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Pakistan Affairs by

Asmatullah Junejo,
PSP
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 1
Day 1
Sequence
 Muslim Reformist Movements

 War of Independence 1857

 Hindu Urdu Controversy 1867

 Aligarh Movement

 Daruloom Deoband

 Nadwatul Ulema

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 3


Revised Syllabus
1. Ideology of Pakistan ----- definition and elucidation,
historical aspects: Muslim rule in the Sub-continent, its
downfall and efforts for Renaissance. Movements for reforms
-- Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi, Shah Waliullah, Sayyid Ahmad
Shaheed, Aligarh, Deoband, Nadwah, and other educational
institutions- Sindh Madrassah and Islamia College Peshawar.
Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Speeches and statements
of Allama Iqbal and Quaid i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
2. Land and people of Pakistan-Geography, Society,
Natural resources, Agriculture, Industry and education with
reference to characteristics, trends and problems.
3. Pakistan and Changing Regional Apparatus
4. Nuclear Program of Pakistan, its Safety and Security;
International Concerns
5. Regional Economic Cooperation (SAARC,ECO,SCO) and the
Role of Pakistan
6. Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 5
Revised Syllabus
7. Pakistan’s Role in the Region
8. Palestine Issue
9. Changing Security Dynamics for Pakistan: Challenges to National
Security of Pakistan
10. Political Evolution Since 1971
11. Pakistan and US War on Terror
12. Foreign Policy of Pakistan Post 9/11
13. Evolution of Democratic System in Pakistan
14. Ethnic Issues and National Integration
15. Hydro Politics ; Water Issues in Domestic and Regional Context
16. Pakistan’s National Interest
17. Challenges to Sovereignty
18. Pakistan’s Energy Problems and their Effects
19. Pakistan’s Relations with Neighbors excluding India
20. Pakistan and India Relations Since 1947
21. Kashmir Issue
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 6
Revised Syllabus
22. Economic Challenges in Pakistan
23. Non-Traditional Security Threats in Pakistan: Role of Non-State
Actors
24. The war in Afghanistan since 1979 and its impact on, and
challenges to Pakistan, in the Post 2014 era.
25. Proxy Wars: Role of External Elements
26. Economic Conditions of Pakistan, the Most Recent Economic
Survey, the Previous and Current Budgets, and the Problems
and Performance of Major Sectors of Economy.
27. The Recent Constitutional and Legal Debates, the Latest
Constitutional Amendments and Important Legislations, Legal
Cases and the Role of Higher Courts.
28. The Prevailing Social Problems of Pakistan and the Strategies to
Deal with Them, Poverty, Education, Health and Sanitation
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 7
Draw This
Map
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 8
Natural Ressources of
Pakistan
Natural Resources of Pakistan

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Natural Resources of Pakistan
 Natural resources (economically referred to as land or raw
materials) occur naturally within environments that exist
relatively undisturbed by mankind and are in a natural
form.

 A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of


biodiversity existing in various ecosystems. Natural
resources are derived from the environment.
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Natural Resources of Pakistan
 A natural resource is anything people can use which
comes from nature. People do not make natural
resources, but gather them from the earth.
 Examples of natural resources are air, water, wood,
crude oil, solar energy, wind energy, hydro-electric
energy, and coal.
 “Asset or material that constitutes the natural capital of
a nation.”
 Natural resources require application of capital and
human resources (mental and physical labor) to be
exploited (extracted, processed, refined) for the
realization of their economic value
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Natural Resources of Pakistan

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Natural Resources of Pakistan
 Natural resources are classified into two groups:
 A renewable resource grows again or comes back again after
we use it. For example, sunlight, water, and trees are
renewable resources
 A non-renewable resource is a resource that does not grow or
come back, or a resource that would take a very long time to
come back. For example, coal is a non-renewable resource.
When we use coal, there is less coal afterward. One day, there
will be no more of it to make goods. Other examples include
fossil fuels

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 14


Non-Renewable Natural Resources
Of Pakistan (2017)
 Among The World’s 200 Plus Countries Pakistan has:
 2nd largest coal reserves
 2nd largest salt mines
 5th largest gold reserves
 7th largest copper reserves
 6th largest gas producing capacity in Asia Pacific
 436.2 million barrels of proven oil reserves
 31.3 trillion cubic feet of proven gas reserves

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 15


Non-Renewable Natural Resources
Of Pakistan
 Pakistan has potential of 27 billion barrels of oil & 282 trillion
cubic feet of gas resources
 Pakistan has the potential of 185 billion tons coal equivalent to 618
billion barrels of crude oil
 Pakistan can produce 1,00,000 MW electricity for coming 200
years from Thar-Coal Project
 If coal at Thar-Coal Project is converted into oil by Gasification
process, it will generate $2.5 trillion dollars
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 16
Non-Renewable Natural Resources
Of Pakistan
 At Riko-Deq, Pakistan has 12.3 million tons of Copper & 20.9
million ounces of Gold reserves.

