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Contents

Manual for K-Notes ................................................................................... 2


Transformers ............................................................................................. 3
DC Machines ........................................................................................... 11
ww
Synchronous Machines ........................................................................... 16

w.E
Induction Machines ................................................................................. 27
Single Phase Induction Motor ................................................................. 34
asy
En
gin
ee rin
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et

© 2014 Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.

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Manual for K-Notes

Why K-Notes?

Towards the end of preparation, a student has lost the time to revise all the chapters from his /
her class notes / standard text books. This is the reason why K-Notes is specifically intended for
Quick Revision and should not be considered as comprehensive study material.

What are K-Notes?

ww
A 40 page or less notebook for each subject which contains all concepts covered in GATE

w.E
Curriculum in a concise manner to aid a student in final stages of his/her preparation. It is highly
useful for both the students as well as working professionals who are preparing for GATE as it

asy
comes handy while traveling long distances.

En
When do I start using K-Notes?

gin
It is highly recommended to use K-Notes in the last 2 months before GATE Exam
(November end onwards).

ee
How do I use K-Notes?
rin
g.n
Once you finish the entire K-Notes for a particular subject, you should practice the respective
Subject Test / Mixed Question Bag containing questions from all the Chapters to make best use of
it.
et

© 2014 Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.

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Transformers
Impact of dimensions on various parameters of Transformer

KVA Rating  (Core Dimension)4

Voltage Rating  (Core Dimension)2


Current Rating  (Core Dimension)2
No-Load Current  Core Dimension

ww
Core Loss  Core Volume

w.E
Induced EMF in a Transformer

E1  N1
d
dt
E2  N2
d
asy
dt
E1 (rms)  4.44fN1m
En
E2 (rms)  4.44fN2m
 gin
Where E1 and E2 are emf in primary and secondary windings of Transformer respectively.


ee
Φ is the flux in the transformer and Φm is maximum value of flux.

rin
The polarity of emf is decided on basis of Lenz Law as currents in primary and secondary


g.n
should be such that primary and secondary flux should oppose each other.
Also, primary current enters the positive terminal of primary winding as primary absorbs

et
power and secondary current leaves the positive terminal of secondary winding as
secondary delivers power and this way we can mark emf polarities.

Exact equivalent circuit

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Exact equivalent circuit w.r.t. primary

ww N 
2
N 
2
N 
2

R 2 = R 2  1  ; X 2 = X 2  1  ; Z L = Z L  1  ;

w.E  N2   N2 

 Approximately Equivalent Circuit


 N2 

asy
En
gin
ee rin
R 01 = R1  R 2

X 01 = X1  X 2 g.n
Tests Conducted on a Transformer et
(i) Open Circuit Test

o Conducted on LV side keeping HV side open circuited


o Equivalent Circuit

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V12
o Power reading = P = V1 I0 cos 0 = -------- (i)
Rc
o Ammeter reading  I = I 0
P
o cos 0 =
V1 I0
o Calculate sin 0 = 1 - cos2 0
V12
o Q = V1 I0 sin 0 = ------- (ii)
Xm

ww
Calculate R c from (i) & Xm from (ii)

w.E
(ii) Short Circuit Test

o Conducted on HV side keeping LV side short circuited


o Equivalent Circuit
asy
En
gin
o
HV side.
ee
R 01 & X 01 are equivalent winding resistance & equivalent leakage reactor referred to

rin
Wattmeter reading = P = Isc R01 from this equation, we can calculate R 01
2
o

o Z 01 =
Vsc
& X01 = Z012  R012 g.n
o
Isc
We obtain R 01 , X 01 & full load copper losses from this test. et
Losses on Transformers

o Copper Loss

PCu = I12R1  I22R 2

= I12R01  I22R02

Where I1 = primary current

I2 = secondary current

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R 1 = primary winding resistance

