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solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

- 4.6%
The decrease of the solar thermal market
in the European Union in 2016

Evacuated tube solar collectors,

solar thermal installation
in Ireland


A study carried out by EurObserv’ER.

T he European solar thermal market is still losing pace. According to the

preliminary estimates from EurObserv’ER, the solar thermal segment
dedicated to heat production (domestic hot water, heating and heating
networks) contracted by a further 4.6% in 2016 down to 2.6 million m2 . The
sector is pinning its hopes on the development of the collective solar segment
that includes industrial solar heat and solar district heating to offset the
under-performing individual home segment.

S ince 2014 European concentrated solar power capacity for producing

electricity has been more or less stable. New project constructions have
been a long time coming, but this could change at the end of 2017 and in 2018
essentially in Italy.

51 millions m 2
2 313.7 MWth
Glenergy Sol ar

The cumulated surfaces of solar thermal Total CSP capacity in operation

in operation in the European Union in 2016 in the European Union in 2016

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solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

The world largest solar thermal Tabl. n° 1
district heating solution - Silkeborg,
Denmark (in operation end 2016) Main solar thermal markets outside European Union

Total cumulative capacity

Annual Installed capacity (in MWth)
in operation (in MWth)

2015 2016 2015 2016

China 30 500 27 664 309 500 337 164

United States 760 682 17 300 17 982
Turkey 1 500 1 467 13 600 15 067
India 770 894 6 300 7 194
Japan 100 50 2 400 2 450
Rest of the world 6 740 6 797 90 944 97 728
Total world 39 640 36 660 434 700 471 360
Source: EurObserv’ER 2017

new build, because of the construction is now causing great concern, where as a water production. This newly-installed
slump. result of the policy of promoting conden- area is almost double the previous year’s
While the outlook is grim, it is not disas- sing boilers and electrical hot water pro- figure (264 564 m2).
trous, for while the individual home seg- duction systems (such as thermodyna- Denmark has built 31 new solar heating
ment cannot deliver to expectations, the mic hot water heaters), solar thermal networks and extended the collector
growth prospects for solar thermal in has become a niche market for domestic field to 5 other networks. It had already
the collective housing hot water produc- hot-water production or solar heating. built 15 heating networks and extended
tion, industrial heat production and dis- The decline is not so pronounced in the 3 networks the previous year. According
trict heating are much more promising. Italian and Spanish markets, but the to PlanEnergi calculations there are

In fact they are underpinned by stricter momentum is still negative. Only Greece 104  olar heating networks in Denmark
European regulations and the offer of is a safe bet and can be trusted to main- supplied by 1 301 000 m 2 of collectors.
suitable equipment by the manufac- tain a 270 000 m2 installation level from The town of Silkeborg holds the record
turers to slash production costs (large year to year, partly as it needs to replace for the biggest solar heating network
collectors, suitable technologies). The existing equipment. in the countr y (and the world) since
solar thermal heating network segment Outside of the European borders, solar December 2016. With a collector area

he European solar thermal mar- mal technologies (flat plate collectors, easier-to-install, renewable solutions that calls for large areas of collectors thermal is skyrocketing thanks to the of 156 694 m 2 (110 MW), i.e. 12 536 col-
ket’s foundations are being increa- vacuum collectors and unglazed collec- whose purchase price is lower, such as has proven how relevant it is and has Chinese market. The country may have lectors with a surface area of 12.6 m 2
singly eroded, a s the European tors) and factors in the decommissio- thermodynamic hot water heaters and been championed by pro-active poli- installed 28 000 MWth in 2016 for an (manufactured by the Danish company
Union market now stands at 2.6  mil- ning assumptions made by the experts AGHP. This has created a downward spi- cies pursued by a number of countries. overall capacity of 337 GWth, which is Arcon-Sunmark), solar energy is capable
lion m2, which is 2 million m2 less than it contacted during the study and Euros- ral in the number of installations as hea- Denmark leads the way in solar heating ten times bigger than the UE capacity. of covering 20% of the annual heating
was in the reference year, 2008 (4.6 mil- tat data for year N-1. In the absence of ting network installation engineers now networks just as it did for wind energy in The second market in the worldwide requirements for 21 000 users. Silkeborg
lion m 2 ) (graph 1). EurObserv’ER puts official data, EurObserv’ER relies on the specify fewer solar thermal solutions in the early 80s (see below). ranking is far away, as it is Turkey, with has effectively toppled the previous
the thermal capacity of newly-installed market data it has gathered and applies the residential sector, which has weake- Market forces are roughly the same as 1 467 MWth installed in 2016. (table 1). record held by the town of Vojens that
solar thermal facilities at 1 823 MWth a 20 year decommissioning assumption ned the sector’s structure (drop in the they were last year. The German mar- has a 70 000 m2 (48.9 MWth) solar heating
in 2016, which is 4.6% less than in 2015 for glazed collectors and 12 years for number of installers, poorer skills). ket is still well placed in European solar network.
(tables 2 and 3). Flat plate collectors unglazed collectors. P V ’s c o nt in uin g a p p e a l t o p r i v a t e thermal market; as yet again it accom- News from around The solar heating network inst alla-
still account for most of the installed The underlying reasons for the trend homeowners and investors also stands modates almost 30% of the newly-ins- the main markets tion peak has been precipitated by the
surface area (93.4%), followed by vacuum decline are constant. The solar thermal in the way of solar thermal’s develop- talled collector area in the European end of the Energy Saving agreement
collectors (5.3%) and unglazed collectors market is directly hit by the low price of ment. Even if PV technology is not in Union. However it has failed to stem its Solar heat warms up Danish scheduled for December 2016 that was
(1.3%). Since 2009, the European Union’s natural gas that affects solar heat’s abi- head - on competition for hot water own domestic market’s decline. Den- networks signed in 201 2 bet ween the Danish
solar thermal market has been contrac- lity to compete by giving the advantage production in the residential segment, mark, which promotes the construction D e nm a r k h a d a n e xc e p t i o n a l y e a r energ y operators and the Danish
ting by an annual average of 6.9%. to the condensing gas boiler market. silicon panels are generally prescribed of vast collector fields to supply heating in 2016. According to Jan Erik Nielsen Energy Ministry. The utilities effecti-
The total surface area of the European The stop-start, degressive subsidy poli- especially since self-production of elec- networks, is clearly relishing its momen- of PlanEnergi, the countr y installed vely brought forward the completion
Union’s solar thermal base was about cies operating in some countries have tricity became profitable. The sector’s tum. The main change with regard to last about 500 000 m 2 of collectors, 99% of of their installations to avoid paying
51 million m2 (35 713 MWth), which is 3.8% also hit solar thermal’s momentum in prospects have also dwindled in mar- year has been felt in the Polish market, which were intended to supply hea- penalties and also because of uncer-
more than in 2015 (table 4). This esti- the residential sector segment. Solar kets such as Spain and Italy, where solar which having grown 2015, took a nose ting networks while the remaining one
mate includes the three main solar ther- thermal also competes badly with other thermal is a priority energy source in dive in 2016. The state of play in France percent was for individual domestic hot

