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3/4/2018

Lecture
WATER TREATMENT WATER TREATMENT

Chapter 4
FILTRATION

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http://www.elaguapotable.com/WT%20-%20Rapid%20Sand%20Filtration.htm

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
FILTRATION FILTRATION

Contents Definition

Filtration = any process for the removal of solid particles from a


• Definition of filtration
suspension by passage of the suspension through a porous
• Mechanism of filtration
medium.

• Type of filtration tank

– Slow sand filter

– Rapid sand filter

– Pressure filter
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http://www.wateronline.com/doc/leopold-filterworx-gravity-granular-media-filter-systems-0001

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Filtration mechanisms Filtration mechanisms


Bacillus 2µm
Sieve mechanism Cryptosporidium 5µm
1. Straining on top of the filter bed Clay particle 20µm
Al or Fe flock 40 µm
2. Transport of particles to grains and attachment to grains:

sedimentation, interception, diffusion

3. Chemical and biological transformations

grain diameter =
0.4 mm = 400 µm

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Source: Metcaf and Eddy (2003) Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4thed.)

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Filtration mechanisms Filtration mechanisms

Chemical transformations
Transport and attachment
4 Fe2+ + O2 + 8 HCO3-  4 Fe(OH)3 ↓ + 8 H3O+
• A. Interception
2 Mn2+ + O2 + 6 H2O  2 MnO2 ↓ + 4 H3O+
• B. Sedimentation
Biological transformations
• C. Diffusion
CH2O + O2 -> CO2 + H2O

2 NH4+ + 3 O2 + 2 H2O  2 NO2- + 4 H3O+ Nitrosomonas

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2 NO2- + O2  2 NO3- Nitrobacter 8

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Classification Classification

Based on filter materials: Based on the rate of filtration:

- Sand filters, e.g. natural silica sand - Rapid sand filtration

- Anthracite filters, e.g. crushed anthracitic coal - Pressure filtration

Based on number layers of filter materials: - Slow sand filtration

- Single medium (sand or anthracite )

- Dual media (anthracite and sand )

- Multi media (anthracite, sand, garnet) 9 10

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FILTRATION FILTRATION

Properties of Filter Media Properties of Granular Filter Media

Desirable characteristics for all filter media Materials Used for Rapid Filtration Media

• Good hydraulic characteristics; • Common materials: sand, anthracite coal, garnet, and ilmenite.

• Does not react with substances in the • Anthracite is harder and contains less volatile material than other

water (inert and easy to clean); types of coal.

• Hard and durable; • Garnet and ilmenite are heavier than sand and

• Free of impurities; and are used as the bottom layer in tri-media filters.

• Insoluble in water. • GAC is also sometimes used.


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Properties of Granular Filter Media Porosity (e) and sphericity (Ψ)

• Porosity (ε): depends on how well the particles fit together

A number of properties of filter media affect filtration performance. The particles becomes less spherical, the porosity of a given

• Porosity and Sphericity volume increases.

• Size and size distribution

Where ε = porosity, dimensionless


VV = void volume in media bed, m3
VT = total volume of media bed, m3
13 VM = volume of media, m3 14

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
FILTRATION FILTRATION

Porosity (e) and sphericity (Ψ) Porosity (e) and sphericity (Ψ)

• Sphericity is the measure of shape, Ψ:


Description Sphericity, Ψ Typical porosity (e)

Spherical 1 0.38

Rounded 0.98 0.38


in which As = πd2 and Vs = πd3/6 Worn 0.94 0.39

d: diameter of the sphere Sharp 0.81 0.4

Angular 0.78 0.43


For irregular shape particle
Crushed 0.7 0.48
15 16
Source: Droste, R. 1997. Theory and practice of water and wastewater treatment

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Effective size and uniformity coefficient Properties of Granular Filter Media


Material Shape Sphericity Relative Porosity Effecitve
• Effective Size: is the media grain diameter at which 10 percent of the
density % size, mm
media by weight is smaller, as determined by a sieve analysis
Silica sand Rounded 0.82 2.65 42 0.4 – 1.0
E = d10 Silica sand Angular 0.73 2.65 53 0.4 – 1.0

• Uniformity coefficient (UC) Ottawa sand Spherical 0.95 2.65 40 0.4 – 1.0

- UC is the ratio of the 60th percentile media grain diameter to the Silica Gravel Rounded 2.65 40 1.0 – 5.0

Garnet 3.1 – 4.3 0.2- 0.4


effective size. UC = d60 / d10
Crushed Angular 0.72 1.5 – 1.75 55 0.4 – 1.4
d60 = sieve size that passes 60% by weight
17 Anthracite 18
d10 = sieve size that passes 10% by weight Source: Droste, R. 1997. Theory and practice of water and wastewater treatment

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
FILTRATION FILTRATION

Effective size and uniformity coefficient


Example: Effective Size and Uniformity Coefficient

Determine the effective size (d10, in mm) and the uniformity coefficient

(UC) for the sand filter media characterized by the sieve analysis results

presented in the following table. Include a plot of % Weight passing versus

media size in your analysis.