R 2 = secondary winding resistance

2 2
N  N 
R 01 = R1   1  R 2 ; R 02 = R 2   2  R 1
 N2   N1 

o Core Loss
(i) Hysteresis Loss

ww Pn = KnBm
x
f

w.E X = 1.6

Bm = maximum value of flux density

asy
Pn = KnBm1.6f

Bm 
V En
f
gin
V = applied voltage

f = frequency ee rin
V
1.6
Pn = Kh   f = KhV1.6f 0.6
f 
g.n
If V is constant & f is increased, Ph decreases et
(ii) Eddy Current Loss

Pe = KeBm2 f 2

V
Bm 
f
2
V
Pe = K e   f 2 = K e V 2
f
Core loss = Pc = Pe  Pn

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Efficiency

x KVA  cos 
=
x KVA  cos   Pi  x2PCu,FL

X = % loading of Transformer

cos  = power factor

Pi = iron loss

ww PCu,FL = Full load copper losses

w.E
KVA = Power rating of Transformer

For maximum efficiency,


asy
Pi
x=
En
PCu,FL

Voltage Regulation of Transformer gin


Regulation down 
VNL  VFL
VNL
ee
 100
rin
Regulation up 
VNL  VFL
VFL
 100 g.n
Equivalent circuit with respect to secondary et
N2
K = Transformation Ratio 
N1

No-load voltage  V2

Full-load voltage  V2

Approximate Voltage Regulation

I2 R 02 cos 2  X 02 sin 2 
VR =
V2

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cos 2 = power factor of load ZL

+ sign is used for lagging pf load


- sign is used for leading pf load

Condition for zero voltage regulation

R 
2 = tan-1  02 
 X 02 

The power factor is leading, Voltage Regulation can never be zero for lagging pf load.

ww
Condition for maximum voltage regulation

w.E X 
2 = tan-1  02 
 R 02 

asy
The power factor is leading, Voltage Regulation can never be negative for lagging pf loads

Three – Phase Transformers En


gin
In a 3-Phase transformers; the windings placed parallel to each other at as primary & secondary of
single phase transformer.

Rules to draw Phasor diagram


ee rin
1) Always draw phasors from A to B, B to C & C to A for line voltages.
2) The end points should have same naming as the input or output terminals. g.n
et
3) If we draw primary phasor from dotted to undotted terminal and if secondary voltage is also
from dotted to undotted, then secondary voltage is in same phase else in opposite phase.

Some examples

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Phasor

ww o If you observe carefully, we traverse from dotted to undotted terminal in primary while
going from a2 to b2 , b2 to c2 & c2 to a2 .

w.E Same is the case when we traverse the secondary winding, so secondary voltage are in-
phase to primary.
o
asy
Then, we draw reference phasors from neutral to terminal and mark it with phase with
same name as terminal it is pointed to.

En
Then we plot it on clock & we observe it is like 12 0 clock so name is Dd12
connection.

Another example gin


ee rin
g.n
Phasor
et

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o Here, we traversed primary from dotted to undotted terminal & in secondary from undotted
to dotted so all secondary phasor are out of phase wrt primary.

Parallel operation of Transformer

Necessary Conditions

1) Voltage ratings of both transformers should be same.


2) Transformers should have same polarity.
3) Phase sequence of both transformers must be same in case of 3- phase transformers.

ww 4) Phase displacement between secondary’s of both transformers must be 0 .

If there are 2 transformers A & B supplying a load power SL .

w.E S A = SL
ZB
Z A  ZB
; SB = SL
ZB
Z A  ZB

asy
ZB = impedance of transformer B (in ohms)

En
Z A = impedance of transformer A (in ohms)

Auto Transformer gin


o
o
ee
Generally, auto transformer is created from 2- winding transformer.
If rating of auto – transformer is LV/HV or HV/LV
rin
LV = low voltage
HV = high voltage g.n
Transformation Ratio = K =

