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Basic Well Logging

The Borehole Environment – The

Physics of mud-filtrate invasion
Basic Well-Logging Interpretation
Learning Outcomes
• To introduce the concept of mud-filtrate
invasion in overbalanced boreholes.
• To introduce basic terminology, symbols
and definitions associated with the
borehole environment.
• To describe the physical principles
necessary for understanding the impact of
mud-filtrate invasion on well logs.
Recommended Readings
• Chapter 4, “Measurement Environment –
pp 60 – 91in “Theory, Measurement, and
Interpretation of Well Logs” by Zaki
Bassiouni, SPE Textbook Series Vol. 4
Before a well is logged it must
be drilled
• Overbalance drilling
process creates the
logging environment

• Environment is similar in
all wells
Has some well-specific
characteristics http://www.offshore-handling-systems.com/products/drill-pipe-connection-guide/
Create a well into a geological reservoir
 Identify
 Explore
 Produce
 Develop

Well types

Vertical Horizontal Directional


o Cable tool drilling

 Rotary drilling
Rotary table

Drill string

Drill bit

Often called drilling mud
Removes cutting and cool down
the bit
Mud tank

o Water-based mud
o Oil-based mud
o Gaseous drilling fluid (air,
gas, foam)
o Synthetic mud

Offshore-deep water
o Gaseous drilling fluid
(air, gas, foam)
o Synthetic mud

Total pressure exerted by a circulating drilling fluid

o Hydrostatic pressure
o Friction pressure
o Surface pressure

Mud cake
o Decreases clean up
o Reduces completions
and stimulation costs
o Increases well
o Increases ultimate
What Determines the Radial Length of
What Determines the Radial Length of
Important Issues on Mud-filtrate Invasion
• Mass balance is an important governing factor in the process of
mud-filtrate invasion.
• In general, the radial length of mud-filtrate invasion increases with a
decrease of porosity.
• Permeability determines the relative speed of invasion
• The thickness and permeability of mudcake vary as a function of
time toward a limiting value. These two mudcake parameters are
governed by mud properties as well as by the petrophysical
properties of the invaded formation.
• Capillary pressure, gravity segregation, and relative permeability
control the SHAPE of the invasion front.
• Differences in salt concentration between mud and connate water
are important in determining the influence of the process of mud-
filtrate invasion on borehole resistivity measurements.
Work Rules
Rule 1
The Boss is always right.

Rule 2
If the Boss is wrong, see Rule 1.
Well Logging Rules
Rule 1
Every Well Log is associated with a rock

Rule 2
Every Well log is associated with a
process of mud-filtrate invasion.
Facts on Mud-filtrate Invasion
• LWD logs less affected by invasion than
open hole (wireline) logs.
• Time of logging after the onset of invasion
is important.
• Fluids tend to original equilibrium after the
setting of casing.
Mr. Neal Alleyne

Dr. Carlos Torres-Verdin, UT at Austin


Baker Atlas