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# Appendix 1

## Aim/ : To determine the vitamin C content in different fruit juice √ E1 PI1-1

Objective
Problem : Does lime juice contain more vitamin C than pineapple √ E1 PI 1-2
statement juice?
Hypothesis : Lime juice contain more vitamin C than pineapple juice. √ E1 PI 1-3

## Manipulated : Types of fruit juice

Variable
Responding : Volume of fruit juice needed to decolorize the 1 ml √ E1 PI 1-4
Variable DCPIP solution / % of vitamin C
Fixed Variable : Volume of DCPIP solution

## Material : 0.1% ascorbic acid solution, DCPIP solution, freshly

prepared fruit juice and pineapple juice
Apparatus : Specimen tubes, a syringe (1 ml), syringes (5ml) with √ E1 PI1-5
needles, beakers (50ml), gauze cloth, knife and mortar.

## Technique : To record the volume of fruit juice needed to decolorize √ E1 PI1-6

the 1 ml DCPIP using a scaled syringe.

## Procedure 1. Three specimen tubes are labeled as ascorbic acid, lime

juice and pineapple juice.
2. 1 ml of DCPIP solution is placed in each specimen tube.
3. A syringe is filled with 5 ml of ascorbic acid solution.
4. The needle of the syringe is immersed in the DCPIP
solution.
5. The ascorbic solution is added drop by drop to the DCPIP
solution and the tube is shaken slowly.
6. The amount of ascorbic acid solution use to decolorize √ E1 PI 1-7
the DCPIP solution is recorded.
7. Steps 2 to 6 are repeated using lime and pineapple juices.
8. The percentage and concentration of vitamin C in the in
the fruit juices are calculated. using the following

:

## Solution Initial Final Volume Percentage Of Concentration

Results Volume Volume used Vitamin C Of Vitamin C
(ml) (ml) (ml) (%) (mg ml)
Ascorbic √ E3PI 1
5.0 4.0 1.0 - -
Acid
Lime
1/2.5 x
juice 5.0 2.5 2.5 0.4
0.1=0.04
Pineapple 1/3.6 x
5.0 1.4 3.6 0.3
juice 0.1=0.03

Calculation:

## Percentage of vitamin C= Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution X 0.1

Volume of fruit juice
√ E4 PI 1
Concentration of Vitamin C = Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid solution
Volume of fruit juice

## Discussion : The greater the volume of fruit juice needed to decolorize

1ml DCPIP solution, the lower the content of vitamin C √ E4 PI 2
in the fruit juice
The volume of lime juice used to decolorize 1ml DCPIP
solution is 2.5 ml whereas the volume of pineapple juice √ E4 PI 2
used is 3.6 ml.

## Conclusion : Lime juice contain more vitamin C than pineapple juice.

The hypothesis is accepted √ E4 PI3