KVA rating of auto transfer = 


LV
HV
 1 
et
o  (KVA rating of 2- winding Transformer)
1 - R 
o In auto- transformer, power is transferred from primary to secondary by 2 methods
induction & conduction.
o KVAinduction = 1 - K  Input KVA 

o KVAconduction = K  Input KVA 

o % Full load losses = 1 - K  %FL losses in2  winding Transformer 


o If copper & core losses are not given separately, then we consider losses as constant,
same as that of two winding transformer while calculating efficiency

10

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DC Machines
Induced emf equation

NZ  P 
Ea =  
60  A 

 = flux per pole  wb 

N = speed of machine rpm

ww P = number of poles

w.E A = number of paralled path

Z = number of conductors

A = 2 for wave winding asy


A = P for lap winding
En
If speed is given in rad/sec gin Ea =
Z  P 
 
2  A 
where ω = speed (rad/s)

ee  
 PZ 
2 A
 
  = Km
rin
 

PZ g.n
Developed Torque
Km =
2A
= machine constant
et
T = KmIa

PZ
Km = = machine constant
2A
 = flux per pole

Ia = armature current

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Classification of DC Machine

(i) Separately excited

ww
w.E
(ii) Shunt excited

asy
En
gin
(iii) Series excited
ee rin
g.n
et
(iv) Compound Excited

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Terminologies

R a : Armature Resistance

R se : Series Field winding Resistance

R sh : Shunt Field winding Resistance

o The only difference between Generator & Motor will be that the direction of armature current is
coming out of positive terminal of emf Ea. In case of motor, armature current flows into Ea.

ww
Performance Equations of DC Machines

w.E
For shunt & separately excited machine

Generator: Ea = Vt  IaR a

Motor: asy
Ea = Vt  I aR a

En
For series & compound excited machine

Generator: gin
Ea = Vt  Ia R a  R se 

Motor: ee
Ea = Vt  Ia R a  R se 
rin
Power Flow
g.n
Shaft Power Armature Power et
Electrical Power

Pa  EaIa 

Rotational loss Copper loss

o This power flow diagram is for a dc generator.


o If you traverse the diagram from right to left then it is a power flow diagram for a motor.

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Losses

Rotational loss Copper loss


 
 I 2R  I 2R  I 2R  V I 
 a a se se f f BD a 
 
Ohmic loss Brush
contact loss

ww
Friction & Hystersis   N &

 N2 
Stray load

PLL  i2 
w.E
Windage loss Pf w  Eddy current

Friction windage asy


 N2 
En
Bearing Brush gin
  N  N2 
ee rin
Efficiency
g.n
=
VaIa
VaIa  Ia2Ra  VBDIa  Pk
; for generator
et
Pk = sum of all constant loss

For maximum efficiency

Pk
For shunt & separately excited machine Ia =
ra

Pk
For series & compound excited machine Ia =
ra  rse

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Characteristics of DC Generator

External characteristics

If no-load voltage is same for all types of generators:

ww
w.E
There are two categories of compound generators/motors

1. Cumulative Compound asy=> If series field flux aids the shunt fields flux.

En
2. Differentially Compound => If series field flux opposes the shunt field flux.

gin
If full – load voltage of all generators is kept same

1  series excited

2  over compound
ee
5  separately excited

6  shunt excited
rin
3  level compound 7  differentially compound
g.n
4  under compound

Conditions for voltage build-up in Shunt Generator


et
1) There must be residual flux.
2) Correct polarity of field winding with respect to armature winding so that field flux aids
residual flux for a given direction of rotation.
3) Field Resistance must be less than critical value
R f< R f cr 
Critical resistance is equal to the slop of air-gap line.
4) Speed of rotation should be more than critical value for a given field resistance R f .
N > Ncr

15

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Braking of DC Motor

Plugging

o Supply to armature terminals is reversed whole field is left undisturbed.


o The current reverses resulting into negative torque & that brings rotor quickly to rest.