 Riko-Deq Project of Copper & Gold Reservoir has a worth of


$260 billion dollars to $3 trillion dollars.

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• Pakistan is in the grip of a serious power shortage crisis
that is affecting all sectors of the economy and various
segments of the society.
• This situation has pushed the people of Pakistan to bear 8
to 16 hours load shedding, which is increasing with time.
• The abundance of power shortages in Pakistan is harmful
to the country’s economy and it is pulling down Pakistan’s
GDP growth.
• According to World Bank, Pakistan Peak demand is more
than 14,000 MW while the total capacity is 19,500 MV.
• The funds spent on the import of power generators and
their fuel is an enormous burden on the economy.

Overview of Problems

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Renewable Natural Resources Of
Pakistan (2017)
 Among the world’s 200 plus countries, Pakistan is the:
 4th largest cotton & mango producing country
 5th largest sugarcane & milk producing country
 8th largest wheat producing country
 11th largest rice producing country
 6th most populous country having large share of young
population
 Only 5% land of Pakistan is covered with forests
 Pakistan has a coastline of 1046 KM for fishing
 Pakistan produces its 65% electricity by fossil fuels, 31% by
hydro power & 4% by nuclear power
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Renewable Natural Resources Of
Pakistan
 Out of 77 million acres cultivable area, only 55.5 million acres
have been ploughed

 About 23% of total GDP & 43% labor force of Pakistan is


based on agriculture & livestock resources

 Pakistan produces 29.5 million tons milk, 1.12 million tons


beef, 0.74 million tons mutton, 8.52 billion eggs, 51.2 million
skins and 40.2 thousand tons wool annually.

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Renewable Natural Resources Of
Pakistan
 Pakistan has the potential to produce 40,000 MW electricity
by hydro power, 1,00,000 MW by solar and 50,000 MW by
wind power
 Pakistan has a variety of precious gemstones like Ruby, Topaz
and Emerald in various areas like Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Dir &
Kallat etc.
 Pakistan has the potential to be a stable country by exploring
and using the natural resources wisely & carefully.
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Natural Resources of Pakistan
 COAL is also named as black gold and is found in huge quantities
at Thar, Chamalang, Quetta and other sites. It is also available at
Dandot, Makerwal, Harnai (Sindh).
 GAS is found at Sui, Attock, Pirkoh and Kandhkot

 PETEROLIUM (Crude oil) is found at Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Badin,


Attock and Mianwali.
 CHROMITES is found at Chaghi, Malakand and Zhob.

 COPPER is found at Sandak, Chaghi

 IRON ORE is found at Kalabagh, Chitral, Hazara, Makerwal and


Khuzdar.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 22
Natural Resources of Pakistan
 LIMESTONE is found at Hyderabad, Potohar plateau, Margala
hills, Derajat and at Khewra Salt range.

 MARBLE is found at Mullagory on Peshawar-Mullagory road in


Khyber agency, Swabi (Mardan district), swat and Chagai area.

 ROCK SALT is found mainly in salt ranges, Khewra, Warcha,


Kalabagh, Jatta, Bahadurkhel and Karak.

 GYPSUM is found at Hazara, Kohat, D.G.Khan and Dandot .

 SULPHUR is found at extinct volcano Koh-e-Sultan in Chagai


district of Balochistan
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Other Resources

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Economic Importance of Natural
Resources
 Natural (mineral resources) are backbone for the
industrial development of a country. These resources
play a dominant role in accelerating the pace of
progress and prosperity.

 Economic development of an economy is not possible


without the availability of mineral resources.

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Forest Resources
 Forests cover about 5% of total area of Pakistan whereas the
required is 25%.
 Total forest area of Pakistan including rangelands is 10.5 million
hectares.
 Out of total forest area, 4.1 million hectares are productive forest
and remaining protected Forests.
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government has planned to plant 1 billion
trees during FY: 2016-17.

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Forest Resources

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Power Resources
 Power resources are the foundation of economic
development . There are two types of sources
 Commercial sources
 Non-Commercial sources
 To Analyze energy or power resources in Pakistan, we can
group them into four categories:
 Thermal Power
 Hydel Power
 Nuclear Power
 Non conventional Power

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Power Resources
 Thermal Power
 Thermal Power resources obtained from coal, Oil and Natural
Gas.
 Hydel Power
 Hydel Power is generated from waterfalls developed by
making dams on rivers.
 Nuclear Power
 Nuclear Power is the most important source for generating
energy. Nuclear reactor converts uranium into plutonium
which is used as fuel for generating energy.
 Non conventional Power
 Non Conventional Power like bio Gas, Solar and wind power
are comparatively cheaper.
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Role Of Government
 Every government of Pakistan has worked for the exploration
of natural resources. But unfortunately, no political
government of Pakistan has been given sufficient time so
that its policies could fructify.
 In 1960, Pakistan signed 1st Oil & Gas exploration contract
with Russia
 In 1974, Resource Development Corporation was established
for the exploration of natural resources
 In 1995, Pakistan developed the 1st National Mineral
Development Policy and started working on Sandak Copper
& Gold Project

