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Response of Structures

Typical damage to lifeline

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Response of Structures
Different types of failure in RC buildings:

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

(a) Flexural failure (b) Flexural-shear (c) shear failure with masonry

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

Lack of transverse reinforcements in RC columns

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Response of Structures
 Parameters:
-3 important parameters that describe the behaviour of structures and their
foundations when subjected to earthquakes are:

Stiffness
Strength (Capacity)
Ductility

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Response of Structures

Local & Global structural response


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Response of Structures
Stiffness:
-is the ability of a component or an assembly of components to resist
deformations when subjected to actions/forces

-expressed as the ratio between action and deformation at a given level

-stiffness is not a constant value

-if increments or first derivatives of actions and deformations are used, the
ensuing stiffness is the tangent value

-If total actions and deformations are used, the ensuing stiffness is the
secant value

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Response of Structures
Stiffness:
-member stiffness is a function of section properties, length and boundary
conditions
- system stiffness is primarily a function of the lateral resisting mechanisms
utilized, e.g. moment resisting frames, braced frames, walls or dual
systems
-relationships between geometry, mechanical properties, actions and
deformations can be established from principles of mechanics

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Response of Structures
Factors influencing Stiffness:
o Material properties: E & G, E/γ

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Response of Structures
Factors influencing Stiffness:
o Section properties: A, I, and J
-A & I primarily influence the axial, bending & shear stiffness of the system
-For metal structures, A & I do not change with types and levels of applied
loads
-For masonry and RC, properties are a function of the loading and
boundary conditions

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
oMember properties:
-Lateral stiffness depends on the type of structural members
utilized to withstand EQ loads

-Structural walls are much stiffer in their strong axis than columns

- Geometric properties of structural components such as section


dimensions, height and aspect ratio influence horizontal shear and
flexural stiffnesses

-Flexural deformations are normally higher than shear


deformations for relatively slender structural components

- Flexural deformations dominance occurs if the aspect ratio h/B of


rectangular sections of columns is less than 3-4

-For walls, slenderness ratio AlH/B


Dr. Mohammad Amin and
SiddiqueH/h are greater than 4-5
CE, BUET 36
Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
Connection properties:
- influence lateral deformation of structural systems
-20-30% of the horizontal relative displacement between adjacent floors
caused by panel deformations
-Pinned connection are inadequate for unbraced frames
-Rigid or semi-rigid connections can be used for both braced and unbraced
frames

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
o System properties:

- Lateral stiffness depends on type of system utilized to withstand EQ loads,


the distribution of member stiffness, type of horizontal diaphragms
connecting vertical members

-MRF more flexible than braced frames, structural walls are stiffer than all
types of frames, frames with rigid connections exhibit higher stiffness than
that of semi-rigid connections

-Uniform distribution of stiffness in plan and elevation is necessary to


prevent localization of high seismic demand

-Soil-structure interaction should be accounted

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Response of Structures
Effect on Actions and Deformations:
-Inertial forces caused by earthquake motion are distributed among lateral
resisting systems in the elastic range as a function of their relative stiffness
and mass
-The higher the stiffness, the higher the load attracted for a given target
deformation
-Stiffer elements and structural systems will reach their capacity earlier than
their flexible counterparts
-Significant reductions of the initial (elastic) stiffness may occur in
construction materials, structural members and connections, when they are
subjected to increasing loads
-Repeated and reversed loading also reduces effective stiffness; an
observation termed ‘stiffness degradation’

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Response of Structures
The lateral deformability
of structural systems is
measured through the
horizontal drift

In buildings, storey drifts


Δ are the absolute
displacements of any
floor relative to the base,
while inter-storey drifts δ
define the relative lateral
displacements between
two consecutive floors

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Response of Structures
Inter-storey drift =

Roof drift ratio =

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Response of Structures
 Relative stiffness between beams and columns

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
 Relative Stiffness between Beams and Columns

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Response of Structures
 Relative Stiffness between Beams and Columns

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
Strength:
-the capacity of a member or an assembly of member to resist forces

-not a constant value

- capacity is preferred to the term strength to represent both action


resistance and the ability to endure deformation or deformation capacity

-a function of the type of applied action


- axial, bending and shear resistances are utilized to quantify the capacity
of structures and their components in earthquake structural engineering

 Uncertainties in the evaluation of structural capacities are attributed to:


(i) the randomness in material properties, especially strength parameters,
(ii) geometric properties, e.g. section and member size,
(iii) construction quality

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
 Ductility:
-ability of a material, component, connection or structure to undergo
inelastic deformations with acceptable stiffness and strength reduction.

-expressed as the ratio between a maximum value of a deformation


quantity and the same quantity at the yield limit state

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Response of Structures
 Ductility:
-The following types of ductility are widely used to evaluate structural
response:

(i) Material ductility ( με ) characterizes material plastic deformations

(ii) Section (curvature) ductility ( μχ ) relates to plastic deformations of cross


sections

(iii) Member (rotation) ductility ( μθ ) quantifies plastic rotations that can take
place in structural components such as beams and columns.
- This type of ductility is often also used for connections between structural
members.

