PROBLEMS
101. Compute the element consistent mass matrix for the quadratic approxima
tions [Eq. (J401].
/I = ±UL  1)[(1 t (I  L2) Uo r tUL ~ l)u2'
Solution.
Af'l 'f
LIL I
 )}
[m] ~ \(1  L') [LIL  I) II  L') L(L + t)]dL
, L(I + 1)
l6
8 4]
102. Compute
~ Api
120
l4
8
Solution:
156 22 54
Api 22 4 13 13]
3
[m] ~ 420 54 13 156 22
[
13 3 22 4
234
Chapter 10 OneDimensional Stress Wave Propagation 235
Figure 106
P
1I(t) ~ k'(1  cosP/),
where p2 = klrn, where k and In are the stiffness and mass of the spring,
respectively. The initial conditions are: u(x, 0) = u(x, 0) = O.
105. Prepare a computer problem based on Eq. (lOto) and solve Probs. 103 and
104.
REFERENCES
[2] TIMOSHENKO, S., and GOODIER, J. N., Theory 0/ Elasticity, McGrawHili, New
York, 1970.
[3] CARNAHAN, B., LUTHER, H. A., and WILKES, J. 0., Applied Numerical Methods,
Wiley, New York, 1969.
[4] DESAI, C. S., and CHRISTIAN, J. T., (eds.), Numerical Methods in Geotechnical
Engineering, McfIrawHill, New York, 1977.
[5] DESAI, C. S., and ABEL, J. F., Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.
[6) WILSON, E. L., "A Computer Program for the Dynamic Stress Analysis of
Underground Structures," Report No. 681, University of California, Berkeley,
Calif., 1968.
[7) YAMADA, Y., and NAGAI, Y., "Analysis of OneDimensional Stress Wave by
the Finite Element Method," Seisan Kenkyu, Journal of Industrial Science,
Univ. of Tokyo, Japan, Vol. 23, No.5, May 1971, pp. 186189.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARCHER, J. S., "Consistent Mass Matrix for Distributed Mass Systems," J. Struct.
oi« ASCE, Vol. 39, No. ST4, Aug. 1963.
CLOUGH, R. W., "Analysis of Structural Vibrations and Dynamic Response," in
Proc. U.S. Japan Seminar, Tokyo, 1969 (Gallagher, R. H., Yamada, Y., and
Oden, J. T. eds.), University of Alabama Press, Huntsville, 1971.
236 OneDimensional Stress Wave Propagation Chapter 10
DESAI, C. S. (ed.), Proc. Symp. Oil App!. of Finite Element Methods in Geotech. Eng.,
Waterways Expt. Station, Vicksburg, Miss" 1972.
DESAI, C. S. (ed.), Proc. Second lntl Conf. on Num, Methods in Geomech., Blacks
burg, Va., 1976, Vols. I, II, III, ASCE, 1976.
DESAI, C. S" and LYTTON, R. L., "Stability Criteria of Finite Element Schemes for
Parabolic Equation," Int. J. Num. Methods Eng., Vol. 9, 1975, pp. 721726.
IDRISS,1. M., SEED, H. B., and SERIFF, N., "Seismic Response by Variable Damping
Finite Elements," J. Geotech. Eng. ot« ASCE, Vol. 100, No. GTl, 1974, PP·
113.
KREIG, R. D" and KEY, S. W., "Comparison of Finite Element and Finite Differ
ence Methods," Proc. ONR Symp, NUIl1. Methods Struct. Mech., University
of Illinois, Sept. 1971, (Femes, S.l., Perrone, N., Robinson, A.R., and Schno
brich, W.e. eds.) Academic Press, New York, 1973.
NEWMARK, N. M., "A Method of Computation of Structural Dynamics," Proc.
ASCE, Vol. 85, No. EM3, 1959, pp. 6794.
NICKELL, R. E., "Direct Integration Methods in Structural Dynamics," J. Eng.
Mech. Div. ASCE, Vol. 99, No. EM2, April 1973.
II
TORSION
INTRODUCTION
237
bt. _
238 Torsion Chapter 11
Triangular element
v, V J
Y
i
i v, v
x. u
o
L: X '
M, '+~~x. u
e, w
lal (bl
lei
Before considering subsequent steps, we shall first detail some of the proper
ties of the triangular element.
As discussed in Chapter 3, it is advantageous to use the concept of local
coordinate systems for finite element formulations. For the triangular ele
ment, the local or area coordinates are often defined in terms of component
Chapter 11 Torsion 239
Pix, vi
(L1, L2, L3)
,
,
,
A, ' L, == 0
v A,
L.,
CD L''' A~3.~~0
(x2• Y2)
(x"v,1 L3=0 (0,1,01
'1,0,01
areas, A" A2, and A, (Fig, 112), Then in the nondimensional form, the
local coordinates L" L2, and L3 are defined as
i = 1,2,3. (III)
(l12b)
where [N] is the matrix of interpolation functions N which are the same as
"
the local coordinates L,; these are plotted in Fig, 113,
I
/)1
;s; ,
/
/
I
I 0 \ ,
I
/
/ ,,
240 Torsion Chapter 11
1
N, ~ L, = 2i2A" + b,x + a,y),
or
/. y , Y _ 'I,ll ZA ,"L' 'I, II' 17 /J
?.A,,< '1, Yl{~,}) ' 'l.Al~~:''b,' a'J { 1 }
». ~ 2~ 2A" bz az x' (113b)
N) 2A12 b3 G3 Y
where 2A = a3b2  a2b3 = alb3  a.b, = a.b,  ajb1; A is the total area
of the triangle; AZ3 is the area of the triangle whose vertices are nodes 2, 3
and the origin 0 and so on; and a, and b, are given as differences between
various nodal coordinates:
b, = Y2  Y3,
hz =Y3  Yl, (113c)
aJ=x2x j, b3=Y1Y2'
The unknown, represented by a general symbol u, can be expressed as
u = n,«, + NZu2 + N3u3
= [N][q}, (114a)
where [N] is the matrix of interpolation functions and yields linear variation
ofu over the triangle. Since [N] in Eqs. (112) and (114) is the same, we can
call this element an isoparametric triangular element.
Displacement Approach
where x and yare the global coordinates in the plane of cross section of the
bar (Fig. 111). The warping function, 1jI, is related to the displacement IV
in the z direction, and is assumed to be constant along the length of the bar
Chapter II Torsion 241
(a'll Y
ax _ y)dds _ (a'll
ay + x)dxds ~ 0,
(117)
[e} 
! ~;
+ ~~l
!e(~~ y))
~; + ~~
 !YX»
yy,

e(~;+ x)
,
(118)
( 119)
where fay = [Tx> T"J is the vector of (shear) stress components and G is
the shear modulus.
where 'If(x, y) is the warping function at any point (x, y) in the triangular
element and [q,Y ~ ['If, 'If, 'If,] is the vector of nodal values of the warp
ing function.
,/
,,
~~ == 1P~
~~ == warping at node 2 of element 1, and so on
Chapter 11 Torsion 243
fulfilled. Note that for linear approximation this does not necessarily imply
interelement compatibility of higher orders, such as the first derivatives.
Since the approximation function in Eq. (l14c) provides for rigid body
motion (term (Xl) and constant state of strains or gradients of 1JI (terms C't2x
and "'zy), it is complete. Notice that in this problem, there exist two such
states: a!fljax and a!fl/ay. Furthermore, it contains all terms up to the order
n = 1 in the polynomial expansion for the twodimensional problem. This
idea can be explained by using the polynomial expansion represented (by
Pascal's triangle) as follows:
We can see that for the linear approximation in Eq. (l14c), all the three terms
up to and including n ~ I are provided.
To find the values of the derivatives in Eq. (118), we use the following
rule of differentiation:
a!fl a [ I
ax = ax 2A(2AzJ + b,x + a,y) ] aN,
a
(N,!fI, + N2!f1, + N,!fIJ)
+ axa [ 2A(2A"
I + bzx + a2y)] aNa 2 (N,!fI, + Nz!fl2 + NJ!fI,)
+ axa [ 2A(2A"
I a (N'!fI' + N2!f12+ NJ!fI,)
+ b,x + a,y) ] aN,
 2A!fI,
b, + 2A!fI2
b 2
 I b3
2A!fI,· (II  12a )
Since A23• etc., are constants, they do not contribute to the results after
differentiation. Since the !fI, (i ~ 1,2,3) are values at the nodes and not

244 Torsion Chapter 11
functions of N, and (x, Y), they also do not contribute to the differentiation.
Similarly,
(l112b)
(l112c)
Here [B] is the strainwarping function transformation matrix.
