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# Damping

## Most natural systems possess damping. It can be easily included in the

dynamic equations: the resulting element equations will then be

## where [c] is the damping matrix. Determination of damping properties of

material is a very important topic and is discussed in various publications
([41: the bibliography).

PROBLEMS

10-1. Compute the element consistent mass matrix for the quadratic approxima-
tions [Eq. (J-401].
/I = ±UL - 1)[(1 -t- (I - L2) Uo --r- tUL ~ l)u2'

## where a denotes the middle node.

Solution.

Af'l 'f
LIL I
- )}
[m] ~ \(1 - L') [LIL - I) II - L') L(L + t)]dL
, L(I + 1)

l6
8 -4]
10-2. Compute
~ Api
120
l-4
8

64
8
8.
t6

## mass matrix for cubic (Hermitian function)

II:
u = (1 - 352 -I- 2s3)uJ -I- 15(s -
au,
l)2ax

## + s'(J - 2s)u, + ls-ts - I )-a

au '.
x

Solution:
156 22 54
Api 22 4 13 -13]
-3
[m] ~ 420 54 13 156 -22
[
-13 -3 -22 4

## 10-3. Perform computations for three time steps in Example 10-1.

10-4. Consider a single-element discretization which can be replaced by a spring·
mass system. It is subjected to a forcing function P", as shown in Fig. 10-6.
Specialize Eq. (lO-lOa) for this single element and obtain solutions for tWO
time steps. Assume properties as in Example 10-1. Compare numerical results

234
Chapter 10 One-Dimensional Stress Wave Propagation 235

Figure 10-6

## with the closed form solution from

P
1I(t) ~ k'(1 - cosP/),

where p2 = klrn, where k and In are the stiffness and mass of the spring,
respectively. The initial conditions are: u(x, 0) = u(x, 0) = O.
10-5. Prepare a computer problem based on Eq. (lO-to) and solve Probs. 10-3 and
10-4.

REFERENCES

## [I] LOVE, A. E. H" A Treatise on Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Dover, New

York, 1944.

[2] TIMOSHENKO, S., and GOODIER, J. N., Theory 0/ Elasticity, McGraw-Hili, New
York, 1970.

[3] CARNAHAN, B., LUTHER, H. A., and WILKES, J. 0., Applied Numerical Methods,
Wiley, New York, 1969.

[4] DESAI, C. S., and CHRISTIAN, J. T., (eds.), Numerical Methods in Geotechnical
Engineering, McfIraw-Hill, New York, 1977.
[5] DESAI, C. S., and ABEL, J. F., Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.

[6) WILSON, E. L., "A Computer Program for the Dynamic Stress Analysis of
Underground Structures," Report No. 68-1, University of California, Berkeley,
Calif., 1968.

[7) YAMADA, Y., and NAGAI, Y., "Analysis of One-Dimensional Stress Wave by
the Finite Element Method," Seisan Kenkyu, Journal of Industrial Science,
Univ. of Tokyo, Japan, Vol. 23, No.5, May 1971, pp. 186-189.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARCHER, J. S., "Consistent Mass Matrix for Distributed Mass Systems," J. Struct.
oi« ASCE, Vol. 39, No. ST4, Aug. 1963.
CLOUGH, R. W., "Analysis of Structural Vibrations and Dynamic Response," in
Proc. U.S. Japan Seminar, Tokyo, 1969 (Gallagher, R. H., Yamada, Y., and
Oden, J. T. eds.), University of Alabama Press, Huntsville, 1971.
236 One-Dimensional Stress Wave Propagation Chapter 10

DESAI, C. S. (ed.), Proc. Symp. Oil App!. of Finite Element Methods in Geotech. Eng.,
Waterways Expt. Station, Vicksburg, Miss" 1972.
DESAI, C. S. (ed.), Proc. Second lntl Conf. on Num, Methods in Geomech., Blacks-
burg, Va., 1976, Vols. I, II, III, ASCE, 1976.
DESAI, C. S" and LYTTON, R. L., "Stability Criteria of Finite Element Schemes for
Parabolic Equation," Int. J. Num. Methods Eng., Vol. 9, 1975, pp. 721-726.
IDRISS,1. M., SEED, H. B., and SERIFF, N., "Seismic Response by Variable Damping
Finite Elements," J. Geotech. Eng. ot« ASCE, Vol. 100, No. GTl, 1974, PP·
1-13.
KREIG, R. D" and KEY, S. W., "Comparison of Finite Element and Finite Differ-
ence Methods," Proc. ONR Symp, NUIl1. Methods Struct. Mech., University
of Illinois, Sept. 1971, (Femes, S.l., Perrone, N., Robinson, A.R., and Schno-
brich, W.e. eds.) Academic Press, New York, 1973.
NEWMARK, N. M., "A Method of Computation of Structural Dynamics," Proc.
ASCE, Vol. 85, No. EM3, 1959, pp. 67-94.
NICKELL, R. E., "Direct Integration Methods in Structural Dynamics," J. Eng.
Mech. Div. ASCE, Vol. 99, No. EM2, April 1973.
II
TORSION

INTRODUCTION

## Until now we have considered problems that can be idealized as one-dimen-

sional. They involved only line elements and, except for beam bending, had
only one unknown at each node. Next, we advance to problems that can be
idealized as two-dimensional.
We choose torsion first because it involves only one degree of freedom or
unknown at each point (node). A number of other problems, often called
field problems (Chapter 12), are governed by equations similar to those for
the torsion problem.
We shall illustrate here a number of formulation procedures: displace-
ment, stress or equilibrium, and hybrid and mixed, which are based on the
energy principles, For all these formulations, we approximate the behavior
of a bar [Fig. 11-1(a)) subjected to torsion by considering essentially the
behavior of the cross section of the bar [Fig. II-I(b)]. In the semi-inverse
method of Saint- Vena nt, it is assumed that the twisting of the bar is composed
of the rotations of the cross sections of the bar as in the case of a circular bar
and of warping of the cross sections; the latter is constant for all cross
sections (1, 2]. As a consequence, no normal stress exists between the longi-
tUdinal fibers of the bar. Also there is no distortion of the planes of cross
section, and hence the strain components Ex, e.. and YXY vanish, and only
PUre shear components Yxz and y)'z will remain.

237

bt-. _
238 Torsion Chapter 11

Triangular element

v, V J
Y
i
i v, v
x. u
o
L: X '
M, '----+-~~x. u
e, w

lal (bl

lei

## Figure 11~1Torsion of bar. (a) Bar subjected to torsion. (b) Cross

section of bar. (c) Warping.

## For the two-dimensional approximation, we shall consider discretization

involving triangular elements (Fig, 11-2); quadrilateral elements are treated
in Chapter 12. For the triangular case, a linear approximation for the un-
a bilinear approximation can be chosen (Chapter 12). This constitutes the
first two steps in the finite element formulation.

## TRIANGULAR FINITE ELEMENT

Before considering subsequent steps, we shall first detail some of the proper-
ties of the triangular element.
As discussed in Chapter 3, it is advantageous to use the concept of local
coordinate systems for finite element formulations. For the triangular ele-
ment, the local or area coordinates are often defined in terms of component
Chapter 11 Torsion 239

Pix, vi
(L1, L2, L3)
,
,
,

A, ' L, == 0
v A,

L.,
CD L-'-'-' A~3.-~~0
(x2• Y2)
(x"v,1 L3=0 (0,1,01
'1,0,01

## ° Figure 11-2 Triangular element.

areas, A" A2, and A, (Fig, 11-2), Then in the nondimensional form, the
local coordinates L" L2, and L3 are defined as

i = 1,2,3. (II-I)

## Since L, + L2 + L, ~ I, there are only two independent local coordinates

corresponding to the two global coordinates x and y, The relationship
between the global and the local coordinates is given by
a
x = L,». + L,x + L,x
2 J ~ ~
;=1
Lix,
3
(l1-2a)
Y ~ L,y, + L,y, + LJYJ ~ ~ L,y"
;=1

(l1-2b)

where [N] is the matrix of interpolation functions N which are the same as
"
the local coordinates L,; these are plotted in Fig, 11-3,

## is the vector of nodal coordinates, Equation (11-2) represents linear variations

for coordinates at any point P(x, y),

## Figure 11-3 Distribution of interpolation functions N), i = 1,2,3.

I
/)1
;s-; ,
/
/
I
I 0 \ ,
I
/
/ ,,
240 Torsion Chapter 11

## The inverse relation corresponding to Eq. (11-2) is

I
N, ~ L, ~ 2i2A" + b,x + a,y),
I
N« ~ L2 ~ 2i2A" + b,» + a y), 2 (11-3a)

1
N, ~ L, = 2i2A" + b,x + a,y),
or
/. y , Y _ 'I,ll ZA ,"L' 'I, -II-' 17 -/J
?.A,,< '1-, Yl{~,}) '- 'l.-Al~~:''b,' a'J { 1 }
». ~ 2~ 2A" bz az x' (11-3b)
N) 2A12 b3 G3 Y
where 2A = a3b2 - a2b3 = alb3 - a.b, = a.b, - ajb1; A is the total area
of the triangle; AZ3 is the area of the triangle whose vertices are nodes 2, 3
and the origin 0 and so on; and a, and b, are given as differences between
various nodal coordinates:
b, = Y2 - Y3,
hz =Y3 - Yl, (11-3c)
aJ=x2-x j, b3=Y1-Y2'
The unknown, represented by a general symbol u, can be expressed as
u = n,«, + NZu2 + N3u3
= [N][q}, (11-4a)
where [N] is the matrix of interpolation functions and yields linear variation
ofu over the triangle. Since [N] in Eqs. (11-2) and (11-4) is the same, we can
call this element an isoparametric triangular element.

## FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION

Displacement Approach

## First we consider the displacement approach. According to Saint-Venant

torsion [I, 2], in the absence of body forces, the differential (Laplace) equa-
tion governing torsion in a homogeneous and isotropic bar can be expressed
as
a'ljI aZIjl
ax' + ayz = 0, (11-5)

where x and yare the global coordinates in the plane of cross section of the
bar (Fig. 11-1). The warping function, 1jI, is related to the displacement IV
in the z direction, and is assumed to be constant along the length of the bar
Chapter II Torsion 241

## and function only of x and y (Fig. 11-1):

w = e'll(x,y), (l1-6a)
where e is the twist of the bar per unit length under the applied twisting
moment, M, [Fig. 11-I(a)J. The warping function denotes a measure of warp-
ing of the cross sections of the bar [Fig. ll-l(c)J. The other two displacement
components, u and v, are given by
u = -8zy,
v ~ ezx. (l1-6b)

## The boundary condition along the surface of the bar is given by

(a'll Y
ax _ y)dds _ (a'll
ay + x)dxds ~ 0,
(11-7)

## where s is measured along the surface or boundary. Equation (11-7) indicates

that the shear stress normal to the boundary, Ton is O.

is [2]

[e} -

! ~;
+ ~~l
!e(~~- y))
~; + ~~
- !YX»
yy,
-
e(~;+ x)
,
(11-8)

## where fEy ~ [Yx> Y,,] is the vector of (shear) strain components.

In the general three-dimensional problem, there are six nonzero compo-
nents of stress [2]. However, for the foregoing two-dimensional idealization,
there are only two nonzero shear-stress components, '!'xz = rzx and Ty: = TZy,
corresponding to the two shear-strain components. The constitutive rela-
tion can be expressed as

( 11-9)

where fay = [Tx> T"J is the vector of (shear) stress components and G is
the shear modulus.

## For the displacement approach, the potential energy function correspond-

ing to Eq. (J 1-5) is given by [3, 4]

= (11-10)
A

## where h is the length of the bar, and A denotes area.

242 Torsion Chapter 11

## According to the general expression [Eq. (11-4a)] for linear variation of

'If, we lia ve
'If(x,y) ~N,'If, + N''lf2 + N,'If,
~ [N,][q,}, (11-4b)

where 'If(x, y) is the warping function at any point (x, y) in the triangular
element and [q,Y ~ ['If, 'If, 'If,] is the vector of nodal values of the warp-
ing function.

## As discussed in Chapter 3, the approximation function in Eq. (11-4b)

should satisfy continuity within an element, interelernent compatibility, and
completeness. Equation (l1-4b) is the transformed version of the polynomial
form of linear approximation for lfI as

## which is continuous within the element.

The highest order of derivative in the energy function [Eq. (11-10)] is I;
hence the approximation function should provide interelernent compatibility
up to order 1 - 1 = 0, that is, for warping functions. The linear approxima-
tion indeed provides for compatibility of warping functions across interele-
ment boundaries. This is illustrated in Fig. 11-4. Since 'lfl = '1ft and 'lfl = 'lfl
and since only one straight line can pass through two points, the variations
of warping function along the edge AA of element I and BB of element 2
must coincide. That is, at the common boundary, compatibility of IJI is

## Figure 11-4 Interelernent compatibility.

,/
,,

~~ == 1P~
~~ == warping at node 2 of element 1, and so on
Chapter 11 Torsion 243

fulfilled. Note that for linear approximation this does not necessarily imply
interelement compatibility of higher orders, such as the first derivatives.
Since the approximation function in Eq. (l1-4c) provides for rigid body
motion (term (Xl) and constant state of strains or gradients of 1JI (terms C't2x
and "'zy), it is complete. Notice that in this problem, there exist two such
states: a!fljax and a!fl/ay. Furthermore, it contains all terms up to the order
n = 1 in the polynomial expansion for the two-dimensional problem. This
idea can be explained by using the polynomial expansion represented (by
Pascal's triangle) as follows:

## order or degree (n)

of polynomial
n=O constant
x y I Linear
x' x2y xy2 y' 3 Cubic
x' x'y y
X2 2 xyJ y' 4 Quartic

We can see that for the linear approximation in Eq. (l1-4c), all the three terms
up to and including n ~ I are provided.
To find the values of the derivatives in Eq. (11-8), we use the following
rule of differentiation:

## a!fl _ aN, a!fl + aN2 a!fl + aN, a!fl

(l1-lla)
ax - ax aN, ax aN, ax aN,

## a!fl _ aN, a!fl + aN2 a!fl + aN, a!fl .

(II-lib)
ay - ay s», dY aN2 ay s»,

## For example, by differentiation of N, (i ~ I, 2, 3) and !fI with respect to x

in Eqs. (11-3) and (l1-4b), we obtain

a!fl a [ I
ax = ax 2A(2AzJ + b,x + a,y) ] aN,
a
(N,!fI, + N2!f1, + N,!fIJ)

+ axa [ 2A(2A"
I + bzx + a2y)] aNa 2 (N,!fI, + Nz!fl2 + NJ!fI,)
+ axa [ 2A(2A"
I a (N'!fI' + N2!f12+ NJ!fI,)
+ b,x + a,y) ] aN,
-- 2A!fI,
b, + 2A!fI2
b 2
- I b3
2A!fI,· (II - 12a )

Since A23• etc., are constants, they do not contribute to the results after
differentiation. Since the !fI, (i ~ 1,2,3) are values at the nodes and not
-
244 Torsion Chapter 11

functions of N, and (x, Y), they also do not contribute to the differentiation.
Similarly,

(l1-12b)

## Equations (l1-12a) and (11-1 2b) are combined in matrix notation as

(l1-12c)
Here [B] is the strain-warping function transformation matrix.
Hence Eq. (11-8) becomes

(l1-13a)

~ O[B](q.J + {-OYl
Ox· (l1-13b)

A
- 2~~Y + y 2
] + [(~~r
+ 2~~ + x2])dXdy
(l1-14a)

## ~ G;" ~([~ :nllil :nl:j

+ '[:;

+ [y x] 1:!)dXdY (l1-14b)

Substitution from Eqs. (11-12) and (11-13) into Eq. (l1-14b) gives

II, = G~02(JJ[(q.YrBnB](q.J
A
+ 2(q.YrBY{ -~:l
+ [Ym XmJ{::l])dXdY, (11-15)
Chapter 11 Torsion 245

where Xm ~ (XI X, + +
x,)/3 and Ym ~ (YI Y, +
y,)/3 are the assumed +
mean values. It is not necessary to make this assumption, however. We can
substitute for X and Y from Eq. (11-2) and pursue the derivations, which will
be somewhat more involved. Now we invoke the principle of stationary
(minimum) potential energy; hence

all, = 0
aljll '
all, = 0 (11-16)
aljl, '
all p ~ 0
atp3 '

## GhO' I} [BY[BJdxdy[q.J = GhO' I} [BY{ _~:}dXdY. (lI-17a)

Note that the last term in IIp, being constant, does not contribute to the
results. Equation (lI-17a) can be written in matrix form as

(l1-17b)
where [k.l is the element stilfness matrix:

A

(I1-17d)

## They can be evaluated as follows:

b l all
~hJ,'If b, b,
b'J
[k.l =
r
b3
G,

a3
[~:
G, a,
dxdy. (l1-ISa)

Since G; and b; are constants, the integral equals the area; hence

## [k.J = GhO' A [BY[B]

Or

(II-ISb)

b
246 Torsion Chapter 11

and

II s, l
b'
[Q.J = GhB' (11-19a)
b3

_GhB2Ab
- 2A

GbB'
l b'
2

b,

b'Ym -
a'J
QZ

Q3
{Ym}

a,xm}
_
Xm

## = -2- b2Ym - QzX m . (11-19b)

{
b3Ym - Q3X m
We note that the term GbB is common on both sides of Eq. (11-17a) and can
2

be deleted, because of the assumption that the bar is isotropic and the prob-
lem is governed by the Laplace equation [Eq. (11-5)].

Step S. Assembly

## Example 11-1. Torsion of Square Bar:

Warping Function Approach

Equations (11-ISb) and (11-19b) can now be used to generate stiffness matrices and
load vectors for all the elements in a discretized body. For instance, Fig. 11-5(a)
shows a square bar, 2 em x 2 em, discretized in four elements. Figure t 1-5(b)
shows the four elements with their local and global node numbers. For this example
assume the following properties:
G ~ 1 Njcma,
h~lcm, I,M)1\, o~

The area of each triangle A = 1 ern>. These properties are chosen in order to
illustrate the procedures; they do not necessarily refer to practical problems.
The quantities a, and hi for the four elements are as follows:
Element 1:
G, = X3 - X2 = 1 - 2 = -I, h, = Y2 - Y3 = 0- I = -1
G2 = X, - X3 = 0 - 1 = -1, b2 = Y3 - Y, = 1 - 0 = 1, (11-20a)
G3 = X2 - Xl = 2 - 0 = 2, bJ = Y, - Y2 =0- 0 = 0,
and Xm ~ (0 + 2 + ll/3 ~ I, Ym ~ (0 + 0 + 1)/3 ~ t.
Element 2:
a, = ] - 0 = J, b, = 0 - 1 = -1,
G2 = 0 - 1 = -1, b2 = 1 - 2 = -1, (11-20b)
a3 ~ 0 - 0 ~ 0, b, ~ 2 - 0 ~ 2,
and Xm ~ (l + 0 + Ol/3 ~ j, Ym ~ (2 + 0 + 1)/3 ~ 1.
Chapter 11 Torsion 247

~r, 10,21
2a =:: 2 em
'10
12,21

ffi
E
u
N

"
D
11 ®[1
N

&
CD 10, OJ 12,01 ~x

## (al CD Global node

1 Local node

0
2
0 & Element

& 2

3
,& 3 5 3 [1
3

2 &
2
CD 0
Ibl

Figure 11-5 Torsion of square bar. (a) Square bar and mesh.
(b) Elements with local and global nodes.

Element 3:
Ql=1-2=-1, b1=2-1=1,
a, ~ 2 - 1 ~ 1, bz ~ I - 0 ~ 1, (11-20c)
a, ~ 2 - 2 ~ 0, b s ~ 0 - 2 ~ -2,
and Xm ~ (2 + 2 + 1)/3 ~ i, Ym ~ (0 + 2 + 1)/3 ~ L
Element 4:
Gj = 1 - 0 = 1, b, ~ 2 - I ~ I,
a-i = 2 - 1 = 1, b, ~ 1 - 2 ~ -1, (11-20d)
a, ~ 0 - 2 ~ - 2, b, ~ 2 - 2 ~ 0,
and Xm ~ (2 + 0 + 1)/3 ~ 1, Ym ~ (2 + 2 + 1)/3 ~ {,
248 Torsion Chapter 11

Substitution of these values into Eqs. (1l-18b) and (l1-19b) gives the following:

Element 1:

Global---- ...
' I 2 5 ]
o
I Local --------+ 1 2 3 (5

I~ -2]{~1lJI::~ ~I}
1 I
I

2
I

2 ~
o
2 -2 lJI2 = ~
{j}j. (l1-2Ia)
5 3 l-2 -2 4 IJIJ - IJIs -2

Element 2:

Global----+' 3 5

I Local-l 2 3
1 1
3
I

5
1
2
3
~
I~
l-2
~ =~]{~;:~:} {=:}.
-2 4 IJIJ-lJIs
= ~
2
(1l-2Ib)

Element 3:

Global---- ...
' 2 4 5

I Local~l 2 3

## I~ -2]{1JI1VI::fII41J12} =--} {!}

1 1
2 I o
4 2 ~ 2 -2
=
-j. (11-2Ie)
5 3 l-2 -2 4 IJIJ-lJIs -2

Element 4:

Global----+, 4 3 5 ]
o
I Local c-c-c-e-s-I 2 3 (5

-2]{~t
lJI::~ ~4} +{j}
j j
o

l
4 I 2
3 2 .!..
4
0 -22 lJ!3 = -! . (l1-2Id)
5 3 -2 -2 4 IJIJ-lJIs 2

In Eq. (11-21) the superscript denotes an element, and we have shown the relations
between local and global node numbers. For the particular node numbering chosen
in this example the coefficients of the element matrices are the same. IIi fact, even if
a different numbering is used, if the elements are of equal dimensions, [kll'] can be
generated once it is obtained for one element.
The assembly procedure is carried out by observing the fact that the values of
If! at common nodes are compatible. Thus, by adding the local coefficients in
appropriate locations in the global relation, we obtain
Chapter 11 Torsion 249

Global---------C>, 1 2 3 4 5
j
1 (2 + 2) 0 0 0 (-2 - 2) 'If I
2 0 (2 + 2) 0 0 (-2 - 2) 'If,
1
3 0 0 (2 + 2) 0 (-2 - 2)
4 'lf3
4 0 0 0 (2 + 2) (-2 - 2) 'If.
5 (-2 - 2) (-2 - 2) (-2 - 2) (-2 - 2) (4 + 4 + 4 + 4) 'If,
~--j=O
4+t~4
I
2: -4 - J = -4 (11-22a)
-f + f = 0
-2 + 2 - 2 + 2 ~ 0
or
4 0 0 0 -4 'If 1 0
0 4 0 0 -4 'lf2 16
0 0 4 -4 1
0 'lf3 ~2: -16 (11-22b)
0 0 0 4 -4 'If. 0
-4 -4 -4 -4 16 'If I 0
or
[K](r} ~ [R}, (l1-22c)
where [K] is the assemblage stiffness matrix, {r} is the vector of global nodal warping
functions, and {R} is the assemblage nodal forcing parameter vector.
Since the values of the warping function are relative, the boundary conditions
can be introduced by assigning datum value of 'I' to one of the nodes. Then we shall
obtain relative values of nodal warping functions. For example, assume 'f/l = O.
Then the modified equations are obtained by deleting the first row and column in
Eg. (l1-22b) (see Chapter 3):

-4
I ~ 1-:1
[ o~ ~ ~ =:]1::1
0
-4
4
-14
-4
16
'If 4
'If I
0
0
(11-22d)

## Step 6. Secondary Quantities

The secondary quantities can be the shear stresses and twisting moment.
Equation (11-9) can be used to find the shear stresses in the four elements:

...
250 Torsion Chapter 11

Element 1:

(l1-23)

## Substitution from Eq. (1I-20a) then gives

Tx,}
{ T"
= ~l-I X0 + 1X2 + 0 X
2-1xO-lx2+2xO
o} + {-1}
1

=-H-~}+ {-~}
~g}.
Element 2:

Element 3:

Element 4:

## The shear stresses are plotted in Fig. 11-6.

TWISTING MOMENT
The expression for twisting moment M, in the bar is given by [2, 3, 4]

M, ~ GO II A
(-y~~ + x~ + x2 + y2)dxdy. (11-24a)

Often M,jGO is called the torsional constant and is used to express solution
for the twisting moment in the bar.
If we assume x; and Ym as average constant values associated with the
first two terms in the integrand and since alf//ax and alf/jay are constant for
Chapter 11 Torsion 251

## the linear approximation, the integral in Eq. (11-24a) can be approximated

as

M,
GO -_ m~,
M _
M,m -];, M [
-YmA (a'll)
ax m + xmA (a'll)
ay m + X-m -
+ Ym )J , (l1-24b)

and

## Ym ~ ~ (yi + y; + y; + y,y, + y,YJ + y,y,).

M is the total number of elements, In denotes an element, and Mtm denotes
the contribution to twisting moment by element m.
v, T ve

I Stresses shown at
centroids of elements

~o
2

~L
3

E
u
a N

,' 2cm
,I
Figure 11-6 Plots of computed shear stresses: warping function
approach.

The total twisting moment can now be found as the sum of element
twisting moments. Substitute for a'll/ax and a'll/ay from Eq. (11-12), and the
coordinates of the nodes of each element lead to the following:
Element 1:

~~ ~ -J:( -I X0 +I X 2 +0 X 0) ~ I,

~ ~ ±(-1 X0 - 1 X 2 + 2 X 0) = -I,

XI +11 =!'
M" ~ -t X I +I X (-I) + i ~ -4 + i·

bn
252 Torsion Chapter 11

Element 2:

## ~ ~ i[1 X (-2) - 1X0 + 0 X 0] ~ -1,

X2 + Y2 = ~,
M" ~ -1 X 1 + t X (-1) + ~~ -~ +!.
Element 3:

~~ ~ i(l X 2 + 1 X 0 - 2 X 0) = 1,

X3 + Y3 = 264,

## M" ~ -I - 1+ 2,4 = _~+ 2:.

Element 4:

~~ ~ ±[I X 0 - 1 X (-2) +0 X 0] = I,

## ~ = ±[1 X 0 + 1 X (-2) - 2 X 0] ~ -1,

X4 +)\ = 264,

M" ~ -1- 1 + 2: = -~ + ¥.
Therefore

## = -t(4 + 4 + 8 + 8) + i(8 + 8 + 24 + 24)

~-¥ + ': ~ -8 + 10.6666
~ 2.6666 N-cm.

## COMPARISONS OF NUMERICAL PREDICTIONS

AND CLOSED FORM SOLUTIONS

Twisting Moment

## Based on the stress function approach presented subsequently, a closed

form solution for the twisting moment for a square bar is given by [2]
M, == 0.1406G8(2a)' (11-25)
-------------------!!!!!!I!I-;
1
Chapter 11 Torsion 253

or

## '::e "" 0.1406(2a)',

where a ~ the half width of the bar. Hence, the closed form value of the
torsional constant is

## '::e "" 0.1406(2 X 1)'

"" 0.1406 X 16
"" 2.250 crrr'.
The value computed from the finite element procedure is 2.666; hence
the error is

## error 2.2500 - 2.6666 X 100

2.2500
- -18.5%.

Shear Stresses

From the stress function approach (see next section), the closed form
values of the components of shear stresses, Eq. (l1-28a) below, can be
obtained from the following expression for closed form solution for stress
function in a rectangular bar [2]:

rp* = _32_~_()_3
"
a_ _
2

'-1.3,5,.. n3
I: ~ 1[I _ cos h(nnyj2a)]
(-l )'~
cos h(nnbj2a)
cos (nnx)
2a
(l1-26a)
t* ~ arp = l6G()a L: ~(_I)';I sin h(nnyj2a) cos (nnx)
x:: ay n2 n=I,3,5, .. n? cos h(nnbj2a) 2a
(l1-26b)

t* ~ - arp ~
,. ax
16G()a
n',~
I: .L (_1)';1
3.5, .. n'
I,
[I _ cos h(nnyj2a)]
cos h(nnbj2a)
sin (nnx)
2a
(l1-26c)

where x and yare measured from the center point of the bar, and a and b
denote half the dimensions of the cross section of the bar, respectively.
In the finite element analysis, we assumed linear approximation for the
warping function; hence, the distribution of shear stresses is constant at every
point in the element. This element can, therefore, be called the constant
strain or stress triangle (CST). If we had used a higher-order approximation,
shear stresses would vary from point to point in the element. In view of the
Constant values for the shear stresses, it is often customary, as shown in Fig.
1I-6, to attach them at the centroids of the elements. For the purpose of com-
254 Torsion Chapter 11

parison and error analysis below, we compute the closed form or exact
values of shear stresses at the centroid of an element. It must be understood
that this is only an approximation, since the computed shear stresses are
constant over an element as a part of the formulation, and are attached at
the centroid only for convenience.
The subject of error analysis is important and wide in scope. OUf purpose
is to introduce the topic by presenting comparisons between computed and
closed form solutions for some of the prohlems in this chapter. In making
these comparisons we have considered only typical elements and nodes.
For Example 11-1, let us choose element 3. The centroidal coordinates of
this element are
x ~ 0.667 and y = 0.000.
Then use of Eqs. (11-26b) and (l1-26c) gives closed form values of shear
stresses as
r;, ~ 0.000 Njcav"; rJ, = 0.775 Nlcttv.
These and the subsequent closed form solutions are obtained by using n = 25
In Eq. (11-26). The errors in the two components are then given by

error in 1: =
r*xz - r Xz x lOO
xz r~z
~ 0.000 - 0.000
= 0.00%,

## and error in 1:yz = r yz* - 1:yz X 100

r;z
0.775 - 0.667
0.775
~ 14.00%.
Comment: The foregoing comparisons show that despite linear approxi-
mation, and the rather crude mesh, the computed results yield realistic solu-
tions of the same order of magnitude. Here we used a coarse mesh mainly
to illustrate hand calculations. In general, however, one should use a finer
mesh, and the solution will improve significantly. For instance, with a finer
mesh, say with 200 elements, the computed value of the torsional constant
for the square bar would involve an error of less than 1.0 %.