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Role Of Government
 In 1998, Pakistan became the world’s 7th nuclear power by
detonating nuclear devices at Chaghi
 Government has completed the basic infra-structure of road
& water supply to facilitate the investors of Thar-Coal Project
 Efficient & cost effective technical manpower is available in
coal mining, mineral mining & power sector
 Concessionary duties and taxes regime announced by the
government for the power & mineral sector investors
 Pakistan has successfully attracted four billion dollars from
private sector in power
 Two wind power projects of 50 MW and 56.4 MW completed
in 2014 at Jhampir, district Thatta
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 31
Role Of Government
 About 3,000 solar home systems have been installed in 49
villages of district Tharparker
 About 14,000 biogas plants are being installed through
Dutch grant in Pakistan in Punjab
 Two civil-nuclear power generation projects are being
installed with the capacity of 2117 MW at Chashma
 Neelum-Jhelum Hydro Power Project of 969 MW is under
construction
 Dasu-Dam, Diamer-Bhasha Dam & Gadani Power Park
Projects are also under construction
 These hydro power projects will also increase the agricultural
potential of Pakistan
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 32
Impediments in Utilization of Natural
Resources
 Pakistan is rich in both renewable and non-renewable
resources, but is poorly managed.
 Some of the important impediments are briefly highlighted
below:
i. Lack of vision
ii. Provincialism
iii. Terrorism
iv. Corruption
v. Red Tape
vi. Outdated technology for exploration (e.g. OGDCL)

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Natural Resources and 18th Amendment
 In Article 172-3, it states that: “For any Mineral Oil and
Natural Gas explored within the provincial territory, the
Provincial and Federal Government will be Joint and Equal
Owners.”

 In Article 158, it states that: “The Province in which a well-


head of natural gas is situated shall have precedence over
other parts of Pakistan in meeting the requirements from
that well-head.”
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 34
Natural Resources and 18th Amendment
 The 18th Amendment has given birth to constitutional issues between
the central government and provinces, particularly causing problems
in relation to the energy sector and underscoring the need for a review
to help resolve the energy crisis
 Central government had not been able to manage the changes
incorporated through the 18th Amendment, causing a halt to the
process of awarding new blocks for oil and gas exploration since June
2010, which manifested the anomalies created by the amendment.
 Though the provinces had been given powers to generate electricity,
they could not do so because of a number of bottlenecks including:
i. Lack of expertise and resources,
ii. Inability to provide sovereign guarantees for international funding, and
iii. Absence of a national coordination plan

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 35


Efficient Utilization of Natural
Resources
 Guidelines
i. Visionary Approach
ii. Selective FDI
iii. One window operations for investors
iv. Rule of law in the provinces
v. Duty free Import of latest equipment for exploration
vi. Involvement of the local stakeholders
vii. Strengthening LEAs
viii. Tax free EEZs

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 36


Class Discussion
After 18th Amendment, the exploration of
natural resources is the prime
responsibility of the provinces. It will result
in increased misuse, corruption and
wastage of these natural resources.

Agree Disagree
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 37
Components of Agriculture
S. No. Components
1. Livestock

2. Crops:
1. Major
2. Minor
3. Fishing

4. Forestry

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 39


Importance of Agriculture in Developed
and Developing Countries (2017)
Country Share of Share of Share of
Group Agri. in GDP Population in Agri. in total
Agri. merchandize
exports

Developed 3% 8.7% 8.3%

Developing 26.3% 50.4% 27.3%

Pakistan 24% 52.6% 13.4%

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 40


Importance of Agriculture in Developed
and Developing Countries
Developed Developing
countries countries

Access to inputs & High Low


infrastructure

Support to High Low


Agriculture.

Protection to Generally High Medium to Low


Agriculture.

Agriculture. Industrial / Intensive Generally Small Scale


Production System Subsistence

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 41


Introduction
 Economy of every state depends on three sectors i.e.
agriculture, industry and commerce. These three are
interrelated with each other as the progress or retrogress of
one sector effects the other two.
 Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and
water.
 About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation
and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in
the world.
 Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia.
 Agriculture accounts for about 21% of GDP and employs
about 41% of the labor force.

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Introduction
 Pakistan is an agricultural state thus agriculture gains are
of much importance than any other sector. Importance of this
sector is manifold as it feeds people, provides raw material for
industry and is a base for foreign trade. Foreign exchange earned
from merchandise exports is 45% of total exports of Pakistan. It
contributes 26% of GDP and 52% of the total populace is getting
its livelihood from it. 67.5% people are living in the rural areas of
Pakistan and are directly involved in it. There are two crops in
Pakistan ie Rabi & Kharif.
 Kharif:
i. Sowing season (April-June)
ii. Harvesting season (Oct–Dec)
 Rabi:
i. Sowing season (Oct–Dec)
ii. Harvesting season (April–May)

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Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 44
(2017)

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Status in the world (2017)
• According to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization,
Pakistan is one of the world's largest producer and supplier of the
following items (2017):
i. Apricot (4th)
ii. Cotton (4th)
iii. Sugarcane (4th)
iv. Milk (5th)
v. Onion (5th)
vi. Date Palm (6th)
vii. Mango (7th)
viii. Rice (8th)
ix. Wheat (9th)
x. Oranges (10th)
xi. Pakistan ranks fifth in the Muslim world and twentieth worldwide
in farm output.

