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DESIGN

SONIPAT 131001

DISSERTATION REPORT -I

August 2018

(Adarsh Kumar Agrawal )

(GCAD/14/101)

1

GATEWAY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND

DESIGN

DECLARATION

I, Adarsh Kumar Agrawal Roll Number, GCAD/14/101 hereby declare that the dissertation

titled Towards fractal architecture… submitted by me, in partial fulfilment of the requirement

of the curriculum of Bachelor of Architecture as per the university norms, to Gateway College

of Architecture and Design, is a record of my original work with credits given for information

collected from any other source.

(Name of the Candidate)

2

GATEWAY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND

DESIGN

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation titled Towards fractal Architecture… submitted in partial

fulfillment of the requirement of the curriculum of Bachelor of Architecture is the work of

Adarsh Kumar Agrawal, Roll Number GCAD/14/101, who carried out research work under

our supervision in Gateway College of Architecture and Design, Sonipat, Haryana.

We recommend that the dissertation report be placed before the examiners for their

consideration.

______________________________ ______________________________

(Name of the Guide) (Ar. Bikramjit Chakraborty)

Signature of the Guide Signature of the Coordinator

3

Abstract

The Systematic relationship between humans and nature has had various outlooks, and has been

studied in the last few decades. Fractal architecture has been one of the most significant themes

discussed in architecture, and it is based on theories of chaos and complexity.

The idea of fractals in harmony with nature can be traced back to ancient times. Fractals have

intrigued us and let our brains enter a new world of thought where the idea of scale is limitless.

The idea of fractals has brought a paradigm change in the thought processes of deepening our

knowledge about nature, culture, science and more over space and time and if we connect the

dots, we realize that the dots lead to architecture.

This paper introduces fractal geometry theory and the evolution of fractal geometry in the past,

and its inherent efficiency in quantifying architecture. Thus it gives an overview on analyzing

architecture from the prospect of fractal theory and how it can aid in future form development.

The increasing concerns on form-oriented buildings have therefore added new challenges in

building architecture design and call for new design responses.

The fractal theme serves as a framework or reference for organizing an intellectual and aesthetic

presentation in order to explain the reality that everything in universe (nature) is

connected to everything else.

Developments , after the mid 20th century in mathematics environmental science, psychology,

computer science and artificial intelligence research and architecture as well suggests then

possibility of an alternative in the approach towards the aesthetic design of the built

environment. This new approach recognizes fractal geometry, and opposing Euclidean

geometry, as a more accurate measurement of our inhibited environment.

This new approach is not intended as a universal design methodology and does not suggest that

we can replace the traditional architecture theory. But then it would be criminal , be irresponsible

for architects and designers of the environments that we inhibit to ignore such a requirement in

favor of conceptual , philosophical and ideological concerns.

4

Dedication

To My parents

( This is an optional note of gratitude to the sources and support system but the write up shouldn't

exceed more than one page and to express the diversity as well as emotion of the candidate. only

in case of 3/4 words it must be centrally aligned otherwise always “justify the text as per the

template)

5

Acknowledgements

Thus having chosen the topic relating to fractals, I knew it would be an exploratory study

observing that there weren’t a single book in our library dedicated to the subject, however the

dissertation was insightful and I would like to thank the following people for their vital support

Ar. Ravi Kakkar – for patiently guiding me through the entire research work.

6

Table of Contents

1.1

1.2

1.3 subhead 03 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

1.4 subhead 04 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

1.5 subhead 05 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

2.1 subhead 01 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

2.2 subhead 02 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

3.1 subhead 01 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

3.2 subhead 02 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

7

CHAPTER 4: CRITICAL DISCUSSION …………………………………………. (Page)

4.1 subhead 01 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

4.2 subhead 02 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

4.3 subhead 03 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

4.4 subhead 04 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide

5.1 subhead 01 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

5.2 subhead 02 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

6.1 subhead 01 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

6.2 subhead 02 (to be decided by candidates in consultation with guide)

APPENDIXES:………………………………………………………………..………. (Page)

(Students need to check their final text in any available online plagiarism check software and

put the report either in form of screenshot or as a PDF document) (remove this note written

in italics in your final printout)

8

FIGURE 1:-

A dive into the world of fractals.

9

“clouds are not spheres, mountains are not cones , coastlines are not circles, and bark is not

smooth, nor does lightning travel in a straight line, almost everything around us is non –

Euclidean.”

Benoit b. Mandelbrot- the fractal geometry of nature, 1982

Primarily, nature furnished the materials for architectural motifs out of which the architectural

forms as we know them today have been developed, and, although our practice for centuries has

been for the most part to turn from her, seeking inspiration in books and adhering slavishly to

dead formulae, her wealth of suggestion Is inexhaustible: her riches greater than any man’s

desire.

Frank Lloyd Wright – in the cause of architecture, architecture record, March 1908

INTRODUCTION

10

FIGURE 2:-

It seems that humans have dominated nature and this is clearly visible in the era of contemporary

architecture. There are some prevailing viewpoints on the systematic relationships between

nature and human called “naturalistic perspectives” and this has been brought up in the last few

decades and in the world of emerging architecture the idea has shifted form “ seeking the nature”

to “ studying the nature” to resolve the crisis that arose from the failed relationship between

human and nature.

1. The term fractals comes from the Latin word fractus which means broken or

irregular or unsmooth.

2. A natural phenomenon or mathematical set that exhibits a pattern that displays at

every scale.

3. The self-similar object undergoes modification such that dimensions of the

structure are all modified by the same scaling factors.