STRESS APPROACH

The torsion problem can be expressed by using the concept of stress function,
rp [1-7]; this approach represents the same phenomenon as represented by
the warping function, but it is an alternative or dual representation for
----------------. -I~-\

## Chapter 11 Torsion 255

torsion. The governing differential equation for a linear, isotropic, and homo-
geneous medium, in terms of o, according to Prandtl [1, 2], is
1 a''fi , I a''fi _ _ -
G ax' T G ay2 - -20 - Q(x, y), (11-27)

## where Q is the equivalent forcing parameter, which can be a prescribed known

function of (x, y).
The two nonzero shear stresses in terms of rp are

(11-28a)

## a'fi ~ GO(alJl _ y),

ay ax
(l1-28b)
_ a'fi ~ GO(alJl + x).
ax ay
The energy function associated with Eq. (11-27) is the complementary
energy, expressed as (see Chapter 3)
Il, ~ U, + W, ~ U, - W,
or

(11-29a)

or

n, ~ 2~ fJ[~~ ~~JJ~;ldXdY
lay
- If (20)'fidxdy. (l1-29b)

## Here U, is the complementary strain energy, We is the complementary poten-

tial of external loads, and W is the work of external loads.
The unknown rp for a triangular element is now expressed as
'fi = N,'fi, + N2'fi' + N 'fil
3 = [N,](q,J, (l1-4d)
Where (q,Y ~ ['fir 'fi2 'fil]' The gradient-a relation is

## n, ~ t Sf (q,Y[BY[D][B](q,}dxdy - Sf (20)[N,](q,Jdxdy, (11-3Ia)

...
256 Torsion Chapter 11

where

[D] ..!.[I OJ
=
G ° 1
is the strain-stress matrix. By invoking the principle of stationary (minimum)
complementary energy, we have

(lJ-3Ib)

or

## Sf [BnD][B]dxdy(q,} ~ Sf (20)[NYdxdy, (11-3lc)

or
[k,](q,) ~ (Q,), (l1-3Id)
where [k,] is the element property or flexibility matrix and (Q,) is the ele-
ment nodal forcing parameter vector. They are evaluated as follows:

## bi + ai b,b2 + a,a2 b.b , + a,a

= 4dA [ b~ + a~ b2b3 + a2a33J (11-32)
sym. bi + aj
and

## (Q,) ~ 20 If {~}XdY (11-33)

The integrations in Eq. (11-33) can be evaluated in closed form by using the
formula [4]

## <NPN'd d - a!fily! 2A (11-34a)

fJN , 23 xY-(a+fi+y+2)! '
A

## Sf N,dxdy = Sf N:N~N~ dxdy

I! O! 0'
(I ° °
+ + + 2)!2A =3
2A
x 2 ~ 3'
A (1l-34b)
Chapter 11 Torsion 257

Hence

(11-34c)

which implies that the applied forcing function is distributed equally at the
three nodes.

## Example 11-2. Torsion of Square Bar:

Stress Function Approach

## We now consider an example of torsion of a square bar 4 em x 4 em (Fig. 11-7).

The properties G and B are as before. OUf idea in choosing this and subsequent bars
of different cross sections for different approaches is to illustrate different discretiza-
tions governed by special characteristics such as symmetry of the cross sections. In
view of symmetry in the distribution of the stress function, we can consider and
discretize only one-quarter of the bar. In fact, as is done in the next example, only
an eighth of the bar can be discretized. The finite element mesh for the quarter of
the bar is shown in Fig. 11-7, and it is identical to the mesh used in Example 11-1.
Because the coordinates and the geometry of this mesh are the same as before, the

010,21 12,210
r---------
,

I [}",

I
E
c
010, 01 12,
01,0 x
"
I

I
I i
,

~---------t--------~
I 4 em I

## Figure 11-7 Torsion of square bar: stress function approach .

258 Torsion Chapter 11

element stiffness matrices are essentially similar. The element load vector is, how-
ever, different, given by Eq. (11-34c). Assembly of the four element matrices and
4 0 0 0 -4 '1'1 2
0 4 0 0 -4 '1', 2
1 2
0 0 4 0 -4 '1'3 2 (l1-35a)
4 3
0 0 0 4 -4 '1'. 2
-4 -4 -4 -4 16 '1', 4
or
[K]{r) ~ [R).

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
According to Prandtl torsion, the boundary condition is
rp = 0 or constant along the boundary. (11-36a)
If we choose rp = 0, we have (Fig. 11-7).
'1', ~ '1'3 ~ '1'. ~ U. (11-36b)
Equation (l1-35a) is now modified by deleting the rows and columns cor-
responding to <P2, f{J3, and CfJ4 to yield

## Solution by Gaussian elimination gives

'1'1 ~!~2.66667 Nlcm,
'1', ~ % ~ 1.33334,
and

## Step 6. Secondary Quantities

SHEAR STRESSES
The stresses can now be computed using the available values of rp. Use of the
[B] matrix in Eq. (11-12c) in Eq. (11-30) gives

Substitution
I:;)~2~e:~: ~:J{::}.
ay rp3
of a. and b, from Eqs. (11-20) leads to stresses in the four elements:
(11-37)

~~I
Element 1:

! a'l'
ay
= J...[-I
2-1 -I
1
Chapter 11 Torsion 259

Element 2:

Element 3:

Element 4:

## l:::l I-~l N/cm'

In view of the fact that the stress function [Eq. (11-4d)] is linear, the shear strains
and stresses in the element are constant. Hence, as before, we can call this element
a constant-strain or -stress triangle (CST) element.

TWISTING MOMENT
According to the stress approach, the twisting moment M, is given by [2]

M, ~ 2 II
A
tpdxdy ~ m~' 2 If
A
'fJmdxdy, (1l-38a)

## where m = 1,2, ...• M, M = number of elements. Equation (l1-38a) represents

twice the volume under the stress function distribution over the cross section of the
bar (Fig. 11-7). For a generic element we have

M,_ ~ 2 If (prndxdy

## ~ 2 If [N,'fJ~ + N 'fJT + NJ'fJTJdxdy

2

_ 2A(mm
- Tn + 'fJ,m + 'fJ3'm) (11-38b)

## Summing over the four elements, we have

M, ~ 2 ~ 1 (~ +0 + j)
+~(o+~+.!)
333

+2~I(O+o+j)
+2~I(O+O+j)
~ ; e32)
~ 7.1111 N-cm . (11-38c)

...
260 Torsion Chapter 11

## Therefore, total moment for the bar is

M, ~ 4 x 7.1111 ~ 28.4444 N-cm. (1I-38d)

## Step 8. Interpretation and Plots

Figure 11-8(a) and (b) show plots of computed stress functions and shear stresses
for the entire bar (4 em x 4 em) and the quarter bar, respectively. Note that because
linear approximation is used, the shear stresses are constant within each element
and are attached at the element centroids.

## Figure 11-8 Results for torsion of square bar: stress function

approach. (a) Distribution of computed stress functions in entire
bar. (b) Shear stresses in quarter bar,

## 1_. -------,-,4 c=--m _, I) ¢o

Section A-A
AL
..
E
c

_---y2.666
1.333 1.333 ,..... - ~ ...
1.333

Section 8-8

lal

y, T yz

Stresses shown
at centroids

[b]
COMPARISONS
Stress Function. The exact value of rp at node 1 (x = 0, y = 0) from Eq. (11-26a)
is
rp ~ 2.360
Therefore, the error is
_ 2.360 - 2.666 100
error - 2.360 X

~ -13.00%.
Shear Stresses. Use of Eqs. (l1-26b) and (11-26c) gives the shear stresses in typ-
ical element number 1 (x = 1, y = 1/3) as
t s, ~ -0.246 Njem2
r, ~ 1.060.
Therefore, the errors are
error in T Xz = -0.246 - 0.000
~ -25.00%
error in T u, = 1.060 - 1.333 x 100
, 1.06
~ -26.00%.

## '" 36.0000 em'.

From the foregoing, the error in the computed torsional constant is

## error 36.0000;;; 28.4444 x 100

'"" 21.00%.
We have used a coarse mesh so that hand calculations can be performed. Hence,
the errors are rather high. The computed solutions can be improved significantly if
a finer mesh is used.

BOUNOS
Figure 11-9 shows the computed values of torsional constants from the warping
(displacement) and stress function approaches in comparison with the closed form
value. For this comparison, the values of M1IGO for the 2 em x 2 em bar of Ex.
11-1 are multiplied by 16 as per Eq. (11-25). The displacement approach yields an
upper bound to the true value of torsional constant, whereas the stress function
approach gives a lower bound solution.

## Example 11-3. Torsion of Square Bar with Finer Mesh:

Stress Function Approach

Figure 11-1O(a)shows a refined mesh for an eighth of the square bar in Fig. 11-7.
]0 view of the symmetry, it is possible to reduce the problem to analysis of only an

261

...
262 Torsion Chapter 11

Note: The number of nodes plotted refer to the specific problem only.

44.000
.... Warping function (Example 11·1l
42.000

40.000

38.000
~
"'
~
36.000
2 4 6 8 10
Number of nodes
12 14 16 18

34.000
... Stress function
(Example 11-4)
32.000

30.000
-+- Stress function
(Example 11-3)
-+ (Example
Stress function
11-2\
28.000

26000

## Figure 11-9 Bounds in torsion problem.

eighth of the bar. Thus, now we have effectively eight elements for a quarter of the
bar instead of four as in Example 11-2. Figure 11~10(b)shows local node numbers
for the elements.
In the following we give brief details of computations of element equations for
the four elements (with values of G and as before): e
Element 1.'

Xm = 1. Ym = 1:

Element 2:
b, ~ -1, b, ~ I, b, ~ 0; Xm = 4. Ym = j-;

## i-[-~-~ -m::} ~+{:l-

-I
Chapter 11 Torsion 263

®
12,21

@ &
11,11 ®
& 12, 11

## & &, 12, 01

(i) to. 01 011,01 0 x

(a}

v, T vt

1 2
3 2
3 3

2 1 2 1

X, T xZ

Ib}

## Figure 11-10 Torsion of square bar: stress function approach, finer

mesh. (a) Mesh for eighth bar of Fig. 11-7. (b) Local node numbers.

Element 3:

= 1-, _ 2.
Xm Ym -"].

Element 4:

Xm = t. Ym = 1;
-I
2
-1

...
264 Torsion Chapter 11

## Assembly of the element equations leads to the following global equations:

I -I 0 0 0 0- 'P, I
-1 4 -2 -I 0 0 'P, 2
0 -2 4 0 -2 0 'P, 2 4
~3 2 (11-39a)
0 -1 0 2 -1 0 'P,
0 0 -2 -1 4 1 'P, 2
0 0 0 0 -I I_ 'P, 1

## Introduction of the boundary conditions

'P, ~ 'P, ~ 'P, ~ 0.0
leads to modified assemblage equations as

## -qlt - qJz = -t,

-'P, + 4'P2 - 2'P, ~ 4. (11-39b)

- 2'P2 + 4'P, ~ t,
solution of which gives
'P, ~ 2.333 N/cm,
'P2 ~ 1.666,
0/, ~ 1.500,

'P, ~ 0.000}
'Ps = 0.000 prescribed.
'P, ~ 0.000
The shear stresses according to Eqs. (11-37) and (I t-28a) are now found as
follows:

Element 1:

## f'I 'l ~~l

!"
~ !
-
alp ~
ax
!-0.166) Njcm-.
0.666

Element 2:
f,,) ~ 1-0.166) N/cm2•
I !" 1.666
Element 3:

## /f") ~ /0.000 ) N/cm'.

\r" \ 1.5000
Element 4:

If,,) 1 . )
0 000
~ Njcm",
't'yZ 1.5000
Chapter Jl Torsion 265

## Along nodes 1-2-4

~1.500
2.333 __

CD
[

CD
--
----"'-...,-"....
®
Along nodes 1-3-6
(a)

0
0

f 0.0
®
co
'" ~l
J~ SJ
-0.166 -0.166
0.0

@ o X,7xz

(b}

## Figure 11-11 Results for torsion of square bar: stress function

approach, refined mesh. (a) Distribution of computed stress func-
tions in quarter bar. (b) Computed shear stresses in eighth bar.

Figure II-II shows plots of computed values of r.p and shear stresses for the
refined mesh.

COMPARISONS
Torsional Constant. The torsional constant for the eighth bar according to Eq.
(11-38) is

## M, ~ ; X ~ [(; + ; + 435) + (; + 435) + 435+ \5J

~ 3.8888 Nccm.
Then the total value of torsional constant is
~ M, ~ 8 X 3.8888 ~ 31.l100 N-cm.

bE
266 Torsion Chapter 11

## 36.0000 - 31.1100 100

error = 36.0000 x

c: 14.00%.
The computed value of the torsional constant from the finer mesh is shown in
Fig. 11-9 and yields an improved lower bound to the true value of MJGfJ.
Stress Function. From Eq. (11-26a), the closed form value of rp at node 1
(x ~ 0, y ~ 0) is found to be
'f! ~ 2.360,
hence, the error is
_ 2.360 - 2.333 100
error - 2.360 x

= 1.00%.

Shear Stresses. For element 3, (x ~ 5/3, y ~ 2/3), use of Eqs. (1I-26b) and
(11-26c) yields errors as
error in 't'xz = -0.194 - 0.000
~ -19.00%

## error in r" ~ 1.90~.;0~·500 X 100

~ 21.00%
For the foregoing comparisons, it can be seen that the numerical solutions
with the finer mesh are closer to the closed form values. The error in the torsional
constant reduced from 21.00% to 14.00%, and that in the shear stresses from
25.00 to 19.00 and from 26.00 to 21.00% in Txz and Tyz, respectively. Note that the
comparisons of errors in the shear stresses are not rigorous, since they are not
necessarily at the same point; however, the general trend shows reduction in the
error.
The numerical solution can be improved significantly with progressively refined
meshes. Such refinement should follow certain criteria for consistent comparisons;
these are briefly discussed in Chapter 13 (Example .13-5) and in Ref. 4.

## To examine the influence of a different (higher-) order element on the numerical

solution, we now consider a square bar divided into four (square) quadrilateral ele-
ments [Fig. 1J -12(a)]. Note that the size of the bar here is 2 em X 2 em, while in
the previous examples with the stress function approach the size of the bar was
4 em x 4 em.
The computer code FfELD-2DFE detailed in Chapter 12 and Appendix 4 was
used to solve this problem. This code is based on a four-node lsoparametric quad-
rilateral element, which is covered in Chapter 12. This element has a bilinear dis-
tribution of the stress function as compared to the linear distribution within the
Chapter 11 Torsion 267

(]) ® ®
10,1 I 11,11

& &
® ® G = 1
e= 1

& &,
CD 0, 0 (1,010 x

(al

0.87 0.39

jO.87
-1024
0.24 0.1

[b] (e)

## Figure 11-12 Torsion of square bar with quadrilateral element.

(a) Finite element mesh for quarter bar. (b) Computed nodal stress
functions in parentheses. (c) Computed shear stresses.

## triangular element used in this chapter. Thus, there is an improvement in the

assumed approximation within the element.
Figure 11-12(b) shows the computed values of stress functions at the node
Points. Computed values of the shear stresses Txz and Tyz are plotted in Fig. 11-12(c).
The computed value of the torsional constant is 2.046.

COMPARISONS
Torsional Constant. The error in the computed and exact values of the torsional
Constant is

## error 2.250 - 2.046 100

2.250 X
ex: 9.00%,
268 Torsion Chapter 11

The value of M,/CO ~ 2.046 x 16 ~ 32.74 is shown in Fig. 11-9 and yields a
lower bound to the exact solution.
Stress Function. The closed form value of ({J (Eq. 11-26a) at node 1 (x = 0,
y = 0) is found to be
'fJ ~ 0.590,
hence, the error is
0.590 - 0.620 x 100
error = 0.59

= -5.00%

Shear Stresses. The shear stresses are compared for two typical elements,
and 2:
Element 1 (x ~ 0.25, y ~ 0.25)
. -0.238 - (-0.24)
error In -r xz = 0.238 x 100

= 1.00%,

## error in ~y, ~ 0.23~.~3~.240 x 100

= -1.00%.
Element 2 (x ~ 0.75, y ~ 0.25)
. -0104 - (-0.100)
error m r., = 0.104 x 100

~ -4.00%,
error in .y. ~ 0.853 - 0.870 x 100
, . 0.853
= -2.00%.
Use of the 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral provides an overall improvement
in the solution for the values of cp, shear stresses, and torsional constant.
For better accuracy one should use finer meshes with a computer code.
With about 100 elements one can expect results of acceptable accuracy for
all practical purposes. The cost of such computations with a computer code
is not high.

## In the displacement approach, we assume approximate displacement or warp-

ing functions. These functions are chosen such that they satisfy physical
continuity of the body or continuum up to a certain degree or level of approxi-
mation. The potential energy TIp is then expressed in terms of the assumed
functions, and its stationary value yields approximate equilibrium equations.
Tn other words, for the assumed compatible function, equilibrium of forces
is satisfied only in an approximate sense.
Chapter 11 Torsion 269

In the case of the stress approach, the assumed stress functions that
satisfy equilibrium are substituted into the complementary energy II,. Its
stationary value leads to approximate compatibility equations.
Thus in both cases, for the assumed unknowns, either the equilibrium or
compatibility is fulfilled only approximately. For example, in the case of the
displacement formulation for torsion, the stress boundary conditions over
the surface are not necessarily satisfied. That is, as required by Saint-Venant's
torsion, the shearing stress 'Z'1l normal to the boundary computed from the
displacement procedure may not be zero. Figure 11-13(b) shows the varia-
tion of To along the boundary AB of the discretized region of a triangle [Fig.
11-13(a)] subjected to torsion [8-IOJ computed from a displacement and a
hybrid formulation. It can be seen that T" is not zero as required by the theo-
retical assumptions.
We can overcome some of these deficiencies by using hybrid and mixed
procedures.

HYBRID APPROACH

## A wide variety of procedures is available for formulating the hybrid approach

[4, 8-IIJ. One can assume displacement inside the element and stresses on the
boundaries of the element. Conversely, it is possible to assume stresses inside
the element and displacement along the boundaries. Here we shall consider
a special case of the former [9].
Since it is found that the major error in the results from the displacement
formulation occur in the stresses at the boundaries, we shall choose the ele-
ments on the boundary, shown shaded in Fig. 11-14, for the hybrid formula-
tion. For the elements in the interior the displacement formulation will be
used. Since the displacement approach has already been formulated, we give
now details of the hybrid approach for the elements on the boundary.
Consider a generic boundary triangular element (Fig. 11-14). The stress
function is assumed within the element as

## 'P ~ N,'P, + N2'P2 + N3'P3

= [N,][q,J, (l1-4d)
where the subscript s denotes stress function. The general expression for the
warping function in the element is defined as

## '11= N,'II, + No'll2 + N,'II,

~ [N.J[q.J. (l1-4b)

If we denote the warping associated with the three sides of the element as
'1123, 'II", and'll",
respectively, specialization of'll in Eq. (1I-4b) along the
y

99
y

E
E
o
""-----"r-<~M
x

## E == 2.1 X 104 kg/mm2

II == 0.3
8 = 1.194 X 10-4 rad/mm

lal

Hybrid
N

E
a
A ~ I v •
AS
-.E:
rn
='-c -1
• V'1./1
~ I / I / ~I /
11
I / I
11
/i1/ / Ii1/v /
1/
v 1/1/:/1/
" -2 ~v v V
Displacement

(b)

## Figure 11-13 Torsion of triangular bar with hybrid approach [9].

(a) Finite element mesh. (b) Distribution of normal shear stress on
edge AB.

270
Chapter 11 Torsion 271

Boundary element

~~
T31
Boundarv

Inner element
CD
;!:j
712
o

/0'
\!'.Y
v
7
'10
0\
723 I
I I
x

approach.

3 3'1f3,

## 'If" = N,'If, + o . 'lf2 + (I - N )'If"

3 (11-40)
'If" = (1 - N,)'If, + N,'lf2 + 0 . 'If,.
Here we have used definitions of N" No, and N3 as in Eq. (11-3) and the
relation N, + N, + N3 = 1.
As suggested by Yamada et al. [9J, we shall also add the twisting moment
M, and the angle of twist per unit length 8 to the formulation and follow
their procedure.

## In the case of the hybrid stress approach, we define a modified complemen-

tory energy expression, II,,, per unit thickness of the bar as follows [9, 11]:
ITch = U, + Wph = u, - WI"

## II'h = 2~II [(~~)'

A
+ (~:)2J dxdy - Is (ty[ 'l'bJdS
= ~ II A
Is
(aY[D][aJdxdy - (tY['I'b}dS (11-41)

Here Wh denotes the work of boundary forces, and we have used the subscript
h to denote the hybrid formulation. In very simple words, the procedure is
called hybrid, because in ITch it combines complementary strain energy U, as
in the case of stress approach and potential of external loads Wph as in the
case of the displacement approach.
In Eq. (11-41), (ty = [M, T" T" T,,) is the vector of twisting moment
and normal components of shear stresses on the boundary, ('I'bY = [8 'If'3
Torsion Chapter 11
272

## is the vector of corresponding angle of twist and warping associated

lfI32 lfI12]
with the sides of the element, [aJ is defined in Eq. (11-28a), and

[D] ~- 1 [I OJ,
G 1 °
which is the inverse of stress-strain matrix [C]. We assume linear elastic
behavior.
To evaluate U, and Wph in Dcl" we need to derive the following results
for the boundary element. For the triangular element, the stress vector [aJ
is given by

## [aJ = \:::l~l-~l ~ 2~[ -~: -~: -~:J{::} (11-42a)

Because the element lies on the boundary such that the side 2-3 is along the
boundary, 'P, ~ 'P, ~ constant, which we assume as zero; then Eq. (11-42a)
specializes to
(11-42b)

or
[e] = [P][PJ, (11-42c)
where

[P] = 2~{~:}
and [PJ ~ [<p,J = 'P, is just a scalar. Substitution of Eq. (11-42c) into U,

## U, = HPr H [PY[D][P]dxdy[PJ (11-43a)

A

~ HWlH][PJ (11-43b)

= 2 x 2~' x 2A II
A
[a, -b,J~ [~ ~J{
_~}XdY'P'
(11-43c)

(11-43d)

where Ii, = (aj + bj) ~ (x, - x,)' + (12 - y,)' denotes the length of the
side 2-3 and
[H] = H [PY[D][P]dxdy
A

_ IL (11-44)
- 4GA'
Chapter 11 Torsion 273

The second part in Eq. (11-41) denotes the potential of the surface trac-
tions (t) over the entire surface of the element per unit thickness and can be
expressed as

(l1-45b)

## Here r 23 and so on are constants because of the linear interpolation function.

The components of (ty ~ [M, '1'" '1'" '1',,] are evaluated as follows:

M, = If (-YmTn + xmT,,)dxdy
A

A
= 2A(-Yma, - xmb,)rp,

1
~ 2(Yma, + xmb,)rp" (11-46)

## 112 = T>:z sin rt - 'fYZcosrJ,

_ -(a,b3 - b,a3)rp,
- 2AI"
_ -(a,b, - b, a,)rp, _ 0 (11-47)
'23 - 2Al - ,
23

T _ -(a,b, - b,a,)rp,
31 - 2A/ •
31

It is important to note that the stress T23 normal to the boundary is identically
zero, as required by the torsion problem. In matrix notation, we have

(11-48a)

or
(t) = [RJ(P)· (l1-48b)
The surface integrations relevant to ('I'b) of Eq. (l1-45b) in Wph can he
performed easily. For instance, substitution for '1'" from Eq. (11-40) into
Eq. (11-45) gives

3 (l1-49a)

## because dS = l"dN3 along side 2-3. Finally, integration of the expression

Torsion Chapter 11
274

## in Eq. (I 1-49a) leads to

+
J '·3
lfI"dS = '''2(IfI, 1fI,)' (1I-49b)

The other two integrals are evaluated similarly. Then Eq, (11-45) becomes
(11-50a)

(I I-SOb)

1 [
= 2A'I" -a, b,
][ YmA
-xmA
(b,
( a,
+ b,)!2
+ a, )/2
(b,
(a,
+ b,)!2
+ a,)/2
(b,
(a,
+
+
b')/2J\:']
a,)/2 1fI,
IfIl
(II-SOc)
(II-SOd)
= IPY[G](q.l = [PYlP)T[L](q.J·

Here
(q.Y ~ [9 1fI, 1fI, ifill,
(11-50e)
[G] = lP)T[L],
and
(L} ~ i-[-ZYmA
2 2xmA
b,
a1
b,
02
blJ.
Q)
(l1-50f)

## Here we used the relations a, a, +

a, = 0 and b, + b, b, = O. + +
Now, we substitute for U, and W" in Eq. (11-41) to obtain
(11-51)

By differentiating Tl., with respect to (PJ = '1', and equating the results
to zero, we obtain

## ap,''1'1 = [H](PJ - [G](q.l ~ 0,

(11-52a)

or
(1l-52b)
[H](PJ = [G][q.J,
or
(1l-52c)
IPJ = [H]-'[G][q.j,
which expresses the relation between nodal stress functions and nodal warp-
ing functions for the boundary elements.

-~
Element Stiffness Matrix

## We now derive element stiffness matrix [k,l relevant to the hybrid

approach. For this, we express the strain energy as
U = Hq.nk,](q.}, (11-53a)
where (q.Y ~ [0 IJI, IJI, IJI'] is the vector of generalized nodal displace-
ments. The complementary strain energy expression Uc, after substitution
U, = HW[H](~}
= t(q.nGY([Hr'Y[H][Hr '[G](q.}
~ Hq.Y[GjT[H]-'[G](q.}. (11-53b)
Here, since [H] defined by Eq. (11-44) is usually symmetric, we have ([H)-'Y
~[H)-'.
Equating the above two expressions for U and U" we obtain the element
stiffness matrix [k,.l as
hl ~ [GJT[H]-' [Gl (11-54a)

~ [GJT4~A [G]
/"

## A2(Ymal + Xmhl)2 0 -A(Yma I + Xmhl) (-ZA)

~Z- -A(Yma, + xmb,)(2A)
0 0 0 0
G
= An3 -A(Ymal + xmh,) (-ZA)
-z- 0 t(- ZA)( - ZA) t(-ZA)(ZA)

## -A(Ymal + xmh\) (-ZA)

-z- 0 t(ZA)( -ZA) t(ZA)(ZA)

## (Yma, + xmb,)' 0 Yma, + xmb, -(Yma, + xmb')]

GOo 0 0
~-, . (11-54b)
AI23 [ YmGI + xmbl 0 -I

-(YmGI + xmbl) 0 -1 1

## Here we used again the following relations:

0, + 0, + 0, = 0, b, + b, + b, ~ 0,
and

loner Elements

## We choose to use the displacement approach to define the stiffness matrix

for the elements inside the bar. By following the procedure outlined previ-
ously in this chapter, tbe stiffness matrix with warping functions can be

275

lu__ -a
276 Torsion Chapter 11

derived as
G [4A2(X~ + y~) 2A(alXm - b,Ym) 2A(a2Xm - b2Ym) 2A(a3Xm - b3ym)]
by + at blb2 + aia i bib) --I- a ias
(II-55)
[k.] ~-
4A sym. b~ --I- a~ b2h3 + a2a3
, b~ --I- at
Both [k,J and [k.J express relations between generalized forces and dis-
placements [q.J and have identical forms as
[k,][q.} ~ [Q} (l1-56a)
and
[k.][q.} = [Q} (11-56b)
where
AYm -Axm M,
b, a,
F,
2" 2"
[Q} ~- b, a2 {",,} ~
fY' F,
(11-56c)
2" 2"
b, a, F,
2" 2"
and F" F" and F, represent one-half of the resultant shearing forces on the
sides 2-3, 3-1, and 1-2, respectively.

## Computation of Boundary Shear Stresses

For an element with side 2-3 along the boundary, we have, from Eqs.
(11-42) and (l1-52c),

=

## -b, a'J :'j.

1fI,
1fI,
(I] -57)

Assembly

For elements on the boundary and inside the bar, we use element equa-
tions (l1-56a) and (1l-56b), respectively. Since both are expressed in terms
of nodal displacements, the assembly follows the same rule that the displace-
ments at common nodes are compatible.
In view of the fact that the hybrid approach satisfies the stress boundary
conditions, the results from the proposed procedure can yield improved
Chapter 11 Torsion 277

accuracy in tbe stresses at and around the boundary. In tbe following, first
we present an example using hand calculations and then results from com-
puter solutions by Yamada et aJ. [9].

## We consider torsion of the square bar 2 em x 2 em shown in Fig. 11-5. In this

example the local node numbering is changed as shown in Fig. 1t-15 to comply with
the numbering for the boundary element in the foregoing hybrid formulation.

@ 10.21 0)
3 2 12.21
2 3
G) Global node

1 1 Local node
fA 1@ 1
1
& Element

3 2
2 3
CD 10. 01 @12.0j x

## Figure 11-15 Torsion of square bar: hybrid approach.

All the four elements lie on the boundary and hence are treated as boundary
elements in the sense of the hybrid approach. It is incidental that all elements are
boundary elements; in general, both boundary and inner elements will occur. Hence
it is necessary to use Eqs. (l1-54b) and (11-55), respectively, for deriving the element
matrices for the boundary and inner elements. Tn the following are given salient
details of the element and assemblage equations:

Element J:
a, = X3 - XI = 2, b, = J'z - Y3 = 0,
az=Xt-x3=-1, bZ=Y3-Yl=-],
a3 = Xz - XI = -1, b3 =Yl -Yz = 1,

Xm = I, Ym = t,

## Here A = 1 ems, and we have assumed that G = 1 N/cmz.

278 Torsion Chapler 11

## Use of Eq. (l1-54b) leads to element equations:

I 5 1 2~---------Global

[ 2 3~-------Local I
j j

## [k']1 ~ -l[ ~~ ~ -~. :11 ~ 1:"]' : ~

4 ~ 0 1 -I 'If, 0 2 1
-~ 0 -1 1 'If 3 0 3 2
We assume that 8 is uniform over the bar, and hence a special number I common to
both local and global numbering is assigned to this degree of freedom. Mr, denotes
the twisting moment for element 1 and so on.

Element 2:
at = 0, b, ~ 2,

az = 1, b, ~ -I,
G3 = -1, b3 = -1,

Xm =1-, Ym = 1
GA I
123 = 2,
IL =4'
[ 5 3 1' ---------Global
2 3~ -------Local I
j j
0 ,2 1 [

I' ~:W:I~11')
I 0 0 0 5
[k,], ~ -
4 ~ 0 1 2 3
,0
2 -I lJ 'If 3 0 3

Element 3:
at = 0, bl = -2,
Qz = -1, bz = 1,
G3 = 1, 63 = 1,

x'" =-j-, Ym = 1,

GA 1
/23 = 2, !~3 = 4'

5 2 4' Global

l'"
[ 2 3~ Local
j j
-,- -,
') 1)
10 [ 1
0

[khh ="4
1
_1 0
3
0 0
0
0
I -1 "'o ] 'If I
'lf2 ~ 2
5

, 10
0 -I I 'If 3 3 4
Chapter 11 Torsion 279

Element 4:
0, = -2, hi = 0,
Oz = 1, hz = 1,
03 = 1, h3 = -1,
Xm = 1, Ym =-j-,
GA 1
/23 = 2,
1~3 = 4'

1 5 4 3~ Global
2 3~ Local
j
I
j

'r {l
.lQ.Q 10
9 0 -j 1 1

, [ _1,0
0
0 0 o 'Ill 5
[kh], ~ 4
0 -1 '112 2 4

.1.f- 0 -I 1 '113 3 3

## Combination of the foregoing four element equations by observing compati-

bility of nodal 'II's leads to assemblage equations:
-
-,-
208
0 -» ',' 0 0
-
e ~ M,.
m=l

0 2 -I -I 0 0 'Ill 0
12
I -3 -1 2 0 -I 0 '112 0
4
',' -I 0 2 -I 0 '113 0
0 0 1 -I 2 0 'II, 0
0 0 0 0 0 0- '115 0

These equations can now be modified for the boundary condition '111 = O. Then
for B = 1 the solution is

e~ I,
'Ill ~ 0 (prescribed),
I{Iz = 2,

'113 = -2,

'II. ~ 0,
IfJs ~O.
These results for 'fI's are essentially the same as in the case of Example 11-1 with
the warping function approach. We have considered this rather simple example
mainly to illustrate hand calculations. For acceptable accuracy and in order to
exploit the advantage of improved boundary stresses in the hybrid procedure, one
should use a finer mesh. Tn Example J J-6 we shall consider a computer solution for
the mesh in Fig. J JM]3 where both boundary and inside elements occur. The results
in Example 1J-6 will illustrate the advantage of the hybrid approach.
SHEAR STRESSES
For the four elements at the boundary, we use Eq. (11-57) to evaluate the shear
stresses:
Element 1:

Fu) ~ -{-[-2(2 x J) 0 -2
lryz 0 0 o

0.666)
1 0.000
N/cm'.