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solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

ting new solar heating networks (or the renewable energy heating system The Polish market plummets
Alongside the Danes who are pioneers in this technology, not to mention the Swedes, Germans and Austrians, there are their extensions) before the middle of through the MAP programme. in the absence of incentives
new countries showing interest in converting their own heating networks. In the Netherlands, solar heating networks 2018 to meet their obligation. The government raised the level of aid Although the Polish solar thermal mar-
of 140 kWth and over are eligible for the Feed-in Tariff incentive system known as the SDE+, that finances the kWh of awarded under its market incentive ket was resilient in 2015, expanding by
thermal energy produced. This system enables energy service operators to take up an incentive that compensates for The German market continues progra mme (M A P, Ma r k t a nreizpro - 6.5% to 277 000 m2, it took a nose dive in
the difference between the market price and the production. The system became more generous in 2016 as the drop in to slide gramm) from 1 April 2015 to increase the 2016 plummeting to 115 400 m2 according
the mean price for solar heat increased the amount to be made up by subsidies, a rise in the budget allocated to SDE+ Despite the efforts made to prop up renewable energy share of heat supply to data released by SPIUG (Association of
and the exclusion of biomass co-combustion plants from the list of eligible technologies. Thus in 2016, the SDE+ system the sector, the solar thermal market’s in order to reverse the market downturn, Manufacturers and Importers of Heating
approved funding for about 62 MWth of solar thermal plants, essentially for greenhouse heating projects. According to downward trend could not be stemmed. (see the 2015 solar thermal barometer for Appliances).
the solar expert Lex Bosselar, implementation of these projects will depend on the proven efficiency of the first systems According to AGEE-Stat, the Working details of the aids or the note ). The market was expected to decline but
installed. France has also announced its ambitious to develop solar heating networks. In January 2017, construction Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics, Since 1 January 2016, the government has on a much smaller scale. The reason for
work began on one of the biggest projects… the Chateaubriant solar heating network in Loire-Atlantique (2 300 m2 of 766 000 m2 (including 22 000 m2 unglazed) added new measures via a new energy this fall is that the subsidies awarded
collectors). It is expected to produce 900 MWh per annum. It follows the 2016 construction of the Chasseneuil-du-Poitou of collectors were installed in Germany ef ficienc y stimulation programme, to solar thermal under the “transient”
solar plant (1 470 m2, i.e. 1 MWth of capacity). in 2016, compared to 831 000 m2 in 2015 the “Anreizprogramm Energieeffizienz national Prosument programme were
According to Jan-Olof Dalenback, of Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, there were 290 large-dimension solar
(including 25 000 m2 of unglazed collec- (APEE)”. Its purpose is to help finance the discontinued in the summer of 2016. The
thermal installations in Europe at the end of 2016, including solar heating networks and industrial and cooling installa-
tors), which equates to a 7.8% decline. The replacement or modernisation of exis- remaining funds of the NFOSiGW (Natio-
tions for a collector area of 1.57 million m2 in all.
full raft of aids targeting the residential, ting heating systems with the proviso nal Fund for Environmental Protection
collective segments and industrial hea- that they are more efficient. This opti- and Water management) residential sub-
ting were to no avail. BAFA (the Federal mization can only be achieved by repla- sidy programme that formed the basis of
Office for Economic Affairs and Export cing an oil- or gas-fired heating system the Prosument programme were trans-
tainties surrounding the inclusion of included in the calculations for energy- not be added to the energy saving tar- Control) ascribes the solar thermal mar- (condensing boilers are excluded from ferred to regional funds responsible
solar heating in the next round of the saving goals. It plans for 3.18% of energy gets unless the field of collectors enters ket contraction to low heating oil and gas the measure) with a heating system that for setting up this policy. Since then,
Energy Saving agreement. savings on final energy consumption in its programming phase prior to 30 June prices which erode the competitiveness either runs on biomass, or a heat pump, customers and industry alike have been
In the end, the new agreement between the heating network field between 2016 2018 and is installed before 30 June 2019. of solar thermal solutions. or a combined solar thermal system (hot waiting for a new regional subsidy sys-
the utilities and the Danish Energ y and 2020. A point to bear in mind is that Therefore the article provides the muni- In Germany, the Federal Ministry for Eco- water + heating). If solar thermal panels tem to be set up, but there was no news
Ministry signed on 16 December 2016, article 3.8 stipulates that solar hear cipal energy service companies with a nomic Affairs and Energy awards annual are installed to boost the efficiency of of it in May 2017. The BSRI consultancy
confirmed that solar heating would be injected into the heating network can- strong incentive to plan for construc- subsidies worth 300  million euros to the existing heating system, then the analysts claim that another reason for
incentive can also be awarded. The disenchantment with solar thermal
amount of the APEE top-up grant equals in Poland is the stability of gas prices,
20% of the MAP subsidy awarded, howe- which has encouraged sales of gas-fired
ver this package cannot be combined boilers. Despite high electricity prices
Graph. n° 1 with the MAP programme’s optimization in Poland, solar thermal has also been
Evolution of annually installed surfaces in the European Union since 1994 (in m2) bonus. An additional 600 euro premium hit by competition from thermodynamic
is also awarded for any investment that hot water heaters, which cost less and
increases the energy efficiency of an exis- are easier to install than a solar ther-
ting heating system. mal system. What concerns the sector
The German government is also encou- even more is that according to SPIUG,
raging the development of process hea- many solar thermal solution suppliers
ting (for industrial or commercial use) are abandoning the business to specia-
4 609 764
by introducing attractive incentive lize in the more buoyant heat pump and
4 172 553
conditions. BAFA promotes industrial PV markets, thus breaking up the solar
3 765 254 heating for solar thermal installations thermal installation network.
3 054 867 3 591 580
3 486 192 with collector surfaces of at least 20 m2,
3 125 302 3 041 255 by financing up to 50% of the net invest- The French solar thermal market
2 907 362 ment costs (including engineering stu- in distress
2 730 994
2 142 220 2 604 627 dies, installation and measurement and The French solar thermal market is
data device acquisition). Investors can clearly in distress and will be hard pres-
also apply for a low-interest rate loan sed to recover from past policy direc-
1 731 104
1 596 792 from the KfW Bank that will be combined tions (failure to take proper account
1 461 040
1 271 591 1 199 069 with a non-refundable 50% subsidy on of solar heat in the 2012  RT thermal
1 007 039
981 776
the net investment. The third option is to regulations, right to over-consume in
849 538 944 277
664 209 725 815 apply for a performance-based incentive, multi-occupancy housing , standardi-
which will factor in the annual perfor- zation of the Tax Credit aids for energy
mance indicated on the corresponding transition).
Solar Keymark certificate. If the latter is According to Uniclima (the air-handling,
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 more advantageous than the 50% rule, co oling , heat ing a n d r ef r iger at ion
BAFA will recommend it to the applicant.
Member states included at the date of their accession. Source: EurObserv’ER 2017.