4. The shape may change in size or orientation but the shape remains the same.

5. These shapes are seen in nature architecture and design mathematics ecology etc...

11

History of fractals:-

The term fractal was created in 1975 by French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot, derived from

the Latin word Fractus, and related to the English word fracture and fraction, to describe the

group of odd shapes and geometries that he was studying (Gallick, 1988) they fall under a field

of studies which emerged since 1960s known as the chaos theory, which deals in a general sense

with deterministic systems which are not predictable in the long term (Gallick, 1988).

Fractals in Architecture:-

When the forms of Architecture are defined they are very much based in Euclidean geometry as

the forms are handmade, but we can easily find the components of Fractals in Architecture.

The idea of buildings in harmony with universes (nature) can be traced back to ancient

Egyptians, China, Greeks, Indians and Romans. At the beginning of the 21st century, the

increasing concerns on form oriented on buildings have added new challenges in building

architecture design and called for new and different design responses. As considered the

language of the universe (nature) it is, therefore, natural to assume that the fractal geometry

could play a vital role in developing different new forms of design.

Fractals are the self-similar sets whose patterns comprises of smaller-scales copied of

themselves, possessing the property of self-similarity at different scales. This means that they

repeat their patterns to an infinitely smaller scale. A pattern with a higher fractal dimension is

much more complicated and irregular than the one which has a lower dimension, and fills up

more space than general. In many other practical applications, spatial analysis is needed to

characterize and quantify the different hidden order in many complex patterns, fractal geometry

is a perfect tool for investigating such complexity. Irregular pattern in order is important in

aesthetics as it embrace the concept of dynamism, which shows a natural phenomenon. In

architectural design terms, it represents design principle. Therefore, the fractal geometry has

played a significant role in architectural design method. In spite of its growing applications of

fractals in architecture, they mainly focus on applications for fractal design patterns for

aesthetics. Few of the works have related themselves to a comprehensive and an unified view

of fractal geometry .We aim to fill this gap by introducing fractals as a innovative concepts and

12

presenting the current status of fractals and recent developments in architecture through

different examples, This paper shows that incorporating the newer (fractal) way of thinking into

the method of architecture design provides a way for an in-depth understanding of the very

complex nature of architectural design.

AIM:-

The aim is to study,review and understand the fractal geometry and evaluate architecture based

on fractal character of the environment and explore how these concepts may be applied in

architecture design.

OBJECTIVES:-

2. To understand how fractal architecture have been used in historic times.

3. To study the significance- why and how it has been used and how it can prove to be

beneficial.

4. To explore and identify how fractals help in generating forms.

5. To present an insight into how fractal architecture can become a paradigm shift

throughout the history of architecture.

SCOPE:-

and the concept of fractals in architecture

2. Exploring the links between the fractal geometry and architecture

3. Quantifying architecture with the help of fractals

4. The graphical interpretation of fractals rather than the mathematical one.

LIMITATIONS:-

1. The study will not get involved with the direct application of fractal geometry

however the basics may be applied

13

2. This will touch the application of fractal theory in the complex layers in built form

3. As this is a conceptual topic so there is a scarcity of practicising architects and

buildings in these terms.

QUESTIONS:-

2. What is the origins of Forms that we Design?

3. Why was the term Fractal coined?

4. What are Fractals ?

5. What is the history of Fractals?

6. How does Fractals exist in nature?

7. Does the Knowledge of fractals help in achieving new forms?

8. Are fractals capable of quantifying complex architectural forms?

1. The first step was the collection of all the relevant data on the subject from various

sources such as magazine, books and world wide web.

2. Reading through the obtained text it was important to elicit only the information

which was necessary and pertinent . Fractal architecture as a subject is quite vast and

has many mathematical inferences attached to it . as a matter of fact the word itself

was coined by a mathematician. All the fractals comprehensibly can be

mathematically expressed.

3. Associations have been traced between form and functions, between social processes

and physical form, to build the continuing link through the scales from the metropolis

to the neighborhood , to the street and the building plot itself.

4. Then came the historical relevance of the subject. If we delve deep into the history

there would be numerous examples , which depict how unknowingly man has since

time applied this concept in his buildings and settlements.

14

5. This lead to the ultimate quest of the new sciences in finding rules that generate real

architecture. Architecture display enormous variety but there is order to the variety

and which is very clearly made up of simple elements. Proceeding further examples

from the present were cited on the basis of this phenomenon.

6. Concluding the research, I believe there are justified questions to be answered ,

questioning the right to the metaphorical expression of Architecture based on fractal

properties.

15

FIGURE 3:-

What is Architecture:-

It is involved with something that revolves around the organization of spaces providing

definitions to shelter and creating an order.

What is order :-

16

It may be defined as the sequence or the arrangement of things or events subjects to rules or

laws

Throughout the history order in architecture has been defined with the help of the structure

stabilities and equilibrium but when the technological era hit the pace of the world it seems

that the order has been interpreted and reinterpreted with the help of straight lines, symmetry

,Euclidean geometry {the Elements. Euclid's method consists in assuming a small set of

intuitively appealing axioms, and deducing many other propositions (theorems) from these.}

And other design principles. and this principles led in the creation of massive buildings and

connections between humans and nature. Fortunately contemporary architects have started

questioning and have started thinking about these rules and that very nature of order and these

have helped in creation of massive buildings and human connections and the very nature have

started thinking into the meta physical{ explaining the fundamental nature of being } aspects of

the building.

For centuries nature had been real source of inspiration architects and designers have been

completely dependent upon nature for inspirations. Nature being so diverse ,organic ,different

in all its forms but it still seems that nature have got a certain order and it can be broken into

mathematical relationships that control all the whole of this huge universe and all the organism.

The laws of the nature not only governs the physical forms as well as the behaviors as we

humans being the integral part of the cosmos are also directly subjected to the order that nature

has provided us and when something goes against the order of nature the negative psychological

response is generated and so in order to define this psychological relationship humans as well

as buildings creatively dispense order and hierarchy. And architecture being the projection of

human thoughts and ideas in case if the architecture want to sustain.