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Example: Effective Size and Uniformity Coefficient Example: Effective Size and Uniformity Coefficient

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Example: Effective Size and Uniformity Coefficient Rapid sand filtration

• The most common type of filter for treating municipal water supplies.
From the graph:
• During filtration, the water flows downward through the bed under the
d10 = 0.51 mm force of gravity.
d60 = 0.73 mm
• When the filter is washed, clean water is
UC = d60/d10
forced upward, expanding the filter bed
= 0.73 /0.51
= 1.43 slightly and carrying away the accumulated

impurities, called backwashing. http://www.pumicefiltrationmedia.com/


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Classification by rapid filtration media Rapid sand filtration

Filter Classification Description


The major parts :
Mono media One layer of filter material, usually sand,
• Chamber: filter tank
typically about 0.6–0.76 m deep.
• Filter media (sand)
Dual media Two layers of filter media, with 0.45–0.6 m of
• Gravel support
anthracite over 0.23–0.3 m of sand.
• Under drain system
Multi media Three media, typically anthracite (0.45 – 0.6
m) as the top layer, sand (0.23 – 0.3 m) as • Wash water troughs
the middle layer, and garnet or ilmenite (0.1 – http://whatisacivilengineer.com/water-filtration-system/

0.15 m) as the bottom layer. 25 26

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Principle of rapid sand filtration Rapid sand filtration

• During operation: solids are removed from the water and accumulate

within the voids and on top surface of the filter medium.

 this clogging results in a gradual increase in headloss.

• After a period of operation, the filter is cleaned by backwashing with an

upward flow of water.

• Operating time between backwashes  a Filter Cycle or a Filter Run

• Headloss at the end of filter run  Terminal Head Loss


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http://www.thanetweather.co.uk/water-treatment/atsfiltration.htm

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Principle of filtration Principle of filtration

Operation of a rapid Operation of a rapid

filter: filter:

(a) effluent turbidity (a) effluent turbidity

versus time. versus time.

(b) head loss (b) head loss

development versus time. development versus time.

Fig. 11.5 Definition sketch for length of filter run based on headloss and effluent turbidity
29 30
Source: Metcaf and Eddy (2003) Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4thed.)

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Principle of filtration Filtration – Change in quality

Water

Filter bed

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Source: Crittenden, C.J. MHW’s Water treatment (3rd ed.)

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Filtration – Change in pressure Design variables of Rapid Sand Filtration

• Filtration rate

Water • Filter media

• Underdrain

• Backwash arrangements
Filter bed
• Rate control systems

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Design variables of RSF – Filtration rate Design variables of RSF – Filter media

• Filtration rate (Loading rate): is the flow rate of water

applied per unit area of the filter.

v = Q / As

v : loading rate, m3/m2.h

Q: flow rate, m3/h

A: surface area, m2
35 36
Source: Crittenden, C.J. MHW’s Water treatment (3rd ed.)

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Design variables of RSF – Under drain Bottom of filtration tank – Pipe Laterals

Purposes: • Oldest type

• Supports the sand • Perforated pipe laterals are located

• Collects the filtered water at frequent intervals along manifold

• Perforation in laterals (6-13 mm)


• Distributes the backwash water
located 8-30 cm spacing
Types: www.thewatertreatments.com

• Nozzle

• Lateral pipes 37 38
superengineers.com

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
FILTRATION FILTRATION

Bottom of filtration tank - Nozzles Bottom of filtration tank – Leopold underdrain

www.ftr.com.tr

• A false-floor slab is located 0,3 –0,6 m above the bottom of filter, thus
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providing an underdrain plenum below the false floor http://www.xylem.com/Assets/Resources/1804-Leopold-FilterWorx-Filtration.pdf

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Backwash Backwash

Purpose of backwashing: The backwashing methods:


• To remove suspended material that has been deposited in the • Full fluidized bed backwash
filter bed during the filter cycle
• Surface wash plus fluidized bed backwash
When to backwash?
• Air scour-assisted backwash
• The cleanliness or cloudiness (turbidity) of the water coming out
• Combined air scour and water backwash
of the filter.

• Head loss on the filter


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Backwash – Full fluidized bed backwash Backwash - Surface wash plus fluidized bed backwash

• Backwash water is introduced into the bottom of the bed through Surface washer : to provide the shearing force to clean the grains of

underdrain system. filter medium.