I' a =
V  E  a

R a
 R ex 

ww o Plugging Torque 
EaIa
,  = speed of rotor

w.E 

Before plugging, Ia 
 V - Ea 

asy Ra
EaIa
Load Torque 
En 
Breaking Torque = (Load Torque + Plugging Torque)

gin
Synchronous Machine
Induced emf
ee rin
Phase voltage  4.44 Nph f g.n
Nph : number of turns per phase et
 : flux per pole

f : frequency

This phase voltage is rms value

Armature Winding

o Usually, coil span is 180 (electrical)


o If coil span = 180 (electrical), coil is called as full pitch coil.
o  
If coil span = 180   (electrical), coil is called as Chorded coil or short pitched winding.

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o Pitch Factor, KP = cos
2
o Induced emf   4.44 N ph f K P 
o For nth harmonic
Induced emf   4.44 N ph f K P 
 n
KP = cos  
 2 
To eliminate nth harmonic

ww n
2
=

2

w.E  =
180
n
 electrical
Distributed Winding
asy
m=
number of slots
En
number of poles  no. of phase

number of slotsgin
Coil Span =

180
number of poles
ee rin
=  electrical ;
coil span
g.n
Distribution Factor, K d 
 m 
sin 
 2 
 et
m sin  2  
For nth harmonic,  is replaced by n 

 mn 
sin  
Kd   2 
 n 
m sin  
 2 

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 n  n
o For uniform distribution replace sin   by
 2  2

Winding Factor, K w = KPK d

Induced emf = 4.44 Nphf K w

Armature Resistance

Generally winding resistance is measured using voltmeter ammeter –method.

ww
For star connection

w.E Rm =
V
I
=
voltmeter reading
ammeter reading

Rm = 2R
asy
R=
Rm
En
2
gin
For Delta Connection

Rm =
voltmeter reading
ammeter reading
ee rin
Rm =
2
R
g.n
R=
3

3
R
et
2 m

This resistance is dc resistance but ac resistance is higher due to skin effect.

Raac = 1.2 to 1.3R

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Armature Reaction

Power factor Generator Motor


Unity

ww
Zero pf lagging

w.E
asy
Zero pf leading
En
gin
ee rin
Lagging pf  cos 
g.n
et
Leading pf  cos 

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Leakage Flux

Leakage flux links only one winding but not both so if it is present in stator, it won’t link to rotor &
vise versa.

Equivalent Circuit

ww
w.E X s = synchronous reactance

 X ar  X l
asy
En
= sum of armature reaction & leakage reactance

gin
E   V 0 + Ia  (R a  jX s ) , for Synchronous Generator

Where Φ is power factor angle (leading)


ee
E     V 0 - Ia  (R a  jX s ) , for Synchronous Motor

rin
for lagging power factor we replace Φ by “– Φ”
g.n
Voltage Regulation

Voltage regulation 
EV
 100%
et
V

For zero voltage regulation

 Xs 
   = 180  = tan-1  
 Ra 

cos  = load pf leading 

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For maximum voltage regulation

=

cos  = load pf lagging 

Characteristics of Alternator

OCC & SCC

Open circuit characteristics & short circuit characteristics

ww ZS =
open circuit voltage at same field current
short circuit current at same field current
w.E
asy
Generally, open circuit voltage is given as Line to Line value so, before calculating Z S , we
need to find phase voltage

En
ZS =
Voc / 3
Isc gin : For Star Connection

ZS =
Voc
ee
If = constant

: For Delta Connection rin


Isc I
f = constant
g.n
Short circuit ratio
et
Field current required for rated open circuit voltage
SCR =
Field current required for rated short circuit current

1

X S pu 

XS pu = synchronous reactance in pu

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Finding Voltage Regulation

There are usually 4 methods to find voltage regulation

o EMF Method
o MMF Method
o Potier Triangle Method
o ASA Method

Order of voltage regulation: EMF  ASA>ZPF>MMF

ww
Power Angle Equation

w.E
Output of generator

Pout =
VtEf
cos      
Vt2
cos 
ZS
asy ZS

Qout =
VtEf
ZS En V2
sin       t sin 
ZS

Input of motor gin


Pin =
Vt 2
ZS
VE ee
cos S  t f cos     
ZS rin
Qin =
Vt 2 VE
sin   t f sin     
g.n
ZS ZS