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Crops
• The most important crops are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and rice,
which together account for more than 75% of the value of total
crop output.
• Pakistan's largest food crop is wheat. In 2005, Pakistan produced
21,591,400 metric tons of wheat, more than all of Africa
(20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South
America (24,557,784 metric tons), according to the FAO.
• Pakistan has also cut the use of dangerous pesticides dramatically.
• Pakistan is a net food exporter, except in occasional years when its
harvest is adversely affected by droughts. Pakistan exports rice,
cotton, fish, fruits (especially Oranges and Mangoes), and
vegetables and imports vegetable oil, wheat, cotton, pulses and
consumer foods.
• The country is Asia's largest camel market, second-
largest apricot and ghee market and third-
largest cotton, onion and milk market.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 47
Crops
• The economic importance of agriculture has declined since
independence, when its share of GDP was around 53%.
• Following the poor harvest of 1993, the government
introduced agriculture assistance policies, including
increased support prices for many agricultural commodities
and expanded availability of agricultural credit.
• From 1993 to 1997, real growth in the agricultural sector
averaged 5.7% but has since declined to about 4%.
• Agricultural reforms, including increased wheat and oilseed
production, play a central role in the government's
economic reform package.

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Crops
• Much of the Pakistan's agriculture output is utilized by the
country's growing processed-food industry.
• The value of processed retail food sales has grown 12 percent
annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1
billion in 2000.
• The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued major
crop yields at Rs.504,868 million in 2005 thus registering
over 55% growth since 2000. Similarly, minor crop yields
were valued at Rs.184,707 million in 2005 thus registering
over 41% growth since 2000.
• The exports related to the agriculture sector in 2009-10 are
Rs 288.18 billion including food grains, vegetables, fruits,
tobacco, fisheries products, spices and livestock.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 49
Livestock
• According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan, the livestock
sector contributes about half of the value added in the
agriculture sector, amounting to nearly 11 per cent of Pakistan's
GDP, which is more than the crop sector.
• The leading daily newspaper Jang (2013) reports that the national
herd consists of 24.2 million cattle, 26.3 million buffaloes, 24.9
million sheep, 56.7 million goats and 0.8 million camels. In
addition to these there is a vibrant poultry sector in the country
with more than 530 million birds produced annually.
• These animals produce 29.472 million tons of milk (making
Pakistan the 5th largest producer of milk in the world), 1.115
million tons of beef, 0.740 million tons of mutton, 0.416 million
tons of poultry meat, 8.528 billion eggs, 40.2 thousand tons of
wool, 21.5 thousand tons of hair and 51.2 million skins and hides.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 50


Livestock
• The Food and Agriculture Organization reported in June
2013 that in Pakistan, the world's fifth largest milk
producing country, government initiatives are being
undertaken to modernize milk collection and to improve
milk and milk product storage capacity.
• The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this
sector at Rs.758,470 million in 2005 thus registering over
70% growth since 2000.

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Livestock
Growth

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 52


Fishing Industry of Pakistan
 Overview
 Fishery as well as fishing industry plays a vital role in the economy
of Pakistan. Pakistan has total coastline of 1,120 km covering Mekran
(Balochistan) as well as the coast of Karachi (Sindh) and a total
fishing area of approximately 300,270 sq. km.
 These areas are highly rich in marine life with a vast variety of
species. There are still marine fisheries resources remaining to be
exploited and developed.
 Fishing industry is the managed by the Fisheries Development
Commissioner (FDC) under the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and
Livestock (MFAL) of Government of Pakistan.
 The major source of fish in Pakistan are the Exclusive Economic
Zone (EEZ) of Pakistan which extends upto 200 N.M and 8.5 million
Hectares of Inland water.
 About 26% of total production consumed locally, the rest in either
exported of resources as fish meal, the supply of fish per capita is
estimated to be 1.1kg/year.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 53
Fishing Industry of Pakistan
 Employment
 Fisheries sector offers a wide range of employment for the
people living near coastal or marine areas.
 Most of the population in these marine areas has developed
fishing as a profession; such as seas, oceans, rivers, streams,
estuaries near-shore, estuaries, mangroves, ponds, lakes and
man-made reservoirs.
 Provides employment to about 300,000 fishermen directly and
400,000 people in ancillary industries.
 It contributes only 0.8% of total nation GDP and 3.7% of
agriculture.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 54