Element 2:

Fu)
tr =
1 [0
4" 2 x ~
0
0
0
2
yZ

0.000)
~ Njcm-.
1 -0.666
Element 3:
I

f'ul
try; ~ l.-[ 4 _2)0
0 0
0 -~~J~ o
0.000)
Njcm",
10.666
Element 4:

## 1::1~ : [-'; : : -:] j

~ -0.666) N/cm2•
1 0.000
These results are the same as those in Example 11-1 (Fig. 11-6); they show that
the shear stress normal to the boundary is zero. It was only incidental that with the
four-element mesh chosen the warping function approach also satisfied the zero
stress boundary condition. With a different and arbitrary mesh, the warping func-
tion approach, in general, would not satisfy this condition.

TWISTING MOMENT
The torsional constant can be found by substituting the computed results for
IjI into the first of the above assemblage equations:

280
Chapter 11 Torsion 281

M, I [208
-~--XI-4x2+4x(-2) ]
cO 4 9
~ 1.7777N-cm.

This value is the same as that from the stress function approach and has an error

## Example 11-6. Torsion of Triangular Bar:

Hybrid Approach, Computer Solution

Figure 11-13(a) shows a bar in the shape of an equilateral triangle. Analysis for tor-
sion for this bar using the hybrid method is presented by Yamada et al. [9]. Due to
symmetry, only one-sixth of the triangle is discretized. The properties of the system
are

## Poisson's ratio, = 0.3,

E 2.1 X 10'
Shear modulus, C ~ 2(1 + v) ~ 2(1 + 0.3) ~ 0.81 X 10' kg/mm',

## Angle of twist, 0 ~ 1.194 X 10-' rad/mm.

Table 11-1 compares the values of warping along the side AB (Fig. 11-13(a)]
obtained from the closed form solution, the displacement method, and the hybrid

## TABLE 11-1 WARPING ALONG THE CONTOUR

AB [9]'

Displace-
Exact Hybrid ment
Node Solution Method Method

## B II 0.370 0.368 0.375

1 13 0.957 0.942 0.975
21 1.924 1.884 1.921
29 2.772 2.721 2.766
36 3.471 3.419 3.467
43 3.887 3.821 3.868
49 3.973 3.913 3.960
55 3.962 3.632 3.659
60 2.978 2.918 2.960
63 2.398 2.352 2.385
66 1.865 1.834 1.854
69 1.354 1.330 1.347
73 0.898 0.885 0.896
j 76 0.530 0.524 0.529
A 79 0.270 0.268 0.270

*w x J03 mm .

## 282 Torsion Chapter 11

method. The two numerical results are close to the exact solution, without signifi-
cant difference between them.
As noted before, Fig. 11-13(b) shows comparisons between computed values of
the shear stress normal to the boundary 'r" from the displacement and the hybrid
methods. In contrast to the solution by the displacement method, the hybrid
approach yields zero values of Tn> as required by the theory.
Figures 11~]6(a) and (b) show comparisons between shear stresses 'ex: and 't'yZ
along AB as computed from exact solution and the displacement and hybrid
methods. The latter improves computations of the shear stresses not only along the
boundary but in the interior also; this aspect is indicated in Table 11-2, which lists
the shearing stresses at the centroids of typical elements adjacent to side AB (Fig.
11-13). These results also show the improvement in accuracy provided by the hybrid
approach as compared to the results from the displacement approach.

## TABLE 11-2 COMPARISON OF THE SHEARING STRESSES

AT THE CENTROID OF TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS ADJACENT
TO AS [91'

Element

2 48 81 99 122

'l'xz
Exact -7.136 -6.354 -4.351 -2.259 -0.128
solution
Hybrid -7.168 -6.264 -4.117 -2.251 -0.125
method
Displacement -7.145 -6.884 -4.759 -2.563 -0.225
method

Ty,
Exact 12.354 10.803 7.209 3.348 0.168
solution
Hybrid 12.416 10.853 7.131 3.900 0.216
method
Displacement 12.541 10.511 6.653 3.628 0.071
method

To
Exact -0.003 -0.101 -0.164 -0.282 -.0.027
solution
Hybrid 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
method
Displacement 0.083 -0.706 -0.795 -0.406 -0.159
method

"Unit: kg/rum>,
A B
0

-2
-- Hybrid method

-4

,
--6 I
I ~/ I
,
,,II, , v ,v
1/ I / 1
V 1 / 1
V/ I,
-8 V V
7" (kg/mm2)

(a}

7"
(kg/mm2 )

14

I
//
-'
12 I
//

10

I
6

## 4 - --- Exact solution

-- Hybrid method

2 - - - Displacement method

A B
(bl

Figure 11-16 Comparisons for shear stresses [9]. (a) Shear stress
Tx• along contour AB. (b) Shear stress Ty: along contour AB.

283
MIXED APPROACH

## In the mixed formulation, both the displacements (warping) and stresses

(stress function) within (including the boundaries) the element are assumed
to be unknown. Hence, for a triangular element,

N3JEJ (11-58a)

## (a) ~ [Na](qa} ~ [N0 1

N,
0
N3
0
0
N,
0
N, r-
where {e}" ~ [r" ryJ is the vector of shear stresses at any point, [N.] and
(11-58b)

[Na] are the interpolation functions, (q.) is the vector of nodal warping, and
tqaY = [tXZ1 !;m txz, 'l')'z, 'I'm 'I'YZj] is the vector of nodal shear stresses.
The strain displacement relation is given in Eq. (11-8), and the consti-
tutive relation for linearly elastic and homogeneous material is

(II-59)

## We shall follow essentially the procedure presented by Noor and

Anderson [12, 13]. A variational function for the mixed approach can be
expressed as [4, 12]

v v s,

## au, ~ ~ [r" r,,]b[~ ~J{:::)dV

= ±(aY[D](a}dV;
(aY ~ [f" fy,] is the shear stresses at the boundaries; (n) is the vector of
outward normal to the boundary; V is the volume of the element; [x]"
~ [x y]; and 5, is the part of boundary on which tractions are prescribed.
Substitution for (a) in Eq. (11-58a), (f) in Eq. (11-8), and dU, in IIR leads
to

284
Chapter 11 Torsion 285
I

I
IIR = Iff v
[q,y[N,]"[BJ[q.JdV
I
I

- fff [q,y[N,Y[D][N,][q,JdV
v

- e fff [q,y[NX[N,J[x"JdV
v III
- If [q.Y[N.Y[nJ[N,][ij,JdS.
Here [x.] ~ [x, X2 X3 Yl
s,

(11-61)

given by
II
I

I;} =[~' N2
0
N3
0
0
N,
0
N,
o Jrx"J.
N3
(11-62)

## and [B] is defined in Eq. (11-12c).

Application of the variational principle to IIR leads to its stationary value.
The variations or differentiations are performed independently and simul-
taneously with respect to nodal stresses and nodal warping functions; thus

aIIR - 0
oII R
~ 0= a[q,J - ,
(11-63)
1
aIIR
a[q.J =
0
.

## [k,J [k,.J] {[q,J} ~ {[Q,J}, (11-64a)

[ [k,.Y [0] [q.J [OJ
where, for the triangular element (Fig. 11-2),

## [k,J = - fff [NX [D] [N,] dxdydz, (11-65a)

(6 x 6) (6 x 2) (2 x 2) (2 x 6)

## [k,.] = Iff [NX

v
[B] dxdydz, (1I-65b)
(6 x 3) (6 x 2) (2 x 3)
and

## [Q,l = e If [N,Y [N] dxdy [x.}. (1I-65c)

(6 x 1) (6 x 2) (2 x 6) (6 x 1)

## The last term in Eq. (11-61) represents boundary conditions. Here we

have assumed that the boundary conditions occur as prescribed shear

br

## 286 Torsion Chapter 11

stresses and that their components normal to the boundary vanish. The
tangential components do not contribute when the variation, Eq. (11-63), is
performed, hence the last term in Eq. (11-61) does not appear in the calcula-
tion afforcing parameter vector (Q.J.

## We now illustrate computations of the element properties for the tri-

angular element. For unit length,

N, 0
N2 0

[k.J ~ - b II
N,
0
0
NJ
[~J N2
0
N,
0
0
NJ N,
0
o ]dXdY
N,
0 N2
0 N,

NI NJN, NJN, 0 0 0
Nl N,N, 0 0 0
N; 0 0 0
= -b II sym, NI N1N2 NJN,
dxdy.

Nl N,N,
N;

## The integrations can be performed in closed form; for instance,

IIN2dA~2A2!0!0!
J (2 + 2) 1
=:i6
A

and

II NJN2dA l'1iOI
~ 2A(4)i A
= 12'
A

Therefore,
-2 1 1 0 0 0-
1 2 1 0 0 0
A 1 1 2 0 0 0
[k.J = -12G
0 0 0 2 1 1
0 0 0 1 2 1

-
0 0 0 1 1 2
Chapter 11 Torsion 287

Now
-
N, O-
N, 0

[k.,] ~ II N3
0
0
N,
~[b,
2A a,
b,
G2
3
b JdA
a3
0 N2
0 N3_
I
-
Nib,
N,b,
N,b,
N2b2
N,b3
N,b3
I
N3b,
=2~II N,a1
N3b,
»,«
N,b3
N1a3
dA

## N2a, N2aZ N2a3

_N3Q, N3aZ N3aL
b, b2 b,
b, b, b3
I b, b, b3
6 a, G, G3

a, a, G3

_a, a, aL
and
N, O- X,

N2 0 X2

[Q.} ~ 0 II N3
0
0
N, [~'
N,
0
N3
0
0
N,
0
N, ;J X3

y,
0 N, y,
0 N3_ Y3
+ X2 + X3
2x,
+ 2x + X3
XI 2

OA XI + + 2x X2 3
=12 2y, + y, + Y3
y,+2Y,+Y3
y, + y, + 2y,

## Example 1l~7. Torsion of Square Bar: Mixed Approach

The node numbers and details for the problem of the square bar (2 x 2 cross sec-
tion) in Fig. 11-4 are shown in Fig. 11-17. In the following are given essential details

....
288 Torsion Chapter 11

of the computations of element and assemblage matrices based on Eqs. (11-64) and
(11-65).
Equation (11-64a) can be written in the expanded form as
--2 -1 -1 0 0 0:, 2h1 2h2 2b3 '!XZl

-1 - 2 -1 0 0 a! ,
2b1 2b2 2b3 r XZ2

,
'!XZ3

## o o 0 -2 -1 -1: , 2al 202 203 '!yz\ 2YI + Y2 + Y3

A o o a -1 -2 -1:: 201 202 2a3 fYZ2 _
-12
QA Yl + 2Y2 + Y3
12G
o a 0 -1 -1 -2: 201 202 203
,
fyz, Yl + Y2 + 2Y3
----------------------------1-------------- ,

## 2b1 2h1 2b1 2a1 2a1 2al: o o o ,

o
2b2 2b2 2b2 2a2 2a2 2a2: o o o ,
'fI2 o
_2b3 2b3 2b3 2a3 2a3 203! a o o_ 1j/3 o
(l1-64b)
Element 1:
al = 2, bl ~ 0,
02 = -1, b2 ~ -1,
03 = -1, b3 = 1,
Xm = 1, Ym =-h
13 4 14 2 5 15 3 6~------Global
j
-2 -1 -I o 0 o 0 -2 2- TXZ1 4 13
-1 -2 -I o 0 o 0 -2 2 Txz1 3 1
-1 -1 -2 o 0 o 0 -2 2 TXZ1 5 4
o 0 o -2 -1 -1 4 -2 -2 't"m 2 14
o 0 o -1 -2 -1 4 -2 -2 Tyz~ 1 2
o 0 o -1 -1 -2 4 -2 -2 Tm J 5
o 0 o
4 4 4 0 0 o 'If I
o IS
-2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 o 'lf2
o 3
2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 0_ 'If 3
o 6
We have assigned global numbers by rearranging the unknowns as shown in
Fig. 11-17. That is, in the subsequent assemblage equations, the global numbers are
assigned such that the three unknowns at a given node appear consecutively. This is
done simply for convenience.
Element 2:
al = 0, b, ~ 2,
a2 = 1, bz ~ -1,
a3 = -1, Ih = -1,
Ym = 1,
Chapter 11 Torsion 289

## 113, 14, 151

7~7.5' TY7.5' %
11
3 2
2 3 0
(DIO, 01 12,01 x
11,2,31 14,5,61

CD Global nodes

& Element

Local nodes I
(1, 2, 3) '" (7 xzl' 7 yzl' \'&1 ) Global degrees of freedom

## Figure 11-17 Torsion of square bar: mixed approach.

13 7 14 8 2 15 9 3 Global
j
-2 -I -1 0 0 0 4 -2 -2- TXZ1 2 13
-1 -2 -I 0 0 0 4 -2 -2 Txz, I 7
-I -I -2 0 0 0 4 -2 -2 Txz, 1
0 0 0 -2 -1 -1 0 2 -2 t YZI 4 14
0 0 0 -1 -2 -1 0 2 -2 tyZ, 5 8
0 0 0 -I -1 -2 0 2 -2 1')1;, 3 2
4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 If/, 0 15
-2 -2 -2 2 2 2 0 0 0 If/z 0 9
-2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 0 1f/3 0 3

'tt _

## 290 Torsion Chapter 11

Element 3:
a1 = 0, bl = -2,

G2 = -1, bz = 1,
G3 = I, bs = 1,

x'" = 1, Ym = 1,

13 4 10 14 5 II 15 6 12~ Global
I
-2 -1 -1 0 0 0 -4 2 2- 'l'X"L 6 13

-1 -2 -1 0 0 0 -4 2 2 1" XZ! 7 4
-1 -1 -2 0 0 0 -4 2 2 TXZ1 7 10

0 0 0 -2 -1 -1 0 -2 2 'rYZ1 4 14
0 0 0 -1 -2 -I 0 -2 2 'fy:, 3 5
0 0 0 -1 -I -2 0 -2 2 Tyz, 5 II

-4 -4 -4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1fJ\ 0 15
2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 0 1fJ, 0 6
2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0- 1fJ, 0 12

Element 4:
0, = -2, b, = 0,
Q2 = 1, b, ~ 1,
03 = 1, b, ~ -1,
x'" = 1, Ym =-j-,

13 10 7 14 II 8 15 12 9~ Global
I
-2 -I -1 0 0 0 0 2 -2- fx:, 4 13
-1 -2 -1 0 0 0 0 2 -2 rxz~ 5 10

-I -1 -2 0 0 0 0 2 -2 'rxz, 3 7
0 0 0 -2 -1 -1 -4 2 2 'l'YZI 6 14
0 0 0 -1 -2 -1 -4 2 2 't'YH 7 11
0 0 0 -1 -I -2 -4 2 't'YZ' 7 8

0 0 0 -4 -4 -4 0 0 1 1fJ\ 0 15

-2
2
-2
2
-2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
0 1 1fJ,
IfJJ
0
0
12
9

The foregoing four element equations can now be assembled by observing inter-
element compatibility.
It is difficult to solve by hand calculations the (modified) assemblage equations
(involving 14 unknowns), and it becomes necessary to use an (available) equation
solver for large sets of equations (see Appendix 2). In this elementary treatment,
Chapter 11 Torsion 291

it will suffice only to illustrate the mixed approach and the foregoing steps, because
detailed consideration of the topic is considered beyond our scope. Solutions for this
and the other relevant exercises in Problems are left to the inquisitive and advanced
The foregoing completes OUf treatment of the torsion problem. Before we
proceed to the next chapter in which a 4-node quadrilateral element is described, it
is appropriate to present a brief description of the topic of (static) condensation
which is often used in finite element applications.
I

STATIC CONDENSATION II
Often it may be convenient and necessary to use nodes within an element,
particularly when it is required to use higher-order elements. Sometimes a
single element is divided into subcomponent elements by using the inner
nodes. For instance, Fig. 11-18 shows a line and a quadrilateral element
each with one inner node. The line element has two end or external or
primary nodes and one inner node, and the quadrilateral has four corners
or primary nodes and one inside node.

## Figure 11-18 Static condensation. (a) Line element. (b) Quadri-

lateral. I
Inner node

L~ CD ~. __ ~.t-/__ ~. CD I
,-----.; I~.---I~--~. @ I

(a)

{b]

...
292 Torsion Chapter 11

## [k](q} ~ (Q) (11-66a)

are derived on the basis of unknown degrees of freedom at all the nodes. Thus
the formulation includes improved (higher-order) approximation yielded
by the use of tbe inner node. In the case of the quadrilateral [Fig. Il-18(b)],
the element equations are often obtained by adding individual element equa-
tions of the four component triangles. Thus the total number of element
unknowns in (q) are 3 and 10 for the line and the quadrilateral, respectively.
These element equations can now be assembled to obtain global equations,
in which the degrees of freedom at the inner node(s) will appear as additional
unknowns, and to that extent the number of equations to be solved will be
increased.
It is possible to temporarily eliminate the unknowns at the inner node
by creating an equivalent element relation in place of Eq. (11-66a). The
procedure of doing this is called static condensation. It is possible to do tbis
because the unknowns at the inner node do not participate in the interele-
ment compatibility at the element sides; that is, the unknowns at the inner
node are not needed for the direct stiffness assembly procedure.
The procedure of static condensation involves solution of the unknowns
at the inner node in terms of those at the primary nodes. To understand it,
we write Eq. (11-66a) in a partitioned form as

(11-66b)

where (qp), (Q,) and [q.], [Q,) denote vectors of nodal unknowns and loads
at the primary and inner nodes, respectively. The second equation in Eq,
(l1-66b) can be used to solve for (q,) as
[q,) ~ [k,,J-'([Q,) - [k,X[qp})· (l1-67a)

## Substitution of (q,) into the first equation of Eq. (11-66b) leads to

(11-67b)

or
[k](qp} ~ [Q},
where [k] and (Q) are the condensed element (stiffness) and nodal load vectors,
respectively. Notice that the vector of unknown [qp} now contains the degrees
of freedom only at the external primary nodes; thus when [k] and (Q) are
used to assemble element equations, we have reduced from the total equations
to be solved equations corresponding to the unknowns at the inner node.
After the assembled equations are solved, if desired, it is possible to retrieve
Chapter 11 Torsion 293

the unknowns at the inner node by using Eq. (11-67a). Further details of
static condensation can be found in many publications, including Ref. [4].

PROBLEMS

## and obtain the matrix in Eq. (J 1-3b).

11-2. Use the mesh in Fig. 1] -10 and treat the problem as torsion of a triangular
bar. By employing the warping function approach and setting boundary
condition as '113 = 0, compute nodal warping functions, shear stresses, and
twisting moments.

11-3. With the mesh in Prob. 11-2, solve for torsion using the hybrid approach.
1
11_4. With the mesh in Prob. 11-2, derive element equations using the mixed
approach.

11-5. Solve for torsion of the square bar in Fig. 11-]9 by using the warping func-
tion approach.

Q) ®
10,21 ®12.21
&, £
G"l
£ In 0" 1
@) ®
ffi® & i

& ,&
CD ® 0
10,01 12,01

Figure 11-19

## 11-6. Solve Prob. 11-5 by using the stress function approach.

11-7. Solve Prob. 11-5 by using the hybrid approach. Consider elements 4,6, and
8 as boundary elements and the remaining as inner elements.

1 This and some of the other problems will require use of an available equation solver once
the global equations are obtained.

b

Chapter 11 Cha
294
Torsion

11-]
lI-8. Solve Prob. 11-5 by using the mixed approach.
11-9. Consider the mesh in Fig. 11-20 and solve for torsion by using the stress
function approach. Here, it may be necessary to use a computer. The code
FIELD-2DFE can be used for solving the entire problem. Alternatively, the
assemblage matrix can be computed by hand calculations, and its solution
can be obtained by using an available code for solution of simultaneous ]J-]
equations.

® (2,21

@Ik-----,J~-/

CD ® x
11-]
(2,01
(0,0)

Figure 11-20

11-10. For the mesh in Fig. 11-21, usc the mixed procedure and derive the element
equations [Eq. (l1-64a)].

Figure 11-21

®
3

y &,
@) 1 22 ®
33 3
&
& &, ]J-i

2 1 2
x
CD
r-
:

I
I
Chapter 11 Torsion 295

11-11. For the torsion problem in Fig. 11-7, treat the bar as having a cross section
of 2 em x 2 em. With boundary conditions ({Jl = rp2 = ({J4 = rp\$ = 0, com-
pute tps using the stress function approach. Evaluate torsional constant and
discuss its accuracy.
Answer: 'P, ~ 0.6667; M,ICO ~ 1.777,error ~ 21.00%. ,

11-12. For the circular bar of 2-cm diameter, compute nodal stress functions for
the mesh shown lTIFig. 11-22. Find shear stresses and the twisting moment
by using a computer code. Assume G = 107 N/cm2 and e
= 0.005 deg/cm.
1

1>1'---
1

1/1\
I""1/
~ 1/\
I

I, 2cm
I 1 I

I
I

Figure 11-22
I I
11-13. For the elliptic bar a = 2 em and b = 1 em (Fig. 11-23), compute nodal I

## stress functions, shear stresses, and twisting moment by using a computer

code. Assume G = 1 and (J = I.

, 2cm

.: ~

-.
I
10.01/
l' c: Ii
I"

Figure 11-23

11-14. By using the warping function approach, find shear stresses and torsional
constant for the triangular bar divided into two elements (Fig. 11-24).
Assume C = 1 and 0 ~ I.
296 Torsion Chapter 11

(])
2
v3
@.-----~-~x
11,01

010,01
Figure 11-24

11-15. Use the stress function approach to solve for torsion of the triangular bar
in Prob. 11-14.
11-16. By using the code FTELD-2DFE or other available code, refine the mesh
progressively (Example 11~4), say 1,4,16,64, etc" elements, and obtain
results for stress functions rp and shear stresses. Plot the twisting moment
M, vs. number of elements or nodes and study the convergence behavior of
the numerical solution.
11-17. Higher-order approximation. Use the quadratic interpolation function for
rp with a triangular element (6 nodes) and derive the element matrix and
Partial results: Assume
'P ~ [N]( q,J.
[q,Y ~ ['PI 'P, 'P, 'P. 'P, 'Pol,
Note that this function includes all terms up to n = 2 in the polynomial
expansion discussed under "Requirements for the Approximation Func-
tion."

Figure 11-25

Local coordinates, L j

y Node l. 11,0,01

® ® 2. 10,1,01'
3. 10,0,11
4. (I'~' OJ
L-------Q) 5. 10'1' I
'---
o @x 6. 1
1 ,0, I
Chapter 11 Torsion 297

L,(2L, - 1)
L,(2L, - 1)
L,(2L, - 1)
[NY~
4L1£2
4L2L3
4L3£1
[0] ]
[B,] [q,} ~ [B][q,J,

where II
[0,] ~ [(4L, - 1)6, (4L, -I)b, (4L, -1)6, 4(L,6, +L,bJl 4(L2&' +L,62) 4(L,b, +L,b3)]
?nd

[By] = [(4£1 -1)oJ (4L2-1)02 (4L3 - 1)03 4(L102+L201) 4(L203 +L302) 4(L301 +£,03)].

Computation of {Q,} will require integrations over element area and rele-
vant boundary surfaces.

REFERENCES

[lJ LOVE, A. E. H., The Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Dover, New York,
1944.

[2J TIMOSHENKO, S., and GOODIER, J. N., Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hili, New
York, 1951.

## [3] HERRMANN, L. R., "Elastic Torsional Analysis of Irregular Shapes," J. Eng.

Mech. Div. ASCE, Vol. 91, No. EM6, Dec. 1965, pp, 11-19.
[4J DESAI, C. S" and ABEL, J. F., Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.

[5] BACH, c., and BAUMANN, R., Elasrizitiit und Festigheit, Springer, Berlin, 1924.
(6] MURPHY, G., Advanced Mechanics of Materials, McGraw-Hili, New York,
1946.

## (7] VALLlAPPAN, S., and PULMANO, V. A., "Torsion of Nonhomogeneous

Anisotropic Bars," J. Struct, Div. ASCE, Vol. 100, No. ST1, Jan. 1974, pp.
286-295.

[8] YAMADA,Y., KAWAI, T., YOSHIMURA,N., and SAKURAI, T., "Analysis of the
Elastic-Plastic Problems by Matrix Displacement Method," Proc. 2nd Conf.
Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics, Wright Patterson Air Force Base,
Dayton, Ohio, 1968, pp. 1271-1289.

## (9] YAMADA, Y., NAKAGfRI, 5., and TAKATSUKA,K., "Analysis of Saint-Venant

Torsion Problem by a Hybrid Stress Model," in Proc. Japan-UsS, Seminar on
Matrix Methods a/Structural Analysis and Design, Tokyo, Aug. 1969.
298 Torsion Chapler 11

[10] YAMADA, Y., NAKAGIRI, S., and TAKATSUKA, K., "Elastic-Plastic Analysis of
Saint-Venant Problem by a Hybrid Stress Model," Int. J. NUI1I. Methods in
Engineering, Vol. 5,1972, pp. 193-207.
[ll] PIAN, T. H. H., and TONG, P., "Finite Element Methods in Continuum
York, 1972.
[12] NOOR, A. K., and ANDERSEN, C. M., "Mixed Isoparametric Elements for
Saint-Venant Torsion," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 6, 1975,
pp. 195-218.
[13] NOOR, A. K., (private communication).
1 1

12
OTHER FIELD PROBLEMS:
POTENTIAL. THERMAL.
AND FLUID FLOW II

II

INTRODUCTION

The problem of torsion (Chapter II) and a number of other problems that
we shall consider in this chapter are often known asfield problems. They are
governed essentially by similar differential equations, which are special cases
of the following general equation [I]:

~(k 'axarp) + ay
ax ~(k 'ayarp) + ~(k arp) + Q ~ c arp.
az 'dz at (12-la)

## The associated boundary conditions are

rp~ ;;(t) on S, (l2-2a)
arpt,+ k'ayarpt,+ k'azarpt,+ a(rp
k, ax - rpo)
-
+ q(t) -_ 0, on S, and S3'

(l2-2b)
Here rp is the unknown (warping, stress function, velocity potential, stream
function, temperature, electrical potential, fluid head or potential); k ., k;
and k, are material properties in the x, y, and z directions, respectively; Q
is the applied (heat, fluid, and so on) flux; c is specific heat or effective
porosity, and so on; S, is the part of the boundary on which rp is prescribed;
and S, is the part of the boundary on which the intensity of flux j is prescribed.
In the case of heat flow a(rp - rpo) is prescribed on S" in which a is the
transfer coefficient and 'Po is the surrounding temperature. (" t y' and Z, are

299
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
300

the direction cosines of the outward normal to the boundary, t denotes time,
and the overbar denotes a prescribed quantity.
In this book, we shall consider only two-dimensional steady-state prob-
lems; that is, the problem is independent of time and the right-hand side of
Eq. (l2-la) vanishes. Also, for simplicity, only homogeneous materials are
considered; then Eq. (12-la) reduces to
a rp + lc, a'rp
kxax'
2
ay' + Q- _- 0 (12-lb)

## and the boundary conditions to

(12-2c)
and
k, ~~ i, + k,~ t, + ij =0 on S2' (12-2d)

We note that Eqs. (11-5) and (11-27) have the same form as Eq. (l2-lb).

POTENTIAL FLOW

## The potential flow of fluids is governed by a special form of Eq. (12-lb),

a rp2 a'rp _
ax' + ay' - 0
or
'II'rp = O. (12-3)

which is called the Laplace equation. Here 'II' is a differential operator. The
assumptions commonly made are that the flow is irrotational; that is, fluid
particles do not experience net rotation during flow, the friction between the
fluid and surfaces is ignored, and the fluid is incompressible [2]. Some prac-
tical problems where this kind of flow can be assumed are flow over weirs and
through pipes (with obstructions).
Equation (12-3) is based on the basic requirement that the flow is con-
tinuous; that is,
(12-4)

## where Vx and vy are components of velocity in the x and y direction, respec-

tively. The flow problem can be represented in terms of either the velocity
potential rp or the stream function 1jI. This dual representation is similar to
that for the stress-deformation problem in the sense that rp and 'fI are used in
the same manner as the displacement (warping) and stress functions,
respectively.

________ .. rs1IIlll..
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 301

The relations between the velocity components and rp and IfI are given by
[2]
arp
Vx = ax'
(l2-5a)
arp
v =-,
, ay
and

(l2-5b)

Substitution of v" and v, into Eq. (12-4) leads to the Laplace equation as in
Eq. (12-3).

Boundary Conditions

## For flow through a cylindrical pipe (Fig. 12-1) a boundary condition is

that the fluid and the wall have the same normal velocity. Hence, if the wall
is stationary, we have
V.n~Vw·n=O, (12-6)
I
where V and Vware the velocities of the fluid and the wall, respectively, and
is the unit normal vector. Substitution of Eq. (l2-5a) into Eq. (12-6) yields
11

arp arp_
II
axnx + ayn y - O. (l2-7a)

5,

~----------_x
Figure 12-1 Flow in pipe.

## From Fig. 12-1,

( 12-8a)

(l2-8b)
302 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12

## Hence Eq. (12-7a) transforms to

arp ax + arp ay _ drp = 0 (12-7b)
ax an ay an - dn '
which is similar to Eq. (12-2b). This is the flow or Neumann-type boundary
condition (Chapters 2 and 3). The potential or Dirichlet boundary condition
]s
rp=ip (12-8c)

Often both the flow and potential boundary conditions occur together, which
is called the mixed condition.