• Backwash flow is continued with full fluidization until the Surface washing period: 1 – 2 min before backwashing cycle begins

Water usage: + Single arm agitator: 20 – 40 L/m2.min


waste wash water is reasonably clear.
+ Dual arm agitator: 60 – 80 L/m2.min
• Is a weak washing method.

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Backwash - Surface wash plus fluidized bed backwash Backwash - Surface wash plus fluidized bed backwash

Type of filter Minimum backwash velocity needed to


fluidize bed

m3/m2.min m/h

Single medium (sand) 1.8 – 2.0 110 - 120

Dual media (anthracite and 0.8 – 1.2 48 - 72

Single arm agitator sand)

Tri media (anthracite, sand, 0.8 – 1.2 48 - 72


garnet or ilmenite)
Dual arm agitator
45 46
Source: Metcaf and Eddy (2003) Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4thed.) Source: Metcaf and Eddy (2003) Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4thed.)

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
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Backwash – Water backwash with Auxiliary air scour Backwash – Combined Air – Water backwash

• The use of air to scour the filter to provide vigorous washing • Used in conjunction with the single medium unstratified filter bed.

action than water alone. • Air and water are applied simultaneously for several minutes.

• Air is applied for 3 – 4 min before water backwashing. • At the end the backwashing, a 2 – 3 min water backwash at sub-

• In some cases, air is also injected during the first part of water fluidization velocities is used to remove any air bubbles.

washing.

• Typical air flowrate = 0.9 – 1.5 m3/m2.min.


47 48
Source: Metcaf and Eddy (2003) Wastewater engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse (4thed.) Source: Metcaf and Eddy (2003) Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4thed.)

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Backwash – Combined Air – Water backwash Backwash

Type of filter Backwash rate

Water (m3/m2.min) Air (m3/m2.min)

0.41 13.1

Sand 0.61 19.7

0.81 26.2

0.28 6.6

Anthracite 0.41 13.1

0.61 19.7
49 50
Source: Metcaf and Eddy (2003) Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse (4thed.)

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
FILTRATION FILTRATION

Design variables of RSF – Rate control systems Design variables of RSF – Rate control systems

• Constant filtration rate • Constant filtration rate – Variable head

+ Variable level filtration

+ Constant level filtration

• Declining filtration rate

51 52
Source: Crittenden, C.J. MHW’s Water treatment (3rd ed.)

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Design variables of RSF – Rate control systems Design variables of RSF – Rate control systems

• Constant filtration rate – Constant head • Declining filtration rate

53 54
Source: Crittenden, C.J. MHW’s Water treatment (3rd ed.) Source: Crittenden, C.J. MHW’s Water treatment (3rd ed.)

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
FILTRATION FILTRATION

Head Loss through Clean Granular Filters Head Loss through Clean Granular Filters

• The head loss (hL) through a clean bed of depth L is given by Ergun: • A clean filter has a bed consisting of uniform, water-worn sand
grains 0.7 mm in diameter. The porosity of the bed is 0.4 and the
bed is 0.8 m deep. If the flow rate is 5400 L.h-1.m-2, estimate the
head loss if the viscosity of the water is 1 x 10-3 kg/s.m -2,Ψ =0.9.

Laminar regime Turbulent regime

v = Filtration velocity, m/s L = Depth of filter bed, m


ρW = Water density, kg/m3 d = Grain diameter, m
μ = Dynamic viscosity of fluid, kg/ms Ɛ = Porosity
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g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 m/s2 ψ = Shape factor

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Backwash Hydraulics – Bed expansion and Porosity Backwash Hydraulics – Bed expansion and Porosity

• Bed expension: • Head of the expended medium:

LE = depth of expanded bed, m

LF = depth of bed at rest (fixed bed), m

εE = porosity of expanded bed, dimensionless


hL = headloss of the expended medium
εF = porosity of bed at rest (fixed bed), dimensionless
ρp = particle density, kg/m3
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ρW = Water density, kg/m3

Chapter 4 Chapter 4
FILTRATION FILTRATION

Design of Rapid Sand Filtration Rapid Sand Filtration

Item Rapid sand filter Advantages:

Filtration rate 100 – 475 m3/m2.h • Highly effective for removal of turbidity (usually < 0.1-1 NTU)

Depth of bed 0.5 m of gravel • High filter rate (4 – 12 m3/h.m2), small footprint.
0.75 m of sand
• No limitations regarding initial turbidity levels
Effective size: >= 0.45 mm
UC <= 1.5 • Short-time backwashing, filters can be re-operate instantly