“The structure of life I have described in buildings is deeply and inextricably connected with

human person with the innermost t nature of human feeling “

17

NEW TIME = NEW ARCHITECTURE

Fractal geometry is also being able to describe complex forms finding out their detailed

underlying order and regularity – self similarity simple algorithm by reproducing the real world

and not by abstractions but into pure mathematics “ clouds are not spheres “ as mentioned by

Benoit b. Mandelbrot

Therefore fractals offer a good and a wide range of application in architecture even the most

of well-planned architecture using the Euclid geometry showing the simplicity of form have

been adopted to their context in more natural ways and therefore they contain organic nature in

some way within and irregularity and this can be visualized through the fractal geometry

measuring the patterns of architecture and generating a better understanding towards

architecture.

The investigation of the phenomena involving this complex geometry patterns and scaling has

gone through a rigorous and spectacular development in the past few decades. And For this

relatively short period of time, geometrical and/or temporal scaling have been shown to

represent the common aspects of many different processes occurring in an unusually diverse

range of fields including physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, economics, technology

,human behavior and psychology. As a rule, the complex nature of this phenomenon is

manifested in the underlying intricate or very detailed geometry which in most of the cases can

be described in terms of objects with non-integer (fractal) dimension. In other cases, the

distribution of events in time/space or various other quantities show specific scaling behavior,

thus providing a better and clear understanding of the relevant factors determining the given

processes.

Once you developed a fractal eye, you will tend to see them everywhere. Every single thing that

you see is one way or the other related to fractal be the thing may be as small as a nucleus or be

it the scale of some multidimensional figure, you find these characters existing within the

boundaries as well as beyond the undefined boundaries. We change the attitude to perceive what

we see, what we see astonishes us because of the infinite characters that the single small or large

18

entity carries within itself and this increases the ability of questioning, reasoning and this leads

to finding more and more realities which are still under the cover of mystery.

The discovery of fractal geometry changes completely the kind of patterns we can look for

nature and provide greater possibilities for finding of forms and patterns for Architecture.

For E.g.:-

Just look at the milkyway galaxy it is like looking at a fractal. It has got a dotty character and

yet if you take the telescope and you find that there are hundreds and hundreds of smaller dots

when it seems there are none and now continue zooming in and in and you start finding newer

planets and stars and newer galaxies which are still unidentified.

FIGURE 4:-

Euclidean geometry and fractal geometry are not conflicting rather complimenting. That is

fractal geometry was able to clear several confusing theories that Euclidean geometry could not

thereby filling the gaps in it ( Haggard and Cooper,2006)

19

About Basic assumptions behind Basic assumptions behind

Euclidean geometry (200 years Fractal geometry (200 years

old) old)

1. Description The main concern is the There is holistic reality, infinitely

description of human made complex but geometrically

objects. Natural objects are describable which we call nature.

assumed to be difficult to

describe or indescribable by

geometry

2. form Simple rules give simple forms, Infinitely complex forms are easy

complex forms require complex to generate by simple means.

rules; therefore simplicity is a Complexity is an accessible to

virtue. us. Simplicity can be a virtue, but

cannot be simplistic. Complexity

is beyond our heritage.

3.form generation Formulae are the generator of Iteration and feedback are the

form. generator of form.

4.randomness Randomness has no place in Randomness can be a part of the

geometry. form generating process.

5.dimension There are three whole numbered There are an infinite number of

dimensions. dimensions that can fill the gaps

between one two and three

dimensions.

6.infinity Infinity is not dealt within Infinity is an everyday quality and

geometry. part of geometry.

7.scale Scale is the relative size of Scale is where we choose to focus

objects to ourselves, other our attention in an infinity of

objects, or systems of choices of scale.

measurement.

20

8.order Order is predictable and Order can be very complex, order

desirable. Disorder is and perceived disorder are not

unpredictable and undesirable. discrete things but often aspects

of the same thing.

9.reality Reality is dualistic with order and Reality is complex, diverse and

disorder in opposition to each holistic. Duality between order

other. and disorder is sometimes a

useful tool, often an illusion and

sometimes delusion.

10.harmony Harmony can be achieved by Harmony can be achieved by

simplification. complexity.

11.order and dynamics Control is an important part of Dancing with chaos is an

aesthetics. essential part of aesthetics.

12.symmetry Symmetry and asymmetry are Self similarity and affine

important part of aesthetic similarity are also important

devices. aesthetic devices.

13.length Length is fixed and measurable. Length is often infinite.

14.form expression Geometrical solids are the basic Fluidity is an essential part of

building blocks of aesthetics aesthetics because ot deals with

because it deals with connectivity and processes.

differentiation.

21

In the 20th century, some architects believed that they were clearly organized , simply ordered

and thus they became predictable, capable of being designed and planned in such a way that the

quality of life of their residents could be directly improved by manipulating the physical form.

This was the perspective that was held throughout the social sciences. It was founded on the

belief that the social world and its representations in physical artifacts such as cities, buildings

were coherent and understandable in the same way that the physical world had been understood

since the enlightenment.

As we begin the new millennium this all seems to be naïve and our understanding of the systems

in the small scale does not add up in any measure to our understanding in the large. Our theories

and methods do not scale. The whole is more than the sum of the parts. Systems everywhere are

simpy too complex to be reduced to tenants of the conventional science. In the social world,

prediction is logically impossible

Architecture the way we understand them and the way we plan and design them demonstrate all

the features of crisis of rationality. The massive explosion of population and the emergence of

the world or global cities were not anticipated. Likewise, the impact of information and

communication technologies and the rise of the network city could not be predicted, while at

more local scales the development of buildings and the edge of the edge of the cities, the

refocusing on the suburbia, and the collapse of public transport systems have only been

explicable in hindsight. In short, conventional science was unable to predict or even sense the

emergence of new kinds of cities and new urban forms.