## For two-dimensional idealization, we can use a triangular or quadrilateral

element. Formulation with a triangular element will be essentially identical
to the one described for torsion in Chapter II. Hence, we present a formula-
tion by using a four-node quadrilateral element (Fig. 12-2). It is possible to
use either rp or'll (or both) for the finite element formulation. We first con-
sider a formulation with tp,

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_x

## Figure 12-2 Quadrilateral isoparametric clement.

The velocity potential is a scalar and has one value at any point. For the
four-node quadrilateral, there are thus four nodal degrees of freedom, and a
bilinear model for rp at any point can be written as
(12-9a)
rp = ", + ",X + ",y + "4XY
or
rp = [<I>j(",j, (I2-9b)
r I
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 303
I.
where ["'] = [I x y xy] and [lXy ~ [IX, IX, IX, IX,] is the vector of generalized
coordinates. Note that the term xy yields a bilinear distribution compared
to the strictly linear distribution given by the triangular element discussed in
Chapter 11; in a given direction the distribution is linear, however. Evalua-
tion of e at the four nodes yields

## 'PI = IX, + 1X2X1 + lX3Yl + lX4X,y" ,.

+ IX2X2 + 1X3Yz + IX4X2YZ,
qJ2

qJ3
= IX,

## = (Xl + (X2X3 + a4Y3 + 1X4X3Y3, (l2-10a) I

I I

or
I I
[q,} = [A][~}, (12-lOb)
where [A] is the square matrix of coordinates of the nodes and [q,Y ~
['P, 'Pz 'P, 'P,]. We can solve for [~} as
[~} ~ [A]-'[q,} (l2-lOc)
and substitute the results into Eq. (l2-9b) to yield
,
'P = [f1>][Ar'[q,} = [N][q,} = L.: N,'P,. (12-11)
,'=1

The product [f1>][Ar' gives the matrix of interpolation functions [N], which
in terms of the local coordinates sand t (Fig. 12-2) are given by
N, = to - s)(I - f),
N, ~to + s)(I- t),
(12-]2)
N, ~to + s)(I + f),
N, ~ .. w - s)(I + t).
Here, s, fare nondimensionalized local coordinates. Figure 12-3 shows plots
for Nf• i = 1,2,3,4.
The global coordinates x, y at any point in the element can also be
expressed by using the same interpolation functions N"
,
x =L NiX;,
1=1
, (12-13a)
y ~ L.: N,y"
;=1
or

». N, N, 0 0 0 0] {[x"}} (I2-13b)
o 0 0 N, Nz N, N, [y"}'
where [x.]" ~ [x, x, x, x,] and [y"Y ~ [y, y, Y3 y,].
This approach in which the geometry, that is, x, y coordinates and the
unknown 'P, are both expressed by using the same interpolation functions

hn _
304 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12

0 0
/
~
/
/
/
Q) Q)
I
I
-, -, I
,-, I
~~
CD -,
-,
<,
CD ~~~
~~ I
I
I

-,
-,
-,
-,

N, (f) N, (3)

,I ,,
0\ , ,,
I
I \ ,
/
/
/

I
I \
, Q)
/
I \
-> I \
/ \
/
/ \

CD CD

## N, is called the isoparametric concept. As stated previously, use of this con-

cept offers a number of advantages in terms of easier differentiations and
integrations.
The approximation function in Eqs. (12-9) and (12-11) satisfies the
requirements of continuity, comformability and completeness for the flow
problem governed by Eqs. (12-1) and (12-14). It does not, however, include
all terms in the polynomial expansion, see Chapter 11.

## Use of either a variational or a residual procedure for the problem gov-

erned by Eq. (12-3) will yield essentially the same results. We consider the
following variational function for the two-dimensional idealization:

(12-14)
A

## We note here that the terms

I arp arp and 1 arp arp
2axax 2ayay

_________ stIIIll...
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 305

are similar to those in Eqs. (3-21) and (4-6) and can be considered to represent
a measure of energy.
The derivatives in Eq. (12-14) can be obtained by taking partial derivatives
of rp [Eq. (12-11)] with respect to x and y:
arp arpas arp at
gx = ax ~ as ax + at ax'
(12-15)
_ arp _ arp as arp at
g, - ay - as ay + at ay'

## Since the N, are expressed in terms of local coordinates s, t, we use the

following mathematical results based on the chain rule of differentiation in
order to find gx and g,:
aN, _ aN, ax + aN,ay,
as - ax as ay as
(12-16a)
aN, _ aN, ax + aN,ay,
at - ax at ay at
which as a general rule, in matrix notation, can be expressed as

## ifH!; mlfi ~Pili)

The matrix [J] is often referred to as the Jacobian matrix. Equation (12-16b)
(l2-16b)

represents a set of simultaneous equations in which a/ax and a/ay are the
unknowns. Solution by Cramer's rule gives

-~:]I~s)'
as at
(12-17)

## III ~ ax ay _ ax ay. (12-18)

as at at as
The terms in Eq. (12-18) can be evaluated by using expressions for x and y
Eq. (12-13)] and N, [Eq. (12-12)]. For instance,

## + W + s)(1 + t)x, + t(l - s)(1 + t)x,]

~ -to - t)x, + to - t)x, + t(l + t)x, - t(1 + t)x, (l2-19a)

b ~
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
306

## aN, = -J._(1 - r) (12-19b)

as
and so on. Then III is evaluated as

(12-20a)

## By setting i ~ 1,2,3,4 and j = 1,2,3,4 for each i, the summation in Eq.

(12-20a) leads to I I I in matrix notation as
-5+1
l+s
-I +
-s-I
SjjYl]Yz (12-20b)
111~i[x, X2 x, x']l~l~+/ ~1~/s o 1 + I )Y'
l-s s+1 -1-1 o Y,

## Expansion of I I I in Eq. (12-20b) gives

~ t«x, - x,)(Yz - y,) - (x2 - x,)(y, - y,)
+ s[(x, - x,)(y, - Y2) - (x, - x2)(y, - Y4)]
+ 1[(X2 - x,)(y, - Y4) - (x, - x,)(y, - y,)]} (12-20c)

## \1\ = -HX13Y24 - X24Y13) + S(X34Y12 - X12Y34)

+ t(X2'Y14 - x14Yz,)],
where Xij = Xi - xj and Yo = Yi - Yj'
Use of Eq. (12-17) allows computations of as/ax, aI/aX, as/ay, and al/ay
in Eq. (12-15) as
o

~~= Ih(~~~~
- ~m 7t ~ m(~a~>,)
~~i) (12-2Ia)

Similarly,
as ~ __ I
ay III
(± aN
,., al '
iX)' (12-2Ib)

## iJ.!. ~ __ I_(± aN,y,), (12-2Ic)

ax III i·' as
al __ I (± aN, x,) . (12-2Id)
ay - III ,.,rrs

## Now from Eq. (12-11), we have

a'fJ e», and (12-22)
Os ~ rrs'fJ i
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, awl Ftuid Flow 307

Substitution

I~~[
of Eqs. (12-21) and (12-22) into Eq. (12-15) finally leads to

! 11
gx

s,
= axarp) ~ ~}~ tp, (aN,
arp ,~}~
ay ~ ~[(aN,aNi
aN) s», aNi) ] 1 )
fJS at - at as Yi fJl .

rp, os at - aN,aN
atdS 1
TJT
The indicial notation in Eq. (12-23) indicates double summation. For
i)

instance, the first term in the summation for the first row is obtained by
Xl
]
(12-23a)

## rp{ (a:; air' - aa~'aa~')Y' + (aa~'a:r2 - air' a:")Y2

+ (a:; a:r3 - aa~'a:'3)y, + (a:" air' _ a:r' aa~4)y,l (l2-23b)

When this is added to the other three terms obtained by setting i = 2 and)
= I, 2, 3, 4; i = 3,} = 1,2,3,4; and i = 4,} ~ 1,2,3,4, we have arpjax.
Similar evaluation gives arpjay.
After relevant substitutions and rearrangements,

{s,g,} ~ {B;;
B
B" BB" BB"}/::j
B 2l 22 23 24 qJ3
(l2-24a)

rp4
or
(g} = [BJ[q,}, (l2-24b)
where

## B" ~ 81JI I (y" - Y34S- Y,3t),

I
B" = 8IJI(-Y" + Y34S+ y"t),
I
B" ~ 81JI(-Y" + Y"S - y"t),
I
B" = 81JI(y" - y"S + y"t),
(12-24c)
I
B 2I = 8IJI(-x" + x"S + x"t),
j
B22 = 8PT(x" - x34S- x"t),
I
B'3 = 81JI(x" - X"S + x"t),
1
B'4 ~ 8IJI(-x" + x"s - X23t).
Chapter 12
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
308

## n, = [q,Y H[BY[I][Bjdxdy[q,}, (12-25)

where
[I] = [C] = [~ ~l
Taking derivatives ofQp with respect to fIJi' we obtain
aQ (12-26a)
a[q:] = 0,

that is,

(12-26b)
=bQp=O,

[bq,r H[BYlB]dxdy[q,} ~ 0
(12-27a)

or
H [By[B]dxdy[q,} =0
(12-27b)

or (12-27c)
[k,][q,} = {OJ,
where [k,} is the element property matrix:

## [k,} ~ H [BY[B]dxdy. (12-28)

Numerical Integration

A

## = ff[(8\jIl2(Y24 - y"s - y"t)'

A

y (12-29)
+ (8IjIl2(-X 24 + X"S + x"t)']dXd

, ----_ .......",...
-
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 309

and so on. It can be difficult to evaluate these integrals in closed form, and it
is often convenient and efficient to perform the integration numerically.
The idea of numerical integration in finite element analysis is similar to
integration by using well-known formulas such as the trapezoidal and
Simpson rules. In finite element applications, the Gauss-Legendre [3] formula
is often used. In general terms, numerical integration can be expressed as

## where i denotes an integration point, m is the number of such points at which

the function is evaluated and summed [Fig. 12-4(a)J, and the W, are the
weighting function. That is, an approximate value of the integral in Eq. (12-
30) is obtained by finding the summation of the values of the function at a
number of points multiplied by a weighting function at each point. For the
stiffness matrix in the two-dimensional space of the quadrilateral, we have

## ""i::t [B(s" 1)Y[B(s"

(= 1 j= 1
1)]IJ(s" IJ)I W,WJ' (l2-3Ia)

where m and n are the number of integration points in the two coordinate
directions [Fig. 12-4(b)] and W, and Wj are corresponding weights. Note
that we transformed the integral to local coordinates by using 1 11-
As an example, we can use m = 2 and n ~ 2 as shown in Fig. 12-4. Then
total integration points are 4, and we can write Eq. (12-3Ia) as

## [k.] "" L:•

i=1
[B(s" 1,)Y[B(s" I,)] I J(s" I,) I Wi. (l2-3Ib)

The magnitudes of (s" Ii) and Wi can be obtained from available literature

## It is useful to understand the subject of numerical integration because it is used in

many finite element applications. We illustrate here some of the steps for numerical
integration over a (square) quadrilateral [Fig. 12~4(c)]. In view of the fact that hand
calculations of all terms of matrix [k~]can be lengthy and cumbersome, details of
only one term will be attempted here; further details on this element are also given
in Chapter 13. First we compute the common terms required for integration of term
«. in Eq. (12-29).
From Eq. (/2-20c):
Xl) = XI - X3 = 0 - I = -I, YZ4 = Yz - Y4 =0 - 1 = -I,
X24 = Xz - X4 = 1 - 0 = 1, YI3 =YI -Y3 =0 -1 = -I,
X34 = X3 - X4 = t - 0 = 1, YIZ = Yl - Yz = 0 - 0 = 0,
Fix)

F(x}

(a)

,I~t,}/ •
""1-,
.
\$1 == a. 1, :::-a
-r

(53' t3)
5 =+a,t2=-a
, 2
53 ::: + a, 13 :::+ a
54 ::: -r a, t4 ::: +a
CD (5,,1,) / •

y
I (52' 12)

Lx Ibl
m=2
n > 2

(1,11 x,=o,y,=Q
10, 11 x2=1'Y2=Q
(-1,11 11,11 (3) x3=1,V3=1
x4 ::: 0, Y4 1
+3
=
+4
+ Integration points

0,0 Point t
1 2 1 -0,577 -0.577

+ + 2
3
+0.577
+0,577
-0.577
+0.577
CD (-1,-11 11,-11 0 x
4 -0.577 +0.577
(0, 01 1, a
(el

## Figure 12-4 Numerical integration. (a) Schematic representation

of numerical integration of a function. (b) Numerical integration
over quadrilateral. (c) Example of numerical integration.

310
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 311

## Xu =X1 -Xz =0 -1 = -1, YH = Y3 - Y4 = 1 - 1 = 0,

XZ3 = -va - X3 = 1 - 1 = 0, Y14 = Yl - Y4 = 0- [ = -1,
X14 = Xl - X4 = 1 -- ] = 0, Y23 = Y2 - .h = 0 - 1 = -],
and

I JI ~ frr( -1)(-I) - (1)( -1)] + s[(l)(O) - (-I )(0)] + 1[(0)(-1) - (0)( _I)]}

~~(I +1)~2~2A~L
8 884

where A is the area of the square = 1 unit>. Note that for a (square) quadrilateral
only the first term contributes to I J I and its value is one-fourth of the area of the
square, which is constant for all points in the square. Now, numerical integration in
Eq. (12-29) can be expressed by using Eq. (l2-3Ib) as
,
k,,, ~ ~ [B; ,lSi, I,)
i=l
+ Bl, (Si' IJ]' J(Si' I,) I Wi, i ~ 1,2,3,4.

From the available numerical integration tables, such as in Ref. [3], we can
choose an appropriate number of points of integration and weighting function Wi'
For a 2 x 2 or four-point integration with Gauss-Legendre quadrature, the points
of integrations are as shown in Fig. 12A(c), and the weighting functions are WI =
Wz = W3 = W4 = 1. Here we have used the local coordinates of the integration
points only up to third decimal; for computer implementation, values with higher
decimal points are used. The computations for Ell and B21 are shown below in
tabular forms:
I
Bll ~ 81JI (y" - y"s - Y23t),

1
B2, ~ 81JI (-x" + x"s + X23I).
Points of Integration

## 1.577 1.577 0.423 0.423

-2- --2- --2- --y-
1.577 0.423 0.423 1.577
--2- --2- --2- --2-

Therefore,

## k," ~ [BI,(s" I,) + Bi,(s" 1,)]IJ(s" 1,)1 W,

+ [BI,(s" I,) + Bi,(s" ' )]IJ(s"21,)1 W,
+ [B;,(s" I,) + Bi,(s" 1,)]jJ(s" 1,)1 W,
+ [BI,(s" I,) + Bl,(s" 1,)JIJ(s" 1,)1 W,

...
312 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12

## ~ {- x I x (~)'[( -1.577)' + (-1.577)2 + (1.577)2 + (-0.423)'

+ (-0.423)' + (-0.423)' + (-0.423)' + (-1.577)2]
1 10.663
~ 16(9.9477 + 0.7157) ~ -16- ~ 0.667.

Other terms of [k(!'] and the load vector(s) can be evaluated in a similar manner.

Step 5. Assemhly

Equations (12-27) are assembled such that the potentials at common nodes
are compatible. The final assemblage equations are
[K,J(r,} ~ (O). (12-32)
Under the application of only Dirichlet-type boundary conditions, Eq.
(12-32) is modified for given rpl and then solved for nodal potentials.

Applied Fluxes

## In addition to the flow caused by difference in velocity potentials, the

system can be subjected to a number of physical forcing parameters.
A fluid flux Q can be applied as a source or a sink, concentrated at node(s),
within the flow domain. Also, a fluid flow ii can be applied at the boundary.
Then the boundary condition [Eq. (12-7b)] becomes

drp
-
dn
+ q-
- _ 0. (12-33)

Tfwe provide for Q and ii, the variational function in Eq. (12-14) becomes

n, ~ fH[(~~)'+ (~~)
A
2 - 2Q ]dxdy - L iirpdS. (12-34)

## Use of the stationary principle then leads to

[k,](q,) = (Q), (12-35a)
where
(Q} ~ H [NjT(Q}dxdy + S" [NJT(ij}ds (l2-35b)
A

~ (Q,) + (Q,)
is the nodal forcing parameter vector.

Evaluation of [Q}

## This vector can be evaluated by using numerical integration. The expanded

forms of the two parts of(Q} are given below. The first part is
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 313

(Q,J = ff[NY{QJdxdy
A
~ J', J', [NY{QJIJI dsdt

, -
~ L: [N(s"
1=1
1,)y{QJ I J(S" I,) I W,

N! (s" I,»)
, N2(s" I,) _
=~ N(3 Sj, t,) QIJ(s"1,)1 W,. (12-36)
1_1

I N,(s" I,)

## Here we assumed Q to be a uniform flux.

The second part is relevant to the boundary only. As an illustration,
consider side 1-2 of an element (Fig. 12-5) subjected to components 'i, and 'i,.
Then the second part for 'i< specializes to

-
[Q2J =
S2

I
f NNN'jqxdS.
2

N4
_

@
(12-37a)

@)}~--I

## Figure 12-5 Boundary fluxes.

We note that along side 1-2, coordinate I has a constant value equal to
-I, and s varies from -I to +
I. Therefore, the N, specialize to N,
to - s), N, = t(l + s), N, = 0, and N, = O. Hence, we have

(l2-37b)
Chapter 12
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
314

## Since s ~ 2SII" we have

(12-38)
dS = ~ ds ~ [lids,

## where I, is the length of side 1-2. Therefore,

I + S\
I-
_ /, 1 s _ (l2-37c)
{Q2} - 4 ~ q,ds,

which reduces to

## [Q,}~ 'i'\~1 (l2-37d)

This indicates that the total flux on side 1-2 in the x direction is divided
equally between nodes 1 and 2. Contributions of other applied fluxes in both
the x and y directions can be evaluated in an identical manner.

## Formulation by using stream function lfI as an unknown is similar to that

with velocity potential 'fl. The differential equation for flow with 'fI is
J2'f1 + J2'f1 = 0 or V2'f1 = 0 (12-39)
ax2 ay2 '

## !1J'fI) = fJ[ (~~)'

A
+ (~n}xdY ( 12-40)

(12-41)

## By following a procedure similar to the one above, the element equations

are (12-42)

where [k.] is the element property matrix and [q.Y ~ ['fIl 'fI2 'fI3 'fI,] is the
vector of nodal stream functions.
The boundary conditions are expressed as

## where S, is the part on which 'fI is prescribed.

Secondary Quantities

The velocities can be computed by using Eq. (12-5). For the velocity
potential approach,

B"J!::)'
B24 qJ3
(12-43)

'fl'
and for the stream function approach,

B24J[;:) . (12-44)
-B" !1JI3
lJI,
The quantity of flow Qr across a section A-A in an element (Fig. 12-6)
can be now found as
Q!iA-A) = A V"' (12-45)
where A is the cross-sectional area at section A-A and V" is the velocity
normal to the section. V" can be computed from the two components Vx and
vy for an element as

## v"' = VXi sin e- vy, cos e, (12-46a)

where i denotes an element and e
is the angle between the section A-A and
the horizontal. The total flow across a section can be found as I
I

(12-46b)

where j denotes the cross section and M is the total number of elements
across the cross section.

## Figure 12·6 Computation of quantity of flow.

f ' /
/

f I
ill

315
Example 12-2. Potential Flow Around Cylinder

(a) Velocity Potential Solution. Figure 12-7(a) shows the problem of uniform
fluid flow around a cylinder of unit radius. The flow domain is 8 x 8 units. Due to
symmetry, only one-half of the domain is discretized, as shown in Fig. 12-7(b).

Figure 12-7 Analysis for potential flow around cylinder. (a) Flow
around cylinder. (b) Finite element mesh for half flow domain.
(0,0) etc., denote coordinates.

____ ~lf-------,~

I· L=Bunits

(al
.1

@
® ( 8,41
(0 ,41
1M M,
./ <;

-:
»> I-----
-.
V~b- r.
11 & fA 9
1/@@@\APocox;mat;on
! ClrClle

@-\=@
to
( 8,01
(0, 01

@ @ @ @
51

~
® (bl Oriqln for closed form solutions
Origin for
finite element
analysis

316

_______ s1Iil....
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 317

## The boundary conditions for the velocity potential are

rp = 1 unit along the upstream boundary, nodes 1-5,
rp = 0 unit along the downstream boundary, (12-47)
nodes 51-55.
The computer code FIELD-2DFE (for further details, see Appendix 4) was used
to obtain numerical solutions. Solutions for velocity potential are obtained by
setting NTYPE = 2 in the code.
Figure 12·8 shows computed distribution values of velocity potentials at nodes
in half of the :flow domain. Table 12-1 gives comparisons between closed form solu-
tions from Streeter [2J and numerical results for rp at the nodes along the line y = O.
The formula for closed form solution is given by [2]

## where U is the uniform undisturbed velocity in the negative x direction =

['P(x = 0) - 'P(x = L)]/L = (1 - 0)/8 ~ 0.125, L ~ length of the flow domain =
8 [Fig. 12-7(a)), r = (x2 y2)1/2, +
a is the radius of cylinder, and B is the angle
measured from x axis.

SOLUTIONS FOR tp

## Node Exact Computed

26 0.5000 0.5000
31 0.3743 0.3780
36 0.2500 0.2765
41 0.1875 0.2132
51 -0.03125 0.0000'

"Prescribed.

## (b) Stream Function Solution. Specification of NTYPE = 3 in the code FJELD-

2DFE permits solution for the stream function approach. For this solution, the fol-
Jowing boundary conditions were used:

## Ijf = 0.5 along the top nodes 5-55,

Ijf = 0.0 along the bottom nodes, 1-16-26-36-51. (12-49)

Figure 12-9 shows the distribution of computed values of 1If. Table 12-2 gives
comparisons between closed form solutions and numerical predictions for IIf along
the line of nodes 26-30. The closed form solution is given by (2)

## IIf = U (r _ ~2)sin B. (12-50)

For the line considered, B = 90 deg, and r = (x2 + y2)1/2 = Y. The value of U =
(0.5 - 0.0)/4 = 0.125.
10.001
11.001 10881 10.761 10.631 10.571 10.501

## .> 10.571 10.501 10.001

10.761 10.831
11.001 10.881

10.571 10.501

~
I~ IO.OOl
'lS
:g
~
11.001 10.881 10.771 <l:
~81 10.501

## 11.001 10.891 10.781

1/ 10621
\~
V''''';-- '" ",- \ .
I0.001

10.001
11.001 {0.891 10.79 {0.721

## Notes: 1. Potentials shown in parentheses. . b

2. Potentials on the right-hand half can be obtained y
identical potential drop.

## Figure 12-8 Computed nodal potentials.

Prescribed
10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501

10.391 10.391
10.371 10.371 10.361 10.361

'lQ;71
10.241 10241 10.231
V 10.211
10.271
~

V~41 (o15I1~
10.12)

10.01 10.01
10.121 10.111

10.01
17~;;"~\
10.01 10.01 10.01 1001 (001
Prescribed

## Notes: 1. Stream functions shown in parentheses.

2. Stream functions on the right-hand half are symmetrical.

## Figure J2-9 Computed nodal stream functions.

I~ ----
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
320

## TABLE 12-2 COMPARISONS BETWEEN COMPUTED

AND EXACT SOLUTION fOR lf1

## Node Exact Computed

26 0.0000 0.0000'
27 0.1473 0.1529
28 0.2625 0.2746
29 0.3678 0.3892
30 0.4688 0.5000'

• Prescri bed.

## Figure 12-10 shows comparisons between nondimensionalized values of the

x component of velocity Vx along the section of nodes 26-30. The closed form value
is obtained from [2]

or
Vx = I +-..L. (12-51)
V y2

The numerical results plotted in Fig. 12-10 are the values of V)C in element(s) adjoin-
ing the section.
The comparisons in Tables 12-1 and 12-2 indicate that the finite element predic-
tions yield satisfactory solutions for the flow problem. The plots for v.T-IU in Fig.
12-10 show that both the velocity potential and stream function approach give
satisfactory comparisons. The velocity potential approach yields the lower bound

## Figure 12-10 Comparisons of velocities at midsection.

2.0
Closed form

Stream function

2. 1.0
> Velocity potential

29 30
26 27 28
Nodes

___________ F71111116..
11

## Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 321

and the stream function approach the upper bound of the exact velocity. If neces-
sary. the numerical solutions can be improved by using finer meshes.

## THERMAL OR HEAT FLOW PROBLEM

In the case of the heat flow problem, the general governing equation is
essentially the same as Eq. (12-la) except that the meanings of various terms
are different. The unknown can now be the temperature T at a point; k .,
k; and k, are thermal conductivites; Q is the (internal) applied heat flux;
and q is the (surface) intensity of heat input. In addition, there is the possi-
bility of heat transfer due to the difference between the temperature of the
medium, T, and the surroundings, To- The differential equation for two-
dimensional steady-state heat flow then becomes
a'T
kXax2 + k'aya2T + Q- ~
2
0, (12-52)

(12-53a)
and

## where a, is the heat transfer coefficient.

The finite element formulation with the quadrilateral element will result
in equations similar to Eq. (12-35) with the addition of the following term in
n, [Eq. (12-34)],
f s, ±IX(T - To)2dS, (12-54)

which will lead to additional contributions [k.] and [Q,} to the element
matrix and the forcing parameter vector, respectively:

[k.] = f s,
IX[NYlN]dS, (12-55a)

[Q,} = f s,
IX[N)T[To]dS. (12-55b)

## For evaluation or [k,] we need to integrate along the sides (boundaries)

r
of the elemen t. As an illustration, consider side 1-2 (Fig. 12-5) as before:

## ~"N', I::: (lHH "' +" o

I,
O]dS
Chapter 12
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
322

w- 5)2 HI - 5') 0 OJ
= !Xl,S'
2 _,
l ·W -
0
o
S2) ·W + S)2
0
0
0
0
0
O~dS

= !Xl'2 lt 0
o
t ~ ~J'
0 0 0
0 0 0
(12-56)

## Computation of [Q,J is similar to that for ii.< in Eq. (12-37a).

Finally the element equations for heat flow will be
(12-57)
([k] + [k.])[qTJ = [QJ = [Q,J + [Q,J + [Q3J,
where [qTY = [T, T, T, T,].

## As a simple illustration, consider steady-state heat flow in a rectangular block of

unit thickness (Fig. 12-11). The heat flow domain is divided into 9 elements with
12 nodes. The boundary conditions are assumed as follows:
I'(O, y) = 100 deg, (12-58)
T(3, y) = 25 deg.
The thermal conductivities are assumed to be equal as k.'t = ky = 1.
Table] 2-3 shows the computed values of temperatures at various nodes ob-
tained by using the code FIELD-2DFE.

fOR TEMPERATURES

## Node Temperature (deg)

\ 100.0000'
2 100.0000·
J tOO.OOOO·
4 74.9998
5 74.9998
6 74.9998
7 49.9999
8 49.9999
9 49.9999
\0 25.0000'
11 25.0000*
12 25.0000*

*Prescribed.

_________ F1IIIIIIIIIIIII
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 323

3 ®
~
-o
& &,
o
o -----
(3)
<,
@ c
o
N

&
1 10

## Figure 12-11 Heal now in two-dimensional body.

SEEPAGE

Seepage is defined as flow of fluid, usually water, through porous (soil) media.
The governing equation is similar to Eq. (12-la) except the meanings of
various terms are

Unknown, rp = E:
y
+ z is the total fluid head or potential,

## k;o ky, kz = coefficients of permeability in the x, y, z

(12-59)
directions, respectively,
Q ~ applied (internal) fluid flux,
ij ~ applied (surface) intensity of fluid,
where p is the fluid pressure, y = density of water, and z is the elevation
For two-dimensional steady-state confined flow, the element equations
are identical to Eq. (12-35) except for the meaning of the terms. Often seepage
is defined as confined or unconfined [4]. fn the con lined category, seepage
occurs through a saturated medium subjected to prescribed boundary con-
ditions and does not involve the so-called free or phreatic surface. In the case
of unconfined seepage, on the other hand, we encounter the free or phreatic
conditions.
When the seepage occurs with a free surface and surface of seepage [Fig.
12-12(b)], we have the mixed boundary conditions on these surfaces:
cp=z (l2-60a)
and
arp =0 (l2-60b)
all .
Chapter 12
potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
324

,,
\/

lal

## {~~:~ Free surface

z
= ~ S~~face seepage

l x
~~ /~

Ibl
;/

0) 0)1051 0 10.01
12.01

1051
CD 0 0
lei

## Figure 12-12 Seepage through porous media. (a) Three_dimensional

seepage. (b) Free surface and mixed boundary conditions. (e) Steady
seepage in porous medium.

## At the free surface, the pressure is atmospheric; hence, P = 0 and rp = z,

The second condition implies that the velocity of flow normal to the free
surface is zero. The two conditions [Eq. (\2-60)] must be satisfied simul-
taneously. The mixed conditions render the problem nonlinear. Conse-
quently, in contrast to the steady confined flow, which requires only one finite
element solution, it is often necessary to perform iterative analysis in the case
of free surface flow. This requires a number of finite element solutions. This
topic is beyond the scope of this text; the interested reader can consult

Refs. [4]-[6].
Figure 12-12(c) shows a rather simple problem of seepage through porous (soil)
media with coefficients of permeability k, = k, = O.005(LITl and thickness =
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
325
Chapter 12

## 1 unit. The boundary conditions are

(12-61)
at x = 0,
(12-61)
at x = 2 units.
The computed values of rp at various nodes are shown in Fig. 12-12(c) in
parentheses.
The computed values of velocities are shown in Table 12-4. These values com-
pare closely with the velocities computed from Darcy's law:

## TABLE 12-4 COMPUTED SEEPAGE VELOCITIES

Element v, v,
0.005 -0.48 X 10-8
t
0.005 -0.18 X 10-8
2

v, ~ -k
arp
ax ~ 0.005 x 2
2

~ 0.005.
As expected, the y components of velocity are very small, almost equal to zero. The
quantity of flow [Eq. (I2-46b)] was found to be equal to 0.01 unit.

## Example 12-5. Steady Confined Seepage Through Foundation

The foregoing problem is rather simple and can permit hand calculations. Now we
consider a problem that is more difficult and needs use of the computer.
A problem of steady confined flow through the foundation soil of a structure
(dam, sheet pile) is shown in Fig. 12-13(a). The foundation consists of two layers
with different coefficients of permeability. The soil is assumed to be isotropic, that
is, k , = k.; this assumption is not necessary because anisotropic properties can be
included in the finite element procedure. The structure itself is assumed to be
impervious. The two-layered foundation rests on a material which has a very low
permeability; hence, at the depth of 10 m, impervious base is assumed. This
implies a zero flow (natural or Neumann) boundary condition.
Steady fluid heads ifJu and ifJd act on the upstream and downstream sides, respec-
tively. For this problem, we have assumed
ifJu = 1 m, (12-62)
I'
if, ~ 0, I
which constitutes the geometric (or forced or Dirichlet) boundary condition. Because
the problem is linear, results for this boundary condition can be extended to any
multiple of {jJu and ifJd with proportional difference in the head. For instance, the
subsequent results can be used to derive solutions for ifJu = 100 m and ifJd = 50 m
by multiplying the computed nodal heads by 50.
The foundation medium extends toward "infinity" in the lateral direction.
Because we can include only a finite part of this extent in the analysis, an approxi-
mation must be made to fix the discretized end boundaries. For instance, in
F:o:re:e:d~b:o:u~n:d~a~rv~e~o~:~d~;t~;o:n:~~"jlll~S~t~ru~et~u~r~ellll-,;~:'~"£=~o~ --!

5 m k, = k, = 3 m/day

## Impervious base (natural boundary condition)

[a]

- m
",-0

5 -I I~
I~
&.
z

&
1 x
aI
2=0
I
~
D iscretized end boundary
oz
[b]
Discretized endboundar'

l ;;
~ ",,-0
, I!
"
I
I \
I
I \ \

I
I
Il I

50 30 20 10
40 o
Percent

lei

## Figure 12-13 Steady confined seepage through layered foundation.

(a) Details of foundation. (b) Finite element mesh. (c) Solution
for nodal potentials: equipotential lines.

326
Chapter 12
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
327

Fig. 12-13(b) we have chosen the end boundaries at a distance of 20 m (equal to the
width of the structure) from the edges of the structure; this involves an assumption
that at that distance the fluid potentials will be approximately equal to the applied
potentials on the upstream and downstream sides. Often, it may be necessary to
perform parametric studies to find the distances at which such conditions can be
assumed. Further discussion on this topic appears in Chapter 13.
Figure 12-13(b) shows a finite mesh with 95 modes and 72 elements. A nodal line I
is needed at the interface between the two layers. The geometric boundary condi- II
tions at the upstream and downstream nodes are ifJu = I m and ifJd = 0 m, respec-
tively. At the bottom boundary we have arp/az = 0; being the natural boundary
condition, it is satisfied automatically in an integrated sense. Consequently, in the
III
finite element analysis, we computed fluid heads at nodes at this boundary. Since the
problem is symmetric, we could have solved it by considering mesh only for one-half
of the medium [Fig. 12-13(c)]. Then at the centerline we can assume a natural boun-
I
dary condition; that is, arp/ax = O. This is valid since at the centerline the rate of
change of rp vanishes.
Figure 12-13(c) shows the finite element computations for nodal heads obtained
by using the code FfELD-2DFE. The equipotential lines are shown as a percentage
of the total head difference ifJu - ifJd.
From the results in Fig. 12-13(c), we can find the seepage forces causing uplift
on the structure. Moreover, the finite element procedure allows computations of
velocities in all or selected elements and the quantity of flow at selected sections. AI!
this information can be used for analysis and design of structures founded on porous
soil foundations through which seepage occurs.