Synchronous Impedance = Z s = R a  jXS = Z S 


et
X 
  tan-1  S 
 Ra 

If R a = neglected, Z s = jXS = XS 90

Ef Vt V
Pout g =
XS
sin  ;  Qout  = t Ef cos   Vt 
g XS

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Developed power in synchronous motor

Ef Vt E2
Pdev = cos       f cos 
ZS ZS

Ef Vt E2
Q dev = sin       f sin 
ZS ZS

If ra is neglected, ZS = XS 90

ww Pdev =
Ef Vt
ZS
sin 

w.E Q dev =
Ef Vt
cos  
Ef 2

asy
ZS ZS

o
o En
Developed Power is the power available at armature of motor.
In all power expressions, all voltages are line voltages and if we want to use phase voltage, we

gin
must multiply all expressions by a factor of 3.

ee rin
g.n
et
Parallel operation of Alternators

Necessary Conditions

1) Terminal voltage of incoming alternator must be same as that of existing system.


2) Frequency should be same.
3) Phase sequence should be same.

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Synchronization by Lamp Method

ww
w.E
1) Observe if 3 lamps are bright & dark simultaneously, that means phase sequence of

asy
incoming alternator is same as that of existing system.
Otherwise, phase sequence is opposite and stator terminals must be interchanged to

En
reverse phase sequence of incoming generator.
2) The frequency of alternator is usually a bit higher than infinite bus.

gin
3) To understand the concept better, refer Ques. 39 of GATE – 2014 EE-01 paper.

ee
o If two alternators are supplying a load and we change either excitation or steam input of one
machine is varied, then following effects will happen:
rin
If excitation of machine 1 is increased
o

g.n
Parameter
Real Power
Reactive Power
Armature Current
Machine 1
Same
Increases
Increases
Machine 2
Same
Decreases
Decreases
et
Power Factor Decreases Increases

o If steam input of machine 1 is increased

Parameter Machine 1 Machine 2


Real Power Increases Decreases
Reactive Power Constant Constant
Armature Current Increases Decreases
Power Factor Increases Decreases

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Droop Characteristics

fNL  fFL
droop of generator =  100%
fFL

Example: Refer Kuestions on Electrical Machines Type-8

Salient Pole Machine

o In case of salient pole machine, There are 2 reactances


Xd & Xq

ww X d : Direct axis reactance


Xq : quadrature axis reactance
w.E
o Id = Ia sin        90
Iq = Iacos      

 =   
asy
En
For synchronous generator
gin
tan  =
Vsin  IaX q
V cos   IaR a
;
ee
  lagging pf
-  leading pf
rin
For synchronous motor

Vsin  IaX q   leading pf


g.n
tan  =
V cos   IaR a
;
-  lagging pf et
Power – Angle Characteristics

VtEf V2  1 1 
P= sin   t    sin2
Xd 2  Xq Xd 
Excitation Reluctance power
power

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Slip Test

If machine is run by prime mover at a speed other than synchronous speed & voltages & currents
are observed

Maximum Voltage
Xd =
Maximum Current

Maximum Voltage
Xq =
Maximum Current

ww
Power Flow Diagram

w.E
Input Shaft Power
3 EfIa cos 
Pe
3Vt Ia cos 
Field asy
Rotational SC load
Circuit loss Loss
En   loss 3Ia2ra

gin
Power Flow for Synchronous Generator

ee
3 EfIa cos 
rin
Input Pe

3VtIa cos 
g.n Shaft Power

Field
Circuit loss
SC load
 2
loss 3Ia ra 
et
Rotational
Loss

Power Flow Diagram for Synchronous Motor

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Induction Machines
Stator & Rotor Magnetic Fields

o When a 3-phase supply is connected to the stator, than a magnetic field is set up
whose speed of rotation is
120f
NS =
P
f = frequency of supply
o If negative sequence currents are applied the rotating magnetic field rotates in

ww opposite direction as compared to magnetic field produced by positive sequence


currents.

