion of sun from 240 degree north to 240 south. (2) Samvatsara is energy field of sun in space

divided into 6 zones called Vaş aţ kā ras (zones of 3, 9, 15, 21, 27, 33 ahargaņ as, measured with earth
as standard in powers of 2, n ahargaņ a = earth radius x 2 n-3). Correspondingly, there are 6 seasons

in1 year.



Different levels of sun energy and its aspects are called animals of 5 kinds-Vaiś vā nara (man as
image of world), Aś va (Driving force), Gau (place of creation-that receives energy and uses it), Avi
(motion of light in straight line like a Ram), Aja (Avyaya puruş a-chain of transformation). Similarly,
year is divided into various parts whose actions are termed as Paś u-bandhas (tying of animals). All
the seasonal acts related to Sankrā nti (entry of sun in signs of zodiac), festivals linked with farming
come under it.
8. Important Yajñas of state-(1) Aś vamedha-In space, it is action driven by sun rays. A part of that
is seen on earth as trade winds which are also called Aś va (horse). The place where winds are mild
(Bhadra) is called Bhadrāś va-Varş a, north of Yama-koţ i-pattana, 900 east of Ujjain-i.e. Korea-Japan
region. In a country, it is shown as free movement of horse in epics. It means that transport and
communication should not be blocked, which is duty of a king. Within human body, it is free flow
of prāņ a, i.e. air, blood and nervous system. For birth of son to king Daś aratha, a yajña was done.
It was Putra-kā meş ţ i (= with desire of son), but has been called in Vā lmī ki Rā mā yaņ a. At that time
Daś aratha, was 67 years. When Rā ma had gone with Viś vā mitra, he was 15 years and Daś aratha
was 60000 years or day-nights = 82 years. Mother Kauś alyā also was about 60 years of age. At this
age, rejuvenation was needed for child birth, which has been called Aś vamedha here.
(2) Rā jasū ya-Raja = loka. In space, they are created by matter and energy radiated by sun-like
stars. On earth, a country is maintained by a king called Rā jā (king) in 2 senses-it maintains rajas
=earth, or he is popular among people (ranjana). For maintaining people and country, revenue
needs to be collected and it is put back to them for defense, communication, education, trade etc.
That had been called Koş a in Indian political thought and surplus revenue in Economics. But
western political theories do not consider it an element of state, even by Marx who is concerned
only with wealth. That incompleteness is reason of failure of these theories.
(3) Vā japeya-Rā ja-soma maintains lokas (men and world). Vā ja-soma strengthens. Vā jasaneyī
yajurveda was meant for those yajñas. For inner body, it is regular exercise for strengthening body
which is done by athletes. Improving mental strength also may be included in that. In a country, it
means increase of financial, industry and military power.
(4) Chayana-That is selection of proper person for proper job. Each group and region may also be
given their specialized jobs. Mineral region only will do mining industry, coastal regions do shipping
and plain irrigated areas can do farming etc. Each man can do his job as per his branch of
specialization and degree of efficiency.
(5) Ś ī rş a-King has to become head and controller. Sovereignty has been defined of 8 types in
Vedas-(A) Rā ja- (1) Bhoja (maintaining a part of country or feeding it. (2) Mahā bhoja- Managing
whole country, (B) Samrāţ- (3) Chakravartī or Sā rvabhauma-Ruling whole world, (4) Other having
influence on a group of countries (C) Svarāţ-(5) Indra-Head of a federation, (6) Mahendra-More
powerful in military terms. (D) Virāţ-(7) Brahmā-Having moral authority over all groups, (8) Viş ņ u-
Having physical authority over world. Heads of different types co-ordinate various groups for
peaceful existence and smooth work by justice. It is by 4 policies of a king-Sā ma (equality, Dā ma
(finance), Daņ ɖ a (punishment for wrong) and Bheda-Distinction for various groups according to
needs and capacity. Outside country-it is rift among enemies.
9. Işţ i-Yajña-Causing rain, birth of son etc appear to be one

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