7 Hot solar water storage tanks 8
of the Maison de l’Ile-de-France
solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

industry association) data, the main- 10 900 units in 2015 to 7 500 in 2016, with energy”. “The 2012 thermal regulation
land solar thermal market posted a fur- an average of 3.3 m 2 of collectors per (RT 2012), with its authorization to over-
ther 35% year-on-year decline with a system. As for combined solar systems, consume for multi-occupancy dwellings
collector installation figure of 65 900 m2 300 were installed in 2016 compared (57.5 kWh/m2p.a. annum as opposed to
in 2016 compared to 101 400 m2 in 2015. to 400 in 2015 (averaging 11 .3 m 2 per 50 kWh/m2 p.a.) and the absence of any
The newly-installer collector area in the system). Uniclima claims that “indivi- requirement for renewable energy, has
collective segment, which accounts for dual solar water heaters are unable excluded renewable heat and collec-
55.7% of the installed area was put at to establish a foothold in new build tive solar heat in particular, from new
36 700 m2 – a 38% fall. The overseas ter- as they face fierce competition from build.”
ritories market is more active and is put both thermodynamic water heaters On the contrary, condensing gas- and
at 47 082 m 2 in 2016 (41 248 m 2 in 2015), that are cheaper to purchase and easier oil-fired boilers – still eligible for ins-
which equates to a 14.1% increase. to install, and from PV, a new RES com- tallation grants under the Tax Credit
In mainland France, the solar thermal petitor ” and “in renovation, the Ta x for energy transition scheme (i.e. 30%,

market is to all intents and purposes a Credit for energ y transition scheme in t h e s a m e way a s s y s t e m s u sing
niche market. The number of individual cannot support individual solar devices
solar water heaters has dropped from in t he cont e x t of “ low - co s t ” fo s sil

Tabl. n° 2 Tabl. n° 3
Annual installed surfaces in 2015 per type of collectors (in m ) and power equivalent (in MWth)
Annual installed surfaces in 2016** per type of collectors (in m2) and power equivalent (in MWth)

Glazed collectors Equivalent Glazed collectors Equivalent

Flat plate Vacuum Unglazed power Flat plate Vacuum Unglazed power
Country Total (m )
(MWth) Country Total (m )2
collectors collectors collectors collectors collectors collectors
Germany 729 000 77 000 25 000 831 000 581.7 Germany 677 000 67 000 22 000 766 000 536.2
Poland 225 000 52 000 277 000 193.9 Denmark 500 000 500 000 350.0
Greece 271 000 600 271 600 190.1 Greece 270 000 270 000 189.0
Denmark 264 565 264 565 185.2 Spain 201 793 7 076 3 321 212 190 148.5
Spain 226 138 11 121 3 375 240 634 168.4 Italy 210 000 210 000 147.0
Italy 201 810 27 520 229 330 160.5 France*** 112 982 5 500 118 482 82.9
France* 142 648 6 000 148 648 104.1 Poland 111 700 3 700 115 400 80.8
Austria 134 260 2 320 890 137 470 96.2 Austria 109 600 1 440 760 111 800 78.3
Czech Republic 22 000 9 000 30 000 61 000 42.7 Portugal 54 000 1 000 55 000 38.5
Portugal 45 304 830 46 134 32.3 Belgium 39 000 7 500 46 500 32.6
Belgium 38 250 6 750 45 000 31.5 Czech Republic 22 000 9 000 n.a. 31 000 21.7
Netherlands 17 548 3 971 2 621 24 140 16.9 Netherlands 20 137 5 179 2 621 27 937 19.6
Ireland 12 720 9 953 22 673 15.9 Croatia* 19 000 2 500 21 500 15.1
Croatia 19 000 2 500 21 500 15.1 Ireland 11 204 8 564 19 768 13.8
United Kingdom 16 935 3 306 20 241 14.2 Hungary 13 050 5 592 188 18 830 13.2
Cyprus 18 000 600 18 600 13.0 Cyprus 18 000 600 18 600 13.0
Romania 6 800 11 000 17 800 12.5 Romania* 6 800 11 000 17 800 12.5
Hungary 10 080 5 570 1 250 16 900 11.8 United Kingdom 9 100 2 509 11 609 8.1
Sweden 4 928 1 643 6 571 4.6 Slovakia 6 000 6 000 4.2
Bulgaria 5 100 500 5 600 3.9 Bulgaria 5 100 500 5 600 3.9
Luxembourg 4 700 750 5 450 3.8 Finland* 3 000 1 000 4 000 2.8
Slovakia 4 500 800 5 300 3.7 Luxembourg 3 759 3 759 2.6
Finland 3 000 1 000 4 000 2.8 Sweden 2 763 336 75 3 174 2.2
Slovenia 2 200 600 2 800 2.0 Slovenia* 2 200 600 2 800 2.0
Lithuania 800 1 400 2 200 1.5 Lithuania* 800 1 400 2 200 1.5
Estonia 1 000 1 000 2 000 1.4 Estonia* 1 000 1 000 2 000 1.4
Latvia 1 580 330 1 910 1.3 Latvia* 1 580 330 1 910 1.3
Malta 742 186 928 0.6 Malta 614 154 768 0.5
Total EU 28 2 432 182 137 980 34 465 2 604 627 1 823.2
Total EU 28 2 429 608 232 250 69 136 2 730 994 1 911.7
* No data available, estimation based on the 2015 ESTIF market. ** Estimate (latest available information at the end of May 2017). *** including 47082 m2 in overseas
* including 41 248 m2 in overseas departments. Source: EurObserv’ER 2017. departments. Source: EurObserv’ER 2017.

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solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

Solar thermal power capacity installed in the European Union at the end of 2016** (MWth)

N 400 km

Finland* n° 24

Sweden n° 15
340 Estonia* n° 28
2.2 10
Denmark n° 8 1.4
Ireland n° 16 1 153
350.0 Latvia* n° 26

Netherland n° 13 Lithuania* n° 27
457 Poland n° 7 13
United-Kingdom n° 11 1.5
19.6 1 493
8.1 Belgium n° 12
Germany n° 1 35 713
Alliance Soleil

13 385
536.2 Czech Rep. n° 10 1 823.2
Luxembourg n° 23 796
42 21.7
2.6 Slovakia n° 21
Austria n° 2 4.2
France*** n° 6 3 647
2 118 78.3 Hungary n° 17
renewable energies) – have a high take- 2016, local authorities have been able to and dedicated to collective applications 82.9 201
Slovenia* n° 18 13.2 Romania* n° 19
up rate in France with 454  0 0 0  units award a 30% constructability bonus for (53.9%, i.e. 114 515 m2), ahead of indivi-
Portugal n° 9 169 155
sold in 2016 up from 396 000 units in exemplary buildings whose energy per- dual installations (44.5%, i.e. 94 354 m2) 823 2.0 12.5
Croatia* n° 20
2015 (a 15% rise). The market is taking formance betters RT 2012 by 20%. These and unglazed collectors for pool heating 38.5 143
full advantage of the new eco-design buildings will also be eligible for Heat (1.6%, i.e. 3 321 m2). 15.1
regulations for heating and hot water Fund incentives for collective housing The industry ascribes these losses to Bulgaria n° 22
Spain n° 5 60
appliances. that demand RT 2012 regulations to be similar factors to those of 2015 – namely, 2 734 Italy n° 4 3.9
Nonetheless collective solar thermal bettered by 15%. sluggish property construction and the 148.5 2 955
should gradually witness an upturn in its discontinuance of regional subsidy pro-
development conditions, for after a four- Spain’s market looks forward grammes – especially those granted in
year struggle, the sector was granted to better times Andalusia (Prosol programme). Another
Greece n° 3
more equitable treatment for solar heat The Spanish solar thermal market per- factor is the upswing in heat pump instal- 3 133
in October 2016 in the RT 2012 computa- formed below expectations in 2016 as lations, which according to the country’s 189.0 Cyprus n° 14
tion engine, which lowered its primary it contracted for the second year run- technical building code (CTE) are now 453
energy consumption by 20% in relation ning. ASIT, the solar thermal industry eligible as an alternative to solar thermal
Malta n° 25
to the previous calculation formulae. association, claims that Spain instal- for the renewable energy production of 36
The end of the waiver on overconsump- led 212 290 m 2 of collectors, which is domestic hot water. 0.5
tion in new multi-occupancy housing, a 12% decrease on 2015 (the drop was ASIT expects the situation to turn around Key
scheduled for 31 December 2017, is now 6.5% between 2014 and 2015). Most of T otal solar therma capacity installed at  olar thermal capacity installed during
S * No data available, estimation based on the 2015
35 713 1 823.2
within sight. Furthermore, since June the collectors installed were flat plate the end of 2016* (MWth) the year 2016** (in MWth) ESTIF market figure. ** Estimate (latest available
information at the end of May 2017).
*** included 47 082m2 in overseas departments.
Source: EurObserv’ER 2017.