The general response to these dilemmas has been looking forward to a new theory based on the

understanding architecture in terms of their superficial structure through the keleidoscopee of

social and physical complexity. Hence the view has been gaining grounds that insight and not

prediction must be the goal of the science.

When there is a change in the basic framework of the thought then there has to be a shift in the

built vocabulary. This like other forms of cultural expression is embedded in the reiginingmental

paradigms. Society lacks direction. It is disintegrating into angry fragments. Many thinkers

claim that it is confused because there is no shared philosophy.

22

Against the background of the decline is an unnoticed growth,. A new world view has startd to

spring up. For the first time since the twelfth century we are beginning to construct an all-

encompassing story that could unite the people of the globe.

our understanding of the narrative is quite unique we are the first generation to know the

approximate age of the universe , its likely origin, the mainline history, and its fundamental

principle of the increasing complexity . Traditional religion emphasizes constancy, the

modernists with their mechanist model emphasize predictability, but the cosmos is more

dynamic than either a predestined world.

A new science of form based on fractal geometry has emerged during the last fifteen years .

Fractal or fractal objects as they collect, are irregular in shape but their irregularity is similar

across many scales, thus enabling them to be described mathematically, and to be generated

computationally. fractals cannot described using geometry of irregular figures based in points,

lines, planes – the geometry of the Euclid- for they exist between the dimensions and therefore

must be measured by means of their fraction or fractal dimensions.

press,1968).

“ Fractals will make you see everything differently… you risk the loss of your childhood

visions of clouds, forests, leaves, flowers, rocks, mountains, torrents of water, carpets, bricks

and much else besides.”

23

FRACTALS – the new approach

FIGURE 5:-

24

If architecture is responsible for continuing the development that ranges from protecting the

caves over the fallen down trees as a first shelter to buildings made of timber or stones and upto

modern interpretations of nature like Frank Lloyd Wright’s examples, then architecture, natural

materials, time and the structure of nature may still be in unity. In this way , nature offers

characteristics of fractal geometry rather than such of Euclidean geometry. Thinking if self

similarity for example this is not a new aspect in architecture, as there are similar forms on

different scales e.g. in the gothic style . but also Frank Lloyd Wright used variations of form on

different scales as a concept of his buildings and he did not copy nature as it is offered in trees,

but was looking for the underlying structures of their organizations. The true mathematical

fractals offer such ideas where complex forms have simple underlying algorithms.

FRACTALS IN NATURE

FIGURE 6:-

25

Natural features such as snowflakes, coastlines, mountain terrain are example of fractals in

nature, silicon chips fluctuations in stock market are manmade artifacts exhibiting fractal

properties. The morphology of architecture is fractal. Their study using Fractal design enables

rich, predictive models of their structure to be developed, yielding new insights how architecture

develop or developed.

Since the enlightenment, it was held that the social world and its representation in physical

artifacts such as buildings were coherent and understandable in the same way that the physical

world was. The triumph of rationality through the application of the scientific method could be

transferred wholesale and emulated in the social world. Till the mid twentieth century, it was

held that architecture were clearly organized, simply ordered and thus predictable; capable of

being designed in such a way that quality of life of its residents could be directly improved by

manipulating their built environment.

However the rational scientific world has been split asunder in the last 20 years. The limits

imposed by theories of incompleteness, uncertainty, and complexity have destroyed any hope

of a complete understanding of the physical and social world. Dreams of a final theory are a

chimera. Architecture the way we understand them, and plan them demonstrate all the features

of the crisis of rationality. Conventional science was unable to predict or even sense the

emergence of new kind of architecture, new forms.

FRACTAL DIMENSIONS

Fractals can exist in any dimension. They have precise mathematical properties. Fractals exhibit

scale invariance shown through self-similarity the whole is formed from scaled versions of its

parts. The ultimate quest of the new science is to find rules that generate real architecture.

Wherever self-similarity is generated across scales by repetitions of a simple branching system,

then tree like structures emerge which we see in terms of road networks for cities or circulations

for buildings. Architecture display enormous variety and this order is very clearly made up of

simple elements.

The distributions of places of different sizes and the way they grow is consistent with fractal

theory. The basic pattern of the circulations and orbital repeats itself through the scales as fractal

geometry dictates. In fact fractal geometry makes no distinction between planned and

26

organically growing forms other than the fact that organically growing forms are often

deterministic fractals with some noise or randomness added.

However, the rational scientific world has been split asunder in the last 20 years. The limits

imposed by theories of incompleteness, uncertainty and complexity have destroyed any hope of

a complete understanding of the physical and social world. Dreams of a final theory are a

chimera. Cities the way we understand them demonstrate all the features of the crises of

rationality. Conventional science was unable to predict or even sense the emergence of new

kinds of cities, new urban forms (edge cities, network cities, global cities).

`

FIGURE 7:-

The development of this kind of fractals consists of simple rules – a starting image, the so- called

initiator, is replaced by another image, the so-called generator. But, nevertheless they are very

complex and always strictly self-similar it does not matter which part we analyse, it always

looks exactly like a scaled down copy of the whole set. The tools to create such fractals are

27

called iteration and feedback: Iteration means that the procedure is thickness of the repeated

based on the result of the previous step.

Cantor Set

For producing the Cantor Set the initiator, a straight line of a certain length, is replaced by a

generator consisting of two lines, each of the length of 1/3 of the initiator, in such a way that the

new lines are located in each case at the end of the initiator. From that an open middle interval

of the same length as the lines of the generator emerges but this “hole’’ does not include its end

points- these points belong to the two outer parts, marked 1 and 2 in fig. 2.4. This geometric

rule is repeated again with the two new lines, which leads to four lines and so on.