I I

ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBLEMS I I
I

## ential equation, in the absence of Q in Eq. (l2-la), reduces to the Laplace

equation I

axa (av)
kxax + aya ( k'ayav) = 0, (l2-63a)

V'v = 0,
(J2-63b)
where V is the electric or magnetic potential, V' is the Laplacian operator,
and kx and k, are the material properties; in the case of electrical flow they
are the permittivities in the x and y directions, respectively.
The finite element formulations and details will follow essentially the same
procedures as in the case of the field problems covered in this chapter and
Chapter 11. For further details on this topic the reader can consult various
publications [7, 8J.
Thus, we once again observe the similarities of various phenomena in
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
328

different disciplines in engineering and physics and how the finite element
method provides a common ground for their solutions.

## COMPUTER CODE FIELD-2DFE

This is a general code for field problems and permits solution of torsion,
potential flow, steady-state seepage, and heat flow. The user needs to supply
appropriate properties relevant to the specific problem and specify codes for
the type of problem as follows:

## Problem Code, NTYPE

Torsion
Potential flow
Velocity potential 2
Stream function 3
Seepage 4
Heat flow 5

In fact, the code can be used easily for other steady-state problems such as
electrostatic and magnetic flow. Further details of the code are given in
Appendix 4.

PROBLEMS

12-1. Derive in detail [k] and {Q} for potential flow by using a triangular element
(see Chapter 11).
12-2. Find (Q2) [Eq. (12-37)] if s, and q, were applied on sides 1-2 and 2-3,
respectively.
12-3. By using numerical integration, compute the coefficients k"'l~ and k",,, for
the square element in Fig. 12-4(c).
12-4. By hand calculation, find the element matrix [k] for steady-state heat flow
in a square plate of unit thickness (Fig. 12-14) discretized in four equal
square elements. The boundary conditions are

## T(x, y) ~ 100 deg,

T(2, y) ~ a deg,
and ky = ky = ] unit. Assemble the equations for the four elements and
solve for temperatures at nodes 4,5, and 6. Hint: You may use the results

________ .. F5IIIItI..
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 329
y

®
6
10,21 ®
12,21

&® ill
o ®
ill(3) ffi II
(j)
CD x
10,01 12,01

Figure 12·14

## indicated in Eq. (l2-31a) and the numerical integration shown in Example

12-1. Solution: T at nodes 4, 5, and 6 = 50 deg.

12-5. In Prob. 12-4, consider heat flux ij = 0.1 unit per unit length along the side
3-6-9 and compute temperatures at nodes 4, 5, and 6. Hint: You may use
the results in Eq. (12-37) for finding the forcing function vector {Q}.

12-6. In Prob. 12-4, consider a source (or sink) Q = 0.1 units at node 6 and find
the temperatures at nodes, 4, 5, and 6. Hint: You may use Eq. (12-36) to
evaluate {Q], which will need numerical integration similar to that used in
Example 12-1.

12-7. Use the same domain as in Prob. 12-4 but composed of a porous medium
such as a soil with

kx = ky = 0.1 ern/sec

## and applied fluid potentials equal to

1"(0, y) ~ 10 em,
1"(2, y) ~ 5 em.

## Compute (a) fluid potentials at nodes 4, 5, and 6; (b) velocities Vx and V

y
in all the elements; and (c) the quantity of flow across a cross section.

12-8. Consider Prob. 12-7 but include ij = 0.1 cm3/sec-cm along the side 3-6-9
and find fluid heads at nodes 4, 5, and 6.

12-9. Consider Prob. 12-7 but include Q = 0.1 ems at node 6 and compute fluid
heads at nodes 4, 5, and 6.

12-10. Consider Example 12-5. Prepare three meshes with discretized boundaries
at 10, 20, and 40 m from the edges of the structure. By using a computer
code, compare the results from the three analyses and offer comments on
the effect of the distance of the end boundaries on the numerical predic-
tions of the heads under the structure.

b _
REFERENCES

[1] DESAI, C. S., and ABEL, J. F" Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.
[2) STREETER,V. L., Fluid Dynamics, McGraw-Hili, New York, 1948.
[31 ABRAMOWlTZ, M., and STEGUN, I. A., (eds.), Handbook Mathematical Functions
with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Applied Math. Se 55,
National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1964.
a
[4] DESAI, C. S., and CHRiSTIAN, J. T. (eds.), Numerical Methods in Geote(./11lic l
Engilleering, McGraw~Hill, New York, 1977.
[5] DESAI, C. S., "Finite Element Procedures for Seepage Analysis Using an
Isoparametric Element," in Proc. Symp, on Appl. 0/ FEM in Ceo/echo Eng.,
Waterways Expt. Station, Vicksburg, Miss., 1972.
[61 DESAI, c. S., "Seepage Analysis of Earth Banks Under Drawdown," J. Soil
Mech. Found. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 98, No. SMI, 1972.
[7] SILVESTER,P., and CHARI, M. V. K., "Finite Element Solution of Saturable
Magnetic Field problems," IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS 89, 1970, pp. 1642-1651.
[8] CHARI, M. V. K., and SILVESTER,P., "Analysis of Turbo-Alternator Magnetic
Fields by Finite Elements," IEEE TrailS. Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.
PAS 90,1971, pp. 454-464.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DESAI, C. S., "Finite Element Methods for Flow in Porous Media," in Finite Ele-
ments ill Fluids, Vol. I (Gallagher, R. H., Oden, J. T., Taylor, C, and Zien-
kiewicz, O. c., (eds.), Wiley, New York, 1975, Chap. 8.
DOHERTY, W. P., WILSON, E. L., and TAYLOR, R. L., "Stress Analysis ofAxisym-
metric Solids Utilizing Higher Order Quadrilateral Finite Elements," Report
69-3, Suuct. Engg. Lab., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Jan. 1969.
ERGATOUDIS, I., fRONS, B. M., and ZIENKIEWICZ, O. C, "Curved, Isoparametric
Quadrilateral Elements for Finite Element Analysis," Int, J. Solids Struct.: Vol.
4, No. I, 1968.
ZIENKIEWICZ, O. C, MAYER, P., and CHEUNG, Y. K., "Solution of Anisotropic
Seepage by Finite Elements," J. Eng. Mech, tn« ASCE, Vol. 92, No. EM1,
1966.

332
13
TWO-DIMENSIONAL
STRESS-DEFORMATION
ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION

## After studying a number of one-dimensional problems and two-dimensional

field problems with only one unknown or degree of freedom at a point, we
arc now ready to consider a different class of two-dimensional problems. This
class involves analysis of stress and deformations with more than one degree
of freedom at a point.
Most real problems arc three-dimensional. Under certain assumptions,
which can depend on the geometrical and loading characteristics, it is possible
to approximate many of them as two-dimensional. Such two-dimensional
approximations generally involve two categories: plane deformations and
bending deformations. Jn the case of plane deformation, we encounter
subcategories such as plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric; in the case
of bending, we deal with problems such as bending of plates, slabs, and
pavements.

PLANE DEFORMATIONS

## Plane Stress Idealization

Figure 13-1 shows a (thin) beam and a plate subjected to loads that are
applied in the plane of the structure, that is, in the x-y plane. The thickness is
small compared to the x-y dimensions of the body. Such loadings are often

333
Chapter 13
Two_Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis
334

I
Y. v v, v

L x.u
L x. u t
h
~
(bl
(al
figure 13.1 Plane stress approximation. (a) Beam. (b) Plate·C "'t~',.,·~)
referred to as in-plane or membrane (stretching). Under these conditions, and
the assumption that the variation of stresses with respect to z, that is, across
the body, is constant, it is reasonable to assume that out of the six com-
ponents of stresses in a three_dimensional body [1-3] three of them, a" ~""
and -r ,,, can be ignored in comparison to the remaining three, a" a" and
r ,,. This idealization is called plane stress and involves only the following

(13-1)

## ponents of strains are

[£) J:J (13-2)

lYxJ
In Eqs. (13-1) and (13-2), a and E denote components of normal stress and
strain and r and y denote components of shear stress and strain, respectively,
and [aY = [a, a, ~,,} and [£Y = [E, E, y,,] are the vectors of stress and
strain components. In view of the plane stress assumption, we need to con-
sider only two components of displacements at a point, " and v, in the x and y

directions, respectively.
If we restrict ourselves to linear, elastic, and isotropic materials, the
material behavior can be expressed by using the generalized. Hooke's law for
the three components of stress and strain [1, 2}. Thus
E vE
a x = -v 2 E
----------I

-v 2 E y.
x + ---;:\
(13-3a)
vE E
aY=~1-v 2EX+~1 - v 2Ey,

E
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-De/ormation Analysis 335

or in matrix notation,
v

~ J(E}, (l3-3b)
I-v
o -2-

## where [C] is stress-strain or constitutive matrix and E and v are Young's

modulus and Poisson's ratio, respectively.

## 10 cases where the thickness is large compared to the x-y dimensions

(Fig. 13-2) and where the loads are acting only in the plane of the structure,
that is, the x-y plane, it can be assumed that the displacement component w
in the z direction is negligible and that the in-plane displacements u, v are
independent of z. This approximation is called plane strain, in which case the
nonzero stress components are given by

## (a} = {::} (13-4)

tx>
and ax ~ v(ax + a,). The stress-strain relationship for this idealization IS

expressed as

## (a} = [C](E) = (I + v)fl _ 2v)[1 - v I ~ v ~ J(E). (13-5)

1- 2v
sym. -2-

y, v

z, w

z,
J-x,u~
w

[a] Ibl

Figure 13-2 Plane strain approximation. (a) Strip load. (b) Long
underground tunnel.

Axisymmetric Idealization

Figure 13-3 shows a body symmetrical about its centerline axis and
subjected to a load symmetrical about tbe axis. In view of the symmetry, the

336 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

't
I

It
I

Ie, w
!- 0, v

ffi~
~-r
I
e,v
~r,u

## components of stress are independent of the circumferential coordinate 8. As

a consequence, we have the following nonzero stress and strain compo-
nents [2]:

## (a) = 1::)' (e) = (::). (13-6)

r., rrz
The constitutive or stress-strain relation for this case is
I-v v v 0
l~v v 0
E
[a} = [C][e} = (1 + v)(1 2v) I-v 0 [e}. (13-7)
sym. 1 - 2v
-2-

Strain-Displacement Relations

## From the theory of elasticity, assuming small strains and deformations,

we can define the following strain-displacement relations for the three
idealizations [2J:
Plane Stress and Strain:

f au
x
ax
f, av
ay (l3-8a)

au + av
y" ay ax
Axisymmetric:
au
ar
f')
f, u
-
r
(13-8b)
f, aw

y" r- az
au + aw
az ar
Initial Stress and Strain: As explained in Chapter 5, it is possible to include
initial or residual strains or stresses existing in the structure before the load is
applied.
The initial strain (or stress) state may be caused by factors such as known
temperature, (fluid) pressure, creep effects, and geostatic stresses. For instance,
I in the case of temperature,

I
(13-9)

## where dT ~ T - To is the change in temperature and IX is the coefficient of

thermal expansion.
We define total strain e as the sum of the effective elastic strain, e», and
the initial strain:
if} ~ [Ct'[,,} + (Eo), (13-10)
where (Eo) is the vector of initial strains and

## {e] ~ [C]([E} - (Eoll = [C][E') (13-11)

The matrix [Ct' = [0], in which [0], the strain-stress matrix, for the plane
strain case is
-v
I-v
o
2
[0] = 1 - v -v o
E I- v (13-12)

o 2
o I-v

337
FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION

As shown in Fig. 13-4, the finite element discretization will involve two-
dimensional elements such as triangles and quadrilaterials (squares, rectan-
gles, trapezoids) in the x-y plane. The third dimension (z) is generally included
hy specifying unit thickness for plane strain or a thickness h in the case of
plane stress.

v, v
'~"u P(x,vl
~ (L1, L2. L3)
P [x, vi
(5, t)

~ x. u

ments.

## Detailed properties of the triangular and quadrilateral elements have

been covered in Chapters II and J 2. Here we shall discuss in detail the use of
the quadrilateral element and then state briefly the use of the triangular
element.
As stated previously, there are two unknown displacements ti, v at a
point P(x, y) [Fig. 13-4]. We can write approximation models for ", v at a
point in the element as

## u(x,y) = 00, + oo,x + oo,y + oo.xy,

(13-13a)
v(x,y) ~ /3, + /3,x + /3,y + /3.xy,
or
{u) = [<Il][a), (13-13b)

where {uY ~ [u v], lay ~ [00, 00, 00, 00. /3, /3, /3, /3.], and [<Ill is the

338
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis 339

## matrix of coordinates. Evaluation of u and v at the four nodes gives

u, = 0::1 + oc2x, + (l3Yi + (X4X,.Yil
(l3-14a)
V, ~ p, + P,x, + p,y, + P,x,y" i = 1,2,3,4,
or
(q) [A] (<x) (l3-14b)
(8 x I) (8 x 8) (8 x I)
where [qy = [ut Uz UJ U4 VI Vz V3 v4] is the vector of nodal displace-
ments and [A] is the square (8 X 8) matrix of nodal coordinates. Solution of
Eq. (13-14b) for (<x) gives
(<x) ~ [Ar'(q}, (l3-14c)
which when substituted into Eq. (13-13b) yields u, v at any point in terms of
the nodal displacements:
(u) = [<I>][Ar'(q} = [N] (q). (13-15)
rz x n (2x8)(8xl)
The product [<I>][Ar' results in the matrix of interpolation functions [N],
where the N" as defined in Eq. (12-12), are
N, = *(1 - s)(1 - t),
N, = to + s)(I - I),
(13-16)
N, = to + s)(1 + t),
N, = to - s)(I + t).
Here s, t are local coordinates (Figs. 12-2 and 13-4).
The geometry, that is, the x, y coordinates at any point in the element, can
be expressed by using the same interpolation functions N,:
,
x = L: n,»;
,-, i = 1,2,3,4,
, (13-17a)
y ~ 2: N,y"
i~l
i = 1,2,3,4,

or
JX}
1y ~
[[N]
[0]
[O]]J(X,}}
[N] l(y,} ,
(13-17b)

(2 x I) (2 x 8) (8 x 1)
where (x,}" ~ [x, x, x, x,] and (y"f ~ [y, y, y, y,].
This leads to the definition of the element as the/our-node isoparametric
element.

## The approximation function must yield continuous values of II and v

within the element. This is satisfied since we have chosen the functions in the
polynomial form as in Eq. (13-13).
340 Two- Dimensional Stress- Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

For plane problems, the approximation models must satisfy the inter-
element compatibility at least up to derivative of order zero; that is, the dis-
placement between adjoining elements must be compatible. This is tied in with
the highest order of derivative 11 in the energy function, Eq. (13-21) below.
Since n = 1 in Eq. (13-21), the minimum order for interelement compati-
bility is equal to 11 - I = O.
The approximation of Eqs. (13-13) and (13-15) yields continuous bilinear
distributions of II and v within an element and linear distributions along the
element boundaries. It can be seen (Fig. 13-5) that the displacements along
common sides of two elements are compatible since only the straight line can
pass through two nodal displacements common to both elements. For the
two-dimensional plane deformation problems, the approximation function
provides for rigid body displacements and constant states of strains: Eo''''
Ey• Yxr However, the function does not include all terms in the polynomial
expansion represented by the Pascal's triangle, Chapter II.

Lines a, b , and a2 b2
coincide

Equal

## First we consider the plane stress idealization. By following the procedure

in Chapter 12, the strain components can be evaluated as

au au as all at
f .• = ax = as ax + at dX
(l3-ISa)

Similarly,
av avas avat (13-ISb)
f, = JY = as ay + Or ay
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-De/ormation Analysis 341

and
au av (aU as ay at) (aVaS av at)
y" = ay + ax ~ as OJ + at ay + as ax + at dX . (13-18c)

Finally, we have

## r} B B12 B" B" 0 0 0

=
f

Y:J<
r E 0"
21
0

B" B"
0 0
B24
B"
B"
B"
BIl
B"
B"
B~,}q]
B"
(13-19)

or
(e] = [B][q], (13-20)

where the B,) are defined in Eq. (12-24c) and (q] is defined in Eq, (13-14b).

## We use the principle of stationary potential energy; the potential energy

is given by [3]

IT, = ~ II
A
(eY[C][e]dxdy - h II
A
(uJT[X]dxdy - h L (uJT[t}dS, (13-21)

## where [xy = [2 Y] is the vector of components of body forces; tty =

[tx t,] is the vector of components of surface tractions in the x and y direc-
tions, respectively; and h is the (uniform) thickness of the element.
Substitution for [u) and (e] from Eqs. (13-15) and (13-20) in Eq. (13-21)
yields

IT, = ~ [qy II A
[BY [C] [B] dxdy [q]
(lxS) (SxJ)(JxJ)(JxS) (SxI)

## - h [qy Sf [NY [X] dxdy

A
n x s: (Sx2)(2xl)

- h [qy f s,
[NY [t] ss. (13-22)
(l x S) (S x 2)(2 x I)

By taking partial derivatives of Il, with respect to lit, VI' etc., and equating
to zero,
aITp
0[qJ -
_ 0
, (13-23)

## [k] [q) = [Q] = [Q,] + [Q,], (13-24)

(SxS)(Sxl) (SxI) (SxI) (8xI)
342 Two-Dimensional Stress- De/ormation Analysis Chapter 13

A

## The coefficients of [k] are functions of local coordinates s and I, and it is

more convenient to perform numerical integration as follows:
N
[k]::= h L: [B(s" 1,)JT[C][B(s" 1,)]IJ(5" 1,)1 W,. 1: ' (13-27)
i=l '"

where (5" I,) denote the local coordinates of the integration point i and so on.
Often, for quadrilateral elements, 2 X 2 or four-point (N ~ 4) integration
(Fig. 12-4) is used.
The first part (Q,] of the load vector can be computed as follows:
N _
(Q,j ~ h L: [N(s" 1,)YlX]W,.
;=1
(13-28a)

If we assume a uniform body force intensity i' (per unit volume) [Fig.
13-6(a)], X = 0, the expanded form of (Q,j is
N, 0
N2 0
N, 0
N N, 0
(Q,j =h L: o {~) IJ(s" I,ll W,. (l3-28b)
i= I N,
o N,
o N,
o
The subscript (s., I,) denotes that the matrix is evaluated at points (s, t,). For
instance, the fifth component of (Q,j,
N _

;""\

## gives nodal force in the y direction at node point 1, and so on.

The second part (Q2] arises due to surface tractions applied on the
boundary of an element. Often it is possible to evaluate this part by using
closed form integration. For instance, consider TX1 and TY1 as applied
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis 343

'---x

[a]

lbl

(b) Surface tractions.

## tractions on side 1-2 [Fig. 13-6(b)]. Then

N, O-
N, 0
N, 0

[Q,} ~ h [
N,
0
0
N, r'ldS
T"
(13-29a)

0 N,
0 N,
0 N,
-'
344 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

## Now, along side I,s = -I to I and t = -I; therefore,

N, ~*(1 =±(!- s),
- s)(1 - t)
N, ~ W + s)(1 - t) ~ ±(! + s),
(13-29b)
N, =W + s)(1 + t) = 0,
N, ~ W - s)(1 + t) = 0,
substitution of which leads to a line integral as
-(1 - s)/2 0
(I + s)/2 0
0 0 ds
[Q2} = hi' L 0
0 (1 -
0
s)/2
j~x,)95.
T"
(13-29c)

0 (1 + s)/2
0 0
0 0
We used here the transformation relation in Eq. (12-38). Upon required
integrations, we have
tX1

TXl
0
0
[Q2} = hi' (13-29d)
T"
t Y1

0
0
where I, = length of side 1-2. This implies that the applied load is distributed
equally at the two nodes pertaining to the side 1-2. This is a consequence of
the fact that the interpolation function [Eq. (13-15)] is linear along the sides
of the quadrilateral. If we use a different (higher-order) approximation, the
results may not be similar. Furthermore, in the case of the higher order
approximation, it may be easier to perform numerical integration, as was
done for [Q,}.
The assembly of element equations can be achieved by following the
principle that the displacements at the common nodes are compatible. The
procedure is essentially the same as illustrated in Chapters 3, 4, 5, 7, II, and
12 and as illustrated subsequently in Examples 13-1 and 13-2.
The assemblage equations are modified for the boundary conditions in
terms of prescribed values of II and v on partes) of the boundary. Solution of
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis 345

the resulting equations gives nodal displacements. Then strains and stresses
are computed by using Eqs. (13-20); and (13-3), (13-5), and (13-7), respec-
tively.

Triangular Element

## After the derivations in Chapter 11 for the torsion problem, it is relatively

straightforward to derive element equations for the plane stress idealization
using the triangular element (Fig. 11-2). Use of the linear function, Eq.
(l1-4a) for both LI and v satisfies various requirements (for two-dimensional
plane deformations).
Various terms for the triangular element are stated below:

[N] ~ [~'
N2
0
N3
0
0
N, N,
0
~J (13-30b)

## (qY ~ [u, LI, Ll 3 V, v, V3], (13-30c)

b, b 3 0 0
[B] ~ 2~ [b'
0
a, a,
0 0
°3
a, a,
b, b,
~3l
b
3
(13-30d)

where the N, are defined in Eq. (l1-3b) and the b, and a, are given in Eq.
(l1-3c).
The general form of the element equations is identical to that for the
quadrilateral element [Eq. (13-24)]; only the orders of various matrices are
different. The stiffness matrix has the order of 6 X 6 and is given by

[k] ~ h[BYrC][B] Sf dA
A

= hA[BYrC][B]. (13-31)

The load vector has the order 6 X I. For a uniform body weight i' (X = 0)
[Fig. 13-7(a)],

(13-32a)

The uniform surface traction is divided equally among the two nodes
belonging to the side on which traction is applied. For instance, for Tx;
acting on side I [Fig. 13-7(b)] we have

## (Q,Y ~ Id'Z' I, [0 I o 0 0], (l3-32b)

• 346 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

1,1

y
Side 1

+----~x
(bl

face traction.

## where /, is the length of side 1.Contributions of tractions in the y directions

and on other sides can be similarly evaluated.

## Example 13-1. Details of Quadrilateral Element

Figure 13-8 shows a square isoparametric element (see also Example 12-1, Fig. 12-4)
subjected to a surface traction t;
equal to 1 kg/em on side 2-3. Material properties
are E ~ 10,000 kgjcm> and v ~ 0.30.
First we show brief details for the computation of matrix [B]. Referring to Eq.
(12-20c), we have

## Xl3 = 0 - 1 = -1, Y24~O-l -1,

X24 =1 - 0 = 1, Y'3~0-1 -1,
x34=l-O=l, y" ~ 0 - 0 ~ 0,
Xl2 =0 - 1 = -1, Y34 = 1 - 1 = 0,
X23 =1 - 1 = 0, Y14=O-l = -1,

## XI4=O-O=O, Y23~O-l ~-1.

Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-De/ormation Analysis 347

y
1 kg/em

10,11 (1,11
@) G)
+ +
(-0.577, 10.577,
0.5771 0.5771

(-0.577, (0.577,
-0.5771 -0.5771
+ +

CD (?)
to. 01 (I, 01 x

+ Integration points

## Figure 13-8 Integration over square element.

Then
I J I ~ H( -1)( -1) - ( -1)( -1) + 5[1 X 0 - ( -1)(0)]
+ 1[(0)(-I) - (0)(-1)]
~ i(1 + I)
~ 0.25,

which is one-fourth of the area of the square. Therefore, use of Eq. (12-24c) gives

I 1
8" 8 X 0.25[-1 - 0 X 5 _. (-1)1] ~ 2(-1 + I),

1 1
8" ~ 2[+1 + 0 x s + (-1)1] ~ 2(1 - I),

1 1
8" ~ 2[1 + 0 x S + (1)1]~ 2(1 + I), o _ll_l-t)
[)'~-2\.
821 ~ ~[-I + I x 5+0 x IJ~+(-I +s),

I 1
822 ~ 2[ -I - 1 x s - 0 X I] ~ 2( -1 - .s),

I 1
8" ~ 2[1 - (-1)5 +0 X I] ~ 2(1 + s),
I I
B" ~ 2[1 + (-1)5 - 0 X I] ~ 2(1 - .s).

## Now the product [BJT[C][B] in [k] [Eq. (13-27)J is given by

...
w
00

-CIIBy] GllS21 En -
CJZB21Bll CllBllB12 CI1Bl1B13 C12BllB23 CllBllB14 ClzBI1B24
+ + + + + + + +
C3JBL CJ3BZ1B11 CJ3BllB22 C3jBllB12 e33S21 B23 CJjB21B1J C33B21Bz4 CJ3B21Bl4

## CnBL C12B21B12 CnB21B22 Cl2B21B13 C22B21B23 C12Bl4B21 ens2! 824

+ + + + + + +
C33B ri C33B]! 822 e33 s., B12 C33BllB23 C33B1IB13 C33BIIB24 e33 811 814
ell Bi2 C12B12Bn C1IBI1BIJ C12B12B23 C11B12814 C12B12B24
+ + + + + +
C33Bh C33B22B12 C33B22B23 C33BnB1J CJ3B22B24_ C33BnB14
enS!2 C12B22B13 C22B22B23 Cr28nB14 C22B22B24
V
+ + + + +
[BJT[e] [BI ~
C33BrZ e33 B12E23 C33B12B13 CJ3B1ZB24 C33B12B14
(B-33)
C11Bh el2S13E2] CIIBI3BI4 C12B13B24

+ + + + "
C33B~3 C33Bz3B13 C33B23B24 ens2] 814

## C22BI3 C12823B14 CZ2B23B24

+ + +
Syrn. C33Bh CJ3B13B24 C33B13B14

C11BY4 C12B14B24
+ +
C33BI4 C33Bz4BI4
C22BI4
+ Ii
C33BI4

::;
N

II
q
>

I
q II II I I
'--' 9 9
" '" '"
~
~
-.J
00
~
N
....
W
~
~
>:::j

00
+
.., 9P Vt 0\ N 00 \..oJ 0'1

II
~N
o I I
o it ;;5 -.I ~ VI

.9 t; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Example 13-2. Triangular Element

Evaluate element stiffness matrices for the problem in Example 3-1 subdivided into
two triangular elements (Fig. 13-9). Assemble and solve for displacement and
stresses with the following data.
The surface traction i; on side 2-4 of element 2 = 1 kg/em per unit thickness.
Boundary conditions:
11(0,0) ~ v(O, 0) ~ 0.0,
v(I, 0) ~ ~ 0.0,
(13-35)
11(0, I) ~ v(O, 1) ~ 0.0,
v(l, 1) ~ ~ 0.0.

## Figure 13-9 Discretization with triangular element.

Thickness h "" 1 em

4
@

~
&,
4 5 3 6
2
3
CD 02
Element 1 Element 2

Local node

CD Global node

## --- Degree of freedom

350
Chapter 13 Two- Dimensional Stress- Deformation Analysis 351

We first consider element 1 (Fig. 13-9). Here we have numbered local degrees
of freedom as 1,2,3,4,5, and 6, corresponding to local displacements Uj, liz, Ii),
VI> Vl. and V3' respectively. The global degrees of freedom are numbered by assign-
ing consecutively two indices to each node corresponding to displacement com-
ponents u, v, respectively. Thus in Fig. 13-9 there are a total of 8 degrees offreedom.
The terms required for finding the matrix [B] are evaluated as follows:

## at =x3 -X2 = -1, b 1 = Yz - Y3 = -1,

a2 = Xl - Xl = 0, 62 = Y3 - Yl = 1,
03 = x2 - Xl = 1, b3 =Y1 - J'a = 0,
and
2A = Q362 - a2b3 = 1 X 1 - 0 X 0 = 1 ern>.

## Therefore, from Eq. (13-30d),

B ~ +l ,-I

0
-I
I

0 0
0 I
0
-I
-I
o 00 OJ
I .
1 0_
(13-36)

For plane stress conditions, we use Eq. (13-3(b)) and (13-31) to yield

[k] ~ hA[B]T[C)[B]

l~~Jl-~
-I o -I
1 o o I 0 0 0
o o 1 E v o 0 -I 0 (13-37a)
= hA
o -I -1 1 ~ v2 0 0 1 - v
-,- -I 0 -]
o o 1
o I 0_

and hence
GIObal~ 1 3 5 2 4 6
Element 1 (
Local \j" VIc VI, ",- V3
1 3 - v
-1
-(1 - v) l+v
-2-
-(I - V)
-v
1 -2- 2 2
2 o -v o v 2

-v -(I - v) I-V
o 3
3 -2- -2-
E 2
(l3-37b)
[1<] ~ 2(1 - V2) 3 - v -(1 - v)
4 -2- 2
o 4

I-v
5 sym. -2- o 5

6 6
1
Locall Element 2
7 5 3 8 6 4<-Globai
II
0
'"1.o
000
NO

I I I
? ? 0 0
b ~ 2;: ~ g ~

I I
~! O??? a 0 ~ o
g ~ ~ ~ g t: W
en
I I I .0
00 ~ ? 0 0 0 ~ N

g ~ ~ ~ ~ e:
I
o 9
g ~
I
o ? ::-
°oooww
o 0,

Global-> I 7 2 4 6 8
I 0.00- II, a
I
-
1.35 -1.00 -0.35 0.00 0.65 -0.35 -0.30
-1.00 1.00 + 0.35 0.00 -0.35 -0.30 0.00 0.30 + 0.35 -0.35 112 0+1.0

-0.35 0.00 0.35 + 1.00 -1.00 -0.35 0.35 + 0.30 0.00 -0.30 II, a
0.00 -0.35 -1.00 1.35 0.00 -0.30 -0.35 0.65 II, _ 1 a + 1.0
10,000
T.82 2 0.65 -0.30 -0.35 0.00 1.35 -0.35 -1.00 0.00 v, -2 a
4 -0.35 0.00 0.35 + 0.30 -0.30 -0.35 0.35 + 1.00 0.00 -1.00 V2 a
6 -0.30 0.30 + 0.35 0.00 -0.35 -1.00 0.00 1.00 + 0.35 -0.35 v, 0

## 8 0.00 -0.35 -0.30 0.65 0.00 -1.00 -0.35 1.35 V4 a

1.35 -1.00 -0.35 0.00 0.65 -0.35 0.30 0.00- II, '0.0

## 1.35 0.00 -0.35 -0.30 0.00 0.65 -0.35 112 1.0

1.35 -1.00 -0.35 0.65 0.00 -0.30 II, 0.0
1.35 0.00 -0.30 -0.35 0.65 u c _1 1.0
10.000
T.82 1.35 -0.35 -1.00 0.00 v, -2 0.0
sym. 1.35 0.00 -1.00 V2 0.0
1.35 -0.35 v, 0.0
1.35- v, 0.0
354
Two~Dimensjonal Stress- Deformation Analysis
Chapter 13

## fntraduction of the four boundary conditions in Eq. (13-35) is achieved by

deleting the rows and columns corresponding to lit> VI, V2' u s, V3, and V4, that is,
global degrees of freedom I, 2,4, 5, 6, and 8, respectively. This leaves only two
equations;

1 X 1.82
1.35112 - 0.3511, = 2 X 10,000 = 0.000091
and

## -0.35112 + 1.3511, ~ 0.000091.

Solution by Gaussian elimination gives

## liZ = 114 = 0.91 X 10-4 em.

These results agree with the solution by using the quadrilateral element.