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solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

in 2017. A new sustainable energy deve- Another positive factor is that new build the beginning of 2016 that supports tising on the new labels that limit the the government conceded on 14 Decem- tions for heating and hot water produc-
lopment incentive programme com - has returned to steady growth, and this installations of up to 2 500 m 2 with a consumers’ visibility of new, high perfor- ber 2016, announcing that solar thermal tion appliances. Another development
menced on 15 May 2017 in Andalusia from should benefit the market in 2017, not to financing rate of 40–60% of investment mance integrated solutions (A+++ label). would be retained after all. Hence the that could potentially bring cheer to
2017–2020, with a budget of 163 million mention an increase in the systems sold costs. Small installations can also take incentive level is pegged at its current the solar thermal sector is that the UK’s
euros. Its funds range from 20–85% in the that are ineligible for any grant, which up Conto Termico 2.0, with a number of Solar thermal finds redemption levels for households at 19.74 p per kWh Feed-in Tariff for PV has been drastically
area of sustainable building, renovation, account for about 20% in the market advantages such as the grant payment in in the UK payed over 7 years and at 10.28 p per kWh slashed… and that could create more
heating, cooling and lighting. 2016 compared to 15% in 2015. one lump sum rather than in instalments Data released by STA (the Solar Trade for the “non-residential” category for room in the market for solar thermal.
Solar thermal is one of the eligible tech- over two years. Association) shows that the UK solar 20 years. On the downside, solar heating
nologies in the budget line for sustai- The Italian market drops out Assotermica explains that despite very thermal market had difficulty making is still ineligible for the incentive sys- The industry seeks to recover
nable building. In the case of major instal- of double digits attractive financing terms for medium the figure of 11 609 m 2 in 2016, which tems. Although the first quarter figures its momentum by breaking
lations (collector areas in excess of 25 m2), Preliminar y estimates of the Italian and large areas, this segment is strug- amounts to a new 43% (or 20  241  m 2 ) for 2017 indicate a further drop in sales, into the collective sector
the basic grant scheme is 40% and may solar thermal market provided by Asso- gling to develop because of the lack of drop on its 2015 level… a far cry from the manufacturers hope for a gradual
rise up to 85% for redevelopment of social termica indicate a new 9% drop between demand from potential users and low its 2010 market level of 88 379 m2 . None- increase from 2017 onwards, resulting The solar thermal market took a dip that
housing projects. As for small areas, the 2015 and 2016 (210 000 m2), after drop- specification levels. The lack of market theless the sector has scored a victory. from a number of primarily collective forced a number of European solar ther-
basic scheme comprises a grant to cover ping 14.5% between 2014 and 2015. This structure is to blame, as the market After several months’ consultation on segment projects that have been on the mal-focused companies into bankruptcy
30% of the costs and can also rise to comes in a context where the level of is dominated by small residential sys- a government project to exclude solar back burner, finally kicking off. They in 2013 and 2014. Manufacturers such
85% for redevelopment of social hou- grants is high… a 65% tax reduction for tems. Other reasons put forward are the thermal from the RHI (Renewable Heat also expect positive impacts from the as Bosch Thermotechnik, Viessmann
sing projects. Solar heating networks are small systems and the introduction of construction sector crisis that limits Incentives) system from 2017 onwards, enactment of new eco-design regula- and the Vaillant group that are also in
excluded from the mechanism. the new Conto Termico 2.0 scheme at opportunities and the lack of adver- the heating solution business found it
easier to stay afloat. Nonetheless the
global solar thermal industry leader
Tabl. n° 5 with the highest manufacturing capa-
Tabl. n°4 Solar thermal capacities* in operation city – 1 600 000 m2 in 2017 – is GREENone-
Cumulated capacity of thermal solar collectors* installed in the European Union in 2015 and 2016**(in m2 and in MWth) per capita (m2/inhab. and kWh/inhab.) in 2016** TEC of Austria, whose business is totally
centred on this market. The group sells
2015 2016 Country m2/inhab. kWth/inhab. whole range of collectors to the other
m2 MWth m2 MWth market players: vacuum collectors,
Cyprus 0.764 0.535 flat plate collectors and thermosiphon
Germany 18 625 000 13 038 19 121 000 13 385
Austria 0.600 0.420 collectors. Other solar thermal mar-
Austria 5 221 342 3 655 5 210 202 3 647
Greece 0.415 0.291 ket players have made good headway
Greece 4 390 375 3 073 4 475 375 3 133
Danemark 0.289 0.202 recently, such as Arcon Sunmark, which
Italy 4 011 069 2 808 4 221 069 2 955
Germany 0.233 0.163 is now one of the top 10 European manu-
Spain 3 693 638 2 586 3 905 928 2 734
Malta 0.119 0.083 facturers (see table 6).
France*** 2 942 000 2 059 3 025 500 2 118
Slovenia 0.117 0.082 The industry is turning away from indi-
Poland 2 017 337 1 412 2 132 467 1 493
Portugal 0.114 0.080 vidual housing to large-scale projects
Danemark 1 179 000 825 1 647 000 1 153
Czech Republic 0.108 0.075 as the former cannot sustain the mar-
Portugal 1 121 104 785 1 176 104 823
Luxembourg 0.103 0.072 ket growth. Its first foray involves the
Czech Republic 1 106 542 775 1 137 542 796
Spain 0.084 0.059 construction of solar fields for district
United Kingdom 702 342 492 712 951 499
Ireland 0.072 0.050 heating networks. Arcon Sunmark can
Belgium 661 000 463 688 937 482
Italy 0.070 0.049 put its growth down to this sector. As
Netherlands 647 397 453 652 205 457
Belgium 0.061 0.043 it is Danish, it has seized the oppor-
Cyprus 659 224 461 647 824 453
Poland 0.056 0.039 tunity afforded by its home market’s
Sweden 488 000 342 485 000 340
Sweden 0.049 0.034 efforts and has, for example, construc-
Ireland 319 880 224 339 648 238
Croatia 0.049 0.034 ted a 70 000 m2 plant with a capacity of
Hungary 269 000 188 287 296 201
France*** 0.045 0.032 28 000 MWh in the town of Vojens, that
Slovenia 238 800 167 241 974 169
Netherlands 0.038 0.027 covers 50% of its heating requirements.
Romania 203 670 143 221 470 155
Slovakia 0.033 0.023 It has also been selected for the Big Solar
Croatia 183 000 128 204 500 143
Hungary 0.029 0.020 project in Graz, Austria, for a capacity of
Slovakia 171 420 120 177 420 124
Bulgaria 0.012 0.008 250 MWth that should come on stream
Bulgaria 84 800 59 85 000 60
Latvia 0.012 0.008 in 2020. The company also claims to have
Luxembourg 55 590 39 59 349 42
Romania 0.011 0.008 completed the world’s biggest solar
Finland 53 513 37 56 913 40
United Kingdom 0.011 0.008 thermal heating plant for the mining
Malta 50 904 36 51 671 36
Estonia 0.011 0.008 industry. The 43 920 m2collector field in
Latvia 20 920 15 22 830 16
Finland 0.010 0.007 Chile covers 80% of the mine’s annual
Lithuania 15 750 11 17 950 13
Lithuania 0.006 0.004 heating requirements, namely about
Estonia 12 120 8 14 120 10
Total EU 28 0.100 0.070 80 000 MWh.
Total EU 28 49 144 737 34 401 51 019 245 35 713
* All technologies included unglazed collectors. ** Estimate. *** Overseas departments included.
All technologies including unglazed collectors. ** Estimate. *** Overseas department included . Source: EurObserv’ER 2017. Source: EurObserv’ER 2017.