(iv)Structural (displacement) ductility (μδ) is a global measure of the


inelastic performance of structural sub - assemblages or systems subjected
to horizontal loads.

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
 Ductility of structural systems significantly depend on the material response
Inelastic deformation requires high material ductility
 Steel reinforcement can be utilized to enhance ductility in plain concrete
 Confined concrete exhibits deformation 5-15 times higher than plain concrete

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Response of Structures
Curvature ductility:
- ductile response of cross section of structural members subjected to bending
moment is generally measured by curvature ductility

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Response of Structures
Rotation ductility:
-ductile behaviour of structural member
- directly estimated from ultimate and yield curvatures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
 Inelastic response of structures subjected to earthquakes is primarily
controlled by local and global ductility
Failure of ductile structures does not correspond to the maximum resistance
or formation of first plastic hinge in structural components.
 Ductility allows redundant structures, e.g. multi storey MRFs, to dissipate
energy and continue to resist seismic actions, while successive plastic hinges
are formed

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
Structural Collapse Prevention:
-a fundamental objective of seismic design
-Expressed in terms of different response quantities at local strains, curvatures,
rotations and global inter-storey and/or roof drift
-Collapse implies that horizontal and vertical systems utilized to withstand
effects of gravity and earthquake ground motion
-Infilled walls, claddings and internal partitions can play important role in the
seismic response of structural members and may alter the failure mode
sequence
-To achieve an adequate control of the failure mode, non-structural components
should be accounted for in the analysis

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Response of Structures
Table: Typical brittle failure modes as function of common materials of construction

 Failure modes that should be avoided are those involving sudden failure
(e.g. brittle or buckling modes) and those involving total collapse due to
failure of vertical load carrying members.

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Response of Structures
 Overstrength :
-a parameter used to quantify the difference between the required and the
actual strength of a material, a member or a structural system
-is generally expressed by the ‘overstrength factor’

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Response of Structures
 The most common sources of overstrength include:

(i) Difference between actual and design material strengths, including strain
hardening;
(ii) Effect of confinement in RC, masonry and composite members;
(iii) Minimum reinforcement and member sizes exceeding design requirements;
(iv) Conservatism of the design procedures, e.g. utilizing the elastic period to obtain
the design forces and ductility requirements;
(v) Effect of structural elements not considered in predicting the lateral load
capacity (e.g. actual slab width contribution to beams, degree of interaction of
shear connectors in composite systems);
(vi) Load factors and multiple load cases adopted in seismic design including
accidental torsion;
(vii) Serviceability limit state provisions;
(viii) Structural redundancy;
(ix) Participation of non- structural elements in the earthquake response of
structures.
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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
 Damping:
-The phenomenon that the amplitude of vibration decreases gradually as
time goes on is called “damping” and its degree in usually presented by
damping ratio.

- The more damping the structure has, the less response the structure
experiences when it is subjected to excitations such as earthquake motions.

-is utilized to characterize the ability of structures to dissipate energy during


dynamic response.

-Unlike the mass and stiffness of a structure, damping does not relate to a
unique physical process but rather to a number of possible processes.

-values depend on several factors, among these are vibration amplitude,


material of construction, fundamental periods of vibration, mode shapes and
structural configurations (Bachmann et al ., 1995 )

-Seismic energy transmitted to structures can be dissipated through different


damping mechanisms Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 71
Response of Structures
 Damping:
o Structural damping is a measure of energy dissipation in a vibrating system
that results in bringing the structure back to a quiescent state
o It is associated with absorption of seismic energy in structural components
o It also accounts for material viscosity and friction at connections & supports
o In structural components, the energy imparted by earthquakes is dissipated
mainly through hysteretic damping characterized by action–deformation
loops.

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Response of Structures
 Damping:

oSuch loops express action–deformation relationships of materials,


sections, members, connections or systems under alternating loads.
o For hysteretic damping, the dissipation varies with the level of
displacement, but it is constant with the velocity
o The amount and mechanisms of material hysteretic damping vary
significantly depending on whether the material is brittle, such as
concrete and masonry, or ductile, e.g. metals.
o Friction or Coulomb damping results from interfacial mechanisms
between members and connections of a structural system, and
between structural and non - structural components such as infills
and partitions.

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Response of Structures
 Damping:
oFriction damping is independent of velocity and displacement; its
values significantly depend on the material and type of construction
o In steel structures, the contribution of friction damping in bolted
connections is higher than welded connections
o In infilled masonry walls, friction damping is generated when cracks
open and close
o In other materials, e.g. for concrete and masonry, this type of
damping cannot be relied upon because of the degradation of
stiffness and strength under cyclic load reversals.

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Response of Structures
 Damping:

Primary sources of damping are as follows:


(i) Structural damping: due to energy dissipation in materials of
construction, structural components and their connections;

(ii) Supplemental damping: due to energy dissipation of devices


added to structural systems to increase their damping;

(iii) Foundation damping: due to the transfer of energy from the


vibrating structure to the soil, through the foundations;

(iv) Radiation damping: due to radiation of seismic waves away


from foundations.