Hence Eq. (118) becomes
(l113a)
~ O[B](q.J + {OYl
Ox· (l113b)
+ [y x] 1:!)dXdY (l114b)
Substitution from Eqs. (1112) and (1113) into Eq. (l114b) gives
II, = G~02(JJ[(q.YrBnB](q.J
A
+ 2(q.YrBY{ ~:l
+ [Ym XmJ{::l])dXdY, (1115)
Chapter 11 Torsion 245
where Xm ~ (XI X, + +
x,)/3 and Ym ~ (YI Y, +
y,)/3 are the assumed +
mean values. It is not necessary to make this assumption, however. We can
substitute for X and Y from Eq. (112) and pursue the derivations, which will
be somewhat more involved. Now we invoke the principle of stationary
(minimum) potential energy; hence
all, = 0
aljll '
all, = 0 (1116)
aljl, '
all p ~ 0
atp3 '
which leads to
Note that the last term in IIp, being constant, does not contribute to the
results. Equation (lI17a) can be written in matrix form as
(l117b)
where [k.l is the element stilfness matrix:
(I117d)
b l all
~hJ,'If b, b,
b'J
[k.l =
r
b3
G,
a3
[~:
G, a,
dxdy. (l1ISa)
Since G; and b; are constants, the integral equals the area; hence
(IIISb)
b
246 Torsion Chapter 11
and
II s, l
b'
[Q.J = GhB' (1119a)
b3
_GhB2Ab
 2A
GbB'
l b'
2
b,
b'Ym 
a'J
QZ
Q3
{Ym}
a,xm}
_
Xm
be deleted, because of the assumption that the bar is isotropic and the prob
lem is governed by the Laplace equation [Eq. (115)].
Step S. Assembly
Equations (11ISb) and (1119b) can now be used to generate stiffness matrices and
load vectors for all the elements in a discretized body. For instance, Fig. 115(a)
shows a square bar, 2 em x 2 em, discretized in four elements. Figure t 15(b)
shows the four elements with their local and global node numbers. For this example
assume the following properties:
G ~ 1 Njcma,
h~lcm, I,M)1\, o~
B ~ 1 rad/em.
The area of each triangle A = 1 ern>. These properties are chosen in order to
illustrate the procedures; they do not necessarily refer to practical problems.
The quantities a, and hi for the four elements are as follows:
Element 1:
G, = X3  X2 = 1  2 = I, h, = Y2  Y3 = 0 I = 1
G2 = X,  X3 = 0  1 = 1, b2 = Y3  Y, = 1  0 = 1, (1120a)
G3 = X2  Xl = 2  0 = 2, bJ = Y,  Y2 =0 0 = 0,
and Xm ~ (0 + 2 + ll/3 ~ I, Ym ~ (0 + 0 + 1)/3 ~ t.
Element 2:
a, = ]  0 = J, b, = 0  1 = 1,
G2 = 0  1 = 1, b2 = 1  2 = 1, (1120b)
a3 ~ 0  0 ~ 0, b, ~ 2  0 ~ 2,
and Xm ~ (l + 0 + Ol/3 ~ j, Ym ~ (2 + 0 + 1)/3 ~ 1.
Chapter 11 Torsion 247
~r, 10,21
2a =:: 2 em
'10
12,21
ffi
E
u
N
"
D
11 ®[1
N
&
CD 10, OJ 12,01 ~x
0
2
0 & Element
& 2
3
,& 3 5 3 [1
3
2 &
2
CD 0
Ibl
Figure 115 Torsion of square bar. (a) Square bar and mesh.
(b) Elements with local and global nodes.
Element 3:
Ql=12=1, b1=21=1,
a, ~ 2  1 ~ 1, bz ~ I  0 ~ 1, (1120c)
a, ~ 2  2 ~ 0, b s ~ 0  2 ~ 2,
and Xm ~ (2 + 2 + 1)/3 ~ i, Ym ~ (0 + 2 + 1)/3 ~ L
Element 4:
Gj = 1  0 = 1, b, ~ 2  I ~ I,
ai = 2  1 = 1, b, ~ 1  2 ~ 1, (1120d)
a, ~ 0  2 ~  2, b, ~ 2  2 ~ 0,
and Xm ~ (2 + 0 + 1)/3 ~ 1, Ym ~ (2 + 2 + 1)/3 ~ {,
248 Torsion Chapter 11
Substitution of these values into Eqs. (1l18b) and (l119b) gives the following:
Element 1:
Global ...
' I 2 5 ]
o
I Local + 1 2 3 (5
I~ 2]{~1lJI::~ ~I}
1 I
I
2
I
2 ~
o
2 2 lJI2 = ~
{j}j. (l12Ia)
5 3 l2 2 4 IJIJ  IJIs 2
Element 2:
Global+' 3 5
I Locall 2 3
1 1
3
I
5
1
2
3
~
I~
l2
~ =~]{~;:~:} {=:}.
2 4 IJIJlJIs
= ~
2
(1l2Ib)
Element 3:
Global ...
' 2 4 5
I Local~l 2 3
Element 4:
Global+, 4 3 5 ]
o
I Local cccesI 2 3 (5
2]{~t
lJI::~ ~4} +{j}
j j
o
l
4 I 2
3 2 .!..
4
0 22 lJ!3 = ! . (l12Id)
5 3 2 2 4 IJIJlJIs 2
In Eq. (1121) the superscript denotes an element, and we have shown the relations
between local and global node numbers. For the particular node numbering chosen
in this example the coefficients of the element matrices are the same. IIi fact, even if
a different numbering is used, if the elements are of equal dimensions, [kll'] can be
generated once it is obtained for one element.
The assembly procedure is carried out by observing the fact that the values of
If! at common nodes are compatible. Thus, by adding the local coefficients in
appropriate locations in the global relation, we obtain
Chapter 11 Torsion 249
GlobalC>, 1 2 3 4 5
j
1 (2 + 2) 0 0 0 (2  2) 'If I
2 0 (2 + 2) 0 0 (2  2) 'If,
1
3 0 0 (2 + 2) 0 (2  2)
4 'lf3
4 0 0 0 (2 + 2) (2  2) 'If.
5 (2  2) (2  2) (2  2) (2  2) (4 + 4 + 4 + 4) 'If,
~j=O
4+t~4
I
2: 4  J = 4 (1122a)
f + f = 0
2 + 2  2 + 2 ~ 0
or
4 0 0 0 4 'If 1 0
0 4 0 0 4 'lf2 16
0 0 4 4 1
0 'lf3 ~2: 16 (1122b)
0 0 0 4 4 'If. 0
4 4 4 4 16 'If I 0
or
[K](r} ~ [R}, (l122c)
where [K] is the assemblage stiffness matrix, {r} is the vector of global nodal warping
functions, and {R} is the assemblage nodal forcing parameter vector.
Since the values of the warping function are relative, the boundary conditions
can be introduced by assigning datum value of 'I' to one of the nodes. Then we shall
obtain relative values of nodal warping functions. For example, assume 'f/l = O.
Then the modified equations are obtained by deleting the first row and column in
Eg. (l122b) (see Chapter 3):
4
I ~ 1:1
[ o~ ~ ~ =:]1::1
0
4
4
14
4
16
'If 4
'If I
0
0
(1122d)
The secondary quantities can be the shear stresses and twisting moment.
Equation (119) can be used to find the shear stresses in the four elements:
...
250 Torsion Chapter 11
Element 1:
(l123)
Tx,}
{ T"
= ~lI X0 + 1X2 + 0 X
21xOlx2+2xO
o} + {1}
1
=H~}+ {~}
~g}.
Element 2:
Element 3:
Element 4:
TWISTING MOMENT
The expression for twisting moment M, in the bar is given by [2, 3, 4]
M, ~ GO II A
(y~~ + x~ + x2 + y2)dxdy. (1124a)
Often M,jGO is called the torsional constant and is used to express solution
for the twisting moment in the bar.
If we assume x; and Ym as average constant values associated with the
first two terms in the integrand and since alf//ax and alf/jay are constant for
Chapter 11 Torsion 251
M,
GO _ m~,
M _
M,m ];, M [
YmA (a'll)
ax m + xmA (a'll)
ay m + Xm 
+ Ym )J , (l124b)
and
I Stresses shown at
centroids of elements
~o
2
~L
3
E
u
a N
,' 2cm
,I
Figure 116 Plots of computed shear stresses: warping function
approach.