13 14
solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

Tabl. n° 6 Graph. n° 2
Representative European solar thermal collector manufacturers Comparison of the current trend against the NREAP (National Renewable Energy Action Plans) roadmap (in ktoe)

6 348
Solar collectors
Company Country Activity
production 2015* (in m2) NREAP Roadmap

GREENoneTEC * Austria Flat plate and vacuum tube collectors 540 000

Heating equipment supplier/

Bosch Thermotechnik * Germany 280 000
Flat plate collector manufacturer
Flat plate collectors manufacturer 3 019
Arcon-Sunmark Denmark 215 000 2 700
for large plants
Curent Trend
Heating equipment/ 2 055 2 113
Viessmann * Germany 190 000 1 943
solar thermal

Hewalex Poland Flat plate and vacuum tube collectors 140 000

Dimas * Greece Flat plate collectors manufacturer 140 000

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Thermosolar Germany Flat plate and vacuum tube collectors 130 000 Source: EurObserv’ER 2017

Heating equipment supplier/

Vaillant Group * Germany 120 000
solar thermal
about one million m2 of newly-installed investor confidence. Yet at the same to make significant energy efficiency
Nobel Bulgaria Flat plate collectors manufacturer 110 000
collectors per annum. As the service life time renewable heat has significantly savings by resorting to solar district
of these collectors ends and if market reduced its costs in several urban dis- heating is taken up elsewhere. 
Delpaso Solar Spain Flat plate collectors manufacturer 80 000 recovery does not come about, growth trict heating and cooling systems. The
in the contribution of solar heat can European Commission’s revised draft
Flat plate and vacuum tube collectors
Wolf * Germany 80 000 only decline. directive proposes to introduce a new
manufacturer and heating equipment supplier
The interme diate trajec tor y of the dedicated tool to stimulate the deploy-
Flat plate collectors manufacturer NRE A P pla ns wa s s et at 3  Mto e for ment of renewable heat technologies Sources: AGEE-Stat (Germany), AEE INTEC (Austria),
Cosmosolar * Greece 80 000
and heating equipment supplier solar heat in 2015, yet it only scraped such as solar thermal energy. Article 23 Assotermica (Italy), EBHE (Greece), SPIUG (Poland),

* Estimations based on company information and Solrico (Worldwide: Flat Plate Collector Manufacturer Ranking). Note: These figures must be used as evaluation
past the 2.1 Mtoe mark in 2016. EurOb- of the revised directive proposes ASIT (Spain), Uniclima (France), Observ’ER (France),
more than accurate production data. Source: EurObserv’ER 2017. serv’ER reckons that if nothing is done that each Member State should try to PlanEnergi (Denmark), Ministry of Industry and
to reverse the trend quickly, the diffe- increase the share of the energy pro- Trade (Czech Republic), Statistics Netherlands,
rence between reality and the targets duced from renewable sources for hea- ATTB (Belgium), STA (United Kingdom), SEAI (Ireland
could be much wider than previously ting and cooling purposes by at least Republic), STATEC (Luxembourg), NSO (Malta),
feared, and could even fall below 50% one percentage point (of the national University of Miskolc (Hungary), Solar Energy
Another growth driver is solar thermal project that kicked off at the end of 2016 Solar thermal is losing of the NRE AP commitments for 2020 final energy consumption share) every Association of Sweden, REN 21, solarthermalworld.
integrated into industrial processes. A and is analysing this market across the ground (graph 2). year until 2030. Article 24 opens rights org, Solar Thermal Federation of India, Observ’ER
basic international shift is underway world. The preliminary project findings Although solar heat is still losing ground, of access to local heating networks and (Others).)
effectively redirecting the solar thermal point to 71 companies that offer to inte- The downward trend of the market the European Union is working on the cooling systems to renewable energy
industry to this market segment. Increa- grate solar thermal in industrial pro- witnessed since 2009 has seen the gap new climate and energy framework for producers– which opens up significant
sing numbers of industries, that require cesses, and 525 installations that have with the National Renewable Energy 2030 and on 30  November 2016 pres- development prospects for solar dis-
heat for specific points in their produc- already come into being. Half of the sys- Action Plan (NREAP) trajectory open up. ented the new Clean Energy Package. trict heating.
tion lines could call on solar energy to tem integrators manufacture the equip- What is of even more concern, is that in In its draft renewable energy directive, The sector has given a warm welcome
produce heat at time T, with tempera- ment to be integrated into the industrial a number of countries (Austria, Swede the European Commission reiterates to this legislative roadmap that puts
tures rising to hundreds of degrees. process themselves. Two-thirds of the and Cyprus) the area of collectors in that heating and cooling amount to renewable heat back into the centre
GREENoneTEC now sells large collectors installers are also facility operators and service is tending to contract as their 50% of the EU’s energ y demand and of the new renewable energ y direc-
ripe for the purpose, in dimensions ran- will carry out installation maintenance newly-installed areas do not make up that 75% of this demand is met by fos- tive’s proposal. However its players are
ging from 8–13 m2 that bear witness to work. The food-processing industry, the for the areas that have been decommis- sil fuel, and also accounts for 68% of waiting for the practical implementa-
this segment boom. Institutional deci- commercial and services sector and the sioned. The capacity and surface area Europe’s natural gas imports (costing tion of regulatory and subsidy measures
sion makers have also taken up this issue textile industry are the sectors most of decommissioned installations tends 44 billion euros). It also observes that that will give solar thermal a second
as through the Horizon 2020 programme, interested in using solar thermal energy to rise every year, because the solar the lack of coordinated renewable hea- chance. Implementation could be very
the European Commission, is financing in their processes. thermal market built up gradually in ting and cooling policy has resulted in quick if the Danish government’s initia-
the three-year Solar Payback research the second half of the 1990s, peaking at highly fragmented markets and curbed tive to oblige energy service companies

