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Retaining Wall

1) Dimensions of retaining wall


Earth Embackment 8.05 m
Density of earth (w) 16 kN/m^3 Minimum Depth of
angle of repose 50 degrees Foundation
SBC (P) 740.4 kN/m^2 = 0.8 m
Coefficient of Provide depth of foundation = 0.9 m
0.5
friction Over all depth of wall = 8.95 m
fck 25 N/mm^2
fy 500 N/mm^2 Thickness of base slab = 1000 mm d= 950 mm
thickness of stem at base= 1000 mm
Height of stem = 8 m

Location: ch 60.475 km on RHS Width of base slab = 2.3 m

2) Design of stem

Height of stem = 8 m

Max working moment in stem =

= 180.87 kN-m
Factored Bending Moment = 272 kN-m
Limiting thickness of stem = 287 mm
Section is under Reinforced
adopt effective depth of stem d = 950 at bottom
650 at top

Area of Steel required

Refer Table 2 of SP: 16


fck = 25 N/mm^2 0.3

Pt= 0.071
Provide Min % of steel for C/S
Ast = 1140 mm^2
Provide 16 mm bars at 170 c/c
mm in vertical direction at the bottom of the
stem & gradually increasing to top at = 340 mm

Distribution bars = 1140 mm^2


Provide 12 mm bars at 100 mm centers on both faces
4) Stability calculation

Toe Projection = 0.6 m Height of soil on toe -0.1 m


slab from base
Heel Projection = 0.7 m

The Stability calculation for one meter run of wall

SL NO Loads Magnitude of load Distance from end Moment


Vertical Stem of of heel slab kN-m
W1 130
cantilever slab 1.05 136.5
Tapering Aera load 35 1.49 52.2
W2 Heel Slab 57.5 1.15 66.1
W3 Back fill load 92.8 0.3625 33.6
Moment due to earth pressure
180.87

315 470

Maximum and minimum pressure at base are

e= 0.3 1.33

P max = 245 kN/m^2


P min = 30 kN/m^2 2.3 1.725 0.725 0
d c b a

h
Safe against SBC of soil j 30
i f g 97.77
245 e 191.25
5) Design of Heel Slab

Moment computaions

` Magnitude of load Distance from end Moment


of heel slab kN-m
92.8 0.3625 33.64
w1
18.13 0.3625 6.57
Total = 40.21
Deduct for
upward 0 0.3625 0
Upward
pressure -24.57 0.483 -11.87
Total deduction = -11.87

Max working moment in heel slab = 52.08 kN-m


Mu = 78.12 kN-m

Refer Table 2 of SP: 16 and read out the % of reinforcement as pt = 0.071


fck = 25
0.087

674.5 mm^2

Provide Min % of steel for C/S Ast= 1200 mm^2

Provide 12 mm bars at 100 mm centers

Distribution reinforcement 1200 mm^2

Provide 12 mm bars at 100 mm centers


6) Design of toe slab

The Moment computations

Magnitude of Distance from end


SL NO Moment
forces of heel slab
Upward Pressure 109.96875 0.2875 31.62
'cdif'
Upward Pressure
15.45 0.38 5.87
'jfe'
37.49
Deduct self weight 0.2875 4.13
14.375
of toe slab

Dead weight of soil


-17.6 0.2875 -5.06
over toe slab
-0.93

Max working moment in heel slab = 38.42 kN-m


Mu = 57.63 kN-m

fck = 25
0.06

Refer Table 2 of SP: 16 and read out the % of reinforcement as 0.071


pt =

Provide minmum reinforcement of 0.12 %

Ast = 1200 mm^2

Provide 12 mm bars at 100 mm centers


7) safety against sliding

Total horizontal earth pressure is

P= 85 kN

1.86
No Shear key is required

8) Design of shear key


Intensity of passive earth pressure

512 kN/m^2
For FOS Provide shear key
Depth of shear key is assumed as 200 mm

Total passive pressure force

102.4 kN

FS= 3.06
The Retaining wall is safe against sliding
Check for Shear stresses at junction of stem & base

Net Working Shear Force = V =

V= -30.31 kN
Vu = -45.47 kN

nominal shear stresses = -0.04786 N/mm^2

Pt = 0.30%
Tc = 0.4 N/mm^2

hence shear stress are within permissible limit

Check for safety against Over turning

FOS = 3.2

The Factor Of Safety against overturning, it is equal to the


balancing moment divided by the overturning moment and
should be greater than or equal to two