w.E
o The rotor rotates in same direction as the stator magnetic field with a speed, Nr .

slip s =
Ns  Nr
Ns
asy
 Nr = Ns 1  s 
o
En
Speed of rotor magnetic field with respect to rotor = sNs
speed of rotor magnetic field with respect to stator = Ns .
o
gin
Hence, stator & rotor magnetic fields are at rest with respect to each other.
o
ee
Frequency of emf & current in rotor = sf

Relative Speed of rin


Stator Stator
Magnetic
Rotor
g.n Rotor
Magnetic

With
respect
Stator
Stator
Magnetic
0
-Ns
Field
Ns
0
Ns(1-s)
-sNs
et Field
Ns
0

to Field
Rotor -Ns(1-s) sNs 0 sNs
Rotor -Ns 0 -sNs 0
Magnetic
Field

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Inverted Induction Motor

o When a 3   supply is connected to the rotor & stator terminals are shorted or are
connected to the resistive load.
o Then a rotor magnetic field is set up which rotates at speed Ns with respect to rotor ;
120f
Ns = where f is frequency of supply.
P
o If rotor rotates at speed Nr , than slip
Ns  Nr
s=

ww Ns
Here, the rotor rotates in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of stator

w.E
o
magnetic field.
Speed of rotor magnetic field with respect to stator
= Ns  Ns 1  s  = sNs
asy
Speed of stator magnetic field = sNs
o
En
Frequency of emf & current induced in stator = sf
f = supply frequency on rotor.

gin Relative Speed of

ee
Stator Stator
Magnetic
Field
Rotor

rin
Rotor
Magnetic
Field

With
Stator
Stator
0
-sNs
sNs
0
Ns(1-s)
-Ns g.n sNs
0
respect
to
Magnetic
Field
Rotor -Ns(1-s) Ns 0
et Ns
Rotor -sNs 0 -Ns 0
Magnetic
Field

Equivalent circuit of Induction Motor

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If we refer all parameters on stator side

ww N  
2
N  
r2 = r2  1  ; x2 = x2  1 
2

w.E N  
 2 
N  
 2 

N1 = N1 k1
asy
En
Where N1 = no. of turns per phase on stator

gin
k1 = winding factor of stator winding

N2 = N2 k2
ee
N2 = number of turns per phase on rotor rin
k2 = winding factor of rotor winding g.n
Tests Conducted on Induction Motor et
(i) No-Load Test

o Conducted on Stator with no-load on rotor side.


o It gives No-Load Losses ( Rotational Loss + Core Loss).

(ii) Blocked Rotor Test

o Conducted on stator side keeping rotor blocked


o It gives full load Copper Losses and equivalent resistance and equivalent reactance
referred to Stator Side.

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o R 01 & X 01 are equivalent winding resistance & equivalent leakage reactor referred to
Stator side.
Wattmeter reading = P = Isc R01 from this equation, we can calculate R 01
2
o
Vsc
o Z 01 = & X01 = Z012  R012
Isc
o We obtain R 01 , X 01 & full load copper losses from this test.
o R 01 = R1+ R2’ ; X 01 = X1+ X2’

Power Flow Diagram

ww
w.E Rotor i/p = Pg (Airgap power) Mechanical Power Developed

Pin asy
Stator Stator En Rotor Rotor Friction &
I2R loss core loss
gin I2R loss core loss windage loss

Pg =
3I22r2
s
ee rin
I2 = rotor current g.n
s = slip

r2 = rotor resistance per phase


et
Rotor Cu Loss = 3I2 r2 = sPg
2

Mechanical power developed = Pg  sPg = 1-s Pg

Developed Torque, Te =
Pm
=
1-sPg  Pg
wr 1-s ws ws

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Torque – Slip Characteristics