15 16
solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

Noor 1 is the first tranche of a complex shoop, in the same province. Here, annual Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, and com-
Noor 1 Parabolic Through thermosolar plant with a design capacity of 580 MW. The output is expected to be 230 000 MWh prise 9 tower plants, 7 parabolic trough
(Ouarzazate, Marocco) parabolic trough plant will supply elec- using “molten salt” storage technology plants and 4 linear Fresnel plants. The
tricity to some 650 000 people from dawn to cover more than 9 hours. South Africa plants will be eligible for a Feed-in Tariff
to sundown and then for another 3 hours has more CSP plants under construction of 1 .15  RMB/kWh (€  0.015/kWh) until
using “molten salt ” storage techno - – the Xina Solar One (100 MW) parabolic 2018, which will be adjusted after 2019.
logy. Construction work on the second trough plant that should come on stream
tranche was started on the same day as in 2017, the Kathu Solar Park (100 MW) The Middle East has no intention of stan-
Noor 1 was commissioned, to construct parabolic trough plant and the Redstone ding idle. Saudi Arabia should commis-
Noor 2, a 200 MW parabolic trough plant (100 MW) tower plant that should be up sion its Duba 1 ISCC (43 MW) parabolic
and Noor 3, a 150 MW tower plant. Each and running in 2018. South Africa kicked trough plant in 2017 and the Waad Al Sha-
will have 8 hours’ storage capacity and off its concentrated solar power sector mal ISCC (50 MW) parabolic trough plant
the two should come on stream in 2018. in 2015 when it hooked up the KaXu Solar in 2018. Israel is currently constructing
The last phase, Noor 4, will use PV tech- (100 MW) parabolic trough plant. the Ashalim power station (121 MW) in
nology (70 MW). At COP21, the Kingdom the Negev Desert that is scheduled to
of Morocco announced that it planned China will soon become the new CSP come on stream in 2018. It will be the
on achieving a 52 % renewable electri- stronghold. At the end of 2016 Phase I world’s tallest tower plant (250 metres)
city share by 2030 (as against its previous of the SunCan Dunhuang plant went on and receive light reflected by 29.2 m 2
target of 42 % by 2020). stream with a 5 800-tonne “molten salt” mirrors, 50 600 of them. Another 110 MW
The following day, on 5 February 2016, storage facility that gives it theoreti- CSP plant will be added as well as a PV
the Khi Solar One plant, a 50 MW tower cally 15 hours of energy storage with the plant of about 30 MW in capacity in 2018,
plant, went on stream in South Africa, intention of ensuring that the plants to raise the site’s capacity to 310 MW, i.e.
near the town of Upington, Northern works round the clock. Construction 1.6% of Israel’s electricity demand. In
Cape Province. The plant’s annual out- of Pha se II, a 10 0  MW tower plant is June 2016, Dubai launched a tender for a
put is expected to be 180  0 0 0  MWh, underway. It is just one of 20 pilot plant 200 MW plant to cover the first phase of a
using a “saturated steam” system that projects (for a total of 1.4 GW) selected 1 GW capacity construction programme
stores the heat generated for 2 hours. by the National Energy Administration in the Mohammed bin Rashid al-Mak-
The country then commissioned the Bok- (NEA). The plants will be sited in the pro- toum Solar Park. The specifications sti-
poort (50 MW) parabolic trough plant on vinces that enjoy the best exposure to
14 March 2016, near the town of Grobler- the sun, namely Qinghai, Gansu, Hebei,

Graph. n° 1

European Union concentrated solar power capacity trend (MWe)

2 312.5 2 313.7 2 313.7 2 313.7

1 961.2

According to EurObserv’ER calculations lia (the pilot Jemalong and Sundrop tower
Part 2: Concentrated that are partly based on work carried out plants) which took on-grid capacity in
solar power by IRENA, the International Renewable Australia and Oceania to 6 MW.
Energy Agency and SolarPACES, an Inter-
1 158.7

he global concentrated solar power national Energy Agency programme, ins- Africa’s turn
market ha s slowed down af ter talled CSP capacity across the world in
enjoying an installation peak of 2016 stood at about 4 889 MW, boosted In 2016 the continent of Africa was the 738.4
1 267 MW in 2013. It has been hit by the by 273 MW of newly-connected capacity. most active for CSP plant installation.
keen competition coming from PV, sup- Installed capacity remained unchanged On 4 February 2016 Morocco switched on
ported by countries looking to make fast in Europe (2 313.7 MW including pilot the Noor 1 plant (160 MW) near the city of 281.4
improvements to their efficiency levels facilities), North America (1 758 MW) and Ouarzazate. Noor 1 became the world’s
while reducing costs. Nonetheless the the Middle East (123 MW). Most of the seventh most powerful CSP plant after 10.0 60.0
number of CSP installations is set to rise new capacity was installed in Africa and the five American plant complexes of
from 2018 onwards, when many projects increased from 169 MW in 2015 to 429 MW Ivanpah (392 MW), SEGS (354 MW), Solana
currently under construction in Morocco, in 2016 (260 MW added). In Asia 10 MW of (280  MW), Mojave (250  MW), Genesis 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
South Africa, China and the Middle East capacity was connected (268 MW total in (250 MW) and Spain’s Solaben complex Source: EurObserv’ER 2017
will be commissioned. 2016) and a little less than 3 MW in Austra- (200 MW).

17 18
solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

pulate that tower plant technology must totype projects) since 2014, while Euros- injected into the grid has been around France have filed claims against Spain by conceding a one-year delay to the to pay up 128 million euros plus interest.
be used in tandem with an 8–12 hour tat’s official survey of installed CSP capa- the 5-TWh mark since 2014 (4 959 GWh at the World Bank international Centre original schedule for starting up their It appears that the Spanish government
storage facility, with commissioning to city has been stable since 2013 (table 1 in 2014, 5 085  Wh in 2015 and 5 060 GWh for Settlement of Investment Disputes plants and thus receiving remunera- is now calling on the European authori-
take place in April 2021. and Graph 1), at 2 302 MW (2 300 MW in in 2016). (ICSID), for loss of earnings caused by tion (market price + premium system). ties to challenge the legitimacy of this
Spain and 2 MW in Germany). Moreover the Spanish government is policy changes affecting the profitabi- Although the sector stuck scrupulously judgement on the basis that the initial
The European market aspires As it stands, Spain is the only European embroiled in litigation started by groups lity of their investments. These claims to its commitments (and effectively tur- support system flouted European law in
to better days Union countr y to have developed a of investors in Spanish CSP plants. Four were filed following a series of decisions ned its back on revenues worth 1.4 bil- the area of state aid and claims that the
commercially viable concentrated solar international investors, Masdar, Abu made by the Spanish government in 2012 lion euros), the Spanish government Energy Charter Treaty underlying the
Despite its advantages that primarily power sector. However no additional Dhabi’s leading clean energy company, and 2013, confirmed in 2014, to retroac- breached its obligations by retroacti- arbitration does not apply between EU
stem from storage and network stabi- capacity has been installed since 2013 the German institutional asset mana- tively alter the remuneration system for vely changing the law and introducing member states.
lity, the European CSP sector is no longer and there are has no new projects in gement organization Deutsche Asset & Spanish CSP plants, with the result that a much less profitable remuneration New project construction in Italy has
making headway. According to EurOb- the offing despite the fact that the sec- Wealth Management, the British invest- revenues were slashed by a third. The system. In May 2017, the ICSID published been delayed, primarily because the
serv’ER, the European Union’s concen- tor produces electricity reliably. Spain’s ment fund Eiser Infrastructure, (for- solar thermal sector had initially nego- it s first arbitration that wa s par tly developers consider the payment terms
trated solar power capacity meter has electricity network operator Red Eléc- merly RREEF Infrastructure) and Antin tiated an agreement to keep revenues favourable to the British investment
been stuck at 2 313.7 MW (including pro- trica de España, claims that net output Infrastructure Partners of BNP Paribas, stable for already-constructed plants fund Eiser and ordered the Spanish state