FIGURE 8:-

In theory the thickness of the Cantor set is nearly zero, but for illustration purposes I use some

thickness. The hierarchy on the right gives the cascade of the no of parts at each step.

28

Example: The planet Saturn has not only one ring but many. The rings are split several times,

which was discovered by “Voyager I’’. These splits are mostly very small. In addition to that

the rings let the sunshine through, which means that they are transparent, like a meagre such as

the Cantor set. The structure of the rings may be interpreted as circles with the distance of the

point of the Cantor set.

Sierpinski Gasket

FIGURE 9:-

For producing the Sierpinski Gasket, the initiator, an equilateral triangle is replaced by a

generator consisting of 3 equilateral triangles, each of the size of half the initiator, in such a way

that the new triangles are located in each case at the 3 corners of the initiator. In other words,

and equilateral triangle is cut out in the middle. In this cut out triangle is half the size of the

initiator and rotated by 180 degrees – the side points of the triangle are defined by the mid points

of the sides of the triangle. The same procedure is repeated of the three new triangle and so on.

The remaining triangle or the set of points that are left after infinite iteration is called the

Sierpinski Gasket.

29

Koch Curve

The initiator of this fractal is again a line, the generator of four lines of one third of the initiator.

For their creation the initiator line is divided into three equal parts with the middle part being

replaced by an equilateral triangle of the side length of one third of the initiator – the lower part

of the triangle, however, is taken. This procedure is then repeated for the four new lines. After

infinite steps the construction leads to the Koch Curve

FIGURE 10:-

30

FIGURE 11:-

Whether the middle part of the generator of the Koch Curve moves up or down is chosen at

random, that means α = ±60˚ β = -α. Such a procedure can produce structure similar to natural

coast line:

In mathematical terms, this is largely due to the fact that the mathematical facts within which

such model operate is so convoluted and infinitely divisible that it is impossible to accurately

guess the starting position of the system within this space. Over the last two decades, the view

has been gaining ground that insight and not prediction should be the goal of science.

Systems everywhere are simply too complex to be reduced to the tenets of conventional science.

The facts that simple system are manifested with a level of complexity that was completely

unknown when somewhere to explain why more complex systems, which were often built from

the simpler elements, were entirely unpredictable, even chaotic. Cities demonstrate chaotic

behaviour under certain regime, whose traditional models are unable to yield depiction with

scale and form known in advance.

Chaotic systems are the rule and not the exception which is what complexity

science upholds.

31

We traditional assumed that systems are linearly thus their future behaviour become predictable

even when changes occur. Systems in fact do not behave so simplistically. They show

discontinuity in their behaviour, mark by catastrophe and bifurcation. Slight perturbation –

random effects – would push their evolution into uncharted territory. In short, simple and small

effects are magnify quickly into large scale effects due to the action of the positive feedback

whose effect build spontaneously commutatively on each other.

Edward Lorenzo who discovered chaos, presented short paper in 1972, entitled:

A radically new urban philosophy can emerge from this research. It is but a small step

in the direction I am proposing to bring the natural environment into the picture. This way of

looking at the built environment gives priority to human beings and small- scale structures. A

tree grows naturally next to a low, crooked wall, and within a courtyard. A wide, uneven

sidewalk has space to accommodate trees. An archeologically open space provides a habitat for

some urban (if only avian) wildlife. This is more a philosophy of nature and of the earth than

conscious to urbanism. In the event, and as I said, an urbanism that is mode stand respects human

sensibilities will also respect the natural environment; it goes hand in hand with a modest

architecture of human proportions and textures.

Fractal biomimetic

Comolevi Forest Canopy is an example of biomimetics where the fractal nature of a tree canopy

was imitated in order to achieve the effective cooling system natural leaves and branches

constitutes. The Comolevi Forest Canopy works by filtering the sun rays and shading surfaces

below without blocking the air flow – just the same way a tree does. The Japanese company

Lofsee Co., Ltd. aimed to solve the urban heat and in lack of natural vegetation they managed to

invent a system mimicking nature without having to actually work with natural elements, thus not

needing deal with the issues connected to vegetation in an architectural or urban environment,

such as draining systems, or slab thickness etc. (Ask Nature)

32

FIGURE 12:-

Biomimetic can also occur at nano-scale, one approach is focusing on structural elements. The

lotus-effect is a term now used for describing self-cleaning. The fractal structural patterns of

leaves, but also insect wings and exoskeletons makes it hard for dirt particles to stick,

furthermore the surfaces repel water by using wax excretions.

When comparing the two examples above the former seems more realistic in a fairly short-term

perspective, at least regarding production, since it is not depending on accuracy at nano-scale.

When choosing what scale to execute fractal biomimetic, many aspects need to be taken into

consideration, for instance what the purpose is, aesthetic, performing, or both, available

technology, economy etc. When defined, a wide range of different fabrication methods might

be suitable; it might be 3d-printing for mid-range scales, chemical procedures for nano-scales,

or more traditional production methods for larger scales.

33

The fractal structures of the African villages examined by Ron Eglash shows that also vernacular

production methods can create intricate mathematical structures, although there’s no direct

connection to biomimetic.

As indicated before, some mathematical fractals can be used as a visual help for planning streets,

footpaths and the like under the view-point of irregularity or in line with the question about how

much of a certain area can be supplied – the higher the fractal dimension the higher the

irregularity and the more of the entire space can be reached. Besides, fractals may also act as a

first approach for defining the distribution of buildings or the size and position of properties, the

fractal dimension of the resulting site-plan saying something about the irregularity of the project.

FIGURE 13:-

34

Mandelbrot named the process that produces a fractal dust, which is a disconnected set

of points with clustered characteristics, “curdling”. How can the “curdling” process be

described?