If core loss is neglected then equivalent circuit looks like as shown

V1  jXm 
Ve =
r1  j  X1  Xm 

r1Xm X1 X m
Re = ; Xe =
X1  Xm  X1  Xm 
ww
w.E
Torque developed, Tc =

mVe2

2
r2
 s

asy


r
ws  Re  2
s
   X   Xe 


 2 
2




En 

gin
ee rin
g.n
et
For Approximate analysis,

3 V12 r2
Stator impedance is neglected; Tc = 
ws  
2  s
 R 2  
  X22 
 s  
  

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o At low slip, s  1
R 2 3 sV1 2
 X 2 , Tc =   Tc  s
s ws R2
o At high slip , s  1

2
R 2 3  V1  R 2 1
 X 2 , Tc = 
s ws  X   s s
 2 

ww
For maximum torque

R 2
w.E
Sm,T =
R e2   Xe  X2 
2

It stator impedance is neglected



asy 

R En3 V12
Sm,T = 2
X2
and Tmax =
gin
s (2X 2 )

And also,
T
Tmax
=
 s
2
s 
ee
, where T is the torque at a slip ‘s’
rin
 m,T 

 sm,T s 
g.n
For maximum power

R2
et
Sm,P =
2 2
R  R     X  X    R 
 e 2   e 2  2
   

Starting of Induction Motor

(i) Direct on – line starting


o Directly motor is connected to supply.
2
Te,st I 
o =  st  SFL
Te,FL  IFL 

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(ii) Auto Transformer Starting


o Instead of connecting the motor to direct supply we reduce the voltage from
V1 to  xV1 
o This is done with the help of auto – transformer.
2
Te,st 1  Ist 
o = 2   SFL
Te,FL X  IFL 
2
Te,st auto X'mer   XV 
o =  1  = X2
Te,FL direct   V1 

ww (iii) Star – Delta Starting

w.E o At starting, stator winding is connected in star & in running state stator winding
is connected in delta.

asy
2
 V1 
 
V1 TY  3 1
Vph = ; = =
o
3
En TD V1 2
3

o IY =
1
3
ID
gin
o
Tst
TFL
I 
2
 1

=  st,Y  SFL =  3
I   I
ee 
Ist,d 
 S
 FL
2

;
Tst
TFL rin
1 I 
2

=  st,Y  SFL
3  IFL,d 
 FL,d 


FL,d


g.n
Speed Control of Induction Motor

o Constant V Control
et
f
2
180 sV1
At low slip, T= 
2Ns R 
2

Ns  N
s=
Ns

180 Ns  N V1
2
2
V 
T=     1  Ns  N
2Ns Ns R 2  f 

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For constant torque, Ns  N = constant


So, by varying frequency we vary Ns & since Ns  N = constant we vary N accordingly.

Crawling

o Due to harmonies, the actual torque characteristics may look like

ww
w.E
asy
o
crawling. En
Due to this saddle region, the motor may become stable at a low speed & this is called as

gin
Cogging
o ee
If number of stator slots is equal to or integral multiple number of rotor slots, than at the

rin
time of start, the strong alignment forces between stator teeth & rotor teeth simultaneously
at all rotor teeth may prevent movement of rotor. This is called cogging.
g.n
Single Phase Induction Motor
o
et
According to Double field Revolving Theory, a single phase mmf can be resolved into two
rotating fields one rotating clockwise called as Forward field & other rotating anti-clock wise
called as Backward Field.

Both fields rotate at synchronous speed

120f
Ns =
P

o If rotor rotates at speed Nr , or a slips with respect to forward field.


Than slip with respect to backward field is  2  s 

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o Due to these two fields producing opposing torques on rotor single phase IM is not
self starting.

ww
o To produce starting torque, we introduce an auxiliary winding which is used at the time
of start & is disconnected during the run stage.

w.E
asy
En
gin
ee
We generally design auxiliary winding such that phase difference is approximately 90
between main winding & auxiliary winding currents.
rin
g.n
et

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o Capacitor Start Motor

ww
w.E
o
asy
Capacitor Run Motor

En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
eer
ing
.ne
t

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