Tabl. n° 1
Concentrated solar power plant in operation at the end of 2016. (Source: EurObserv’ER 2017)

Helios 1 Parabolic trough 50 2012

Capacity Commisionning
Project Technology Moron Parabolic trough 50 2012
(MW) date
Solaben 3 Parabolic trough 50 2012
Spain Guzman Parabolic trough 50 2012
Planta Solar 10 Central receiver 10 2006 La Africana Parabolic trough 50 2012
Andasol-1 Parabolic trough 50 2008 Olivenza 1 Parabolic trough 50 2012
Planta Solar 20 Central receiver 20 2009 Helios 2 Parabolic trough 50 2012
Ibersol Ciudad Real (Puertollano) Parabolic trough 50 2009 Orellana Parabolic trough 50 2012
Puerto Errado 1 (prototype) Linear Fresnel 1,4 2009 Extresol-3 Parabolic trough 50 2012
Alvarado I La Risca Parabolic trough 50 2009 Solaben 2 Parabolic trough 50 2012
Andasol-2 Parabolic trough 50 2009 Termosolar Borges Parabolic trough + HB 22.5 2012
Extresol-1 Parabolic trough 50 2009 Termosol 1 Parabolic trough 50 2013
Extresol-2 Parabolic trough 50 2010 Termosol 2 Parabolic trough 50 2013
Solnova 1 Parabolic trough 50 2010 Solaben 1 Parabolic trough 50 2013
Solnova 3 Parabolic trough 50 2010 Casablanca Parabolic trough 50 2013
Solnova 4 Parabolic trough 50 2010 Enerstar Parabolic trough 50 2013
La Florida Parabolic trough 50 2010 Solaben 6 Parabolic trough 50 2013
Majadas Parabolic trough 50 2010 Arenales Parabolic trough 50 2013
La Dehesa Parabolic trough 50 2010 Total Spain 2 303.9
Palma del Río II Parabolic trough 50 2010
Manchasol 1 Parabolic trough 50 2010
Archimede (prototype) Parabolic trough 5 2010
Manchasol 2 Parabolic trough 50 2011
Archimede-Chiyoda Molten Salt Test Loop Parabolic trough 0.35 2013
Gemasolar Central receiver 20 2011
Freesun Linear Fresnel 1 2013
Palma del Río I Parabolic trough 50 2011
Zasoli Linear Fresnel + HB 0.2 2014
Lebrija 1 Parabolic trough 50 2011
Rende Linear Fresnel + HB 1 2014
Andasol-3 Parabolic trough 50 2011
Helioenergy 1 Parabolic trough 50 2011 Total Italy 7.55
Astexol II Parabolic trough 50 2011 Germany
Arcosol-50 Parabolic trough 50 2011 Jülich Central receiver 1.5 2010
Termesol-50 Parabolic trough 50 2011 Total Germany 1.5
Aste 1A Parabolic trough 50 2012
Aste 1B Parabolic trough 50 2012
La Seyne-sur-Mer (prototype) Linear Fresnel 0.5 2010
Helioenergy 2 Parabolic trough 50 2012
Augustin Fresnel 1 (prototype) Linear Fresnel 0.25 2011
Puerto Errado II Linear Fresnel 30 2012
Solacor 1 Parabolic trough 50 2012 Total France 0.75
Solacor 2 Parabolic trough 50 2012 Total European Union 2 313.7

19 20
solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

too low. According to ANEST (the Italian tions but unpersuasive for medium sized for a production subsidy. In contrast,
concentrated solar power association), plants. At the end of November 2016, not a single >5 MW project, dependent
the latest ministerial decree published the GSE (Gestore dei Servizi Energetici) on GSE tenders was mentioned. ANEST
on 29 June 2016 governing subsidies for published a list of eight successful bids believes a new decree may be published
renewable energy plants (excluding PV) for <5 MW (with combined capacity of in 2017, which is likely to fund medium
was encouraging for <5 MW CSP installa- 20 MW) that were registered as eligible sized facilities and hopes that this

Noor 2 Parabolic Through

thermosolar plant (Ouarzazate,
Tabl. n° 2 Marocco)
Concentrated solar power plants under developement at the beginning of the year 2017

Capacity date of
Project Project's holders Location Technology
[MW] operation
Flumini Mannu Flumini Mannu Ltd Villasor (Sardinia) 55 Parabolic Through 2018
Gonnosfanadiga Gonnosfanadiga Ltd 55 Parabolic Through 2018
San Quirico Parabolic Through
CSP San Quirico San Quirico Solar Power 10.8 2018
(Sardinia) (hybride)

Not known Enas 0.7 Not known 2018
Carlentini. Melilli
Lentini Lentini Ltd 55 Parabolic Through 2018
Reflex Solar Power Reflex solar power Gela (Sicily) 12.5 Parabolic Through 2018 will result in the construction of seve- Power (12.5 MW, parabolic trough), CSP the Alba Nova 1 (12 MW) project bearer,
Solecaldo MF Energy Aidone (Sicily) 41 Linear Fresnel 2018 ral plants before the end of 2017. The San Quirico (10.8 MW, hybrid parabolic was put into liquidation on 6 Septem-
Archimede Archimede SRL Melilli (Sicily) 1 Parabolic Through 2018 association reports that at least fifteen trough) and San Severo (10 MW, tower ber 2016, effectively project completion
Bilancia 1 Trinacria Solar Power Palermo (Sicily) 4 Linear Fresnel 2018 projects have construction permits for plant). is now contingent on a hypothetical
Calliope Trinacria Solar Power Trapani (Sicily) 4 Linear Fresnel 2018 a total of 259.4 MW (table 2), including The first two plant projects to be accep- transfer of assets. On the bright side,
Stromboli Solar Trinacria Solar Power Trapani (Sicily) 4 Linear Fresnel 2018 Lentini (55 MW, parabolic trough), Flumini ted in France as part of the 1st CRE call Suncnim (a subsidiary of the CNIM group
Not known Sol.In.Par Partanna (Sicily) 4.2 Not known 2018 Mannu (55 MW, parabolic trough), Gon- for tenders (CRE 1) in 2012 that were and Bpifrance) leading the Llo project
Francofonte nosfanadiga (55  W, parabolic trough), scheduled to start up at the end of 2015
Not known Essecv SRL 1 Not known 2018
Solecaldo (41 MW, Fresnel), Reflex Solar are plagued by delays. Solar Euromed,
Not known Solar Energy Belpasso (Sicily) 1.2 Not known 2018
San Severo
San Severo 3SP 10 Central receiver 2018
Total Italy 259.4 Tabl. n° 3
France Main European CSP project developers
Alba Nova 1 Solar Euromed * 12 Linear Fresnel n.a
eLLo Suncnim LIo (Pyrenees) 9 Linear Fresnel 2018 MW developed or under
Company Country Activity
construction (2016)
Total France 21
Cyprus Ibereolica Spain Engineering - EPC - O&M - Project developer 1 256
Helios Power Infinia Larnaca 50.8 Dish Stirling n.a. Promoter - Project developer - EPC - Engineering -
Total Cyprus 50.8 Abengoa Spain 651
O&M - Components
Greece Promoter - Project developer - EPC -
Maximus Dish project Infinia Florina 75 Dish Stirling n.a. Magtel Renewables Spain 1 050
O&M - Engineering - Consulting
MINOS CSP tower Nur Energy Crete 50 Central receiver n.a.
Cobra Spain Promoter - Project developer - EPC - Engineering - O&M 567
Total Greece 125
Acciona Energy Spain EPC - Project developer - Promoter 314
Central receiver Torresol Energy Spain Promoter - Project developer - O&M - Engineering 119
PTC50 Alvarado Acciona Energia 50 (power tower) - n.a. FCC Energia /Enerstar Spain Promoter - Project developer 100
Hyperion Spain Promoter - Project developer - O&M 103
Total Spain 50
Total European Union 506.2 Samca Spain Promoter - Project developer - O&M 100
Company in liquidation. Source: EurObserv’ER 2017. Source: EurObserv'ER 2017 (based on company information and CSP-World) http://www.csp-world.com/guide