The total twisting moment can now be found as the sum of element
twisting moments. Substitute for a'll/ax and a'll/ay from Eq. (1112), and the
coordinates of the nodes of each element lead to the following:
Element 1:
~~ ~ J:( I X0 +I X 2 +0 X 0) ~ I,
~ ~ ±(1 X0  1 X 2 + 2 X 0) = I,
XI +11 =!'
M" ~ t X I +I X (I) + i ~ 4 + i·
bn
252 Torsion Chapter 11
Element 2:
X2 + Y2 = ~,
M" ~ 1 X 1 + t X (1) + ~~ ~ +!.
Element 3:
~~ ~ i(l X 2 + 1 X 0  2 X 0) = 1,
X3 + Y3 = 264,
~~ ~ ±[I X 0  1 X (2) +0 X 0] = I,
X4 +)\ = 264,
M" ~ 1 1 + 2: = ~ + ¥.
Therefore
Twisting Moment
or
"" 0.1406 X 16
"" 2.250 crrr'.
The value computed from the finite element procedure is 2.666; hence
the error is
Shear Stresses
From the stress function approach (see next section), the closed form
values of the components of shear stresses, Eq. (l128a) below, can be
obtained from the following expression for closed form solution for stress
function in a rectangular bar [2]:
rp* = _32_~_()_3
"
a_ _
2
'1.3,5,.. n3
I: ~ 1[I _ cos h(nnyj2a)]
(l )'~
cos h(nnbj2a)
cos (nnx)
2a
(l126a)
t* ~ arp = l6G()a L: ~(_I)';I sin h(nnyj2a) cos (nnx)
x:: ay n2 n=I,3,5, .. n? cos h(nnbj2a) 2a
(l126b)
t* ~  arp ~
,. ax
16G()a
n',~
I: .L (_1)';1
3.5, .. n'
I,
[I _ cos h(nnyj2a)]
cos h(nnbj2a)
sin (nnx)
2a
(l126c)
where x and yare measured from the center point of the bar, and a and b
denote half the dimensions of the cross section of the bar, respectively.
In the finite element analysis, we assumed linear approximation for the
warping function; hence, the distribution of shear stresses is constant at every
point in the element. This element can, therefore, be called the constant
strain or stress triangle (CST). If we had used a higherorder approximation,
shear stresses would vary from point to point in the element. In view of the
Constant values for the shear stresses, it is often customary, as shown in Fig.
1I6, to attach them at the centroids of the elements. For the purpose of com
254 Torsion Chapter 11
parison and error analysis below, we compute the closed form or exact
values of shear stresses at the centroid of an element. It must be understood
that this is only an approximation, since the computed shear stresses are
constant over an element as a part of the formulation, and are attached at
the centroid only for convenience.
The subject of error analysis is important and wide in scope. OUf purpose
is to introduce the topic by presenting comparisons between computed and
closed form solutions for some of the prohlems in this chapter. In making
these comparisons we have considered only typical elements and nodes.
For Example 111, let us choose element 3. The centroidal coordinates of
this element are
x ~ 0.667 and y = 0.000.
Then use of Eqs. (1126b) and (l126c) gives closed form values of shear
stresses as
r;, ~ 0.000 Njcav"; rJ, = 0.775 Nlcttv.
These and the subsequent closed form solutions are obtained by using n = 25
In Eq. (1126). The errors in the two components are then given by
error in 1: =
r*xz  r Xz x lOO
xz r~z
~ 0.000  0.000
= 0.00%,
STRESS APPROACH
The torsion problem can be expressed by using the concept of stress function,
rp [17]; this approach represents the same phenomenon as represented by
the warping function, but it is an alternative or dual representation for
. I~\
torsion. The governing differential equation for a linear, isotropic, and homo
geneous medium, in terms of o, according to Prandtl [1, 2], is
1 a''fi , I a''fi _ _ 
G ax' T G ay2  20  Q(x, y), (1127)
(1128a)
(1129a)
or
n, ~ 2~ fJ[~~ ~~JJ~;ldXdY
lay
 If (20)'fidxdy. (l129b)
...
256 Torsion Chapter 11
where
[D] ..!.[I OJ
=
G ° 1
is the strainstress matrix. By invoking the principle of stationary (minimum)
complementary energy, we have
(lJ3Ib)
or
or
[k,](q,) ~ (Q,), (l13Id)
where [k,] is the element property or flexibility matrix and (Q,) is the ele
ment nodal forcing parameter vector. They are evaluated as follows:
The integrations in Eq. (1133) can be evaluated in closed form by using the
formula [4]
I! O! 0'
(I ° °
+ + + 2)!2A =3
2A
x 2 ~ 3'
A (1l34b)
Chapter 11 Torsion 257
Hence
(1134c)
which implies that the applied forcing function is distributed equally at the
three nodes.
010,21 12,210
r
,
I [}",
I
E
c
010, 01 12,
01,0 x
"
I
I
I i
,
~t~
I 4 em I
element stiffness matrices are essentially similar. The element load vector is, how
ever, different, given by Eq. (1134c). Assembly of the four element matrices and
load vectors lead to the global equations as
4 0 0 0 4 '1'1 2
0 4 0 0 4 '1', 2
1 2
0 0 4 0 4 '1'3 2 (l135a)
4 3
0 0 0 4 4 '1'. 2
4 4 4 4 16 '1', 4
or
[K]{r) ~ [R).
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
According to Prandtl torsion, the boundary condition is
rp = 0 or constant along the boundary. (1136a)
If we choose rp = 0, we have (Fig. 117).
'1', ~ '1'3 ~ '1'. ~ U. (1136b)
Equation (l135a) is now modified by deleting the rows and columns cor
responding to <P2, f{J3, and CfJ4 to yield
SHEAR STRESSES
The stresses can now be computed using the available values of rp. Use of the
[B] matrix in Eq. (1112c) in Eq. (1130) gives
Substitution
I:;)~2~e:~: ~:J{::}.
ay rp3
of a. and b, from Eqs. (1120) leads to stresses in the four elements:
(1137)
~~I
Element 1:
! a'l'
ay
= J...[I
21 I
1
Chapter 11 Torsion 259
Element 2:
Element 3:
TWISTING MOMENT
According to the stress approach, the twisting moment M, is given by [2]
M, ~ 2 II
A
tpdxdy ~ m~' 2 If
A
'fJmdxdy, (1l38a)
M,_ ~ 2 If (prndxdy
_ 2A(mm
 Tn + 'fJ,m + 'fJ3'm) (1138b)
M, ~ 2 ~ 1 (~ +0 + j)
+~(o+~+.!)
333
+2~I(O+o+j)
+2~I(O+O+j)
~ ; e32)
~ 7.1111 Ncm . (1138c)
...
260 Torsion Chapter 11
Figure 118(a) and (b) show plots of computed stress functions and shear stresses
for the entire bar (4 em x 4 em) and the quarter bar, respectively. Note that because
linear approximation is used, the shear stresses are constant within each element
and are attached at the element centroids.
Section AA
AL
..
E
c
_y2.666
1.333 1.333 ,.....  ~ ...
1.333
Section 88
lal
y, T yz
Stresses shown
at centroids
[b]
COMPARISONS
Stress Function. The exact value of rp at node 1 (x = 0, y = 0) from Eq. (1126a)
is
rp ~ 2.360
Therefore, the error is
_ 2.360  2.666 100
error  2.360 X
~ 13.00%.
Shear Stresses. Use of Eqs. (l126b) and (1126c) gives the shear stresses in typ
ical element number 1 (x = 1, y = 1/3) as
t s, ~ 0.246 Njem2
r, ~ 1.060.
Therefore, the errors are
error in T Xz = 0.246  0.000
~ 25.00%
error in T u, = 1.060  1.333 x 100
, 1.06
~ 26.00%.
'"" 21.00%.
We have used a coarse mesh so that hand calculations can be performed. Hence,
the errors are rather high. The computed solutions can be improved significantly if
a finer mesh is used.
BOUNOS
Figure 119 shows the computed values of torsional constants from the warping
(displacement) and stress function approaches in comparison with the closed form
value. For this comparison, the values of M1IGO for the 2 em x 2 em bar of Ex.
111 are multiplied by 16 as per Eq. (1125). The displacement approach yields an
upper bound to the true value of torsional constant, whereas the stress function
approach gives a lower bound solution.
Figure 111O(a)shows a refined mesh for an eighth of the square bar in Fig. 117.
]0 view of the symmetry, it is possible to reduce the problem to analysis of only an
261
...
262 Torsion Chapter 11
Note: The number of nodes plotted refer to the specific problem only.