Comment on Convergence

## In the case of the displacement formulation, algebraic value of the

potential energy in the system is higher than the exact energy at equilibrium.
As the quality of the formulation is improved by using higher-order approxi-
mation and/or by using refined mesh, the energy converges to the exact value.
Hence, an element which has lesser value of approximated stiffness can be
considered to be superior (see Fig. 3- 15).
Often, the trace of the stiffness matrix is used as a measure of the stiffness.
The trace is defined as I;K,,, that is, the Sum of the diagonal elements. The
trace for the quadrilateral element is 4945 X 8 = 39,560, whereas the trace
for the triangular element is 7418 X 8 = 59,344. This shows that use of the
quadrilateral element which contains an extra term (xy) in the approximation
model can yield better solutions.· Such an inprovement may not be evident
with the use of only One or two elements. However, for larger problems the
improvement can be significant.
For general mathematical analysis we need to use the concept of the eigen
system of the matrix. This topic is discussed in advanced texts.

COMPUTER CODE

## The computer code PLANE-2DFE (Appendix 4) permits linear elastic

analysis of bodies idealized as plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric. The
code incorporates the four-node isoparametric element [Fig. 13-4]. The
quadrilateral can be degenerated to be a triangle by repeating the last node.
In the following are presented typical problems solved by using this code.

## Example 13-3. Analysis of Shear Wall

Figure 13-1O(a)shows a shear wall, which may constitute part of a building frame.
The wall has an opening 2 m wide x 5 m deep in the lower floor level. The prop-
Chapter 13
Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis
355
erties of the wall are

## E (columns, beams, and wall) = 2.1 x 10' kg/m2,

v (columns, beams, and wall) = 0.3,
Thickness of columns and beams = 0.3 m,
Thickness of wall = O.15m,

By using the code PLANE-2DFE or other available codes, analyze the Joad-
deformation behavior of the wall assuming plane stress conditions. Obtain two sets
of results with two values of E for the shear wall with lateral loads only.

## 1. EWaI1 = 0.21 X109 kgJrn2,

2. E •• " ~ 0.0021 x 10' kg/m'.
Plot the deflected shape of the wall and the distribution of vertical stress o , for
the first value of EW~ll = 0.21 X 109 kg/m2 at selected sections. Compare the results,
qualitatively, with the results expected from the conventional beam bending theory

0,000 kg Bym
• ---
I
I I I; I I
mt :
- ~ i I 1 I--
-- ---1--_-1- _______ 1 +- __ --
I 1 I I
1 I
1--- - -+-,--+- --1---1- -- E

A ~__ I I I I "'
I--~--L----~ __ ~__ ~ A
I -l-l
2 0.000 kg S -- I---i~e-"-"'l-l'm--L~
II
__ --
I
S- t-
-- --f--- __ 1__ -
--
--- --I-- I
-~--

C -- I--i--
Waif Opening Wall
I
--
/' r."' 1--(Column

Column-
t--
-- --,- --
I I
,
-i--
I
--1--
--

--
c

I I

I,
,
8m
I I
,-~
-[
(a)

## Figure 13-10 Analysis of shear wall. (a) Elevation of shear wall.

356 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

10,000k9§ I
1

~
I

i
I,

20, 000kg@ ~ ~

I
M
,

® I,
ill £
Origin----""'""
?'% x %

®
{b]
Note Scales In Figs (a) and (b) are different

## Figure 13·10 (Contd.) (b) Finite element mesh.

and offer comments concerning the influence of the stiffness of the shear wall on the
Figure 13-lOCb) shows a finite element mesh for the shear wall; relatively finer
mesh is used near the two horizontal beams. Figure 13-I1(a) shows the computed
deflected shape of the left end vertical side of the structure for the two values of
stiffnesses for the shear wall. Figure 13-11(b) shows the deflected shapes of the
entire shear wall for the two conditions.
Figure 13-12 shows vertical (bending) stress along three horizontal sections
A-A, B-B, and C-C [Fig. 13-10(a)]. We have assigned the stresses at the center of the
element for sketching the variation shown in Fig. 13-12.
Comments. Conventionally, shear walls are often designed by assuming them
to be thick beams idealized as one-dimensional. Here the usual assumptions of beam
bending are considered to be valid (see Chapter 7). In view of the irregular geometry
and the large area of the structure, such an assumption may not be valid and can
give results that are different from reality.
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis 357

## A two-dimensional finite element analysis permits inclusion of irregular geome-

try and the multidimensional aspects of the problem. It allows computations of
displacements. st resses. and 1hen bend i ng moments in all clements: t h us one C3 n com-
pute concentrations of stresses at critical locations and perform improved analysis
and design as compared with the conventional procedures. For instance. Fig. tJ-12
shows that the distributions of bending stress o, at various sections are 110t linear
as assumed in the conventional beam bending theory. The bending stresses show
irregular and nonlinear behavior depending on the geometry, material properties,
and loading conditions. Moreover, it is possible to perform parametric studies to
include the influence of the stiffness of the wall on the behavior of the frame consist-
ing of beams and columns. With a finer mesh, it is possible to identify the zones of
stress concentrations, particularly near the corners.

## Example 13-4. Analysis of Dam on Layered Foundation

Figure 13-13 shows a concrete darn resting on a foundation consisting of two layers;
the bottom layer is underlain by a rock mass extending to considerable depth. There
exists a crack at the crest of the gallery. By using PLANE-2DFE and assuming plane

--l -----,I
I
I I
I I
I I
I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I
I Scale: I
I Horizontal: /
I 1 cm "" 1.5 x 1O-3m /
I Vertical: /
I 1 em = 0.788 m /
I I
I
I
I /
/
I /
I /
I I
I I

EWll11 "" 0.21 X 109 kg/m2 EWll11 "" 0.21 X 107 kg/m2

lal

## Figure 13-11 Computed deflections for shear wall. (a) Deflected

shapes for left vertical side.

358

## Scale: Horizontal: 1 em == 7.5 x 10-4 m

Vertical: 1 em == 0.788 m

## v Ewall == 0.21 X 109 kg/m2

EWilIl == 0.21 X 107 kg/m2

'r---
I
I
I /
r:
.
-- ~
-,
,,
I '-',I
I
I
I / I /
I
'--I r--r'-?"
,
I
I /
/
/ I ./ /
/ /
II
/ .
/
/I /l./
/
. I· /
/
/
.
/
I'
1/ I
I / /1
/. II
/ .
/1 / . f /1
1/ .
r
l'
t- I (
/.
x

(b)

## Figure 13-11 (Contd.) (b) Deflected shapes of shear wall.

strain conditions, solve for displacements and stresses under the self-weight of the
dam and foundation. The properties are given as follows:
Concrete in dam:
E ~ 432 X 10' psf(~ 2.1 x 10' kgjm"),

V = 0.3,
y ~ 150 pcf (~ 2400 kgjm3).
Layer 1:
E ~ 144 x 10' psf(~ 7.0 x 10' kgjm-),

v = 0.4,
y ~ 100pcf(~ 1600kgjm3).
-
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis 359

Scale}
tor c,
_
1cm-1.57x10
4 I
kgm
2

+ Tension
a, - Compression

## Figure 13-12 Computed distributions of ay at A-A, B-B, C~C

[Fig. 13-lO(a)] for EWall = 0.21 X 109 kgjm2.

Layer 2:
E ~ 144 X 10' psf (~ 7.00 x 10' kg/m-),
v ~ 0.3,
Y ~ 110 pef (~ 1760 kgjm").

Partial Results

Figure 13-14 shows a finite element discretization for the dam. In this figure, the
nodes and elements are numbered in the x direction. It. may be computationally
economical to number them in the y direction, because according to Eq. (13-39)
below, this numbering will reduce the bandwidth B. At the same time, it will need
a greater number of data cards. The mode of numbering will depend on the given
problem and capabilities of the code and the computer. In general, however, sclec-
tion of a numbering system that minimizes B may be a better strategy.
50'0"
Nodes with same
coordinates

100'0"
100'0"

Gallery

Top layer

## -- --- --- --,. ----- -- 50' 0"

y Bottom layer
, It = 0,305 m

x 250'0"
·1
Figure 13-13 Dam on layered foundation.

100'
·1· 50'
·1 ' 100' •

-ill"
C----- --g--I-I----- Water level

81 I ("
I
88
~
~@
(6'7
1

98
Concrete dam

Crack
I
50'
' It = 0.305 m

, '1 ,f ,
40 l 1~ Ihs \ Gallery •
l'
I I,Q, Ihllh~\ >

## 8 T',® /GrOUnd surface 6

/ ./
,/'" .r<; <, "
0 ~
',e

'~
B& 18 @I@I ~ 54

w>
m
61@ ~T
~/"'
"" g I/~/~~I/~I/g~ 0.
a
f- &8 i
~N

~/T
/~
u
6 " t
"o '~
Gg G E "0
a
t>
@ ~.,

I"-ft-:: ~
(2)& 0) (2)
a m
"'j & G
;-//"'
~ Discretized end boundar y \Both u and v == a = ri 9 id boundar y Discretized end boundary

## Figure 13-14 Finite element mesh for dam.

--- ,
I
362 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

## Discretization of "infinite" masses such as the foundation of the dam requires

special treatment. Since only a "finite" zone can be included in the finite element
mesh, we must include adequate extents in the mesh in the vertical and lateral direc-
tions so that approximate boundary conditions can be defined. For instance, if in
the mesh we include sufficiently large distances in the two directions, it can be
assumed that the displacements at such large distances are negligible. Thus in Fig.
13-14 we have included a lateral distance of about twice the width of the dam from
the edge of the dam and have assumed that the horizontal displacement u at that
distance is approximately zero. For the problem in Fig. 13-13, a rigid rock boundary
is available at a distance of 50 ft (15.25 m) below the base of the dam; hence, we have
assumed both displacements to be zero. If such a rigid boundary is not available,
we can go to a sufficiently large depth, say about three to five times the width of the
dam, and assume either v = 0 and It free or both u = v = 0 at such a discretized
boundary. For new problems, the analyst may need to perform a parametric study
to decide the extents of discretized boundaries.
The crack at the crest of the gallery is introduced by providing node numbers on
both sides of the crack. Tn Fig. 13-15 is shown the distribution of vertical displace-
ments along the ground level for gravity loads and for both gravity and hydrostatic
Detailed analyses of stress concentrations around the crack and of such other
aspects as the effect of hydrostatic forces are left to the reader.
Comments. On the basis of the results in Figs. 13-14 and 13-15 and the results
on stress distributions which can be plotted from the same computer results, it is
possible to perform (preliminary) design analysis for the behavior of dams on
multilayered foundation systems.
The computed concentrations of stresses near the crack can show us if the tensile
(shear) stress in the concrete is within allowable limits. Similarly, we can check
whether the compressive stress is within allowable compressive strength of the con-
crete. Similar conclusions can be drawn regarding the stresses in the foundation
soils. Moreover, if the design limits allowable deformations, it may be possible to
In this example, we have considered essentially only loading caused by gravity
and have assumed linear material behavior. Hence, the results can be treated as
preliminary. For a final design one needs to consider other loadings such as hydro-
between the dam and the surrounding atmosphere. Nonlinear behavior of the soil
and rock foundations will influence the behavior of the darn. Finite element proce-
dures that can allow inclusion of these factors are available and will be stated in
advanced study of the method and its applications, Chapter 15..
For the present, we note that it is possible to perform a detailed stress-deforma-
tion analysis of dams on nonlinear foundations; the latter can include both soils
and jointed rock masses. In addition to computations of stresses and deformations
for various loading conditions, the method can also be used for performing para-
metric studies. For instance, it is possible to find optimum locations for instrumenta-
tion and for (underground) structures such as caverns and galleries.
t
0
c
�\r
~ft~
>0
~-
"0
ro

:;: .~
ro~
" ro
0>>;;
00
~"
0"0
0>
OL

-.~\
~ O. "0
c
"0 OJ ro
C
0 ~~
en
2
o
0
co \gm •
.en
en
~
en E ~
"~
OJ '0
E en
ro
"0
§
e ~
E
~
u
c
8
en
"a
o
co
.~
en
=CJ en
;;-
s
E
0>
~

en
B "E
-r f';
en
on
~
M
~
co co ~
:
en en en
0
ci
N
en
N i .N
en

OJ
~
.-
en

0
en
r
.0
en
.0
en

363
Example 13-5. Beam Bending

## As discussed in the earlier chapters, a numerical procedure should generally yield

results that converge or approach the exact solution as the mesh is refined con-
sistently [3]. To study convergence for the two-dimensional problems, let us consider
a (deep) beam (Fig. 13-16) subjected to uniformly distributed load of 1000 kgjm.
The beam is divided into three progressively refined meshes as shown in Fig. 13-16.
Note that a refined mesh includes the previous coarse mesh; this is required for
mathematical convergence. This and other requirements for mesh refinement are
discussed in Ref. [3].
Table 13-1 shows computed values of vertical and horizontal displacements at
points A, B, and C (Fig. 13-16). The number of nodes N, the maximum difference

## Point A Point B Point C

N D B ~ (D + 1)[ NB' /I v /I v /I v

## 9 4 10 9000.0478 -0.1948 -0.0448 -0.1924 -0.00045 -0.0766

25 6 14 4,900 0.0678 -0.2821 -0.0645 -0.2796 -0.00073 -0.1119
81 10 22 39,2040.0761 -0.3198 -0.0726 -0.3173 0.00079 -0.1278

between any two node numbers D, the semibandwidth B, and the quantity NB2
are also shown in the table. The semibandwidth B is computed from the formula
B ~ (D + 1)[, (13-39)
where f is the number of degrees of freedom at a node; here f = 2.
Figure 13~17(a) shows convergence behavior of computed displacements u, v
at points A, B, and C with the number of nodes, and Fig. J 3-17(b) shows their rela-
tionship with NB2. Tn both cases the computed displacements tend to converge as
Nand N B 2 increase.
The quantity NB2 is proportional to the time required for solution of the global
equations, which constitutes a major portion of the time for the finite element solu-
tion. Figure 13-17(b) shows that refinement of mesh results in a faster increase in
NB2, that is, computational effort or cost. Tn other words, for a given desired ac-
curacy, if the number of nodes are increased, the quantity NB2 increases at a higher
rate than the gain in accuracy. Thus there exists a trade-off between accuracy and
computer effort or cost of a finite element solution [4].
Figures 13-18(a), (b), and (c) show distributions of the bending 'stress (J x for the
three meshes. We can see that the distribution of bending stress improves with mesh
refinement.
Comments. The results of this example illustrate that, in general, we can improve
a finite element solution by progressive mesh refinement. Obviously, as the mesh is
refined, the number of elements increase with corresponding increases in the effort
for data preparation and computer time.
As noted in previous chapters, a finite element solution can also be improved by

364

1000 kg/m
/

ITT I I I I I A
~Q) ®
fA &
E == 2 x 109 kg/m2
E v » 0.3
N c Thickness = 0.2 m

& &,
"CD 8
5m
I· lal
·1

, A
® & @
~ ®

CD & @
B

I, 5m
-I
(bl

® @)
A
, A\ '4£::,

A 8
@
Ie}

## Figure 13-16 Beam bending. (a) Four-element mesh. (b) 16-element

mesh. (c) 81-element mesh.

365
368 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

using higher-order elements. For instance, for the plane problems, we can use
quadratic or second-order approximation for displacement within the element. This
will require additional nodes; for the triangle there will be six nodes, and for the
quadrilateral there will be eight nodes. There will be a corresponding increase in the
size of the element matrices and the number of equations to be solved.
Which of the two approaches, refinement of mesh with a lower-order approxima-
tion or higher-order approximation, should be used will depend on the type of
problem. There are trade-off's in using one approach over the other. This subject is
wide in scope and usually needs parametric studies for a specific problem on hand.
The analyst may need to use both approaches and then derive criteria for their use
for the given problem.

PROBLEMS

13-1. Compute the initial load vector [Qo} for a given initial strain [Eo} for the
triangular element number I in Fig. 13-9.
13-2. Compute [Al-l in Eq. (l3-14c) and then find the interpolation functions
N, in matrix [N] [Eq. (13-15)].
13-3. Fill in the details of the derivation of f."o fy, and y,>:y in Eq. (13-18).
13-4. Obtain the load vector {Q2} for a traction load i; applied on side 4-1
[Fig. 13-6(b)].
13-5. Evaluate the stiffness matrix for the triangular element in Example 13-2 by
(q}T = t«. VI liz. V2 /(3 V3].
13-6. Find the element stiffness matrix for the triangular element in Fig. 13-9 for
plane strain conditions. Hint: Use [q from Eq. (13-5).
13-7. Evaluate the element stiffness matrix for the triangular clement in Fig. 13-9
for axisymmetric idealization.
13-8. By using PLANE-2DFE or another available program, solve the shear wall
problem (Fig. 13-10) with an additional vertical load of 10,000 kg at the
centerline of the wall. Plot the results in terms of displacements and stresses
and compare with those without the vertical load.
13-9. In Example 13-4, consider hydrostatic force caused by a water level of
40 ft (12 m) above the ground surface, in addition to the load due to the
weight of the dam. Use PLANE-2DFE and obtain distributions of dis-
placement along the ground surface and plot a s, a y. and 't'.ry within the dam.
Compare results with those from the analyses without the hydrostatic force.
Figure 13-15 shows the deflected shape of the ground surface with hydro-
13-10. Vary the relative values of £ in the two foundation layers in Fig. 13-13 and
study their influence on displacements and stresses.
13-11. For the beam in Fig. 13-16. consider a concentrated vertical load of 5000 kg
at point A, and study convergence of displacements vs. Nand NB2.
13-12. Figure 13-19 show a finite element mesh for the beam in Example 3-5, with
, ® ®

I~~
@@@@@
'1~~
'b E
x," N
Nod
II II II
W'~
®

I I
, i

369
370 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis Chapter 13

a hole around the centerline. For the concentrated load shown, obtain the
finite element solution and study the concentration of stresses around (the
corners of) the hole.

]3-13. Figure 13-20 shows a medium subjected to external loading. The medium
is of "infinite" extent. Assuming discretized boundaries (u = v = 0) at
distances of four times the width of the loading in the lateral and vertical
directions, decide on a suitable mesh. Choose your own value of B, material
another code, evaluate stresses and deformations in the medium assuming
(a) concentrated load at the center point with plane strain and axisymmetric
approximations, (b) strip load with plane strain approximation, and (c) cir-
cular load with axisymmetric approximation. Change the boundaries to
6B, 88, and J DB in both directions and examine the displacements near the

V'
Concentrated load , = 4 6 B 10,

I •
,I

I, Discretize
A,B

1.2 4, 6, B, 10,
=
I

0
i
I

## Figure J3-20 Load-deformation analysis for "infinite" medium.

13-14. Figure 13-21 shows an underground tunnel (3~m diameter) with a structural
lining of thickness equal to 30 ern. The tunnel is excavated in a (homo-
geneous) rock mass of large lateral and vertical extent. It is required to
compute the changes in the states of stress and deformations due to the
tunnel excavation. The material properties are shown in the figure. By using
the mesh shown in the figure (or any other suitable mesh) and a computer
code, compute stresses and deformations (a) before the tunnel is excavated,
that is, under the gravity loading. Here use the entire mesh including that
in the zone of the tunnel and lining. (b) Consider the elements in the tunnel
zone to be removed, and include the elements for the lining. It may be
necessary to renumber the nodes and elements. Compare the two analyses
and draw conclusions regarding the influence of tunnel excavation on the
states of stresses and deformations, particularly in the vicinity of the tunnel.
Chapter 13 Two-Dimensional Stress-Deformation Analysis 371

/
"- 20 m

## m,v N III ,'II)

E
0
N
Rock
E = 6 x 108 kg/m2
v = 0.3
= 2400 kg/m3 f--~
-
·t
Uning ~~ ~
E = 2 x 109 kg/m2
= 0.25

E
0
N

u=o
vfre~---

x
u - 0, v- a

REFERENCES

## [lJ Por-ov, E. P., Introduction to Mechanics of Solids, Prentice-Hall, Englewood

Cliffs, N.J., 1968.
[2] TIMOSHENKO, S., and GOODIER, J. N., Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hili, New
York, 1951.
[3J DESAI, C. S .. and ABEL, J. P., Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.
[4J ABEL, J. F., and DESAI, C. S., "Comparison of Finite Elements for Plate
Bending," Proc. ASCE, J. Struct. Dtv., Vol. 98, No. ST9, Sept. 1972, pp. 2143~
2148.
----------
14
MULTI COMPONENT SYSTEMS:
BUILDING FRAME
AND FOUNDATION

INTRODUCTION

## Very often, in practice, configuration of a system or structure is such that its

approximate simulation may require the use of or it may be beneficial to use
more than one type of idealization. For instance, if we need to idealize a
three-dimensional building frame and its foundation (Fig. 14-1), it is con-
venient and economical to treat the building frame as composed of one-
dimensional beams and columns and tWO-dimensional slabs and plates. As
a rather crude approximation, the foundation can be included by assuming
the structure resting on a bed of (individual) springs representing the founda-
tion (Fig. ]4-1); this approach is often referred to as a Winkler foundation.
Thus, the system contains three components: beam-columns, slabs or plates,
and foundation.

## Many other situations in stress-deformation analyses and field problems

require such multicomponent idealizations. We shall illustrate here the
problem of a building frame (Fig. ]4-1). For simplicity we shall consider an
orthogonal frame with only horizontal and vertical members. Extension to
the general case of inclined members can be achieved by appropriate trans-
formations [1-3].

372
Chapter 14
Building Frame and Foundation
373

## Figure 14-1 Building frame: multicomponent system.

VARIOUS COMPONENTS

## As stated earlier, we need to consider structural components that act as

beam-columns, slabs and plates, and foundation (springs).

Beam-Column

## In Chapter 7 we have already derived the element equations for a beam-

column. However, now we need to consider the possibility of loads causing
bending in both x and y directions. Figure 14-2 shows the beam-column
idealized as one-dimensional.
The degrees of freedom for the element consist of axial displacement w,
lateral displacements u and v, and rotations Ox. By, and B: about the three
axes, respectively. Here the subscript denotes derivative; for instance, ex
= alV/ax. Hence, the beam-column element has 6 degrees of freedom at each
node and a total of 12 degrees offreedom. For the time being, if we do not
consider rotation or twist around the z axis, we have a total of 1Odegrees of
------------
374 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14
w,
va

r
u,
"
0"
I,"
l I, A, E, Ix' Iy. Iz
I 'I
,I

~, t CD
I

1
I

0"
vr

0"

u,
0"

z z
y x x

t
y

Bending in Bending in
x-direction v-direction

## [qy = [u, 0" u 0" v, 0" V, 0" i lV, lV,J, (14-1)

where 0" = (aw/ax)" 0" = (aw/ay)" and so on.
As in Chapter 7, we assume the following approximation functions:

## u(z) = "'i + "',z + "'32' + "',z', (14-2a)

v(z) = "', + "',2 + "'7Z' + ""z', (l4-2b)
w(z) = "" + "'IOZ. (l4-2c)
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 375

## Here u(z) and v(z) correspond to bending displacements in the x and y

directions, respectively, and w(z) denotes shortening or extension due to axial
(end) loads. As discussed in Chapter 7, Eq. (14-2) can be transformed to
express u(z), v(z), and w(z) in terms of interpolation functions and their nodal
values as [Eq. (7-37)]

## U(z) = Nx1u] + N 8.'f] + N uZ + NX48 'l'

xz x3 x (l4-3a)
v(z) = Ny1Vl + NyzBy] + Ny3V + Ny48y2• 2 (14-3b)
w(z) ~ N, w, + N,w" (l4-3c)
where
NXI = NYl = I - 3s2 + 2s 3,

## Nx' ~ Ny, ~ /s(l - 2s + s'),

(14-3d)
Nx' ~ Ny, = 5'(3 - 25),
N" = Ny, = /5'(5 - I),
and
N] = I-s,
(14-3e)
N'l = s,
where s is the local coordinate given by

5 = +- (14-4)

## where i = z - Z 1 and z 1 is the coordinate of node 1.

By following the procedure outlined in Chapter 7, we can derive the
following element equations:

## [k](q} = {Q} = {(Qb}), (14-5a)

(Q.)
where
aJkx] [0]
[0] ]
[k] = [OJ ay[ky] [0] , (14-5b)
r [0] [0] [k.]

-12 6/.
-6/ 21'
[kx] = [ky] = [12 ::' , (l4-5c)
sym. 12 -6/
41'
_ Ely
CXx - [3' (l4-5d)

[k.] ~
AE[ _II
"t: (14-5e)
-
376 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14

## {QY ~ A L [NY{Xjdz + L [NY{Tjdz, (14-6)

and the subscripts a and b denote axial and bending modes, respectively.

Plate or Slab

tions, bending, and twisting; for convenience we consider only the first two.
Figure 14-3 shows the two effects, which can be superimposed if we assume
small strains and deformations.

Membrane Effects

For the in-plane or membrane loading we can assume the plane stress
idealization and use the element equations derived in Chapter 13, Eqs.
(13-24) and (13-31) for the quadrilateral and triangular elements, respectively.

## Figure ]4-3 Plate elements and imerelement compatibility. (a)

Membrane or in-plane behavior. (b) Bending behavior. (c) Com-
patibility between plate and beam-column.

v4 va

13)u 4
0 U3

L X
v,
CD
u,
0
v
v,

u, 8" a

8" o ~2
lal Ibl

lei
Bending

For isotropic flat plates, the governing differential equation is written as:

## D(a.w* 2J ,,* -'- a'w*) _

4
(14-7)
ax' + ax'ay ay' - 2 p

## where D ~ Eh'jl2(l - v2), E is the elastic modulus, h is the plate thickness,

v is the Poisson's ratio, w* is the transverse displacement and p is the applied
surface traction.
OUf aim herein is to show essentially the treatment of a multi-component
system for a building frame in which plates or slabs occur as one of the main
components. It is not our intention to go into much detail of the plate bending
problem. Jt will suffice to say that the finite element procedure for plate
bending is essentially similar to the other problems that we have previously
considered. Here we shall describe only the salient features of the problem.
For convenience, we consider only orthogonal frames; hence, we have
only orthogonal (horizontal or vertical) plates. For a general formulation,
plates with other configurations can be handled without much difficulty.
For the rectangular element in Fig. 14-3(b) we consider three degrees of
freedom at each node, namely the transverse displacement w: the rotation
axis, x ~ awjax, and the rotation about x axis, y = Togeth- e awjJy.
er with the two in-plane displacements u and v [Fig. 14-3(a)], there are a
total offive degrees offreedom at each node.
As shown in Fig. 14-3(c), we have an equal number of degrees of freedom
for the beam-column and the plate element. Consequently, we can observe
the requirement of intcrelement compatibility between adjacent plate and
beam-column elements.
The transverse displacement w can be approximated by using hermite
interpolation functions as in the case of the beam bending problem [Chapter
7 and Eq. (14-3d)]. In fact, the interpolation functions for the two-dimen-
sional problem can be generated by proper multiplication of the hermitian
functions defined for the x and y directions. For example, we can adopt an
approximation for w as [3, 5]
IV(x,y) = Nx!Nyjwj + Nx2Ny,()xl + NX1Nyz8Yl
+N x3NY1 W2 + NX.4Ny\8x2 + Nx3Nyz(}Y2
+ NX3NY3WJ + NX4NY3fJ.d + N.dNy4By)
+ NX1Ny3W4 +N x2 NY3(}X4 + N,,'lNy4e Y4

= [N, N2 N3 N,
~ [N,](q,j, (14-8a)
where [N,] is the matrix of interpolation functions, N, = NX1 Ny!> N2 =

## Nx3NYH etc., where

I
377

1
380 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14

## The potential energy for the plate bending problem is expressed as

IIp ~ ; II
A
[eY(C](e]dxdy - h IIA
(XY(w]dxdy - L [TY(w]dS. (14-12)

## The components of [e] can be found by taking appropriate partial

derivatives of II' [Eq. (14-8)] and by using the transformations
a
-=--
la and
ala
-~-- (14-13)
ax a as ay b at
Substitution of (e] = [B,][q,] and IV ~ [N,][q,j in IIp and taking varia-
tion of IIp with respect to the components of {q,] lead to its stationary
(minimum) value as

an - 0 aIlp - 0 (14-14a)
p - ,. a[q,] - ,
which leads to the element equations as
[k,][q,] ~ [Q,], (l4-14b)
where

[k,] ~ h Sf [B,YlC][B,]dxdy
and

[Q,j =h Sf [NY[X]dxdy

+ f .s , [NYlT]ds.
The coefficients of [k,] can be found in closed form by integration. Their
values are tabulated in Ref. [4]. The load vector [Q,] can also be found in
closed form. For instance, for uniform transverse surface load p on the plate,
(Q r ~[pab pa'b pab2 pab pa'b p ab?
-24 4
pab
, 4 24 24 4 24
pa'b p ab? pab p a'b pab2]
-24 -24 4 -24 24
_ pab[6 a b 6 a -b 6 -a -b
- 24 6 -a b]. (14-15)

Here we have considered only one of the many possible and available
approximations for plate bending. In fact, the function in Eq. (14-8) can be
improved by adding the additional degree of freedom (Jx, = 2 [4,5]. a wja,a,
Assembly

The assembly of the element equations for beam-columns and plates can
be achieved by using the direct stiffness approach, which assures the inter-
element compatibility of nodal displacements and rotations.
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 381

## As stated earlier, since there are equal numbers of degrees of freedom

for the junctions of plates and beam-columns, the assembly procedure at
such junctions gives no difficulty.
The element equations for the beam-column are given in Eq. (14-5a), for
the membrane behavior of the plate in Eq. (13-24), and for the bending
behavior of the plate in Eq. (14-14b).
The final assemblage equations can be expressed as
[K][r} ~ (R}. (14-16)
These are modified for the boundary conditions and then solved for the nodal
unknowns. Then the strains, stresses, bending moments, and shear forces
can be evaluated as secondary quantities.

Representation of Foundation

## Figure 14-5 shows an approximate representation for a foundation by

using a series of (independent) springs. Structural supports provided by
adjacent structures (Fig. 14-1) can also be simulated by using this concept.
In the case of foundations, the constants for the springs, kr, can be
evaluated on the basis of laboratory tests on soil samples and/or from field
experiments. They can be evaluated also from the concept of subgrade
reaction [7].

{al [b}

## Figure 14-5 Idealization of foundation by springs. (a) Beam-

column. (b) Plate or slab.

## Since the springs are assumed to be independent, their stiffness coefficients

can be added directly to the diagonal coefficients of the global matrix [K]
[Eq. (14-16)]. For instance, if kj; denotes the stiffness coefficient of spring
support at node i in the x direction, then it is added to the diagonal element,
KJ,j, where j denotes the corresponding global degree of freedom. We note
that the spring supports can be specified in the direction of translations
(x, y, z) and rotations (OX> Oy).
COMPUTER CODE

## A computer program STFN-FE that allows analysis of building frames and

foundations is described in Appendix 4. Some examples solved by using this
code are described below.