Fishing Industry of Pakistan
 Marine and Inland Fisheries
 Pakistan is rich in marine and inland fishery resources.
i. Marine fisheries in Pakistan is being carried out on two distinct
grounds i.e. coastline covering Mekran (Balochistan) as well as
the coast of Karachi (Sindh). Sindh and Balochistan coasts
comprise of many widely dispersed, small landing places utilized
by small craft equipped with sails and/or outboard engines. The
marine fish are marketed as fresh, freezing, canning for local
consumption. Karachi and Mekran being the most important
fishing ports are being developed by the Government of Pakistan
as a fishing centre.
ii. Inland fisheries are getting much popularity. Some inland
resources include small rivers, dams (Tarbela, Mangla and
Chashma), lakes (Haleji, Keenjhar and Manchhar), barrages,
reservoirs, ponds and canals.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 55
Fishing Industry of Pakistan
 The major marine harbors of Pakistan are:
i. Karachi Fish Harbor handles about 90% of fish and
seafood catch in Pakistan and 95% of fish and seafood
exports from Pakistan.
ii. Karachi Fisheries Harbor is being operated by Provincial
Government of Sindh.
iii. Korangi Fish Harbor is being managed by Federal
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock.
iv. Pasni Fish Harbor being operated by Provincial
Government of Balochistan.
v. Gwadar Fish Harbor being operated by Federal Ministry of
Communication.

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Fishing Industry of Pakistan
 Fish Marketplace
 Pakistan has a domestic and an international market for fish,
shrimps and fish products.
i. Domestic Market: At domestic level the catch from marine
fisheries is supplied to the local fish markets. Frozen or processed
fish is supplied to only a few large departmental stores in some
cities.
ii. International Market: At international level Pakistan has a
market for fish and fish products. Pakistan exports reasonable
quantity of shrimp, fish and its products and earns a substantial
amount of foreign exchange. Fish and fish products are processed
and exported to many countries, European Countries being at the
top. Major markets for export are: Canada, USA Denmark , Japan,
Holland, Norway, Iceland, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore
Malaysia, Gulf.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 57
ROLE OF FISHERIES INDUSTRY IN THE
ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN

 Major source of export earning

Exports of fish and 2002 2017


fishery products
US$ 126 million US$ 935 million

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Fishing Industry of Pakistan
 Future Prospects
 Many different organizations have planned to set up research
projects covering both marine and inland fisheries as well as
allied aquaculture. Emphasis on research surveys as well as
research and development will make the industry projects
grow at pace.
 With concerted efforts along with proper incentives, the
fisheries production is likely to increase, leading to its greater
role in the national economy.

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Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 60
Problems of Agricultural Sector
i. Lack of Education
 The farmers of our country are mostly un-educated and lack
technical knowledge .They are unable to unde4rstand the
modern scientific methods of agriculture and often remain
ignorant of good means to protect and increase their yield.
Their production is therefore low.
ii. Lack of Capital:
 The majority of our farmers are poor and they often live in a
hand to mouth position. Most of them are always under heavy
burdens of debts. So due to lack of capital they cannot afford
to purchase modern scientific implements, chemical manures,
improved types of seeds etc. Hence they can not attain the
required standards.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 62


Problems of Agricultural Sector
iii. Following the Old Traditions
 Most of our farmers are still stuck to the old traditions of their
fore fathers. The circumstances have compelled them to use
the crude implements, because due to small holdings of land
and poverty they are unable to acquire and use modern
scientific methods. That is why their standard is lower than
that of cultivators in developed countries.
iv. Water-logging and Salinity
 Due to excessive use of canal water, most of our cultivated
lands have become victims of these two dangerous diseases.
Every year, salinity alone, is turning about 1, 00,000 acres of
arable land into marches and salt lands. Water-logging is no
less injurious. On the other hand the measures taken so far are
quite inadequate for such issues.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 63
Problems of Agricultural Sector
v. Uneconomical Land Holdings
 Due to our law of inheritance, our farmers command very
small pieces of hands which prove to be costly. A farmer
cannot afford tractors and other machineries for a small piece
of land and those his income is low. Hence his interest is
converted to some other sector.
vi. Scarcity of Water
 Our farmers have to face many problems due to scarcity of
water which is one our major problems. Large tracts of land
estimated to be about 22 million acres is lying uncultivated
due to shortage of water. Rainfall is uncertain and the existing
irrigational facilities in our country are quite insufficient and
need to be extended.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 64


Problems of Agricultural Sector
vii. Land Tenure System
 The land tenure system of Pakistan has creates a chain of
intermediaries in between the state and the tenants. The system,
instead of being conductive to agricultural development, stands in
the way of its progress.
viii. Soil Erosion
 In some areas of our country, especially in hilly regions, the upper
fertile soil is being eroded by different natural agents of change
.Thus the fertility is poor and soils are becoming less productive.
ix. Lack of Organized Marketing
 The marketing facilities for agricultural products in Pakistan are still
far from satisfactory level. Our cultivators can not get just prices for
their produce due to defective marketing organization. Moreover
the chain of middlemen between the producers and ultimate
consumers take a heavy share of their produce .Thus the cultivators
do not take much real interest in increasing their product too.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 65
Problems of Agricultural Sector
x. Pests and Crop Diseases
 Due to lack of agricultural education and methods of modern
research, our farmers cannot control the various diseases of
crops and attacks of pests and insects. The result is low yields.
xi. Poor Means of Transportation
 The agricultural activities in our country are performed in
rural areas, but most of our villages have no road or railway
links with our markets. So farmers have to face innumerable
hardships to sell their products. Hence the farmers take very
little interest in their profession and production suffers.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 66