44.000
.... Warping function (Example 11·1l
42.000
40.000
38.000
~
"'
~
36.000
2 4 6 8 10
Number of nodes
12 14 16 18
34.000
... Stress function
(Example 114)
32.000
30.000
+ Stress function
(Example 113)
+ (Example
Stress function
112\
28.000
26000
eighth of the bar. Thus, now we have effectively eight elements for a quarter of the
bar instead of four as in Example 112. Figure 11~10(b)shows local node numbers
for the elements.
In the following we give brief details of computations of element equations for
the four elements (with values of G and as before): e
Element 1.'
Xm = 1. Ym = 1:
Element 2:
b, ~ 1, b, ~ I, b, ~ 0; Xm = 4. Ym = j;
®
12,21
@ &
11,11 ®
& 12, 11
(a}
v, T vt
1 2
3 2
3 3
2 1 2 1
X, T xZ
Ib}
Element 3:
= 1, _ 2.
Xm Ym "].
Element 4:
Xm = t. Ym = 1;
I
2
1
...
264 Torsion Chapter 11
I I 0 0 0 0 'P, I
1 4 2 I 0 0 'P, 2
0 2 4 0 2 0 'P, 2 4
~3 2 (1139a)
0 1 0 2 1 0 'P,
0 0 2 1 4 1 'P, 2
0 0 0 0 I I_ 'P, 1
 2'P2 + 4'P, ~ t,
solution of which gives
'P, ~ 2.333 N/cm,
'P2 ~ 1.666,
0/, ~ 1.500,
'P, ~ 0.000}
'Ps = 0.000 prescribed.
'P, ~ 0.000
The shear stresses according to Eqs. (1137) and (I t28a) are now found as
follows:
Element 1:
Element 2:
f,,) ~ 10.166) N/cm2•
I !" 1.666
Element 3:
If,,) 1 . )
0 000
~ Njcm",
't'yZ 1.5000
Chapter Jl Torsion 265
~1.500
2.333 __
CD
[
CD

"'...,"....
®
Along nodes 136
(a)
0
0
f 0.0
®
co
'" ~l
J~ SJ
0.166 0.166
0.0
@ o X,7xz
(b}
Figure IIII shows plots of computed values of r.p and shear stresses for the
refined mesh.
COMPARISONS
Torsional Constant. The torsional constant for the eighth bar according to Eq.
(1138) is
bE
266 Torsion Chapter 11
c: 14.00%.
The computed value of the torsional constant from the finer mesh is shown in
Fig. 119 and yields an improved lower bound to the true value of MJGfJ.
Stress Function. From Eq. (1126a), the closed form value of rp at node 1
(x ~ 0, y ~ 0) is found to be
'f! ~ 2.360,
hence, the error is
_ 2.360  2.333 100
error  2.360 x
= 1.00%.
Shear Stresses. For element 3, (x ~ 5/3, y ~ 2/3), use of Eqs. (1I26b) and
(1126c) yields errors as
error in 't'xz = 0.194  0.000
~ 19.00%
~ 21.00%
For the foregoing comparisons, it can be seen that the numerical solutions
with the finer mesh are closer to the closed form values. The error in the torsional
constant reduced from 21.00% to 14.00%, and that in the shear stresses from
25.00 to 19.00 and from 26.00 to 21.00% in Txz and Tyz, respectively. Note that the
comparisons of errors in the shear stresses are not rigorous, since they are not
necessarily at the same point; however, the general trend shows reduction in the
error.
The numerical solution can be improved significantly with progressively refined
meshes. Such refinement should follow certain criteria for consistent comparisons;
these are briefly discussed in Chapter 13 (Example .135) and in Ref. 4.
(]) ® ®
10,1 I 11,11
& &
® ® G = 1
e= 1
& &,
CD 0, 0 (1,010 x
(al
[b] (e)
COMPARISONS
Torsional Constant. The error in the computed and exact values of the torsional
Constant is
The value of M,/CO ~ 2.046 x 16 ~ 32.74 is shown in Fig. 119 and yields a
lower bound to the exact solution.
Stress Function. The closed form value of ({J (Eq. 1126a) at node 1 (x = 0,
y = 0) is found to be
'fJ ~ 0.590,
hence, the error is
0.590  0.620 x 100
error = 0.59
= 5.00%
Shear Stresses. The shear stresses are compared for two typical elements,
and 2:
Element 1 (x ~ 0.25, y ~ 0.25)
. 0.238  (0.24)
error In r xz = 0.238 x 100
= 1.00%,
= 1.00%.
Element 2 (x ~ 0.75, y ~ 0.25)
. 0104  (0.100)
error m r., = 0.104 x 100
~ 4.00%,
error in .y. ~ 0.853  0.870 x 100
, . 0.853
= 2.00%.
Use of the 4node isoparametric quadrilateral provides an overall improvement
in the solution for the values of cp, shear stresses, and torsional constant.
For better accuracy one should use finer meshes with a computer code.
With about 100 elements one can expect results of acceptable accuracy for
all practical purposes. The cost of such computations with a computer code
is not high.
In the case of the stress approach, the assumed stress functions that
satisfy equilibrium are substituted into the complementary energy II,. Its
stationary value leads to approximate compatibility equations.
Thus in both cases, for the assumed unknowns, either the equilibrium or
compatibility is fulfilled only approximately. For example, in the case of the
displacement formulation for torsion, the stress boundary conditions over
the surface are not necessarily satisfied. That is, as required by SaintVenant's
torsion, the shearing stress 'Z'1l normal to the boundary computed from the
displacement procedure may not be zero. Figure 1113(b) shows the varia
tion of To along the boundary AB of the discretized region of a triangle [Fig.
1113(a)] subjected to torsion [8IOJ computed from a displacement and a
hybrid formulation. It can be seen that T" is not zero as required by the theo
retical assumptions.
We can overcome some of these deficiencies by using hybrid and mixed
procedures.
HYBRID APPROACH
If we denote the warping associated with the three sides of the element as
'1123, 'II", and'll",
respectively, specialization of'll in Eq. (1I4b) along the
y
99
y
E
E
o
"""r<~M
x
lal
Hybrid
N
E
a
A ~ I v •
AS
.E:
rn
='c 1
• V'1./1
~ I / I / ~I /
11
I / I
11
/i1/ / Ii1/v /
1/
v 1/1/:/1/
" 2 ~v v V
Displacement
(b)
270
Chapter 11 Torsion 271
Boundary element
~~
T31
Boundarv
Inner element
CD
;!:j
712
o
/0'
\!'.Y
v
7
'10
0\
723 I
I I
x
Here Wh denotes the work of boundary forces, and we have used the subscript
h to denote the hybrid formulation. In very simple words, the procedure is
called hybrid, because in ITch it combines complementary strain energy U, as
in the case of stress approach and potential of external loads Wph as in the
case of the displacement approach.
In Eq. (1141), (ty = [M, T" T" T,,) is the vector of twisting moment
and normal components of shear stresses on the boundary, ('I'bY = [8 'If'3
Torsion Chapter 11
272
[D] ~ 1 [I OJ,
G 1 °
which is the inverse of stressstrain matrix [C]. We assume linear elastic
behavior.
To evaluate U, and Wph in Dcl" we need to derive the following results
for the boundary element. For the triangular element, the stress vector [aJ
is given by
Because the element lies on the boundary such that the side 23 is along the
boundary, 'P, ~ 'P, ~ constant, which we assume as zero; then Eq. (1142a)
specializes to
(1142b)
or
[e] = [P][PJ, (1142c)
where
[P] = 2~{~:}
and [PJ ~ [<p,J = 'P, is just a scalar. Substitution of Eq. (1142c) into U,
[Eq. (1141)] leads to
~ HWlH][PJ (1143b)
= 2 x 2~' x 2A II
A
[a, b,J~ [~ ~J{
_~}XdY'P'
(1143c)
(1143d)
where Ii, = (aj + bj) ~ (x,  x,)' + (12  y,)' denotes the length of the
side 23 and
[H] = H [PY[D][P]dxdy
A
_ IL (1144)
 4GA'
Chapter 11 Torsion 273
The second part in Eq. (1141) denotes the potential of the surface trac
tions (t) over the entire surface of the element per unit thickness and can be
expressed as
(l145b)
M, = If (YmTn + xmT,,)dxdy
A
A
= 2A(Yma,  xmb,)rp,
1
~ 2(Yma, + xmb,)rp" (1146)
_ (a,b3  b,a3)rp,
 2AI"
_ (a,b,  b, a,)rp, _ 0 (1147)
'23  2Al  ,
23
T _ (a,b,  b,a,)rp,
31  2A/ •
31
It is important to note that the stress T23 normal to the boundary is identically
zero, as required by the torsion problem. In matrix notation, we have
(1148a)
or
(t) = [RJ(P)· (l148b)
The surface integrations relevant to ('I'b) of Eq. (l145b) in Wph can he
performed easily. For instance, substitution for '1'" from Eq. (1140) into
Eq. (1145) gives
+
J '·3
lfI"dS = '''2(IfI, 1fI,)' (1I49b)
The other two integrals are evaluated similarly. Then Eq, (1145) becomes
(1150a)
(I ISOb)
1 [
= 2A'I" a, b,
][ YmA
xmA
(b,
( a,
+ b,)!2
+ a, )/2
(b,
(a,
+ b,)!2
+ a,)/2
(b,
(a,
+
+
b')/2J\:']
a,)/2 1fI,
IfIl
(IISOc)
(IISOd)
= IPY[G](q.l = [PYlP)T[L](q.J·
Here
(q.Y ~ [9 1fI, 1fI, ifill,
(1150e)
[G] = lP)T[L],
and
(L} ~ i[ZYmA
2 2xmA
b,
a1
b,
02
blJ.