Length of run 12 – 24 – 72 h
Source: Droste, R. 1997. Theory and practice of water and wastewater treatment
59 60
http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-purification/hardware/semi-centralised-drinking-water-
treatme-14

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Rapid Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration Goal:

Disadvantages: • To make hygienically safe water

• Not effective in removing bacteria, viruses, and organic matter • Polishing filtration (colloids, turbidity)

• High capital and operational costs

• Require frequent backwashing (every 24 - 72h)

• Skilled supervision essential

• High energy input required

• Backwashing water and sludge needs to be treated 61 http://www.cityofsalem.net/DEPARTMENTS/PUBLICWORKS/OPERATIONS/WATER%20SERVICES/Pages/ 62


SlowSandFiltration.aspx

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Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration

– Purpose: Extra force to push water Supernatant Water: Layer on Biological Layer: The Schmutzdecke

through filter top of Schmutzdecke


• A bio-layer grows on top of the sand layer due to the presence of
– Criteria: Depth no less than 1.5 m
organic and biological matter in raw water.
– Concern
• The bio-layer consumes organic contaminants including bacteria and
• May freeze in cold climate
viruses.
• Covered filter could be used, but is
• The majority of biological activity occurs in the top 20 cm of the filter
often most costly and need to supply
www.esemag.com 63 64
room for operators.

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Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration

Filter Media- Fine Sand Filter Bed Filter Media- Gravel layer

– Criteria for top layer of filter media • Top: Finest (2-8 mm)

• Size of particles: ~0.15-0.35 mm • Middle: Size 8-16 mm

• Particles must be uniform • Bottom: Coarsest (16-32 mm)


en.wikipedia.org
• Free of organic matter, loam, and clay Sand (0.1-0.3)
http://www.klandscapes.com
• Depth greater than 0.6 m
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Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration


Mechanisms:
Location: after rapid sand filtration Grain diameter: 0.1 - 0.3 mm
- Biological,
Run time: few months to one year Filtration speed: 0.1 - 0.3 m/h
- Mechanical sieving of colloids,
 high surface area requirements Biological
Physical
- Adsorption
Chemical
Polluted water

Microorganisms
Sand

Gravel
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http://www.msfilter.com/products.php Source: WHO (n.y.) 68

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Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration

Monitoring and Operation requirements Monitoring and Operation requirements

• A slow sand filter must be cleaned when the fine sand becomes • Cleaning filter bed by scraping off the top layer

clogged.  A period of 1 to 2 days is required to produce a functioning

• The length of time between cleanings = several weeks to a year, biological filter.

depending on the raw water quality. • The filtered water quality is poor during this time and should not

be used.
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Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration

Monitoring and Operation requirements

• Slow sand filter monitoring and operation is not complicated.

• Daily tasks include reading and recording head loss, raw and

filtered water turbidity, flow rates, and disinfectant residual.

• If necessary, the operator should adjust the flow to bring water


Source: Vigneswaran, S. and C. Visvanathan.1995. Water Treatment Processes: Simple Options.
production in line with demand.
71 72
http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/pdf/dw/publications/ontap/2009_tb/slow_sand_filtration_dwfsom40.pdf

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Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration

Advantages: Disadvantages:

- Design and operation simplicity, - Require a large land area, large quantities of filter media

- Minimal power and chemical requirements, - Manual labor for cleaning.


- Reduces bacteria, cloudiness, and organic levels  reducing
- Water with high turbidity levels can quickly clog the fine
the need for disinfection  less disinfection byproducts.
sand in these filters.
- Minimal sludge handling problems

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Comparsion of RSF and SSF Pressure Filtration

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Source: Crittenden, C.J. MHW’s Water treatment (3rd ed.) Source: http://mefass.net/index.cfm?pgId=22

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Pressure Filtration Pressure Filtration

• Using a steel pressure vessel Advantages & Disadvantages

• May be a cylindrical tank with vertical axis, or a horizontal axis • Influent is under pressure  higher filtration rate

cylindrical tank. • No negative pressure can ever exist in filter medium.

• Be used in small water systems ( e.g industrial applications) • Filter medium is in a closed vessel (i.e, it is not conveniently visible)

• Water to be filtered enters the filter under pressure and leaves at

slightly reduced pressure because of the headloss encountered in

the filter medium, underdrain and piping.


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Pressure Filtration Pressure Filtration

Filtration rates in pressure sand filter (Degremont, 1979)

Effective size, mm 0.35 0.55 0.75 0.95

Filtration rate, m/h 25 -35 40 - 50 55 - 70 70 -90

The filtration rate may range up to 25 – 50 m/h in dual-media

pressure filters.

79 80
Source: Droste, R. 1997. Theory and practice of water and wastewater treatment

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