Problems of Agricultural Sector
xii. Lack of Credit Facilities
 The resources required for agricultural operation are land,
layout, live stock, farm equipment, seeds, fertilizers,
irrigation, transport etc. For the convenient and timely
procurement of these resources the farmers must have easy
access to credit. The A.D.B.P and commercial banks provide
loans to the farmers which are insufficient because our
farmers are very poor.
xiii.Low Yield Per Acre
 Due to the above mentioned facts ,it is clear that the yield per
acre of various crops in our country is comparatively low than
of the other countries. Hence we are backward.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 67


Improving Agricultural Sector
i. Feudalism should be abolished and lands should be
allotted to poor farmers. This will enhance the
productivity and per acre yield of all the crops in
Pakistan. Taxes should be levied on Agricultural income
but not without devising limit of land holding. Other
wise it would directly affect poor farmers.
ii. Federal Seed Certification and Federal Seed Registration
is approved but it should taken responsible steps in
approving seeds as it has already approved 36 new kinds
of seeds. Specially, those seeds should be banned which
can create pest problem in near future. These seeds are
of cotton mainly. International seed makers are
providing those seeds which are not successful in our
country as these seeds are not tested on our soil.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 69
Improving Agricultural Sector
iii. A new Agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be
focused on.
i. Small farmers must be focused. The major problems of small farmers should
be solved first.
ii. Consumer friendly policy must be projected.
iii. Productivity enhancement programs must be constituted to adjust and
support prices.
iv. Different Agricultural zones should be introduced. As Multan in famous for
its Mangoes and citrus fruits so it must be made Mango, citrus zone by which
Perishable products should be exported. This would enhance agro based
industry and increase foreign reserves. Pakistan Agricultural storage &
Services Corporation needs to take steps in this regard.
v. Corporate farming like giving lands to Mitchell, Nestle and Multinational
companies is also a good idea that will also help those who own a large area of
fertile land but can’t manage it.
vi. Surplus vegetables and fruits must be exported. A 39 million scheme has
been approved for the current fiscal year for establishment of agro export
processing zone for fruits, vegetables and flowers. This will also help in
commercializing agriculture and farmers will be able to earn more revenue.
vii. Latest machinery should be provided to the farmers to increase the per acre
yield. This provision should be on easy installments so that the farmers can
avoid the burden of loans. If possible subsidy should be given by the
government of modern
Wednesday, January 31, 2018
machinery.
Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 70
Improving Agricultural Sector
iv. Surplus vegetables and fruits must be exported. A Rs 39
million scheme has been approved for the current fiscal
year for establishment of agro export processing zone for
fruits, vegetables and flowers. This will also help in
commercializing agriculture.
v. Latest machinery should be provided to the farmers to
increase the per acre yield. This provision should be on
easy installments so that the farmers can avoid the
burden of loans. If possible subsidy should be given by
the government of modern machinery.- Modern
techniques of irrigation can solve the problems of
irrigation in Pakistan. This includes drip irrigation
and sprinkle irrigation methods. By using this technique
the farmers can save a huge some of money which he
pays for irrigation through tubewells and tracktors.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 71
Improving Agricultural Sector
vi. More dams should be constructed on Indus, Jehlum
and Chenab rivers. This will enhance the storage capacity
of water and reduce the per acre cost of all the crops. This
step will also reduce the salinity chances of the lands as
less tube well water will be flooded to the lands which
cause salinity.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 72


Other Solutions
vii. Rationalization of Resources
viii. Efficient practices of Agricultural Production
ix. Encouragement of Private Sector
x. Transformation of Villages into Habitable Points
xi. Enforcement of Scientific Methods
xii. Irrigation Management
xiii. Increase Awareness

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 73


Dedication

Aitzaz Hasan
• Martyred on January 6th,
Bangash
Shaheed 2014 at Hangu.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 76
Introduction
Education is a key to development and prosperity. In

the 21st century, there is a rule of survival of the fittest. Therefore,

only those individuals and nations would make a mark on the

histories that are equipped with requisite skills and knowledge. In

this regard, the role of education becomes highly crucial. Hence, an

effective education is a pre-requisite for both individual’s character-

building and the country’s nation-building.


Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 78
Introduction
“Those who know cannot be like the ones who do

not know. Of course, knowledge and ignorance are like light

and darkness which can never be alike.”

Holy Quran

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 79


Quaid-e-Azam and Education
“There is no doubt that the future of our state will and
must greatly depend on the type of education we give to our
children and the way in which we bring them up as future
citizens of Pakistan. The importance of education and the right
type of education cannot be over emphasized.”