Q)
(l150f)
By differentiating Tl., with respect to (PJ = '1', and equating the results
to zero, we obtain
or
(1l52b)
[H](PJ = [G][q.J,
or
(1l52c)
IPJ = [H]'[G][q.j,
which expresses the relation between nodal stress functions and nodal warp
ing functions for the boundary elements.
~
Element Stiffness Matrix
~ [GJT4~A [G]
/"
(YmGI + xmbl) 0 1 1
loner Elements
275
lu__ a
276 Torsion Chapter 11
derived as
G [4A2(X~ + y~) 2A(alXm  b,Ym) 2A(a2Xm  b2Ym) 2A(a3Xm  b3ym)]
by + at blb2 + aia i bib) I a ias
(II55)
[k.] ~
4A sym. b~ I a~ b2h3 + a2a3
, b~ I at
Both [k,J and [k.J express relations between generalized forces and dis
placements [q.J and have identical forms as
[k,][q.} ~ [Q} (l156a)
and
[k.][q.} = [Q} (1156b)
where
AYm Axm M,
b, a,
F,
2" 2"
[Q} ~ b, a2 {",,} ~
fY' F,
(1156c)
2" 2"
b, a, F,
2" 2"
and F" F" and F, represent onehalf of the resultant shearing forces on the
sides 23, 31, and 12, respectively.
For an element with side 23 along the boundary, we have, from Eqs.
(1142) and (l152c),
Assembly
For elements on the boundary and inside the bar, we use element equa
tions (l156a) and (1l56b), respectively. Since both are expressed in terms
of nodal displacements, the assembly follows the same rule that the displace
ments at common nodes are compatible.
In view of the fact that the hybrid approach satisfies the stress boundary
conditions, the results from the proposed procedure can yield improved
Chapter 11 Torsion 277
accuracy in tbe stresses at and around the boundary. In tbe following, first
we present an example using hand calculations and then results from com
puter solutions by Yamada et aJ. [9].
@ 10.21 0)
3 2 12.21
2 3
G) Global node
1 1 Local node
fA 1@ 1
1
& Element
3 2
2 3
CD 10. 01 @12.0j x
All the four elements lie on the boundary and hence are treated as boundary
elements in the sense of the hybrid approach. It is incidental that all elements are
boundary elements; in general, both boundary and inner elements will occur. Hence
it is necessary to use Eqs. (l154b) and (1155), respectively, for deriving the element
matrices for the boundary and inner elements. Tn the following are given salient
details of the element and assemblage equations:
Element J:
a, = X3  XI = 2, b, = J'z  Y3 = 0,
az=Xtx3=1, bZ=Y3Yl=],
a3 = Xz  XI = 1, b3 =Yl Yz = 1,
Xm = I, Ym = t,
[ 2 3~Local I
j j
Element 2:
at = 0, b, ~ 2,
az = 1, b, ~ I,
G3 = 1, b3 = 1,
Xm =1, Ym = 1
GA I
123 = 2,
IL =4'
[ 5 3 1' Global
2 3~ Local I
j j
0 ,2 1 [
I' ~:W:I~11')
I 0 0 0 5
[k,], ~ 
4 ~ 0 1 2 3
,0
2 I lJ 'If 3 0 3
Element 3:
at = 0, bl = 2,
Qz = 1, bz = 1,
G3 = 1, 63 = 1,
x'" =j, Ym = 1,
GA 1
/23 = 2, !~3 = 4'
5 2 4' Global
l'"
[ 2 3~ Local
j j
, ,
') 1)
10 [ 1
0
[khh ="4
1
_1 0
3
0 0
0
0
I 1 "'o ] 'If I
'lf2 ~ 2
5
, 10
0 I I 'If 3 3 4
Chapter 11 Torsion 279
Element 4:
0, = 2, hi = 0,
Oz = 1, hz = 1,
03 = 1, h3 = 1,
Xm = 1, Ym =j,
GA 1
/23 = 2,
1~3 = 4'
1 5 4 3~ Global
2 3~ Local
j
I
j
'r {l
.lQ.Q 10
9 0 j 1 1
, [ _1,0
0
0 0 o 'Ill 5
[kh], ~ 4
0 1 '112 2 4
.1.f 0 I 1 '113 3 3
0 2 I I 0 0 'Ill 0
12
I 3 1 2 0 I 0 '112 0
4
',' I 0 2 I 0 '113 0
0 0 1 I 2 0 'II, 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 '115 0
These equations can now be modified for the boundary condition '111 = O. Then
for B = 1 the solution is
e~ I,
'Ill ~ 0 (prescribed),
I{Iz = 2,
'113 = 2,
'II. ~ 0,
IfJs ~O.
These results for 'fI's are essentially the same as in the case of Example 111 with
the warping function approach. We have considered this rather simple example
mainly to illustrate hand calculations. For acceptable accuracy and in order to
exploit the advantage of improved boundary stresses in the hybrid procedure, one
should use a finer mesh. Tn Example J J6 we shall consider a computer solution for
the mesh in Fig. J JM]3 where both boundary and inside elements occur. The results
in Example 1J6 will illustrate the advantage of the hybrid approach.
SHEAR STRESSES
For the four elements at the boundary, we use Eq. (1157) to evaluate the shear
stresses:
Element 1:
Fu) ~ {[2(2 x J) 0 2
lryz 0 0 o
0.666)
1 0.000
N/cm'.
Element 2:
Fu)
tr =
1 [0
4" 2 x ~
0
0
0
2
yZ
0.000)
~ Njcm.
1 0.666
Element 3:
I
f'ul
try; ~ l.[ 4 _2)0
0 0
0 ~~J~ o
0.000)
Njcm",
10.666
Element 4:
TWISTING MOMENT
The torsional constant can be found by substituting the computed results for
IjI into the first of the above assemblage equations:
280
Chapter 11 Torsion 281
M, I [208
~XI4x2+4x(2) ]
cO 4 9
~ 1.7777Ncm.
This value is the same as that from the stress function approach and has an error
of about 21.00%.
Figure 1113(a) shows a bar in the shape of an equilateral triangle. Analysis for tor
sion for this bar using the hybrid method is presented by Yamada et al. [9]. Due to
symmetry, only onesixth of the triangle is discretized. The properties of the system
are
E 2.1 X 10'
Shear modulus, C ~ 2(1 + v) ~ 2(1 + 0.3) ~ 0.81 X 10' kg/mm',
Displace
Exact Hybrid ment
Node Solution Method Method
*w x J03 mm .
•
method. The two numerical results are close to the exact solution, without signifi
cant difference between them.
As noted before, Fig. 1113(b) shows comparisons between computed values of
the shear stress normal to the boundary 'r" from the displacement and the hybrid
methods. In contrast to the solution by the displacement method, the hybrid
approach yields zero values of Tn> as required by the theory.
Figures 11~]6(a) and (b) show comparisons between shear stresses 'ex: and 't'yZ
along AB as computed from exact solution and the displacement and hybrid
methods. The latter improves computations of the shear stresses not only along the
boundary but in the interior also; this aspect is indicated in Table 112, which lists
the shearing stresses at the centroids of typical elements adjacent to side AB (Fig.
1113). These results also show the improvement in accuracy provided by the hybrid
approach as compared to the results from the displacement approach.