## Example ]4-1. Plate with Fixed Edges and Central Load

Figure 14-6 shows a square plate 25.4 em X 25.4 em divided into four equal ele-
ments [3]. The thickness of the plate is 1.27 em, with E = 2.1 X 105 kg'cma and
v = 0.3. The concentrated load P = 181.2 kg. According to the closed form
approach [6], the maximum central deflection is given by
0.0056 x P X (25.4)2
wmax = D ' (I4-17)
where
D ~ =~E:::h,-3~ 2.1 X 105(1.27)3 ~ 394 104.
12(1 - v2) 12(1 - 0.09) . x
Therefore
0.0056 X 181.2 x 25.4' ~ 00166
Wmax = 3.94 X 104 . em.
The value of central deflection computed from the finite clement analysis IS
0.01568 em.

25.40 em

## Example 14-2. Plate (Beam) with Two Fixed Edges,

Two Free Edges, and Central Load

Figure 14-7(a) shows a plate fixed at two ends and free at the other two [3,8]. This
plate can also be approximately treated as a beam. A concentrated load equal to
0.453 kg is applied at the center point. The value of E = 7.0 x lOs kg/em! was
assumed.
Figure 14-7(b) shows a finite element mesh for the plate. In Fig. 14-8 are shown
the computed values of transverse displacements at center section C-C of the plate
[Fig 14-7(b)].
We can compute the displacement by using the results from strength of materials
[9] if the plate is treated approximately as a beam. Figures 14-9(a) and (b) show the
distribution of bending moments and conjugate beam, respectively. Displacements
computed from this approach are shown in Fig. 14-8 in comparison with the finite
element solutions. For instance, the maximum deflection at the central section is
Chapter 14 Building Frame Gild Foundation 383

0.453 kg

1.905 em ~
.L ___ 0_.3_1_75em
Tf[
I,
r
26.67 em
P'
.1
to}

Ib}

Figure 14-7 Analysis for (thin) beam bending [8]. (a) Beam with
fixed ends loaded centrally. (b) Finite element mesh.

~
c -
OM
5.0
E '
o a
u-
'" x 10.0
" uE
-
0-

15.0
Finite element solution
Strength of materials solution

## Figure 14-8 Comparisons for displacements: computed and closed

from solutions.

PO 0453 X 26.67'
Wmu ~ 192£/ ~ 192 X 7.0 X 10' X 0.00508 (14-18)

~ 0.0126 em,
where
I ~ bh' = 1.905 X 0.3175' ~ 000508
12 12 ..

## A one-dimensional idealization of a part of the building frame (Fig. 14-IO(a)] is

shown in Fig. J4-1O(b) [10]. The loading and other properties are shown in Fig.
14-IO(b).

386 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14

sis; the latter is based on the assumption of a point of inflection at the midsection of
a member. 1t can be seen that the values from the two methods differ widely at
various locations. The finite element approach shows the redistribution of moments
in the frame.

## TABLE 14-1 COMPARISON OF BENDING MOMENTS M» (kg-em)

FOR THE FRAME[Fig. 14-1O(b)]

## Member End Portal Method Finite Element

I 203,103 327,224
2 203,103 191,750
2 I 67,701 21,474
2 67,701 95,712
3 1 406,205 355,139
2 406,205 258,680
4 1 135,402 120,860
2 135,402 17,260
5 I 203,103 312,616
2 203,103 179,523
6 1 67,701 30,914
2 67,701 99,495
7 I 270,803 213,223
2 270,803 190,466
8 1 270,803 189,069
2 270,803 210,436
9 1 67,701 95,714
2 67,701 85,694
10 I 67,701 87,565
2 67,701 99,495

## Example 14-4. Building Frame with Floor Slabs

Figure 14~12(a) shows the layout of a building frame idealized by using a one-
dimensional beam-column, two-dimensional plate membrane, and bending ele-
ments; Fig. 14-12(b) shows the loading at the two floor levels. Two analyses were
performed; one without floor plates and the other with floor plates. The properties
of the frame material are
E ~ 2.1 X 10' kg/em',
Ix = 27,346 crrr',
I, = 27,346 cm-,
Area of cross section, A = 94.84 ems,
v ~ 0.3.
Table ]4-2 shows a comparison between moments (MJ at typical nodes for the
analyses with and without floor slabs. It can be seen that without floor slabs,
the middle section of the frame will have higher loads (moments) that those at the
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 387

NODES

## Plates Not Included Plates Included

Node (kg-em) (kg-em)

3 32,597 31,289
6 93,747 104,875
12 49,077 22,741
15 158,825 116,723
21 32,576 32,386
24 93,712 105,206

Second
floor level
@
1------'----"7(---+--------7(
,r----- -1------,1-----
I II I II~
I II I 11\t.jJ
1&;1 I I I 1
A.. I I I I / I First
~ I I I I I floor level
, I@ I' ,@
---
'V

!
/f----t----)r---t&,
13'f------ilr'---+'-f-----i'~' ---;-' -{

I / I
~

I
I '& I
I
7
!
I ' I
I
6
'I '
I I I 1

E
c
~
N
-e- ill &, ill
CD 8) (j) ~of
%/ 0- '"
+
%

I, 732 em 732 em

(a)

## Figure 14-12 Analysis of "three-dimensional" building frame [10]. (a) Details of

frame.

388 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14

"'1'" 'T T
11,633 23,266 11,633

1 I !
1268

## 5817 11,633 5817

634-¥---¥_-_¥
Second floor level

## 10,274 20,548 10,274

"~1 ! j
'"~.. j!r~' ji'"
10,274 20,548 10,274

1268J---#_-_¥
First floor level
(b)

edges. Moreover, the displacements at the central section are significantly reduced
if floor plates are included. For instance, the y displacement at node 12 with plates
is 0.24393 em and that without plates is 0.40225 em.

## Example 14-5. Effect of Springs at Supports

To examine the effect of restraint on the behavior of the frame shown in Fig.
14-lO(b), a rotational spring ko." (kg-ern/cad) is introduced at the three supports
(Fig. 14-13). The magnitudes of kox were varied as shown in Table 14-3. The results
indicate that a very low value of kox essentially models a simple support, whereas a
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 389

-r-r--------,--------------,

&,
E
0
~
...
N
&:,
- I---
&
E
~
N
0
& 732 em 732 em
&
-e-

~~ ~ ~
kQ, 1/ kax
k"

## Figure 14-13 Frame with rotational restraint represented by

spring.

very high value produces results close to those with total restraint (see Table 14-1).
Near the value of ko, between 108 and 107 the point of inflection can be near the
midsection, as assumed in many conventional analyses for frames.

## TABLE 14-3 MOMENTS Mx (kg-em) FOR TYPICAL MEMBERS

ko,
(kg-em/rad) End Member 1 Member 5 Member 8

## 1015 I 327,011 312,412 -188,945

2 191,627 179,406 -210,299
1010 1 326,690 312,151 -189,132
2 191,927 179,727 -210,524
10' 1 323,835 309,812 -190,816
2 194,620 182,581 -212,537
10' 1 297,794 287,448 -206,185
2 219,196 208,307 -230,761
10' 1 164,984 162,128 -284,898
2 344,492 335,943 -322,438
10' 1 3,297 3,260 -380,988
2 497,105 489,437 -433,436
103 1 4 3 -382,943
2 500,217 48,422 -435,691

TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES

## As we discussed earlier, it is convenient and useful to adopt a local coordinate

system for an element different from the global coordinate system that is
r 390 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14

used to define the entire body. We note, however, that our final aim is to

## develop element and assemblage relations in the global or common coordi-

nate system.
Although the local coordinate systems were used for applications in
Chapters 3-13, the formulation process involved transformations that yielded
the element equations in the global system. For instance, in the case of the
one-dimensional line element (Chapters 3-10), the direction of the local
system was the same as that of the global system, and the transformations
occurred essentially in the derivatives and integrations. The isoparametric
formulation involved use of global displacements in the development of
element equations. Hence, both these instances did not involve transformation
of coordinates.
For certain situations such as inclined beam-columns, non orthogonal
slabs in the building frame, and curved structures (e.g., shells), it is often
necessary to use local systems whose directions are different from the global
systems. Then it is required to transform the element relations evaluated in
the local system to those in the global system. Such transformation is achieved
by using a transformation matrix consisting of direction cosines of angles
between the local and the global coordinates.
Figure 14-14(a) shows a beam-column element in an (orthogonal) global
reference system, x, y, Z, with a local (orthogonal) system, x', y', z' attached
with the element. For this case, the transformation matrix can be expressed as

(14-19a)

where lx, mx, etc. are the direction cosines of angles between the local and
global axes; for instance t x represents the direction cosine of the angle
between x' and x axes and so on. \\, .
As a simple illustration, let us consider the beam-column element in the
two-dimensional x-y plane, Fig. 14-14(b); the local coordinate x' is inclined
at an angle of (1, with the global axes x. Here the transformation matrix [t]
is given by

(14-19b)

The transformation matrix [t] is orthogonal, that is, its inverse equals its
transpose:
(14-19c)

## We can now write transformations for various quantities. If [ktJ and

[Q,j respectively denote element stiffness matrix and load vector evaluated

Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 391

z
y'

x'

CD x: Y',Z ~Iobal
x , y ,z Local

"'--------_x
(a}

, x

## Figure 14-14 Transformation of coordinates. (a) Three-dimen-

sional. (b) Two-dimensional.

## [k,] ~ [T]'[k,l[T] (l4-20a)

and
{Q,l ~ [mQ,l (14-20b)

where [k,J and {Q,l are the corresponding matrix and vector referred to the
global system, x, y, z.
In the foregoing, the transformation matrix [T] is composed of [t] in Eq.
(l4-19a); for instance, [T] in Eq. (14-20) is given by
[I] 01
[1l ~ [I] (l4-20c)
[I]
[
o [t]

## {ull = [T]{u,l (14-21)

..
392 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14

where [u,] and [Ug] are the vectors of displacements at a point for local and
global systems respectively.
The element equations at the global level are now expressed as
[k,](q,} ~ (Q,} (14-22)
where (q,} is the vector of element nodal unknowns obtained by using Eq.
(14-21).
Once the global relations are obtained, they can be assembled by using
the direct stiffness assembly procedure by fulfilling the inter-element com-
patibility of the unknowns.
The foregoing concept can be used and extended for other one-dimen-
sional, and two- and three-dimensional elements. The process is usually
straightforward. For further details, the reader can consult various references
including those in Chapter 15.

PROBLEMS

14-1. Derive the load vector (QJ in Eq. (14-6) for uniform body force X and uni-
form traction t causing bending. Hint: See Chapter 7.
14-2. Evaluate the matrix [BbJ in Eq. (14-10). Hint: Find second derivatives of w
in Eq. (l4-8a) as indicated in Eq. (14-10).
14·3. Derive the part of the stiffness matrix for the beam-column element cor-
responding to the twist about the z axis.

Solution:

[k,] ~ GJ[ -1
1 -1
1
J,
where G is the shear modulus and J is the polar moment of inertia. The cor-
responding degrees of freedom are Ozl and Ozz at nodes 1 and 2, respectively.

REFERENCES

## [1] MARTIN, H. c., Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis,

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966.
[2] TEZCAN, S. S" "Computer Analysis of Plane and Space Structures," J.
Street, Div. ASCE, Vol. 92, No. STZ, April 1966.
[3] DESAI, C. S., and PATIL, U. K., "Finite Element Analysis of Building Frames
and Foundations," report, Department of Civil Engineering, Virginia Poly-
technic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., 1976-1977.
[4] BOGNER,F. K., Fox, R. L., and SCHMIDT,L. A., "The Generation of Inter-
element-Compatible Stiffness and Mass Matrices by the Use of Interpolation
..
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 393

## Formulas," in Proc. Second Conf. on Matrix Methods in Struct. Meclt., Wright

Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, Oct. 1965.
[5] DESAI, C. S., and ABEL, J. F, Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.
[6] TIMOSHENKO, S" and KIEGER, S. W., Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1959.
[7] TERZAGHI, K., and PECK, R. R, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Wiley,
New York, 1967.
[8] DURANT, D., "Analysis of a Plate Bending Problem Using Code STFN-FE,"
course project report, Department of Civil Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. 1977.
[9] TIMOSHENKO, S., Strength of Materials, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,
1930.
[10] MALEK-KARAM, A., "Design and Analysis of a Two-Story Building," M.E.
project report, Department of Civil Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., 1976.

15
PRELUDE
AND APPLICATIONS

## In compliance with our aim to present an elementary treatment, we have

covered relatively simple problems in Chapters 1-14. It is necessary to
emphasize, however, that one of the basic advantages of the finite element
method lies in its capacity to permit solutions of complex problems for which
conventional solutions are not available or are difficult.
The reader interested in the detailed knowledge of the method and its wide-
ranging applications would now need to pursue advanced aspects of the
method.
Tbe complexity of problems rendered tractable by the finite element
method arises due to many factors. These can include irregular and arbitrary
shapes of structures and continua, complex boundary and initial conditions
strain behavior, existence of liquids in the media, interaction between
dissimilar medial and time dependence.
Higher-order approximations and mesh refinement, improved element
formulations, relative merits and trade-off analyses mathematical properties
1

## -convergence1 stability, and consistency-of various formulations, and a

number or other aspects related to the theory and mathematics of the
method are important.
Following are some of these topics and their significance. Many of the
advanced topics can be quite involved and can constitute subjects of signifi-
cant deptb by themselves. It will indeed be very difficult to describe them in
detail. Hence, we have essentially listed topics and subtopics relevant to

394
Chapter 15 Prelude to Advanced Study and Applications 395

## engineering. The bibliography at the end of the chapter contains publications

that can be consulted for the study of these topics.

THEORETICAL ASPECTS

I. Formulation Procedures
a. Variational: potential, complementary, mixed, and hybrid approaches;
Ritz and Raleigh-Ritz methods.
b. Weighted residuals: collocation, least squares, subdomain, and
Galerkin.
2. Transformations of Coordinate Systems
3. Isoparametric Formulations
4. Higher-Order Approximations
a. Polynomial, Lagrangian, Hermitian, and spline interpolation.
b. Requirements for approximation functions.
c. Mesh refinement.
d. Higher-order approximation versus mesh refinement.
5. Mathematical Aspects
a. Basis of formulation: linear and nonlinear operators, normed spaces.
b. Accuracy, convergence, stability, consistency, error bounds.
c. Initial and boundary value problems.
d. Integration of equations.
e. Time integration and properties.
f. Singularities.
g. Eigenvalue problems.
h. Solution of equations.
6. Factors
a. Arbitrary geometries.
b. Nonhomogeneities.
c. Composite materials.
d. Boundary conditions, nonlinear boundary conditions, free-surface
problems.
I. Static, dynamic, and repetitive.

## ii. Monotonic and path dependent.

iii. Time dependent.
f. Interaction effects: between two dissimilar media such as structure
and soil and structure and water.
7. Constitutive (or Stress-Strain) Behavior
a. Linear elastic.
b. Piecewise linear elastic.
c. Higher-order elastic.

396 Prelude to Advanced Study and Applications Chapter 15

d. Hypoelastic.
e. Elastic-plastic.
i. Perfectly plastic: nonfrictional.
11. Perfectly plastic: frictional.

## 1lI. Strain softening.

IV. Cap models and critical state concepts.

f. Viscoelastic.
g. Creep.
h. Thermoviscoelastic.
i. Endochronic.
8. Nonlinear Analysis
a. Material and geometric nonlinearities.
b. Incremental, iterative, and mixed procedures.
c. Initial stress, strain procedures.
9. Coupled Problems
a. Thermoelastic.
b. Consolidation.
c. Liquefaction.
10. Fluid Flow
Multidimensional seepage and consolidation.
11. Environmental Problems: Mass Transport, Diffusion, and, Convection
12. Fluid Mechanics and Hydrodynamics
13. Thermodynamics
14. Eigenvalue Problems
15. Computer Implementation
a. Bandwidth and wavefront techniques.
16. Evaluation and Comparisons of Various Schemes

BffiLiOGRAPHY

## BREBBIA, C. A" and CONNOR, J. J., Fundamentals of Finite Element Techniques,

Butterworth's, London, 1973.
COOK, R. D., Concepts and Applications 0/ Finite Element Analysis, Wiley, New
York, 1974.
DESAI, C. S" and ABEL, J. F., Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.
DESAI, C. S., and CHRISTIAN, J. T. (eds.), Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engi-
neering, McGraw-HilI, New York, 1977.
FINLAYSON, B. A., The Method 0/ Weighted Residuals and Variational Principles,
GALLAGHER, R. H., Finite Element Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
1975.
Chapter 15 Prelude to Advanced Study and Applications 397

HUEBNER, H" The Finite Element Method for Engineers, Wiley, New York, 1975.
MARTIN, H. c., and CAREY,G. F., Introduction to Finite Element Analysis, McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1973.
NORRIE, D. R., and DE VRIES, G., The Finite Element Method-s-Fundamentals and
Applications, Academic Press, New York, 1973.
ODEN, J. T., Finite Elements of Nonlinear Continua, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.
ODEN, J. T., and REDDY, J. N" Variational Methods in Theoretical Mechanics,
Springer, Berlin, 1976.
PINDER, G. F., and GRAY, W. G., Finite Elements in Subsurface Hydrology, Aca-
demic Press, New York, 1977.
PRENTER, P. M., Splines and Variational Methods, Wiley, New York, 1975.
STRANG, G" and FIX, G. J., An Analysis a/the Finite Element Method, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973.
ZIENKIEWICZ, O. C.; The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science, McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1971.
APPENDIX I
VARIOUS
NUMERICAL PROCEDURES:
SOLUTION OF
BEAM BENDING PROBLEM

INTRODUCTION

## To illustrate the use of energy procedures and of the methods of weighted

residuals, in this appendix we shall solve an example of beam bending by
using these procedures. Moreover, we also consider the Ritz and finite
difference methods; the former is based on the minimization concept and is
often considered a forerunner of the finite element method. The coverage of
different methods herein is intended only as an introduction to various
procedures and to give the reader an idea of the available schemes; detailed
study of these procedures is beyond the scope of this elementary treatment.
Before the problem of beam bending is considered, we shall give further
details of the methods of weighted residuals (MWRs) introduced in Chapter
2. A good introduction and applications of MWR are given by Crandall [I].
As stated in Eq. (2-12), the trial or approximation function in the MWR
is expressed as

u = :t (1.,rfJ;.
1=1
(2-12)

The undetermined parameters (1.,are chosen such that the residual R(x) over
the domain D vanishes. This is usually done in an average sense by weighting
R(x) (Fig. 2-7) with respect to weighting functions W,(x). Thus,

## In R(x)W,(x)dx = 0, i= 1,2, ... ,n. (AI-I)

398
Appendix 1 Solution of Beam Bending Problem 399

the body.

## VARIOUS RESIDUAL PROCEDURES

There are a number of ways to choose W" and depending on the choice of
Wi' we obtain different procedures.
In the case of the collocation method,
Wi = o(x - x.). (AI-2a)
Then
R(x,)o(x - Xi) ~ 0, i = 1, 2, ... , 11, (AI-2b)
where
I,
0= {
0,
is the Dirac delta function. This means that the residual is equated to zero at a
selected number of points in the domain. For instance, as shown in Fig.
AI-I(a), the residual is equated to zero at n ~ 5 points.
The total domain can be divided into a number of subdomains [Fig.
AI-I(b)], and the residual is integrated and equated to zero over each sub-
domain. This yields the subdomain method. Here the weighting functions are

I, Xi<X<Xi+1,
W/= { (A 1-3a)
0, x < Xi and x > X'+1'
Then

## In the case of the least-squares method [Fig. AI-I(c)], the weighting

functions are chosen to be

W'=-a'
aR (AI-4)
"-,
and this leads to minimization of the integrated square residual as

In R'(x)dx = 0. (AI-5)

## In Galerkin's method [Fig. AI-I(d)], the weighting functions are chosen as

the coordinate functions from Eq. (2-12), and hence

## In R(x)rp.(x) dx ~ 0, i = 1,2, ... , n, (AI-6)

This expression implies that the functions f{Ji are made orthogonal to the
residual R(x). In finite element applications, the approximation or trial
c

## 400 Solution of Beam Bending Problem Appendix 1

I, Domain 0
I
E k
R(3)

2
I I
3
I
4 5 i
R (x,1 = 0
= 1, 2, ... , 5

lal

~XiT'
) "R(X)dX = 0, i = 1,2,3,4
i -, i+ 1 x,
[b]

~
I, 0 _I
lR
o
2
Ix)dx= O. i = 1. 2, ... ,5

Ie)

~
(dl
~
J:
~~,dX=O,i=I,2,3,4

## Figure AI-! Methods of weighted residuals. (a) Collocation. (b)

Subdomain. (c) Least squares. (d) Galerkin.

## functions are commonly expressed in terms of shape, interpolation, or basis

functions Ni; then the N, are usually chosen as the weighting functions.

## BEAM BENDING BY VARIOUS PROCEDURES

Tbe beam and details are sbown in Fig. AI-2. Assuming flexural rigidity to be
uniform, tbe governing differential equation is given by Eq, (7-1b), and tbe
residual is
d4w
R(x) ~ F dx' - p(x), (AI-7)
Imi

## Appendix 1 Solution of Beam Bending Problem 401

Linear p{x} I

PB
PA
T~~II j j j 1
r:A '"
z L
MB

la} •
I
Ll5

2L15

3L15

4L/5

'I • Collocation
I

0 1 2 3 4 5 Finite difference
I

(bl
0
~--+ Ll4 L/2
j, 'I'
3L14
·1
L
Subdomain

Galerkin,
(c) Least squares,
, Ritz
O-L

1
I' ,&

11:, Finite element
Id}
CD (2) 1@
Figure Al-2 Beam bending with different methods. (a) Collocation,
finite difference. (b) Subdomain. (c) Galerkin, least squares, Ritz.
(d) Finite element.

## wbere F ~ El is tbe flexural rigidity, w is tbe assumed transverse displacement,

p(x) is the forcing function, and x is the coordinate. The boundary conditions
associated with Eq. (7-lb) can be expressed as
w(x ~ 0) ~ w(x ~ L) = 0, (AI-8a)
d-w d2w
dx2 (x ~ 0) = dx2 (x ~ L) ~ O. (AI-8b)

Tbe first set [Eq. (AI-8a)] represents the essential or forced boundary condi-
tions and the second set [Eq. (AI-8b)] represents the natural boundary
conditions.
We now cboose tbe following trial or approximation function for the
unknown w*:

4
= L: (j"rp,(x),
1=1
(AI-9)

where the rt,. are the undetermined parameters and the CPt are the known
-
402 Solution of Beam Bending Problem Appendix 1

## functions. Here we have chosen w* in terms of the trigonometric functions,

whereas in Chapter 7 the approximation function was chosen in terms of
interpolation functions N';
Note that the function win Eq. (Al-9) satisfies the boundary conditions in
Eq. (AI-8) at the two ends of the beam. In Chapter 7, when we used
Galerkin's method for each element, then only the geometric boundary
conditions [Eq. (AI-8a)] at the ends were used to modify the assemblage
equations; as explained in Chapter 3, the natural boundary conditions
[Eq. (AI-8b)] are satisfied automatically in an integrated sense.
To express R(x) in terms of wand its derivative, we differentiate the
expression in Eq. (AI-9) four times as

## d'w = A" ell sin

dx' . T"X + 16"
1\ !X2
. L
sin 2"x + 81 " IX) sm
A
3"x
. L

## + 256'\'0<4 sin 4~x, (AI-IO)

where ,\ ~ "IL.
Now we shall consider the solution of the beam bending problem by using
a number of different procedures. For this illustration, the following prop-
erties are assumed:
E ~ 10 X 10' psi,

L = lOin.,

## A = 1 in. x 1 in. = 1 in.",

PA = 500 and PE ~ 10001b/in.

Collocation

As shown in Fig. AI-2, we chose four points at x, ~ L15, 2L15, 3L15, and
4L15, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, from the end A. Note that the residual is identically zero
at the supports. Then we have
R(x = x,) ~ 0, i = 1,2,3,4. (AI-lIa)
For instance, for Xl = LIS, we have

" . "L
A tljSInys
+ 16"A (X2S111Y;5
. 2" L + 81AlX3Smys
" . 3" L

+256,\4 0<4
. 4,,!::.- _
sm L 5
PE -
L
PA L _ P ~ 0
5 A
(A-lib)

## and so on. The resulting equations are

4.77 x l03lXt + 1.23 x 1050:2 + 6.25 x lO'a3 + 1.22 x 1061X4 = 600,
7.72 X 1030:1 + 7.63 X 1041X2 - 3.86 X 105cx3 - 1.98 X 1061X4 = 700,
(Al-l2)
7.72 x 1031X1 - 7.63 X 104ctz - 3.86 x 105a:3 + 1.98 x 106a:4 = 800,

## 4.77 X 103IXI - 1.23 x 106a:2 + 6.25 x 1051X3 - 1.22 x 106a:4 = 900.

Appendix 1 Solution of Beam Bending Problem 403

## Solution of these equations gives values of (Xi as

IX, ~ 0.11374399, IX, ~ -0.00105974,
(AI-l3)
1X3 ~ 0.00033150, 1X3 ~ -0.00001564.
Hence, the approximate solution according to the collocation method is

Subdomain Method

## Here, we have [Fig. AI-2(b)]

L/4

f o R(x)dx ~ 0,
2£14

SL,.. R(x)dx ~ 0,
(AI-15)
3L/4
R(x)dx ~ 0,
S 2L/4

R(x)dx = O.
S L
3L/4

## After integrations, the resulting four equations are

7.57 x 1030;l + 2.07 X 1050;2 + 1.19 x 1060:3 + 3.31 x 1060:4 = 1410,

## 1.83 x 1040:1 + 2.07 x 1050:2 - 4.93 x 1050:3 - 3.31 x 1060;4 = 1720,

(Al-16)
1.83 x 1040:1 - 2.07 X 1050;2 - 4.93 x 1050;3 + 3.31 x 1060;4 = 2030,

## W, = aaIX, [R(x)]. (AI-18)

Therefore,
. nx . 2nx
W 1 =S1l1[;, W 2 = sin T'

. 3nx . 4nx
W3 = smT' W 4 = sin T'

I" R(x)aR(x) ~ 0
Jo s«,
or

## J, L R(x) sin 2lx dx ~ 0,

(AI-19)
J,L R(x) sin 3lx dx = 0,

## J,L R(x) sin 4lx dx ~ O.

The final four equations and the resulting approximate solution are
4.06 x 1040;1 + 0 X 0':2 + 0 X 1X3 + 0 X (X4 = 4774.65

## Ox 0:1 + 6.49 X IOSetz + 0 X IX3 + 0 X 0:4 = -795.77,

(At -20)
o x IXl + 0 X (J,2 + 3.29 X 10 60:3 + 0 X 0:4 = 1591.55,
o x (Xl + 0X (X! + 0 X 0:3 + 1.04 X 1070:4 = -397.89,

## - 0.00003830 sin v (A 1-21)

Galerkin's Method

## It is incidental that the weighting functions W, in the least-squares

method are the same as the functions rp, used for the Galerkin method. Hence,
in this specific case, both the Galerkin and least-squares methods yield the
same solutions.

Ritz Method

In the Ritz method [1,2J the potential energy in the body (beam) is
expressed in terms of the trial functions, and the resulting expression is
minimized with respect to o.; This leads to a set of simultaneous equations in
af• For instance,

## 2' Jor Jor

L 2 L
1 (d w)2 (AI-22)
TIp = F dx2 dx - pwdx
with
(AI-23)

## Minimization of ITp with respect to rtj gives

an
aoc
p _
-
0
,
1

an
art p _
-
0
,
2
(AI-24)
an
arx
p _
-
0
,
3

an
arx, - 0 .p _

For this specific problem, the equations are the same as in the Galerkin and
least-squares methods, and the approximate solution is the same as in
Eq. (AI-2I).
Comment: It may be noted that in the Ritz procedure the potential energy
is minimized for the entire beam; in other words, the limit of the integral is
from 0 to L. The concept is thus similar to the finite element method (Chapters
3-5), except that in the case of the finite element method, the minimization of
Il, is achieved for the domain composed of a patchwork of elements.

## The solution by the finite element method can be achieved in a manner

identical to that covered in Chapter 7, with the subdivision consisting of two
elements [Fig. AI-2(d)]. We can use Eq. (7-15) for generating the two-
element equations and then performing the assembly with boundary condi-
tions, and the solutions of the resulting assemblage equations are [3]
12 30 -12 30 0 0 WI 1437.5
30 100 -30 50 0 0 IJI 1250.0

## F -12 -30 24 0 -12 30 W, 3750.0

. (AI-25)
125 30 50 0 200 -30 50 IJ, 417.0
0 0 -12 -30 12 -30 W, 2312.5
0 0 30 50 -30 100- IJ, -1875.0

## Solution after introduction of Wj = W3 = 0 gives

WI ~ 0.000000, W, ~ 0.1171875, W, = 0.0000000,
(A 1-26)
IJ I = 0.036665, IJ, ~ 0.0007295, IJ, = -0.0383335.

## Finite Difference Method

Before the era of the finite element method, the finite difference method
was the commonly used technique for problems in engineering and mathe-

## 406 Solution of Beam Bending Problem Appendix 1

matical physics. Details of this method are beyond the scope of this book.
However, we shall solve the beam problem using this method mainly to
complete the discussion of commonly used numerical methods. For study of
this method, the reader can refer to various textbooks [I].
The finite difference method is based on the concept of replacing the
continuous derivative in the governing differential equation by approximate
finite differences. For instance, various derivatives are approximated as (see
Fig. AI-3)

dx - ~x ~x 2~x

## Second derivative: Wi I - 2wi + Wi+l

~X2
(AI-27)
Third derivative:

Fourth derivative:

Use of Eq. (A 1-27) to replace the fourth-order derivative in Eq. (7-1 b) leads to

(AI-28)

## Substitution of i ~ 0, 1,2,3,4,5 for six points in the beam domain divided

into five segments [Fig. AI-2(a)] gives six simultaneous equations. Introduc-
tion of the boundary conditions [Eq. (AI-8)] finally gives four simultaneous

W

Wi_1
;~ wi:.;.---
Wi;:..--"'-

.> I

## i- 2 i- 1 i+l i+2 i+3 x

Appendix 1 Solution of Beam Bending Problem 407

## equations in Wu w» w3• and w4:

5w, - 4w, + w, + 0 = 0.0115,
-4w, + 6w, - 4w3 + w, = 0.0134,
(AI-29)
w, - 4w2 + 6w, - 4w, ~ 0.0154,
o + w, - 4w, + 5w, ~ 0.0173.
Solution:
w, ~ 0.070656, w, = 0.114432,
(AI-30)
w, =0.115968, w, ~ 0.073344,
with Wo = Ws = O.

## COMPARISONS OF THE METHODS

To compare results from various methods, we first state the closed form
solution for the displacement based on the strength of materials theory [4]:

w = PAx(L'
24F
_ 2Lx' + x'} + (PH180FL'
- PA)x(3x' - lOL'x2 + 7£') .
(AI-3l)

## Results for displacements at typical locations on the beam by using

various methods and the closed form solution [Eq. AI-31] are compared in
Table AI-I.