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Response of Structures

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Response of Structures
Demand:
-the action or deformation imposed on a component or an assembly of
components when subjected to earthquake ground motion
-not constant
- continuously varies as the structural characteristics vary during inelastic
response
- also varies with the characteristics of the input motion.

 Supply:
-the action or deformation capacity of a component or an assembly of
components when subjected to earthquake ground motion
-represents the response of the structure to the demand
-continuously vary as the structural characteristics change during
inelastic
-also varies with the characteristics of the input motion
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Response of Structures
 Effects on Load path:
-Earthquake-resistant structures should be provided with lateral and vertical
seismic force–resisting systems capable of transmitting inertial forces from the
location of masses throughout the structure to the foundations

Dr. Mohammad Al AminPath forCE,vertical


Siddique BUET and horizontal loads 78
Response of Structures

LoadDr.path in building
Mohammad structures
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Response of a SDOF System

 The number of independent displacements required to define


the displaced positions of all the masses relative to their
original position is called the number of degrees of freedom
(DOFs) for dynamic analysis
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Response of a SDOF System

Fig. Models for a single degree of freedom (SDOF): (a) spring-mass-dashpot system;
and (b) idealized single frame

Assumptions:
1. Mass of the columns<< slab, concentrated on slab level
2. Beam/slab infinitely rigid, entire deformation is due to col. flexural deformation

Under the influence of lateral loads, a SDOF system shown in (a) is analog
for the response of portal frame (b)

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Response of SDOF System

The parameters of discrete model are related to the physical system (portal frame)
as:

 mass M is the total mass of the beam & slab and serve as the storage for kinetic
energy
 spring of stiffness K represents the combined stiffness of two columns for lateral
deformations and store the internal strain energy due to column deformations
 dashpot with damping coefficient C represents the energy dissipation due to
various sources
the excitation force P(t) is the lateral force applied on the portal frame
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Response of SDOF System

D’Alembert’s principle: a dynamic system can be considered to be in equilibrium if


the inertia force is included in the free body diagram

FI + FD + FS = P(t)

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Response of SDOF System

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Response of SDOF System

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Response of SDOF System

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Response of SDOF System

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Response of SDOF System

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Response of SDOF System

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Response of a SDOF System
Types of dynamic loadings:

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Response of SDOF System
Types of dynamic loadings:

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Free Vibration Response of SDOF System
The term undamped implies that there is no damping or energy
dissipation present in the dynamic system

 The term free vibration indicates there is no applied dynamic loading

Therefore, the dynamic system consists of only a mass and a resistance

 The motion of the oscillator occurs as a result of the initial conditions


that occur at time zero and consist of an initial displacement and/or an
initial velocity

is known as the circular natural


frequency of the system

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Free Vibration Response of SDOF System

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Free Vibration Response of SDOF System
 A, ωn and ϕ are constants
of the motion
 The constant A is called
amplitude of the motion,
which is the maximum
displacement of the particle
In either a positive or
negative x-direction.

•The constant angle φ is called the phase constant (or phase angle) acting
along with the amplitude A which can be determined uniquely by the initial
displacement and initial velocity of the particle

•The function x is periodic and repeats itself when ωnt increases by 2π rad

•The period T of the motion is the time it takes for the particle to complete
one full cycle
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Free Vibration Response of SDOF System
T = The time required for the undamped system to complete one cycle of free
vibration is the natural period of vibration of the system

• The inverse of the period


is called frequency (f) of
the motion

• It represents
the number of oscillations
that a particle makes per
unit time

The unit of frequency (f) is cycles/s or hertz (Hz). The angular frequency is:

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Free Vibration Response of SDOF System

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
If some form of energy dissipation such as viscous damping is
introduced into the dynamic system

• The damping constant c is a measure of the energy dissipated in a


cycle of free vibration or in a cycle of forced harmonic vibration
• The damping ratio—a dimensionless measure of damping-is a
property of the system that also depends on its mass and stiffness

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
Damping is subcritical/underdamped when 0 < ξ < 1

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
If ζ < 1, the system
oscillates about its
equilibrium position
with a progressively
decreasing
amplitude

If ζ = 1, the system
returns to its
equilibrium position
without oscillating

If ζ > 1, again the


system does
not oscillate
and returns to
its equilibrium
position, as in
the ζ = 1 case,
but at a slower rate
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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
Damping is said to be critical when ξ = 1

Damping has the effect of lowering


the natural frequency from
ωn to ωD and lengthening
the natural period from Tn to TD

These effects are negligible for


damping ratios below 20%,
a range that includes most structures

For most structures the damped properties ωD and TD


are approximately equal to the undamped properties
ωn and Tn, respectively

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
Decay in Motion:

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
Decay in Motion:

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
Decay in Motion:

The natural logarithm of this


ratio, called the logarithmic
decrement, δ:

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Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System
Decay in Motion:

Over j cycles the motion decreases from u1 to u j+1

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