Element
2 48 81 99 122
'l'xz
Exact 7.136 6.354 4.351 2.259 0.128
solution
Hybrid 7.168 6.264 4.117 2.251 0.125
method
Displacement 7.145 6.884 4.759 2.563 0.225
method
Ty,
Exact 12.354 10.803 7.209 3.348 0.168
solution
Hybrid 12.416 10.853 7.131 3.900 0.216
method
Displacement 12.541 10.511 6.653 3.628 0.071
method
To
Exact 0.003 0.101 0.164 0.282 .0.027
solution
Hybrid 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
method
Displacement 0.083 0.706 0.795 0.406 0.159
method
"Unit: kg/rum>,
A B
0
,
6 I
I ~/ I
,
,,II, , v ,v
1/ I / 1
V 1 / 1
V/ I,
8 V V
7" (kg/mm2)
(a}
7"
(kg/mm2 )
14
I
//
'
12 I
//
10
I
6
 Hybrid method
2    Displacement method
A B
(bl
Figure 1116 Comparisons for shear stresses [9]. (a) Shear stress
Tx• along contour AB. (b) Shear stress Ty: along contour AB.
283
MIXED APPROACH
[Na] are the interpolation functions, (q.) is the vector of nodal warping, and
tqaY = [tXZ1 !;m txz, 'l')'z, 'I'm 'I'YZj] is the vector of nodal shear stresses.
The strain displacement relation is given in Eq. (118), and the consti
tutive relation for linearly elastic and homogeneous material is
(II59)
= ±(aY[D](a}dV;
(aY ~ [f" fy,] is the shear stresses at the boundaries; (n) is the vector of
outward normal to the boundary; V is the volume of the element; [x]"
~ [x y]; and 5, is the part of boundary on which tractions are prescribed.
Substitution for (a) in Eq. (1158a), (f) in Eq. (118), and dU, in IIR leads
to
284
Chapter 11 Torsion 285
I
I
IIR = Iff v
[q,y[N,]"[BJ[q.JdV
I
I
 fff [q,y[N,Y[D][N,][q,JdV
v
 e fff [q,y[NX[N,J[x"JdV
v III
 If [q.Y[N.Y[nJ[N,][ij,JdS.
Here [x.] ~ [x, X2 X3 Yl
s,
given by
II
I
I;} =[~' N2
0
N3
0
0
N,
0
N,
o Jrx"J.
N3
(1162)
aIIR  0
oII R
~ 0= a[q,J  ,
(1163)
1
aIIR
a[q.J =
0
.
br
•
stresses and that their components normal to the boundary vanish. The
tangential components do not contribute when the variation, Eq. (1163), is
performed, hence the last term in Eq. (1161) does not appear in the calcula
tion afforcing parameter vector (Q.J.
N, 0
N2 0
[k.J ~  b II
N,
0
0
NJ
[~J N2
0
N,
0
0
NJ N,
0
o ]dXdY
N,
0 N2
0 N,
NI NJN, NJN, 0 0 0
Nl N,N, 0 0 0
N; 0 0 0
= b II sym, NI N1N2 NJN,
dxdy.
Nl N,N,
N;
IIN2dA~2A2!0!0!
J (2 + 2) 1
=:i6
A
and
II NJN2dA l'1iOI
~ 2A(4)i A
= 12'
A
Therefore,
2 1 1 0 0 0
1 2 1 0 0 0
A 1 1 2 0 0 0
[k.J = 12G
0 0 0 2 1 1
0 0 0 1 2 1

0 0 0 1 1 2
Chapter 11 Torsion 287
Now

N, O
N, 0
[k.,] ~ II N3
0
0
N,
~[b,
2A a,
b,
G2
3
b JdA
a3
0 N2
0 N3_
I

Nib,
N,b,
N,b,
N2b2
N,b3
N,b3
I
N3b,
=2~II N,a1
N3b,
»,«
N,b3
N1a3
dA
a, a, G3
_a, a, aL
and
N, O X,
N2 0 X2
[Q.} ~ 0 II N3
0
0
N, [~'
N,
0
N3
0
0
N,
0
N, ;J X3
y,
0 N, y,
0 N3_ Y3
+ X2 + X3
2x,
+ 2x + X3
XI 2
OA XI + + 2x X2 3
=12 2y, + y, + Y3
y,+2Y,+Y3
y, + y, + 2y,
The node numbers and details for the problem of the square bar (2 x 2 cross sec
tion) in Fig. 114 are shown in Fig. 1117. In the following are given essential details
....
288 Torsion Chapter 11
of the computations of element and assemblage matrices based on Eqs. (1164) and
(1165).
Equation (1164a) can be written in the expanded form as
2 1 1 0 0 0:, 2h1 2h2 2b3 '!XZl
1  2 1 0 0 a! ,
2b1 2b2 2b3 r XZ2
CD Global nodes
& Element
Local nodes I
(1, 2, 3) '" (7 xzl' 7 yzl' \'&1 ) Global degrees of freedom
13 7 14 8 2 15 9 3 Global
j
2 I 1 0 0 0 4 2 2 TXZ1 2 13
1 2 I 0 0 0 4 2 2 Txz, I 7
I I 2 0 0 0 4 2 2 Txz, 1
0 0 0 2 1 1 0 2 2 t YZI 4 14
0 0 0 1 2 1 0 2 2 tyZ, 5 8
0 0 0 I 1 2 0 2 2 1')1;, 3 2
4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 If/, 0 15
2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 If/z 0 9
2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 1f/3 0 3
'tt _
•
Element 3:
a1 = 0, bl = 2,
G2 = 1, bz = 1,
G3 = I, bs = 1,
x'" = 1, Ym = 1,
13 4 10 14 5 II 15 6 12~ Global
I
2 1 1 0 0 0 4 2 2 'l'X"L 6 13
1 2 1 0 0 0 4 2 2 1" XZ! 7 4
1 1 2 0 0 0 4 2 2 TXZ1 7 10
0 0 0 2 1 1 0 2 2 'rYZ1 4 14
0 0 0 1 2 I 0 2 2 'fy:, 3 5
0 0 0 1 I 2 0 2 2 Tyz, 5 II
4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1fJ\ 0 15
2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 1fJ, 0 6
2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 1fJ, 0 12
Element 4:
0, = 2, b, = 0,
Q2 = 1, b, ~ 1,
03 = 1, b, ~ 1,
x'" = 1, Ym =j,
13 10 7 14 II 8 15 12 9~ Global
I
2 I 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 fx:, 4 13
1 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 rxz~ 5 10
I 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 'rxz, 3 7
0 0 0 2 1 1 4 2 2 'l'YZI 6 14
0 0 0 1 2 1 4 2 2 't'YH 7 11
0 0 0 1 I 2 4 2 't'YZ' 7 8
0 0 0 4 4 4 0 0 1 1fJ\ 0 15
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
0 1 1fJ,
IfJJ
0
0
12
9
The foregoing four element equations can now be assembled by observing inter
element compatibility.
It is difficult to solve by hand calculations the (modified) assemblage equations
(involving 14 unknowns), and it becomes necessary to use an (available) equation
solver for large sets of equations (see Appendix 2). In this elementary treatment,
Chapter 11 Torsion 291
it will suffice only to illustrate the mixed approach and the foregoing steps, because
detailed consideration of the topic is considered beyond our scope. Solutions for this
and the other relevant exercises in Problems are left to the inquisitive and advanced
reader.
The foregoing completes OUf treatment of the torsion problem. Before we
proceed to the next chapter in which a 4node quadrilateral element is described, it
is appropriate to present a brief description of the topic of (static) condensation
which is often used in finite element applications.
I
STATIC CONDENSATION II
Often it may be convenient and necessary to use nodes within an element,
particularly when it is required to use higherorder elements. Sometimes a
single element is divided into subcomponent elements by using the inner
nodes. For instance, Fig. 1118 shows a line and a quadrilateral element
each with one inner node. The line element has two end or external or
primary nodes and one inner node, and the quadrilateral has four corners
or primary nodes and one inside node.
L~ CD ~. __ ~.t/__ ~. CD I
,.; I~.I~~. @ I
(a)
{b]
...
292 Torsion Chapter 11
are derived on the basis of unknown degrees of freedom at all the nodes. Thus
the formulation includes improved (higherorder) approximation yielded
by the use of tbe inner node. In the case of the quadrilateral [Fig. Il18(b)],
the element equations are often obtained by adding individual element equa
tions of the four component triangles. Thus the total number of element
unknowns in (q) are 3 and 10 for the line and the quadrilateral, respectively.
These element equations can now be assembled to obtain global equations,
in which the degrees of freedom at the inner node(s) will appear as additional
unknowns, and to that extent the number of equations to be solved will be
increased.