The “curdling” process, as described in this section, produces a fractal dust that may act

as a first sketch of a site plan for one-family houses or row houses, the fr actal dimension

indicating the density. In this connection the environment, a mountain ridge or the like, can be

used as an instruction for the “curdling” process in so far that the probability can be derived

from the measured fractal dimension of this surrounding. But repairing the “curdling” process

with the same starting options, that is probabilities, results in different shapes, which is also

pointed out by different actual fractal dimensions – the theoretical fractal dimension is generated

with the remaining boxes of the ideal case of a certain probability. This a couple of “site-plans”

of the same probability can be generated, where finally the most useful “site-plan” elaborated

further by adapting it to the surroundings, such as existing roads, hills or rivers.

Fractal geometry has been applied in architecture design to investigate fractal structures of cities

and successfully in building geometry and different design patterns.

The research can be started of the buildings ‘ self similarity by 1104. The Cathedral of Anagni

( Italy) the floor is adorned with many mosaics and the idea based on Sierpinski gasket fractal.

The mosaic showing iteration. The cathedral was build during 1104 and is one of the oldest

handmade fractal.

35

FIGURE 14:-

The cathedral at Reims( France) shows rising fractal structure and is represented in the elevation.

All the tower has big arcades and two windows, and their dimension decrease in each floor. In

saint Paul’s church, we have seen the presence of self similar shapes, in Venice many places

have got a rising fractal character.

36

FIGURE 15:-

Fractal building in Venice

The Ba- ila settlement of Southern Zambia

FIGURE 16:-

Ba-ila settlement

37

FIGURE 17:-

Schematic model

One of the best examples would be this sub- Saharan settlement based on cattle husbandry. It

consists of ‘Kraals’ for protecting livestock at night, houses and storage structure.

The image is an extended family’s homes; a ring-shaped livestock pen, with a gate on one end.

Each unit is progressively growing from the gate. In case of the Chief’s house diametrically

opposite the gate (part of the largest dwelling) is situated entirely inside the ring. There is an

alter at the back of each house. This is a clear depiction of the status gradient within the ring

structure- Kulela” (to nurse) is the type of relation the Chief has is described.

The important areas are towards the west end facing the rising sun. The wealth a family bores

is expressed in terms of the size of the extended family.

38

New Delhi Master plan

FIGURE 18:-

Delhi has been the capital of British India since 1911.As it is the capital city so there were many

buildings designed by the British in the outskirts of the core city which included the major parts

such as Red fort and Jama Masjid. Sir Edwin Lutyens adopted Hexagram Plan and its

applications on the site. There were mainly two axes planned i.e. Rajpath and Jan path.

The solution which was found to be the best was dividing the main axis by erecting

four large buildings.

The museum

The library

The records office

39

This type of networking pattern could be traced in the engravings and jaali patterns

of Mughal architecture.

They transformed to the centres of intellectual interests and are the iconic of

extreme metaphoric potential.

FIGURE 19:-

40

Generation of Hexagram Plan from the two main axes

“Those who look for the laws of Nature as a support for their new works collaborate with the

Creator”.

-Antonio Gaudi, on why he was inspired by nature

Sangrada Familia was able to combine Gaudi’s penchant for Gothic and Catalan architecture,

and curvilinear Art Nouveau shapes. Symbolism reflects in every element of the building.

Gaudi’s work can be described

based on ‘art nouveau’ and ‘organic’.

Each detail from Barcelona to the cathedral, its spiers, the evangelists; each detail is

mesmerising.

FIGURE 20:-

41

Kandariya Mahadev Temple – Khajuraho

This structure symbolises the mountains embracing the skies. The façade creates vibrating

repetition almost like geological strata, owing to the Hindu Mythology. Creating a rich

asymmetrical harmony, contrasting vertical and horizontal components. ‘

FIGURE 21:-

42

Fractals have been applied to many elevation structures to exclusively address power and

balance in the facade. Some are very excellent examples of classical architecture that can be

seen in many parts of the Europe and in the Middle East and Asia which have the effects of

fractal elevations, for example, Reims’ cathedral and Saint Paul church in France, Castel del

Monte in Italy and many palaces in Venice (ca’ Foscari, Ca’ d’Oro, Duke Palace, Giustinian

Palace) in Italy. Venice has been one of most talked about the fractals .More and more vital

evidence shows that the fractals exists in Gothic cathedrals in general. The pointed arch is an

impression of the elevation, that appear in entrance, at windows and the costal arch with many

scales and details displays the elevations of a five-floor tenement building in the historical part

of Barcelona which shows self-organization and self-similar structure.

FIGURE 22:-

A tenement house in the historical part of Barcelona, Spain: the elevation's photograph from the

90-s (left part ); the geometric synthesis shows the original architecture design

43

FIGURE 23:-

Castel del monte, Apulia(Italy) and the comparison with Mandelbrot set

In the Middle East, fractal patterns have been adopted widely in designing stucco, a typically

Persian art form for the decoration of dome interiors, the pattern in the dome interior has four

attractors surrounding the main one at the center (Sarangi).

44

FIGURE 24:-

We can find fractals in oriental architecture too. During 18th century Shiva shrine which is in

the heart of India and the construction is done with the help of sandstone. The linga resides in

the temple and the lintel above the ground is placed with lord Ganesha . the shikara is typical to

that of the north Indian temples architecture. That also posses fractal character.In Asia,

architectures which posses fractal structures have also been found in abundance like Humayun’s

Mausoleum, and the Sacred StupaPha That Luang in Laos. Fractals have been used to study

Hindu temples and In China and also in some mosques in the west which were more likely to

incorporate such domes which have fractals within them. One important feature in Chinese

architecture is that its emphasis on symmetry which conveys a sense of grandeur and power.