21 22
solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometers

were ordered to complete the Ivanpah
p a rk in C a lifornia by Bright S ource Graph. n° 2
Energy Inc. in 2016. Comparison of the current trend against the NREAP (National Renewable
Energy Action Plans) roadmap (in MW)
Concentrated solar power’s
potential storage advantage 6 765
NREAP Roadmaps
The National Renewable Energy Action
Plans defined under the European direc-
Nuova Sarda Industria Casearia SRL

Linear Fresnel plant on

the Nuova Sarda Industria tive planned for 6 765 MW of capacity by
Casearia SRL the 2020 timeline (graph 2) – 4 800 MW in
(Cheese) in Sardinia Spain, 600 MW in Italy, 540 MW in France,
500 MW in Portugal, 250 MW in Greece
3 526
and 75 MW in Cyprus), which equates
to 20 TWh of production capacity. It is 2 582,1
now clear that these targets cannot be 2 312.5 Current Trend
2 313.7 2 313.7 2 313.7
met by the deadline, as the countries
most concerned have decided to limit
the financial impact incurred by deve-
in the Eastern Pyrenees (9 MW) finally a total of 100 MW of capacity running work package. The project is an indus- loping this new production sector by
kicked off construction work at the end and a project portfolio of 860 MW. trial demonstrator if ever there was halting or downsizing their programmes
of December 2016 and plans to go on Likewise the multi-energy group Aben- one, which emphasizes the manufac- and directing their funds towards more
stream in February 2018. This 9 MW plant go a ha d a brush with dis a ster a nd turers’ know-how, as each tranche has mature renewable technologies whose 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
will have four hours of heat storage on avoided the inglorious title of the “big- its own specific technology. Sener and costs are under control. Source: EurObserv’ER 2017
full load. The sector’s players hope that gest ever Spanish company failure”. After Acciona have also started construction Notwithstanding , the sector players,
the realization of this project will lead being declared insolvent and thrown work on the turnkey project for South including the European Solar Thermal
another tender. The sector expressed into crisis, the group managed to come Africa’s Kathu (100 MW) plant at a cost Electricity Association (Estela), have
its incredulity at the fact that the new to an agreement with its creditors in of 500 million euros, as part of a consor- emphasized that development on Euro- is seen as important to protect the Euro-
PPE (multi-annual energy programme) the middle of 2016. In order to do so, not tium led by Engie and South African pean soil has eloquently proven its effi- pean industry’s leadership from erosion Sources: Protermosolar (Spain), REE (Spain), ANEST
published in October 2016 set no concen- only was it forced to let its director go partners. The two Spanish companies ciency, citing Spain with its exemplary in the global market. It puts forward ano- (Italy), IRENA, AIE, SolarPaces.
trated solar power sector target whe- and allow its creditors (including Banco together with Germany’s TSK also com- results. They are also at pains to point ther final priority… that of developing
reas previous targets were set at 540 MW Santander and Banco Popular Español) pleted construction of South Africa’s out that the concentrated solar power cooperation mechanisms between Euro-
by the end of 2020. to take control, but it also had to sell Bokpoort (50 MW) plant and Sener will sector’s storage capacities get around pean countries to enhance the mobility
off many assets. While the group has be responsible for construction work grid management problems. of solar thermal power between the best
primarily offloaded its biofuel market on the Ilanga 1 (100 MW) plant. India’s In the view of the European association, production sites and the main consump-
Internationally acclaimed projects, all its branches have been hit. Dadri (14 MW) plant, to be constructed CSP plants must be widely deployed on tion regions.   Le prochain baromètre
sophisticated know-how Hence, Abengoa has sold off its shares in Uttar Pradesh will be equipped with European soil as a pre-requisite for lowe- traitera des biocarburants.
in the Shams Solar Park in the United flat Fresnel mirrors to be supplied by the ring production costs. This deployment
As Spain was the first European CSP mar- Arab Emirates… a project that had been German company Frenell, through its
ket, many Spanish companies have posi- co-developed with Total and Masdar. Novatec Solar España subsidiary. Frenell
tioned themselves in this technology. A Despite this, European companies are has also been awarded the contract for
number of them are paying the price for still stakeholders in the global CSP mar- the turnkey construction of the solar
the market slowdown and national set- ket, primarily specializing in enginee- park scheduled for 2017.
backs. Ibereolica, one of the main Euro- ring , construction and steam turbine The CSP market also provides oppor-
pean CSP project developers is a case in manufacturing. The Spanish company tunities for European steam turbine
point (table 3). It was weakened by the Sener is the leading project constructor manufacturers. In particular Siemens
Spanish renewable energy sector reform in the world. It has completed 29 CSP delivered all the turbines for the Noor
that featured a sudden drop in Feed-in plants with 2 000 MW of capacity all told I, II and III projects. A Siemens SST-500/
This project is funded
Tariffs. At the end of 2016, the company across the globe, with sites in Spain, SST-800 turbine with double casing will by the European Union under
had to file for suspension of payments South Africa, Morocco and the United be employed in the Noor II plant. The tur- contract no ENER/C2/2016-487/SI2.742173
by 7 of its 11 subsidiaries, all of which States. Sener is one of the construction bine was built on Siemens’ Görlitz site in
were CSP-centred: Ibereolica Solar, Ibe- companies working on the Noor project Germany. The Noor III tower plant will
reolica Solar Badajoz 2, Ibereolica Solar in Morocco that we referred to earlier. be equipped with SST-700 and SST-900
Medellin, Ibereolica Solar Santa Ama- The project is split into four tranches steam turbines. The list is not exhaus- This barometer was prepared by Observ’ER in the scope of the EurObserv’ER project, which groups together Observ’ER (FR), ECN (NL),
RENAC (DE), Frankfurt School of Finance and Management (DE), Fraunhofer ISI (DE) and Statistics Netherlands (NL). The information
lia, Ibereolica Solar Puebla 1, Ibereolica and a consortium whose members are tive, but Siemens has also delivered the and views set out in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Commission.
Solar Puebla 2 and Planta Termos Valde- Sener (Spain), Acciona (Spain), TSK (Ger- turbines for the South African CSP parks The Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this study. Neither the Commission nor any person acting
torres. The plants’ future still hangs in many) and Acwa Power (Saudi Arabia) of Bokpoort, KaXu Solar One and Xina on the Commission’s behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein.
the balance. The project companies had ha s been awarded the construction Sola One. Siemens SPPA-T3000 turbines