(November 27th, 1947)

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Education Defined

Education means learning of knowledge,


skills and values

Education involves the natural and


progressive of human’s inborn powers

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 81


(2017)

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 82


Role of Education in Character-Building

Education without character is education


wasted

Education without character is impotent or,


worse, malevolent

Huge knowledge • No social acceptability


but no character • Wastage of knowledge
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 83
The Nexus

Education

Character-
Building
Nation-
Building

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 84


Importance of Character-Building in
Pakistan
 The population pyramid of Pakistan has a very wide base.
About 55.6% of the total population in Pakistan is from 1 to
25 years. This means that in Pakistan, the youth will play a
phenomenal role in the nation building process.
 These young people could play their role positively if they
undergo the process of character-building because history
is testimony to the fact that only the individuals with high
character could contribute towards the nation-building in
their respective countries.
 Hence, it is very important to strengthen our education
system, both formal and informal, in order to ensure the
character-building of the youth in Pakistan
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 85
Importance of Character-Building
in Pakistan

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 86


Education and the Constitution 1973

• The state of Pakistan shall… remove


Article illiteracy and provide free and
37-b compulsory secondary education within
minimum possible period

• Right to Education: The state shall


Article provide free and compulsory education
to all children of the age of five to 16
25-A years in such manner as may be
determined by law.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 88


Education Policy 2009
Our education system must provide
quality education to our children and youth to
enable them to realize their individual
potential and contribute to development of
society and nation, creating a sense of
Pakistani nationhood, the concepts of
tolerance, social justice, democracy, their
regional and local culture and history based
on the basic ideology enunciated in the
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 89
Pakistan’s Education System after
th
18 Constitutional Amendment

After the 18th amendment, responsibilities


for promoting education are divided among federal
and provincial governments. Provincial governments
are made responsible for setting the curriculum and
the syllabus, standardization of education up to
Grade 12, and promoting Islamic education at the
grass-root.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 90


Budgetary Allocation for
Education in Pakistan
Education in Pakistan gets about 1.9
per cent budgetary allocation in 2013. In terms
of public spending on education, Pakistan
ranks 177 in the world.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 91


Vision 2030
i. Qualitative improvement in both general and technical
education.

ii. Single system of education at the national level.

iii. Increase expenditure on education and spend about 7


percent of GDP by 2015

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 92


Classification of Education in Pakistan
Student Enrollment (in millions) by 2016-17

Degree Colleges &


1.82
Universities

Intermediate 1.29

Secondary 2.75
Student Enrollment (in
Middle 6.02 millions)

Primary 18.67

Pre-Primary 9.51

0
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 5 10 15 20
Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
93
Educational Institutes in Pakistan
Public and Private 2016-17 Students and Teachers 2016-17
Public vs Private Students and Teachers
40,926,
45,000,000 661
40,000,000
35,000,000
30,000,000
76,674, Public 25,000,000
28% Institutes 20,000,000 Students
Private 15,000,000 and
194,151, 1,507,10
Institutes 10,000,000 Teachers
72% 0,
5,000,000 4%
0

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 94


Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Teachers versus Educational Institutes
2016-17
Universities 70053
139

Degree Colleges 40191


1384

Higher Secondary 97633


4515
Number of Teachers
Secondary Schools 458655 Number of Schools
28655

Middle Schools 351381


41945

Primary Schools 427371


154650

0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000


Wednesday, January 31, 2018 95
Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Indicators of Deteriorated Process of
Character-Building in Pakistan
 The contemporary history of Pakistan reveals there is an
alarming increase in the degree of violence, crime,
sectarianism, terrorism, intolerance, tax evasion and other
social vices in the country.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 97


National Character

This is the building up of the individual

character when multiplied becomes the character of

the Nation. (Dixit)

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 98


Sectarian Violence in Pakistan

 Sectarian violence has increased in Pakistan due to

increasing religious intolerance in the country.

 Ultimately, a number of innocent people have been

either killed or injured.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 99


Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Sectarian Violence in Pakistan

1400

1200

1000

800
Incidents
600 Killed
400 Injured

200

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 100


Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Casualties due to Terrorism in Pakistan
 Although, there are multiple factors behind the increase
in terrorist activities, the most common underlying
reason is the lack of character-building of the individuals
involved in terrorist activities.
 It has been observed that the terrorist belong to those
areas where the system of both formal and informal
education has collapsed.
 Owing to dysfunctional educational system in certain
areas like FATA and the southern Punjab, the terrorists
are also brain-washed with underlying nefarious designs
to create chaos in the society.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 101


Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Casualties due to Terrorism in Pakistan

14000

12000

10000

8000 Civilians
Security Forces
6000
Terrorists
4000 Total
2000

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 102


Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Crime Hike in Pakistan

 Unfortunately, the lack of character-building in


Pakistan is also leading to rise in crime.