45

FIGURE 25:-

The previous examples portrayed that carry the fractal characters are unconsciously placed, but

some pf the famous 20th century architects have researched a conscious self-similarity

E.g. FrankL loyd Wright in his late work (palmer house) has used some self similar equilateral

triangles in the plan. A kind of nesting of the fractal forms can be observed at two different

points in the palmer house . in palmer house the fractal quality is in every case the result of

conscious act of design.

46

FIGURE 26:-

Box counting is a method of gathering data for analyzing complex patterns by breaking

a dataset, object, image, etc. into smaller and smaller pieces, typically "box"-shaped, and

analyzing the pieces at each smaller scale. The essence of the process has been compared to

zooming in or out using optical or computer based methods to examine how observations of

detail change with scale. In box counting, however, rather than changing the magnification or

resolution of a lens, the investigator changes the size of the element used to inspect the object

or pattern

FIGURE 27:-

47

Theoretically, the intent of box counting is to quantify fractal scaling, but from a

practical perspective this would require that the scaling be known ahead of time. This

can be seen where choosing boxes of the right relative sizes readily shows how the

pattern repeats itself at smaller scales. In fractal analysis, however, the scaling factor

is not always known ahead of time, so box counting algorithms attempt to find an

optimized way of cutting a pattern up that will reveal the scaling factor. The

fundamental method for doing this starts with a set of measuring elements boxes

consisting of an arbitrary number, called here for convenience, of sizes or calibers,

which we will call the set of s. Then these -sized boxes are applied to the pattern and

counted. To do this, for each in , a measuring element that is typically a 2-

dimensional square or 3-dimensional box with side length corresponding to is used

to scan a pattern or data set (e.g., an image or object) according to a

predetermined scanning plan to cover the relevant part of the data set, recording,

i.e.,counting, for each step in the scan relevant features captured within the measuring

element.

Illustrations of the box count of a Frank Lloyd Wright’s building (robie house )

48

FIGURE 28:-

point of view. In the article Fractal Architecture Could Be Good For You (Joye, 2007) the

author presents numerous architectural examples where fractal geometry plays an important

role, from Hindu temples, where the self repeating and self-similar components are supposed to

reflect the idea that every part of cosmos contain all information about the whole cosmos, to

gothic architecture, with a high degree of self similarity and complex detailing.

49

FIGURE 29:-

KEY ARGUMENT

Pure fractals are abstract geometrical object and they obey a particular kind of distribution and

that there are many non-geometrical objects that obey this universal distribution and hence we

may draw that a stable system has fractal properties.

50

Smaller design elements in a built form are more in number and this is quite visible in adaptive

design. Like in khajurao temple the finer design elements are repeated several number of times

this also helps in bringing it down to human scale, connecting the divine and the earth.

It is due to the fractal nature of earlier temples that it was difficult to quantify or study them

using Euclidean geometry. This is because the unit of scale was determined by the natural

objects generally human proportions which are again fractal.

The stability of a system depends upon the relative number and sizes of the components it also

depends upon the interconnectivity on the same level and at different levels

The complexity and diversity are essential and add on the overall quality of space. A

phenomenon which we discussed earlier while discussing layering. It is quite visible in the

number of layers in any settlement that create the multitude of events that occur.

An environment design with an altered concept of scale embracing the idea of complexity,

diversity ,harmony, natural flow is sustainable just like multi storied canopy structure above

ground and the roo5t to varying depths in subsurface perpetuating eternally in a first landscape

despite forest fires. Such as environmental design is a different aesthetic with major changes in

the design process which includes the following.

Scale is where you consciously decide to focus within an infinite number of focal potential focal

points : singular scale in a Euclidean sense is replaced by a continuity of intersecting scales. The

selection of appropriate focal length and their relation to region, site, people , function, materials

etc. is an integral part of the design process. These are choices that must be made by the designer.

Metabolic efficiency is measured by using the smallest range of focal length : using the nearest

possible foci for energy, materials , water and waste processing allows miniaturization of

present metabolic process and the greatest efficiency of the whole. Accordingly, the designer

51

must work as much as possible with on site resources, and minimize the use of offsite resources,

and on site resources.

Aesthetic effectiveness is measured by the expression of the broadest range of foci within the

design the broader reach of the design, the more obtainable the aesthetic goals of continuity and

connectivity becom. This is in contrast to the aesthetic expression of reductionism and

compartmentalization characteristic of industrial architecture. A fractal contectualism must be

an integral of the aesthetic composition.

Complexity can replace the importance of function: once functions are distributed to the

appropriate focal length, spatial complexity can be central to the design. If design is completed

with an intelligent and complex series of scales , all necessary functions can be provided for and

will ensure the evolution of design over time.

Self similarity is the glue between parts and wholes, variety and unit: the integration of each

complimentary aspect nature and urbanity work and retreat, community, and privacy should also

occur at each focal length in a pattern of self similarity or affine similarity, where perceived

contradictions can be resolved.

Maximum social and cultural diversity is possible and desirable within a cohesive unity: in

fractal geometry, infinite diversity and unified order is an every day occurrence, not an idealistic

dream. The design must enhance not diminish diversity.

CONCLUSION

I am looking to the future, when we will use the above scientific knowledge about complex

systems and their interactions to better plan our cities. Critics of such ideas dismiss theme

as nostalgic, belonging to the past. This is not accurate. What I propose has a striking

52

commonality with some aspects of traditional urbanism, which accommodates human

beings and not machines or abstract geometric forms

This paper has illustratively reviewed the fundamental concepts and properties of fractal

geometry theory essential to architecture design, as well as the current state of its applications.

Fractal geometry has important implications for buildings. The representative review shows that

architecture design is not made to be isolated but to anticipate changes in the environment.