## TABLE AI-I COMPARISONS FOR DISPLACEMENTS

Deflection,
Location from End A

## Collocation 0.067 0.110 0.113 0.109 0.068

Subdomain 0.072 0.117 0.123 0.118 0.075
Galerkin 0.068 0.111 0.117 0.112 0.071
Least squares 0.068 0.111 0.117 0.112 0.Q71
Ritz 0.068 0.111 0.117 0.112 0.071
Finite element 0.067 0.110 0.117 0.116 0.069
Finite difference 0.071 0.lt4 0.116 0.073
Strength of 0.068 0.111 0.117 0.112 0.071
materials

The results for the first five methods and the last procedure are obtained
by substituting various values of x into Eqs. (AI-14), (AI-17), (AI-2l), and
(AI-31). Since we did not have a point at x ~ 5, there is no direct result at
that point for the finite difference method. In the case of the finite element
408 Solution of Beam Bending Problem Appendix 1

method, once the nodal displacements and slopes are obtained, values at
other points can be obtained by substitution of (local) coordinates into
Eq. (7-2). We can also compute moments and shear forces by using the
results with second and third derivatives, as we did in Chapter 7.
For examples of solutions of problems similar to the beam bending and
other problems solved by using different procedures presented herein, the
reader can refer to various publications such as Crandall [I].
For the foregoing beam bending problem, the results for displacements
from various procedures are close to each other and to the result from the
closed form solution. These comparisons are presented only for the sake of
introducing the reader to some of the available numerical procedures. The
merits of the finite element method become evident as we solve problems with
greater complexities in factors such as material and geometric properties and

REFERENCES

## [1] CRANDALL,S. H., Engineering Analysis, McGraw-Hili, New York, 1956.

[2] ABEL,J. F., (private communication).
[3] DESAI, C. S., and ABEL, J. F., Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.
[4] TIMOSHENKO, S., Strength of Materials, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,
1956.

....... 1
---

APPENDIX 2
SOLUTION OF
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

INTRODUCTION

## Most problems solved by using numerical methods result in a set of algebraic

simultaneous equations of the form [Eqs. (2-21) and (2-22)]

## These equations can be linear or nonlinear; in this text we have essentially

dealt with linear problems.
In general, Eq. (A2-1) is often expressed in matrix notation as

## [A][x} = [b} (A2-2a)

or simply as
Ax =b, (A2-2b)

where [A] is the matrix of (known) coefficients such as K'J [Eq. (2-22)J, [x) is
the vector of unknowns such as [r], and [b] is vector of (known) forcing
parameters such as [R}. In expanded form Eq. (A2-2) can be written as

## GI1X1 + 012X2 + .. , + at"x" = hI'

a21x 1 + a12x2 + ... + 2MX" Q = h2, (A2-3)

409
T

## 410 Solution of Simultaneous Equations Appendix 2

-=-
where n IS the number of unknowns and denotes the total number of
. equations.

METHODS OF SOLUTION

The two common methods for solution of Eq. (A2-3) are the direct and
iterative procedures. Gaussian elimination and a number of its modifications
are examples of direct methods, and Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, successive over-
relaxation (SOR), and symmetric successive overrelaxation (SSOR) are
examples of the iterative techniques [1-3]. We shall briefly illustrate some of
these techniques.

Gaussian Elimination

This is perhaps the simplest and a common method for solving linear
equations. It is based on the idea of creating a sequence of equivalent systems
of equations by using a number of steps of elimination, and then solutions for
the unknowns x are obtained by a process of back substitution. The equiva-
lent systems have the same solutions, but each successive sequence is simpler
than the previous one. Let us consider the system of equations in Eq. (A2-3)
and denote the initial sequence by superscript (I) as

},

## a&?x] + a&\ix + 1 + a&~)x" = b&l),

(A2Aa)

or
(A2-4b)
In the first step of elimination, we use the first equation in Eq. (A2-4a) and
multiply it by appropriate multipliers so as to annihilate the first terms of all
the subsequent equations. For instance, if the first equation is multiplied by
'\21 ~ -(a\\'ja\?) and then added to the second equation, we have
o
(a~li 01aW)Xl --1- (aW + A.210W)X1 --1- ••• --1- (a\l,,) + A110(1l,i)X" = (b\U + A.1.lb\ll) (A2-5)

or
0+ ai22)x2 + ... + ai~)x" = b&2),

where a&z.J. = aW + A11aW and so on and the superscript (2) denotes the
second sequence. Similarly, we can multiply the first equation by

A - aW A - aW A _ a~p
31 - - aPt 41 - - a\\P ... , "t - - ai\)
Appendix 2 Solution of Simultaneous Equations 411

and add to the second, third, etc., equations to obtain a modified sequence at
the end of first step of elimination as

## o -I- aFix2 -I- + a~~)x; = b~2l,

o -I- 2
aj i.x2 -I- + aj~)x" = b1 2
), (A2-6a)

## In the next step, we multiply the second equation in Eq. (A2-6a) by

1 a~2i 1 aFi. a(2)
"'32 = ------rrT'
a22
"'42 = -(2)"'"
a22
A4" = - 'g)
022
and add the results of the third, fourth, etc., equations, which leads to

o
o + 0 -I- aWx3-1- + a~~)x, = b~3),
(A2-6b)
o + 0 -I- aWx3-1- + ap"lx" = b(i),

3

## Finally, at the end of n - 1 elimination steps, we shall have

+ ai'ix2 + aP3)x3 + ai~x4 + .. , + al~lx" = bil),
aWxill
o + aW.x2 + aF}x + a~21x4 + -I- a~~)x" = bFl,
3

## o + 0 + agJx + aPlx 3 4 -I- -I- a1~)x" = b~3),

0-1- 0 -I- 0 -I-ai~x4-1-···+ai~)x,,=bi4l,
(A2-6c)

We note that Eqs. (A2-6a), (A2-6b), and (A2-6c) are equivalent to the
original Eq. (A2-4) in the sense that they all have the same solution. Equation
(A2-6c) is a triangular system of equations, and the solution for the unknown
x, can be obtained directly from the last equation.

Back Substitution

The first step here is the solution for x, from the last equation of Eq.
(A2-6c) as

## 412 Solution of Simultaneous Equations Appendix 2

(A2-7a)

Now the solution for X"_l can be found from the (n - l)th equation as

(A2-7b)

Since x, is known from Eq. (A2-7a), X"-l can be found easily. The process can
be repeated until the solution for Xl is obtained.
The foregoing is the basic Gaussian elimination technique. A number of
modifications and alternatives such as Crout, Jordan, Aitken, and Gauss-
Doolittle can be used depending on the characteristics of the system equa-
tions [1-3].

## In finite element applications, very often we encounter systems of equa-

tions that are banded and symmetric. Tn banded matrices, nonzero coeffi-
cients occur only on the main and adjacent diagonals, and other locations
have zero coefficients. Moreover, the system is very often symmetric; that is,
a., = aw For instance, the following represents a banded (tridiagonal)
symmetric system of equations:

## QI1Xl + Q12XZ + 0 + 0 + 0 =bt•

Q12X, + Q2ZXZ + G23XJ + 0 + 0 = hz, (A2-8)
0 + QZ3Xl + Q33X3 + Q34X4 + 0 = b3•
0 + 0 + G34X) + G44X4 + Q4SXS = b4•
0 + 0 + 0 +a x
3S 4 + assxs = b.,
Bandedness and symmetry of the equations allow significant simplifica-
tions in the foregoing general elimination procedure. It is necessary to store
only the nonzero elements in the computer and only the coefficients on the
main diagonal and the upper or lower diagonals [4].

SOLUTION PROCEDURE
Almost all systems of equations resulting from the finite element analysis
are relatively large and require the use of the computer. In fact, a major
portion of computational effort in a finite element solution is spent in the
solution of these equations. It is not difficult to program the elimination and
the subsequent iterative procedures on the computer.
For sake of introduction, we shall now illustrate the use of the foregoing
elimination process.
Example A2-1. Solution by Gaussian Elimination

Consider the system of three equations, Eq. (3-38). Tn Chapter 3, we solved these
equations by a form of Gaussian elimination. Here we follow the foregoing general
procedure:
lOO(1)Xl - 100(l)xz -l- O(l)X3 = 7.5(1),

## -lOO(1)Xl -]- 20Q(l)x2 - lOO(J)X3 = 15.0(1), (A2-9)

QO)XI -lOO(l)xz -t- 200(l)X3 = IS.D(Il,

Details:
+100(1)
A21 = 100(1) = 1.

## Therefore we have the second equation as

o -l- (200 - lOO)(z>x2 - lOowx3 = 15.0(1) -t- 7.5(1)

or
o -l- lOO(lJXZ - lOOCZ)x3 = 22.5(2).

Since the third equation already has zero in the first term, the modified equations are
lOO(1)xl-100(l)xz+ 0 = 7.5(11,
o +- 100(2) Xz - 100(2) X3 = 22.5(2),
o - 100(ZJxz +- 200(l)X3 = 15.0(2).

## 0+0 + (200 - 100)"'x3 ~ 15.012' + 22.5'2>

or
o +- 0 +- 100(3) X3 = 37.5(3).

## Hence, the final modified equations are

100(l)Xt - 100(l)x2 + 0 = 7.SCu,
o + 100(2) X2 - 100(2) X3 = 22.5(2),
o + 0 + 100(3) X3 = 37.5(3).

## The back substitution gives

37.5
X3 TOO
22.5 tOO 37.5 (A2-tO)
x, ~ tOO + 100 X 100
60
100
7.5 100 60
Xl ~ 100 + 100 x 100

67.5
100'

413

Iterative Procedures

## In the iterative procedure, an estimate is made for the unknowns x and is

successively corrected in a series of iterations or trials. The iterative procedure
is continued until convergence, which is often defined by selecting a small
acceptable number by which the final solution differs from the solution in the
previous iteration. The simplest iterative procedure is the Jacobi scheme [1-3].
To illustrate this procedure, consider the set of equations (A2-3) and express
it as
allxiO) + a12x~O) + aI3x~O) + + a,,,x~O)
=h"
a21xiO) + a22x~O) + a23x~O) + + a2"x~O) = hz,
a31xiO) + a23x~O) + a33x~O) + + a3nx~O) = b s, (A2-11a)

where the superscript (0) denotes initial estimates. In the first iteration, we
compute the values of x as

X
"I
(l) -
- _ ~x~O) + ..!2L
all a"
_ az" x~O) + J!..L
azz a2l
_ G," x;O) +.!l (A2-1Ib)
an a33

## Now we compare xfl) with x,!O) by finding the difference

i = 1,2, ... , n, (A2-12a)
where e is a small number. If this condition is satisfied, we accept XiI) as the
approximate solution; otherwise, we proceed to the next iteration. In general
at the mth iteration we have

033 a33

## x;,ml = _a"l X)m-ll _ a,,2 x~m-l) _ a,,3 xjm-1) +~.

a"" a"" a"" a""

414

J
Appendix 2 Solution of Simultaneous Equations 415

## and the convergence condition is

i = 1, 2, ... , n. (A2-12b)

The foregoing procedure can be slow to converge; that is, it may require
a large number of iterations before an acceptable solution is obtained. The
rate of convergence can be improved by using the Gauss-Siedel procedure in
which the solution for an unknown during an iteration is used in the com-
putation of subsequent unknowns:

_ ~x~m-IJ _ ~x~m-l)_
all all

## _ aZ3 X~m-l) _ a2n Xtm-il +.!!.1..

Q22 n a2Z'
"" (A2-B)
xjm) = _~ X\m) _ an xim) _ ~X~m-l) +.E.1...,
G33 a33 az: a33

+~.
a"

## Consider the equations in Eq. (A2-9). We guess a solution set as

xiO) = 0.50, xl" ~ 0.50, x~O) = 0.50.

,01 ~
Xl
100(05)
100· +~
100
~ 0,575,

x,
In _ 100(06125)
- 200 '
+ 200
15 ~ 0.38125,

## If we choose f = 0.005, then the convergence check is

1xl" - x\"1 ~ 0,075 > 0.005}
1xl" - xl"1 ~ 0,1125 > 0,005 not acceptable. (A2-IS.)
IxIII - xl"l ~ 0,04375 > 0.005

Second iteration:

x\" ~ :~~(06125) +~
100
~ 0,6875,

## xl" ~ i~~(0,609375) + ;go ~ 0,3796875,

J
... ..
416 Solution of Simultaneous Equations Appendix 2

Convergence check:

## Ix\" - xl"1 ~ 0.1125 > 0.005}

Ixl" - xl" I ~ 0.003125 < 0.005 not acceptable. (A2-15b)
Ixl" - xl"l ~ 0.0015625 < 0.005
Third iteration:

Xl"
,
~ 100(0609375)
100' + 12
100
~ 0.684375,
100 15
xl" ~ ;~~(0.684375) + 200(0.3796875) + 200 ~ 0.6070312, (A2-14c)

## xl" ~ ;~~(0.6070312) + 21g0 ~ 0.3785156.

Convergence check,'
I xi" - x\" I ~ 0.003125 < 0.005}
Ixl" - xl" I ~ 0.002344 < 0.005 acceptable. (A2-15c)
Ixl" - xl" I ~ 0.001172 < 0.005
Hence the final solution at the end of three iterations is
x, ~ 0.6844,
x, ~ 0.6070,
x, ~ 0.3785.
We can improve on this solution by setting a more severe condition on convergence,
say f = 0.001. Then additional iterations are needed for an acceptable solution.

## For large systems of equations generated in the finite element applica-

tions, it becomes necessary to use improved iterative schemes. One such
improved scheme is successive overrelaxation (SOR) [2]. To show the
motivatiou of this method, we first write the Jacobi and Gauss-Siedel schemes
in matrix notation as follows [2J:
Jacobi:

## xlm' = (L + U'yx:":" + p. (A2-l6a)

Gauss-Siedel:

(A2-l6b)
Land U are the lower and upper triangular parts of the matrix [A] and p is
the constant term at a given stage of iteration. For instance, in Example
A2-2, at m = I,
0
~
L- [ ':
100
o
J
Appendix 2 Solution of Simultaneous Equations 417

o 1.QQ

l
100

U= 0
l~OJ'
200

o
7.S}
P~ I~O :~{ .

## We can now write

x'mJ ~ X'm-" + w[(Lx'mJ + UX'm-" + P) - X'm- "l. (A2-!6c)

where OJ is the overrelaxation factor and the second term on the right-hand
side denotes the correction term. Rearrangement of terms in Eq. (A2-16c)
gives
(A2-!7)

## which is a statement of SOR [2J. SOR accelerates the solution procedure

significantly. For details the reader may consult Refs. [1, 2].

In the foregoing, we have presented only a very elementary introduction to
some of the solution procedures. There are also available a number of other
schemes and subschemes. Moreover, there are a number of aspects related to
the numerical characteristics of the set of equations that can influence the
accuracy and reliability of a procedure. For instance, the magnitudes of the
diagonal elements au which become "pivots" in the elimination procedure
can influence the- computational characteristics. The initial guess or estimate
of the unknowns and the value of ill become important in the iterative
procedures. Detailed descriptions of the available procedures and the
characteristics of the equations are beyond the scope of this book. The reader
can refer to many publications [1-4] for further study.

REFERENCES

[IJ Fox, L., An Introduction to Numerical Linear Algebra, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1965.
[2J YOUNG, D. M., and GREGORY, R. T., A Survey of Numerical Mathematics,
[3] BATHE, K. J., and WILSON, E. L., Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976.
[4] DESAI, C. S., and
ABEL, J. E, Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van

## Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.

420 Physical Models Appendix 3

t ..

Figure A3-2 (Contd.) (b) Mesh with "rigid" elements: linear ap-
proximation. (c) Mesh with deformable elements: higher-order
approximation.

into four pieces (elements). A flexible string was passed through holes in each
element. The holes are provided by (copper) pipe, which makes each element
considerably stiff. Under a load, the composite will deform such that gaps
may develop at the junctions, thus violating interelement compatibility.
With sufficient tightness in the string, the model may not show gaps and can
indicate displacement compatibility at the junctions, but slopes at the junc-
Appendix 3 Physical Models 421

## tions can be seen to be different. This may be considered to illustrate a linear

approximation function for the transverse displacement w.
Figure A3-2(c) shows a model made in four elements. The elements are
connected at the junctions by using hooks at the top and at the bottom of the
beam. This arrangement permits deformation of each element and improved
connection at the junction as compared to the arrangement in Fig. A3-2(b).
Under load, the model deforms without gaps and indicates improved
interelement compatibility. This can be considered to illustrate higher-order
approximation for lV.

## MODEL FOR PLATE BENDING (Chapter 14)

Figure A3-3 shows a model for plate bending made out of (thin) plastic
sheet. The four elements are riveted (or glued) at the edges of the model
[Fig. A3-3(a)]. A screw arrangement [Fig. A3-3(b)] is provided at the middle
of the base plate such that the top of the screw touches the bottom (at the
center) of the four elements.

i .~
1

## Figure A3-3 Physical model for plate bending. (a) Four-element

mesh. (b) Arrangement for applying "load."

## 422 Physical Models Appendix 3

By moving the screw up and down, the plate assembly can be (progres-
sively) deformed. The interelement compatibility in terms of displacement
(IV) and its three derivatives (aw;ax, awjay, and a'wjaxay) can be quali-
tatively illustrated by observing the movements at the junctions of the plates.
The effect can be accentuated by attaching colored tapes on either side of a
junction.

The foregoing are examples only of simple models. Other similar and
sophisticated models can be constructed to facilitate introduction of various
concepts in finite element analysis.
APPENDIX

COMPUTER CODES

INTRODUCTION

## Descriptions of a number of computer codes are included in this appendix.

Most oftbe codes described herein have been prepared sucb that tbe beginner
can understand and use them with relative ease. They are relevant to many
topics covered in this book, and hence can be used by the teacher and the
student for solving specific problems. Brief statements of other codes relevant
to a given topic are also given; these codes may be used for solving advanced
problems for class illustrations or for term projects.
The codes described here can be made available to the reader and the
teacher essentially for personal and teaching purposes at the cost of reproduc-
tion) mailing and other required costs. For details such as descriptions of
background theory, user's guide, sample problems, conditions for the
release of codes, the reader may contact the author. In addition to the codes
described here, other advanced codes can also be made available to the user.

CHAPTER 5

## CONS~lDFE: One-Dimensional Consolidation

with Nonlinear Properties

## This is a modification of DFTjC-IDFE described in Chapter 6 for time

dependent settlement analysis of foundations with nonlinear material
properties.

423

## Codes for time dependent settlement analysis of foundations idealized as

plane strain and axisymmetric consolidation of problems such as layered
foundations and earth banks are available. Both linear and nonlinear (plas-
ticity) models are included for material. behavior. Capabilities for time
ment and excavation also exist.

CHAPTER 7

## BMCOL-IDFE: Analysis of Axially and Laterally Loaded

Beam-Columns such as Piles and Retaining Walls;
Linear and Nonlinear Analysis

This code can solve problems such as beams, beam-columns (Chapter 7),
beams on deformable foundations, axially and laterally loaded piles, and
retaining walls idealized as one-dimensional. Linear and nonlinear stress-
strain behavior for deformable supports such as soil foundations can be
included.
The output is in the form of nodal displacements and rotations, and
bending moments.

CHAPTER 8

## This is a two-dimensional code for solution of situations such as salt

water intrusion and other concentration problems.

CHAPTER 10

## This code is based on the formulation described in Chapter 10. Wave

propagation for problems idealized as one-dimensional such as in bars and
soil media can be solved.

424
CHAPTERS 11 AND 12

## FIELD~2DFE: Analysis of Two-Dimensional Steady State

Field Problems: Torsion, Potential Flow, Seepage, Heat Flow

## This is a common code for solution of a number of steady state field

problems governed by similar differential equations (Chapters II and 12).
The following table gives the details of each problem and its corresponding
option code.

Option
Code
Problem NTYPE Relevant Problems Output Quantities

## Torsion Torsion of bars of regular or Nodal stress functions, shear

(Chapter 11) irregular cross sections stresses, twisting moment
Potential Flow
Velocity 2 Flow through pipes and open Nodal velocity potentials,
Potential channels velocities, quantity of flow
Stream 3 Flow through pipes and open Nodal stream functions,
Function channels quantity of flow
through through pipes, foundations quantity of flow
porous of dams and sheet piles, and
media) earth banks and wells
Heat Flow 5 Steady state heat flow in bars, Nodal temperatures, quantity
plates, slabs, and other plane of heat
bodies

## The formulation is based on four-node isoparametric quadrilateral

element with linear constitutive laws; for instance, for seepage, Darcy's law is
assumed to be valid.

## 1. Codes for two-dimensional transient free (phreatic) surface seepage

through plane bodies such as earth banks, dams, and wells.
2. Code for three-dimensional steady and transient free surface flow
through arbitrary three-dimensional porous bodies such as earth
banks, dams, and junctions between various structures, e.g., abutment
and dam.
3. Code for two-dimensional time dependent heat flow in bodies such as
plates and bars.

425
-
CHAPTER 13

Linear Analysis

## This code is capable of analysis for problems idealized as plane stress,

plane strain, and axisymmetric (Chapter 13). It can handle linear elastic analy-
sis of engineering problems such as (approximate) bending analysis of beams
and inplane or membrane analysis of flat plates or slabs, shear walls, earth and
concrete dams and slopes, foundations, underground pipes and tunnels, and
retaining walls.
Surface and nodal point loads as well as self weight load can be applied.
A version of the code with graphic option which can plot zones of equal
stress and displacement intensities is also available.
The finite element formulation is based on a four-node isoparametric
quadrilateral element (see Chapter 13) and on linear elastic stress-strain law.
The output is in the form of nodal displacements and element stresses.

## I. A code for two-dimensional nonlinear analysis of problems idealized

as plane strain and axisymmetric is available. The stress-strain behavior
can be nonlinear elastic, elastic-plastic (critical state model), with linear
elastic behavior as a special case. The code has an additional feature of
handling soil-structure interaction problems; this is done by providing
a special nonlinear interface or joint element between the structure and
soil. The formulation is based on a four-node isoparametric quadri-
lateral element (see Chapter 13). Some examples of engineering prob-
lems are: retaining structures, axially loaded structures such as pile
foundations, cylindrical tanks, dams and slopes, and underground
structures.
In the case of pile foundations, the code also has the facility of
outputting design quantities such as bearing capacity, wall shear
stresses.
2. This is a code for three-dimensional analysis with linear and nonlinear
(elasticity and plasticity) constitutive models. It has a provision for
interface elements.

426
CHAPTER 14

## STFN-FE: Analysis of Frame Structures and Foundations:

Linear Analysis

In a general building frame type of problem the beams and columns are
approximated as one-dimensional beam-column elements, the slabs as plates
subjected to inplane and bending (Chapter 14), and the foundation is replaced
by equivalent spring elements. The spring elements can also be used to simu-
late supports provided by members such as adjoining structures.
Surface and point loads can be applied in all the three coordinate
directions.
The output is in the form of nodal displacements and rotations, element
stresses, and bending moment and shear forces.
A modified version of this code includes nonlinear characteristics for
foundation media.

427
...
432 Index

Initial strain, due to temperature, 103-107, Local coordinate systems, 36-39, 85, 174
337 alternatives for, 38
Initial stress, 106,337 explanation, 36
Initial value problem, 114 for triangular element, 239
Interpolation functions, 39.41-43,69, 174, in one-dimensional problems, 38
175,239,339,377,379 in two-dimensional problems, 238, 239
definition, 42 Local coordinates, (see Local coordinate
Hermitian, 175 systems)
in Galerkin's method, relevance, 69
in plate bending, 377 Mass matrix, 227, 230, 234-236
Interpretation of results, 33, 65, 66. 100-101 consistent, 227
Intcrelement compatibility, 22, 30, 43, 59, 242, lumped, 227, 234
360,376 Mass transport, one-dimensional, 202, 2fE, 210
for approximation functions, 43 by diffusion-convection, 202
in assembly, 59 saltwater intrusion, 210
for different problems, 43 Mesh refinement, 67, 185-187, 261
in plate problem, 376 in beam bending, 185-189
in two-dimensional problems, 242 in one-dimensional problems, 67, 87
Isoparametric elements, 19, 42, 302, 332, 339, in torsion, 261
395 Methods of formulation, 24
concept of, 19 energy procedures, 24
explanation, simple, 42 residual methods, 24
quadrilateral element, 302, 330-339 Method of weighted residuals, 26, 27, 80,
four node, 302, 339 methods of)
Isotropy, for approximation models, 4S Minimization, of potential energy, 48
Iterative methods, solution of equations, 410, example, 48-51
414 manual,48-50
Gauss-Siedel,415 mathematical, 50, 51
Jacobi, 414, 416 Mixed approach, 47,79, 194,284-298
SOR, 414, 416, 417 Hellinger-Reissner principle, 79
SSOR, 410, 417 in beam bending, 194
in torsion, 284
Jacobian, 305 residual method, 80
determinant, 41,305,306,311,360 Galcrkin, 80
Joint forces, explanation of, 51 variational method, 79
global level, 51 Mixed procedure (see Mixed approach)
local level, 51 Multicomponent systems, 372

## Laplace equation, 15,300 Natural boundary conditions, 31

Least squares, method of, 26, 27,47,398-408 Nodal line, definition, 19
Load vector, 54-58, 72-76, 106, 179, 192,204, Nodal point, definition, 19,36
215,342-345,380,391 Nonlinear analysis, 106, 396
additional, 106 Numerical integration, 308-312, 332, 342, 349
assemblage, 58 for quadrilateral element, 309-312
correction, 106
for beam bending, 178-179 Opera lor:
for beam-column, 192,376 differential, 27
for column, 54 stiffness matrix, 55
for flow, 98, 312 Order of approximation: (see Higher order
for heat flow, 110-113,321 approximation)
for mass transport, 204, 205 Overland flow, 211
for overland flow, 215 approximation for, 213
for plate, 380 finite element formulation, 213
for torsion, 246, 257, 276, 284-290, 308, kinematic wave approximation, 212
312-314 surface runoff, 223
for two-dimensional stress-deformation,
341-349 Pascal's triangle, 45, 243
for wave propagation, 227 Patch test, 45
in Galerkin 's method, 72-76 Permeability, co-efficient of, IS
initial, 106 Physical models, 11, 177,418-420
nodal,54 for beam bending, 177,419,420
residual, 106 for plate bending, 421,422
Local and global coordinates, 36-43 Plane deformation, 30, 333 (see also Two-
relation between, 42 dimensional problems)
Index
433

## Plane strain idealization, 335, 357

for dam and foundation, 357 vector)
for footing, 370 r:
Residual methods, (see Method of weighted
for tunnel, 370
residuals)
Plane stress idealization, 333, 340
for beam, 334, 364- Ritz method, 404
for plate, 334
for shear wall, 354
Plates: Secondary quantities, 33, 64, 100, 120, 183,
bending, 371, 376, 377, 382, 393, 421 knowns)
physical models, 421
in column problem, 64
plane stress idealization, 334 in beam bending, 183
membrane effects, 334, 376 moments, 183
Polynomials:
shear forces, 185
cubic, 175
in heat flow problem, 120
expansion, 44
quantity of flow, 120
fifth order, 187
quantity of flow, 100
for approximation models, 39 velocities, 100
Secondary unknowns, (see Secondary quanti-
Potential energy, 15-26,47-53,55,268 ties)
approach for assembly, 55
definition, 25
categories, 323, 324, 327
minimum of, 25 confined,324
mimimum principle of, 22, 47
through formulation, 325
minimization of, 47,48
Shape functions (see Interpolation functions)
manual,48
Simultaneous equations, 33, 62, 410-417
mathematical,50 Gaussian elimination, 410
of elastic bodies in equilibrium, 26 linear, 62
in torsion, 268 nonlinear, 62
potential of external loads in, 25, 47-51 methods of solution:
stationary value of, 24, 47 direct, 410, 413
strain energy in, 25 iterative, 410, 414
Potential flow, 299, 300, 328
Solution in time, 113, 118-120,206,217,228,
around cylinder, 316
stream function, 314
finite difference approach, 113,206
velocity potential, 302
Solution of equations, (see Simultaneous
Potential, of external loads, 25, 47-51 equations)
Primary unknowns, 33, 62, 98-100, 118-120, Spring supports, 372, 388
183 Static condensation, 291
nodal displacements, 62
Stationary value, 7,24,47
nodal temperatures, 118-120 Steady-stale now, 15
solution for, 33, 62
Steps in the finite element method, 17, 18-33
Primary quantities (see Primary unknowns)
Stiffness matrix, 54-61, 178, 179
Principal strains, 15
banded,61
Principal stresses, 15,349
assemblage, 58
element, 54
as operator, 55
Quadrilateral element, 238, 302-314, 338, 346
sparsley populated, 61
symmetric, 61,412
Strain-displacement relation, 22, 23,45, 177
Requirements, for approximation functions, Strain displacement transformation matrix, 46
43-45, 110, 176,242,339 Strain energy, 25, 47-51
compatibility, 44 internal, 25
completeness, 44
Stream function formulation, for potential
continuity, 43 flow, 314
for beam bending, 176 Stress approach, 254
for field problems, 95, 304 in torsion, 254
for time-dependent problems, 110 Stress concentration, 368
for torsion, 242 Stress-deformation, 35, 45,71,333,372
for two-dimensional stress-deformation, finite element formulation, 338
339 one-dimensional,35-91
Residual, 7, 27,399,401 governing equation, 71
in method of weighted residuals, 27 two-dirnensional.ijj j
minimum of, 7 plane stress, 333
minimization of, 27 plane strain, 335
schematic representation of, 28 axisymmetric, 335
i

434 Index

## Stress-strain matrix, 46 Transformation matrix, 46, 96,177,390

Stress-strain relation, 22, 23, 45, 46, 177,395 'Transformation, of coordinates, 389, 395
Stress-wave propagation, 224 torsion, 237
one-dimensional, 224 field problems, 299
finite element formulation, 225 stress-deformation, 333
Subdomain method, 26, 27, 399. 403
Uncoupled problems, 103 108,337
Temperature problem, 103-127 initial load vector, 106
Thermal conductivity, coefficient 01',15,108 initial stress, 106
Time-dependent problems: residual stress, 106
approximation model, 109
coupled, 103 Variational methods, 24, 30, 80-82, 96-98
one-dimensional, 103 Variation notation, 48
heat flow. 108 Variation of properties, 43, 131
consolidation, 108 within element, 43
solution in time, 113 linear, 43, 86
uncoupled,103 Vector of nodal unknowns, 29
Time integration, 113,206,217,228,229 (see Virtual work, principle of, 226
also Solution in time)
Torsion: Wave equation, 225
displacement approach, 240 hyperbolic equation, 225
finite element formulation, 240 Wavefront methods, 396
hybrid approach, 269 Weighting functions, 28,399-409
mixed approach, 284 in method of weighted residuals, 28
Prandtl,255 Weighted residuals, methods of, 26, 27, 29,
Saint-Venant, 237, 269 80,399-409
stress approach, 254 collocation, 26, 399-408
two-dimensional approximation, 237, 238 Galerkin, 26, 399-408
Trade-off, accuracy vs computer time, 368 illustration of, 398-408
Trial solution, in method of weighted residuals, least squares, 26, 399-408
26,27 subdomain, 26, 399-408
Triangular finite element, 238-240, 325-350 trial solution in. 26, 398