It is possible to temporarily eliminate the unknowns at the inner node
by creating an equivalent element relation in place of Eq. (1166a). The
procedure of doing this is called static condensation. It is possible to do tbis
because the unknowns at the inner node do not participate in the interele
ment compatibility at the element sides; that is, the unknowns at the inner
node are not needed for the direct stiffness assembly procedure.
The procedure of static condensation involves solution of the unknowns
at the inner node in terms of those at the primary nodes. To understand it,
we write Eq. (1166a) in a partitioned form as
(1166b)
where (qp), (Q,) and [q.], [Q,) denote vectors of nodal unknowns and loads
at the primary and inner nodes, respectively. The second equation in Eq,
(l166b) can be used to solve for (q,) as
[q,) ~ [k,,J'([Q,)  [k,X[qp})· (l167a)
or
[k](qp} ~ [Q},
where [k] and (Q) are the condensed element (stiffness) and nodal load vectors,
respectively. Notice that the vector of unknown [qp} now contains the degrees
of freedom only at the external primary nodes; thus when [k] and (Q) are
used to assemble element equations, we have reduced from the total equations
to be solved equations corresponding to the unknowns at the inner node.
After the assembled equations are solved, if desired, it is possible to retrieve
Chapter 11 Torsion 293
the unknowns at the inner node by using Eq. (1167a). Further details of
static condensation can be found in many publications, including Ref. [4].
PROBLEMS
112. Use the mesh in Fig. 1] 10 and treat the problem as torsion of a triangular
bar. By employing the warping function approach and setting boundary
condition as '113 = 0, compute nodal warping functions, shear stresses, and
twisting moments.
113. With the mesh in Prob. 112, solve for torsion using the hybrid approach.
1
11_4. With the mesh in Prob. 112, derive element equations using the mixed
approach.
115. Solve for torsion of the square bar in Fig. 11]9 by using the warping func
tion approach.
Q) ®
10,21 ®12.21
&, £
G"l
£ In 0" 1
@) ®
ffi® & i
& ,&
CD ® 0
10,01 12,01
Figure 1119
1 This and some of the other problems will require use of an available equation solver once
the global equations are obtained.
b
•
Chapter 11 Cha
294
Torsion
11]
lI8. Solve Prob. 115 by using the mixed approach.
119. Consider the mesh in Fig. 1120 and solve for torsion by using the stress
function approach. Here, it may be necessary to use a computer. The code
FIELD2DFE can be used for solving the entire problem. Alternatively, the
assemblage matrix can be computed by hand calculations, and its solution
can be obtained by using an available code for solution of simultaneous ]J]
equations.
® (2,21
@Ik,J~/
CD ® x
11]
(2,01
(0,0)
Figure 1120
1110. For the mesh in Fig. 1121, usc the mixed procedure and derive the element
equations [Eq. (l164a)].
Figure 1121
®
3
y &,
@) 1 22 ®
33 3
&
& &, ]Ji
2 1 2
x
CD
r
:
I
I
Chapter 11 Torsion 295
1111. For the torsion problem in Fig. 117, treat the bar as having a cross section
of 2 em x 2 em. With boundary conditions ({Jl = rp2 = ({J4 = rp$ = 0, com
pute tps using the stress function approach. Evaluate torsional constant and
discuss its accuracy.
Answer: 'P, ~ 0.6667; M,ICO ~ 1.777,error ~ 21.00%. ,
1112. For the circular bar of 2cm diameter, compute nodal stress functions for
the mesh shown lTIFig. 1122. Find shear stresses and the twisting moment
by using a computer code. Assume G = 107 N/cm2 and e
= 0.005 deg/cm.
1
1>1'
1
1/1\
I""1/
~ 1/\
I
I, 2cm
I 1 I
I
I
Figure 1122
I I
1113. For the elliptic bar a = 2 em and b = 1 em (Fig. 1123), compute nodal I
, 2cm
•
.: ~
.
I
10.01/
l' c: Ii
I"
Figure 1123
1114. By using the warping function approach, find shear stresses and torsional
constant for the triangular bar divided into two elements (Fig. 1124).
Assume C = 1 and 0 ~ I.
296 Torsion Chapter 11
(])
2
v3
@.~~x
11,01
010,01
Figure 1124
1115. Use the stress function approach to solve for torsion of the triangular bar
in Prob. 1114.
1116. By using the code FTELD2DFE or other available code, refine the mesh
progressively (Example 11~4), say 1,4,16,64, etc" elements, and obtain
results for stress functions rp and shear stresses. Plot the twisting moment
M, vs. number of elements or nodes and study the convergence behavior of
the numerical solution.
1117. Higherorder approximation. Use the quadratic interpolation function for
rp with a triangular element (6 nodes) and derive the element matrix and
load vector. See Fig. 1125.
Partial results: Assume
'P ~ [N]( q,J.
[q,Y ~ ['PI 'P, 'P, 'P. 'P, 'Pol,
Note that this function includes all terms up to n = 2 in the polynomial
expansion discussed under "Requirements for the Approximation Func
tion."
Figure 1125
Local coordinates, L j
y Node l. 11,0,01
® ® 2. 10,1,01'
3. 10,0,11
4. (I'~' OJ
LQ) 5. 10'1' I
'
o @x 6. 1
1 ,0, I
Chapter 11 Torsion 297
L,(2L,  1)
L,(2L,  1)
L,(2L,  1)
[NY~
4L1£2
4L2L3
4L3£1
[0] ]
[B,] [q,} ~ [B][q,J,
where II
[0,] ~ [(4L,  1)6, (4L, I)b, (4L, 1)6, 4(L,6, +L,bJl 4(L2&' +L,62) 4(L,b, +L,b3)]
?nd
[By] = [(4£1 1)oJ (4L21)02 (4L3  1)03 4(L102+L201) 4(L203 +L302) 4(L301 +£,03)].
Computation of {Q,} will require integrations over element area and rele
vant boundary surfaces.
REFERENCES
[lJ LOVE, A. E. H., The Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Dover, New York,
1944.
[2J TIMOSHENKO, S., and GOODIER, J. N., Theory of Elasticity, McGrawHili, New
York, 1951.
[5] BACH, c., and BAUMANN, R., Elasrizitiit und Festigheit, Springer, Berlin, 1924.
(6] MURPHY, G., Advanced Mechanics of Materials, McGrawHili, New York,
1946.
[8] YAMADA,Y., KAWAI, T., YOSHIMURA,N., and SAKURAI, T., "Analysis of the
ElasticPlastic Problems by Matrix Displacement Method," Proc. 2nd Conf.
Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics, Wright Patterson Air Force Base,
Dayton, Ohio, 1968, pp. 12711289.
[10] YAMADA, Y., NAKAGIRI, S., and TAKATSUKA, K., "ElasticPlastic Analysis of
SaintVenant Problem by a Hybrid Stress Model," Int. J. NUI1I. Methods in
Engineering, Vol. 5,1972, pp. 193207.
[ll] PIAN, T. H. H., and TONG, P., "Finite Element Methods in Continuum
Mechanics," in Advances ill Applied Mechanics, Vol. 12, Academic Press, New
York, 1972.
[12] NOOR, A. K., and ANDERSEN, C. M., "Mixed Isoparametric Elements for
SaintVenant Torsion," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 6, 1975,
pp. 195218.
[13] NOOR, A. K., (private communication).
1 1
12
OTHER FIELD PROBLEMS:
POTENTIAL. THERMAL.
AND FLUID FLOW II
II
INTRODUCTION
The problem of torsion (Chapter II) and a number of other problems that
we shall consider in this chapter are often known asfield problems. They are
governed essentially by similar differential equations, which are special cases
of the following general equation [I]:
~(k 'axarp) + ay
ax ~(k 'ayarp) + ~(k arp) + Q ~ c arp.
az 'dz at (12la)
(l22b)
Here rp is the unknown (warping, stress function, velocity potential, stream
function, temperature, electrical potential, fluid head or potential); k ., k;
and k, are material properties in the x, y, and z directions, respectively; Q
is the applied (heat, fluid, and so on) flux; c is specific heat or effective
porosity, and so on; S, is the part of the boundary on which rp is prescribed;
and S, is the part of the boundary on which the intensity of flux j is prescribed.
In the case of heat flow a(rp  rpo) is prescribed on S" in which a is the
transfer coefficient and 'Po is the surrounding temperature. (" t y' and Z, are
299
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
300
the direction cosines of the outward normal to the boundary, t denotes time,
and the overbar denotes a prescribed quantity.
In this book, we shall consider only twodimensional steadystate prob
lems; that is, the problem is independent of time and the righthand side of
Eq. (l2la) vanishes. Also, for simplicity, only homogeneous materials are
considered; then Eq. (12la) reduces to
a rp + lc, a'rp
kxax'
2
ay' + Q _ 0 (12lb)
We note that Eqs. (115) and (1127) have the same form as Eq. (l2lb).