Accumulation of technological modernizations, destroying, adapting and many changes have

caused the design temporal and spatial diversity and complexity. More specifically, design

development in a building can be looked upon as adaptability and flexibility over time when it

comes to responding to changing environments. Chaos and many other nonlinear theories have

explained that extremely deterministic and linear processes are very fragile in maintaining

stability over a wide range of conditions, whereas chaotic and fractal systems can function

effectively over a wide range of different conditions, thereby offering adaptability and

flexibility. In this context, fractal geometry theory offers an alternative for sustainable

architectural design. This paper provides a bridge between building engineering and architecture

and fractal geometry theory.

As mentioned earlier, the results from new sciences are aimed at better understanding of nature,

being inconsistent with the purposes of these theories. It seems that few parts of these theories

have been gleaned and consequently appeared in the plans. Evans maintains that new forms of

geometry are always immediately appropriated from mathematics and used by architects

regardless of whether or not they are well understood. The danger of this practice is that if the

appropriated concept (in this case, fractal geometry) is poorly understood, it may destabilize the

theoretical foundations of the design and

such a naturalistic view should be respectful since they have understood the importance of nature

and the necessity for cooperation. The superficial attitude toward nature has caused many of the

works that do not meet the basic requirements of an architectural monument to be criticized by

some critics. We cannot assume that architecture’s purpose can be described simply from a

scientific or mathematical perspective; the enduring role of architecture in society is often linked

to its material presence, its historic significance, or its capacity to represent a set of otherwise-

intangible values .In fact, architecture has many aspects, among which, is that we should value

53

the material and spiritual needs of humans and pave the way for their evolution. Form and

geometry might be the only means to reach the goal. As a result, the best lesson that nature can

give us is to find our appropriate place in nature as an important principle. Furthermore, we

should learn the reason behind the natural forms in nature while negligence results in failure to

achieve the desired architecture goals.

The fractal geometry and the self-similarity are helping to define a new architectural models and

an aesthetic that has always lain beneath the changing artistic ideas of different periods, schools

and cultures.

We may summaries the three key messages to be found in this chapter as follows. First, the

diverse and often controversial definitions of fractal geometry that have previously been

developed in architecture need to be framed appropriately if they are to be taken seriously. For

example, using experiential descriptors to examine fractalesque qualities in a building may be

appropriate, provided that the author does not claim that the reasoning is scientifically based.

The most important factor is not necessarily whether a geometric, generative or phenomenal

view is taken, but rather that each author is clear about the perspective chosen, its purpose and

limitations. Thus, when working with fractal geometry, scholars and designers should be

especially careful to ensure that they describe how they are using it: as structure, as form, as

ornament or as inspiration. Second, fractal algorithms and other computational methods of

generating forms cannot be used to produce a complete, finished design for a building without

some input from the designer, either in the decision-making process or in the authoring stage.

Fractals-generated designs must be modified through the inclusion of a range of site or context-

based measures before they can become designs suitable for habitation. The vast and growing

body of examples of computer-evolved buildings all require sensible human input (either

through direct intervention or the authoring of parameters to ensure functional and social

conditions are met) to create architecture. Finally, architects should remember that there are two

completely different approaches to considering fractals in the context of design. The one covered

in the majority of this chapter involves fractal geometry and its associated imagery, which can

provide inspiration for designers. The second approach is about the way in which architecture

can be measured and analyzed using fractal dimensions. As the remainder of this book

demonstrates, every object, whether natural or synthetic, can have its formal complexity

measured or estimated.

54

FIG 1 https://davidjrodger.wordpress.com/2010/09/11/alien-worlds/

FIG 2 http://destiny104.info/trippy-galaxy-illuminati-wallpaper.html

FIG 3 https://in.pinterest.com/pin/478085316664021266/

FIG 4 https://www.scienceabc.com/nature/universe/milky-way-called-so-galaxy-name-milk-

road.html

FIG 5 https://www.canva.com/photos/tag/geometry/

FIG 6 https://www.oddee.com/item_96529.aspx

FIG 7 http://paulbourke.net/fractals/carpet/

FIG 8 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantor_set

FIG 9 https://i.stack.imgur.com/OOzGf.gif

FIG 10 http://blog.zacharyabel.com/tag/koch-curve/

FIG 11

FIG 12 https://asknature.org/idea/comolevi-forest-canopy/

FIG 13 http://fractalfoundation.org/OFC/OFC-12-3.html

FIG 14 odur.let.rug.nl

FIG 15 CMSIM Journal

FIG 16 https://csdt.rpi.edu/culture/legacy/african/African_Fractals/culture3.html

FIG 17 homepages.rpi.edu

FIG 18 http://delhi-masterplan.com/zonal-plans-mpd-2021/land-use-plan/

FIG 19 http://geolines.ru/eng/publications

FIG 20 https://www.tiqets.com/en/barcelona-c66342/sagrada-familia-fast-track-p918256

FIG 21 https://www.trawell.in/madhya-pradesh/khajuraho/kandariya-mahadev-temple

FIG 22 https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-tenement-house-in-the-historical-part-of-

Barcelona-Spain-the-elevations-photograph_fig6_240759315

FIG 23 https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Fractal-Models-in-Architecture-%3A-a-Case-

of-Study-Sala/77686c72a9564b3bea32fe93ff5e8f590dbb6dab

FIG 24

FIG 25 http://moeandirene.blogspot.com/2013/03/the-great-sacred-stupa-that-luang.htmlw

FIG 26 https://in.pinterest.com/pin/506021708126957702/

FIG 27 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Box_counting

FIG 28

55

FIG 29 https://spatialexperiments.wordpress.com/2016/09/18/fractal-geometry-in-nature-and-

architecture/temple-aggregation/

56

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