 Internationally, Pakistan has been acknowledged as


not a very safe country.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 103


Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Crime Hike in Pakistan
Crime in Pakistan 2017

36.25%
Crime Index
Safety Index
63.75%

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 104


Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Violence Against Women
According to the annual report of Aurat Foundation
(2017), about 144% increase has been witnessed in the
cases of burning, about 89% increase in the cases of
throwing acid, about 62% increase in the cases reported
under the heads of domestic violence and about 11%
increase in the homicide of women during the year 2016.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 105
Tax Evasions

The tax evasion in Pakistan was around 79 per

cent during the year 2017

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 106
Gas and Electricity Theft
 The proof of slowly and gradually rotting process of character-
building in Pakistan is the rapid increase in the cases of gas and
electricity theft. Although, there could be a number of other
causes to describe this phenomenon, the basic reason behind
this menace is the weakening of the character-building process
in Pakistan
 There is a rapid increase in the cases of gas and electricity theft

 There is a loss of about Rs.990 billion from FY 2010-17.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 107
Corruption in Pakistan
 There is a rampant corruption in Pakistan in every
sector

 Journey from many honest, few corrupt to few


honest, many corrupt

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 108
Irritants in Our Education System
 In Pakistan, our education system, both formal and
informal, has shown visible signs of ineffectiveness towards
the character-building of individuals.

 There are many breeding factors for that gradual and


persistent decay in our education system.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 110
Insufficient Role of the Government
 Every successive government in Pakistan has shown a
lackluster response towards the promotion of education in
the country.
 Historically, the annual budgetary allocations are always less
than 2 % of the GDP.
 However, as per international standards, the budgetary
allocation for education should be around 4% of the GDP.
 This budgetary allocation looks very small if we compare the
annual population growth rate of Pakistan which is around
2.1 percent.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 111
Insufficient Role of the Government
% of GDP on Education
3.5

3 2.84 2.93
2.63 2.69
2.5 2.37
2.25 2.23 2.17
1.95 1.9
2
% of GDP on Education
1.5

0.5

0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 112
Parents’ Apathy Towards Their
Children’s Education
 It is observed that a large number of children are not even

enrolled in any school. Reportedly, about 27 million kids

are not enrolled in any school.

 Owing to this lethargic attitude of the parents, a huge

portion of the new generation in Pakistan is deprived of

the right of basic education.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 113
Three Parallel Systems of Education in
Pakistan

i. Public versus Private

ii. English versus Urdu

iii. Madaaris education

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 114
Poor Quality of Teaching

 Teachers in Pakistan lack proper training in teaching

and in developing other professional skills

 Lack of incentives and motivation, improper training

and capacity-building, hostile working conditions, etc.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 115
Regional Disparity of Education
 Unfortunately, there is a widespread regional disparity
in the existing system of education in Pakistan.
 The literacy rate of males and females in FATA is
29.5% and 3% respectively.
 The Annual Status of Education Report- Pakistan 2013
states that “about 93% of children in Balochistan
cannot read a class-II text story in Urdu or their
regional language, and in terms of English reading,
the failure rate in Balochistan is as high as 94 % for
class-III students and 68 % in class-V”.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 116
High Pupil-Teacher Ratio
Teacher-Pupil Ratio 2017
ICT 21.9

GB 25

FATA 24.2

Baluchistan 24.6

KP 34.7 Teacher-Pupil Ratio

Sindh 30.4

Punjab 34

Pakistan 31.6

0 10 20 30 40

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 117
Students’ Politics
i. Unfortunately, a number of educational institutions in
Pakistan are infected with the menace of student politics.
Ironically, all the major political parties both at the
national and regional level patronize their respective
students’ organizations in the educational institutions.
ii. This culture has given a severe blow to the standard of
education in those institutions. Ultimately, such
institutions have lost their utility as bedrocks for the
character-building of the individuals.
iii. Instead, such institutions have turned out to be the battle
grounds for the political rivalries among the different
factions thereby teaching inculcating in more and more
violence among their students.
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 118
Conclusion
 Both the education and the process of character-building
are closely inter-related

 The education system in Pakistan is infected with a


number of chronic problems

 Ultimately, the system of education is not producing the


individuals with high character

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 119
Recommendations
i. Realization of the importance of education towards the
character-building of individuals in the country
ii. Budgetary allocation of at least 3 per cent of the GDP in the
next FY 2015-16
iii. Practical steps towards introducing one system of
education throughout Pakistan
iv. Strict implementation of the Child labor laws
v. Disciplinary actions against the teachers and the officials
of the education departments
vi. Hiring of teachers should be on contract basis

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 121
Recommendations cont…
vii. Providing meals to the students from class 1 to class 10

viii. Document all the religious madaris

ix. Students’ politics should be completely banned

x. Government should regulate the fee structure of the


private schools in Pakistan

xi. Involving all the stakeholders in the policy making and


policy implementation processes

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 122
Write Up
Education in Pakistan should be a
federal subject or a provincial
subject.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 123
Thank
You
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 124
Please contact for Queries
Asmatullah Junejo (PSP)

Senior Superintendent of Police, Rawalpindi

0300-7064608

asmatullahjunejo@hotmail.com
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 Pakistan Affairs by Asmatullah Junejo, PSP 125