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# macroscopic definition of pressure

## The pressure = the amount of squashing force experienced by

one unit of the surface area.

## The pressure = the amount of collisions and intensity of these

collisions experienced by one unit of the surface are
1) Question: In the presence of gravity, do liquids press on the bottom of
container?
Observations: water drops from the opening in the bottom of the cup into the sink
Claim: liquids press on the bottom of container.
Reasoning: Gravity pulls water molecules downwards

## 2) Question: In the presence of gravity, do liquids press on the walls?

Observations: water streams out of the cup through the hole in the side of the cup
Claim: water presses on the sides of the container
Reasoning: particles in water glide and slide against each other. The hole is made in the
cup. The molecules above the hole press down on the molecules next the hole because
of gravity. The space beneath the hole is already cramped. That’s why the molecules by
the hole, which are free to move in different directions, are squeezed outside.
3) Question: Does pressure pushing on the bottom of a container increase with
depth?
Observations: the water flow is wider and stronger in the cup with more water than in
a cup with the smaller amount of water

## Claim: pressure on the bottom of a container increases with depth

Reasoning: the more molecules above the bottom of the container, the more weight is
being pressed on the bottom

## 4) Question: Is pressure exerted on the wall of a container increases with

depth?
Observations: the water spout from the lower opening shoots farther than all the top
opening; if it shoots farther its more intensive

Claim: the pressure of the water on the walls is much greater at the bottom of the
container
Reasoning: Gravity pulls all the molecules down. All the molecules at the top press
down on the bottom molecules, trying to squish them. The deeper, the higher influence
is. This makes molecules at the bottom resist harder (they don’t want to be squashed!),
so they bounce up, down, side to side (their normal behavior) more rapidly or with more
push. Like a spring – if it doesn’t want to be squashed, it has to bounce back harder, the
harder you press onto it. Molecules at deeper levels produce more “push” in all
directions.

## 5) Question: In the presence of gravity, do liquids press on the top?

When the can of beans fell into the water, it quite rudely
displaced a large amount of water molecules from the region
where the can is now. This caused the entire water level to rise.
But water is pulled down by gravity which makes it want to try
and find the lowest level possible. So the water tries to force itself
back into the region of volume that it was displaced from in an
effort to try and lower the overall height of the body of water.
Question: Is pressure the same on a certain level of water?

Atmospheric

## The force from atmospheric pressure on the top of a chessboard

would be comparable to the weight of a car.

## You might wonder how we can pick up the chessboard so easily

if the weight of a car is pushing down on it, but it's because the
weight of a car is also pushing up on it. Remember that the force
from fluid pressure does not just push down, it pushes inwards
perpendicular to the surface from every direction. It may not
seem like there is any air under the chessboard when placed on
the table but the roughness and cracks of the chess board are
enough to allow air underneath. If you could get rid of all the air
underneath the chessboard and prevent air from being allowed
to sneak back in, that board would be stuck to the table like a
suction cup. In fact, that's how suction cups work. They push the
air out to create less pressure inside than out. The smooth plastic
of the suction cup prevents air from sneaking back in. The higher
pressure outside air pushes the suction cup into the surface.

## We aren't harmed by the large atmospheric pressure because

our body is able to exert a force outward to balance the air
pressure inward. But this means that if you were to be thrown
into the vacuum of outer space by space pirates, your body
pressure would continue pushing out with a large force, yet no
air would be pushing in.
Once air sneaks back in, the inside pressure becomes the same
as the outside pressure and the cup can easily be taken off the
surface.
[Hide explanation]

## You probably wouldn't blow up since your body/skin/bones are strong

enough to hold you together. Still, it would be really, really
uncomfortable. Besides the lack of oxygen and possible direct radiation
pop, and the saliva on your tongue would probably boil since the
boiling point of water decreases as pressure goes down. At zero
pressure your body temperature is enough to boil the water on your
tongue as well as the fluid in your eyes. So basically, don't ever get
caught by space pirates.

Metals.

## Results and observations:

MgO

When Al, Sn (Tin) – true metals, Zn – transition metal and Mg – alkali earth metals are
heated, Al ,Sn ,Zn melt, but Mg turns into a white prouder.

Claim: true metals, transition metals melt. Alkali earth metals don’t melt, but react with
oxygen and turn into another compound. Mg can be melted in argon .
Reasoning:
Mg is very reactive, has 2 electrons on its the most outer shell and is eager to give them
away in the presence of O (oxygen).