POTENTIAL FLOW
which is called the Laplace equation. Here 'II' is a differential operator. The
assumptions commonly made are that the flow is irrotational; that is, fluid
particles do not experience net rotation during flow, the friction between the
fluid and surfaces is ignored, and the fluid is incompressible [2]. Some prac
tical problems where this kind of flow can be assumed are flow over weirs and
through pipes (with obstructions).
Equation (123) is based on the basic requirement that the flow is con
tinuous; that is,
(124)
________ .. rs1IIlll..
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 301
The relations between the velocity components and rp and IfI are given by
[2]
arp
Vx = ax'
(l25a)
arp
v =,
, ay
and
(l25b)
Substitution of v" and v, into Eq. (124) leads to the Laplace equation as in
Eq. (123).
Boundary Conditions
arp arp_
II
axnx + ayn y  O. (l27a)
5,
~_x
Figure 121 Flow in pipe.
( 128a)
(l28b)
302 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
Often both the flow and potential boundary conditions occur together, which
is called the mixed condition.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_x
The velocity potential is a scalar and has one value at any point. For the
fournode quadrilateral, there are thus four nodal degrees of freedom, and a
bilinear model for rp at any point can be written as
(129a)
rp = ", + ",X + ",y + "4XY
or
rp = [<I>j(",j, (I29b)
r I
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 303
I.
where ["'] = [I x y xy] and [lXy ~ [IX, IX, IX, IX,] is the vector of generalized
coordinates. Note that the term xy yields a bilinear distribution compared
to the strictly linear distribution given by the triangular element discussed in
Chapter 11; in a given direction the distribution is linear, however. Evalua
tion of e at the four nodes yields
qJ3
= IX,
or
I I
[q,} = [A][~}, (12lOb)
where [A] is the square matrix of coordinates of the nodes and [q,Y ~
['P, 'Pz 'P, 'P,]. We can solve for [~} as
[~} ~ [A]'[q,} (l2lOc)
and substitute the results into Eq. (l29b) to yield
,
'P = [f1>][Ar'[q,} = [N][q,} = L.: N,'P,. (1211)
,'=1
The product [f1>][Ar' gives the matrix of interpolation functions [N], which
in terms of the local coordinates sand t (Fig. 122) are given by
N, = to  s)(I  f),
N, ~to + s)(I t),
(12]2)
N, ~to + s)(I + f),
N, ~ .. w  s)(I + t).
Here, s, fare nondimensionalized local coordinates. Figure 123 shows plots
for Nf• i = 1,2,3,4.
The global coordinates x, y at any point in the element can also be
expressed by using the same interpolation functions N"
,
x =L NiX;,
1=1
, (1213a)
y ~ L.: N,y"
;=1
or
». N, N, 0 0 0 0] {[x"}} (I213b)
o 0 0 N, Nz N, N, [y"}'
where [x.]" ~ [x, x, x, x,] and [y"Y ~ [y, y, Y3 y,].
This approach in which the geometry, that is, x, y coordinates and the
unknown 'P, are both expressed by using the same interpolation functions
hn _
304 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
0 0
/
~
/
/
/
Q) Q)
I
I
, , I
,, I
~~
CD ,
,
<,
CD ~~~
~~ I
I
I
,
,
,
,
N, (f) N, (3)
I
I \
, Q)
/
I \
> I \
/ \
/
/ \
CD CD
(1214)
A
_________ stIIIll...
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 305
are similar to those in Eqs. (321) and (46) and can be considered to represent
a measure of energy.
The derivatives in Eq. (1214) can be obtained by taking partial derivatives
of rp [Eq. (1211)] with respect to x and y:
arp arpas arp at
gx = ax ~ as ax + at ax'
(1215)
_ arp _ arp as arp at
g,  ay  as ay + at ay'
represents a set of simultaneous equations in which a/ax and a/ay are the
unknowns. Solution by Cramer's rule gives
~:]I~s)'
as at
(1217)
b ~
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
306
(1220a)
+ t(X2'Y14  x14Yz,)],
where Xij = Xi  xj and Yo = Yi  Yj'
Use of Eq. (1217) allows computations of as/ax, aI/aX, as/ay, and al/ay
in Eq. (1215) as
o
~~= Ih(~~~~
 ~m 7t ~ m(~a~>,)
~~i) (122Ia)
Similarly,
as ~ __ I
ay III
(± aN
,., al '
iX)' (122Ib)
Substitution
I~~[
of Eqs. (1221) and (1222) into Eq. (1215) finally leads to
! 11
gx
s,
= axarp) ~ ~}~ tp, (aN,
arp ,~}~
ay ~ ~[(aN,aNi
aN) s», aNi) ] 1 )
fJS at  at as Yi fJl .
rp, os at  aN,aN
atdS 1
TJT
The indicial notation in Eq. (1223) indicates double summation. For
i)
instance, the first term in the summation for the first row is obtained by
Xl
]
(1223a)
When this is added to the other three terms obtained by setting i = 2 and)
= I, 2, 3, 4; i = 3,} = 1,2,3,4; and i = 4,} ~ 1,2,3,4, we have arpjax.
Similar evaluation gives arpjay.
After relevant substitutions and rearrangements,
{s,g,} ~ {B;;
B
B" BB" BB"}/::j
B 2l 22 23 24 qJ3
(l224a)
rp4
or
(g} = [BJ[q,}, (l224b)
where
where
[I] = [C] = [~ ~l
Taking derivatives ofQp with respect to fIJi' we obtain
aQ (1226a)
a[q:] = 0,
that is,
(1226b)
=bQp=O,
which leads to
[bq,r H[BYlB]dxdy[q,} ~ 0
(1227a)
or
H [By[B]dxdy[q,} =0
(1227b)
or (1227c)
[k,][q,} = {OJ,
where [k,} is the element property matrix:
Numerical Integration
y (1229)
+ (8IjIl2(X 24 + X"S + x"t)']dXd
, _ .......",...

Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 309
and so on. It can be difficult to evaluate these integrals in closed form, and it
is often convenient and efficient to perform the integration numerically.
The idea of numerical integration in finite element analysis is similar to
integration by using wellknown formulas such as the trapezoidal and
Simpson rules. In finite element applications, the GaussLegendre [3] formula
is often used. In general terms, numerical integration can be expressed as
where m and n are the number of integration points in the two coordinate
directions [Fig. 124(b)] and W, and Wj are corresponding weights. Note
that we transformed the integral to local coordinates by using 1 11
As an example, we can use m = 2 and n ~ 2 as shown in Fig. 124. Then
total integration points are 4, and we can write Eq. (123Ia) as
The magnitudes of (s" Ii) and Wi can be obtained from available literature
which gives them in readymade tables [3].
F(x}
(a)
•
,I~t,}/ •
""1,
.
$1 == a. 1, :::a
r
(53' t3)
5 =+a,t2=a
, 2
53 ::: + a, 13 :::+ a
54 ::: r a, t4 ::: +a
CD (5,,1,) / •
y
I (52' 12)
Lx Ibl
m=2
n > 2
(1,11 x,=o,y,=Q
10, 11 x2=1'Y2=Q
(1,11 11,11 (3) x3=1,V3=1
x4 ::: 0, Y4 1
+3
=
+4
+ Integration points
0,0 Point t
1 2 1 0,577 0.577
+ + 2
3
+0.577
+0,577
0.577
+0.577
CD (1,11 11,11 0 x
4 0.577 +0.577
(0, 01 1, a
(el
310
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 311
I JI ~ frr( 1)(I)  (1)( 1)] + s[(l)(O)  (I )(0)] + 1[(0)(1)  (0)( _I)]}
~~(I +1)~2~2A~L
8 884
where A is the area of the square = 1 unit>. Note that for a (square) quadrilateral
only the first term contributes to I J I and its value is onefourth of the area of the
square, which is constant for all points in the square. Now, numerical integration in
Eq. (1229) can be expressed by using Eq. (l23Ib) as
,
k,,, ~ ~ [B; ,lSi, I,)
i=l
+ Bl, (Si' IJ]' J(Si' I,) I Wi, i ~ 1,2,3,4.
From the available numerical integration tables, such as in Ref. [3], we can
choose an appropriate number of points of integration and weighting function Wi'
For a 2 x 2 or fourpoint integration with GaussLegendre quadrature, the points
of integrations are as shown in Fig. 12A(c), and the weighting functions are WI =
Wz = W3 = W4 = 1. Here we have used the local coordinates of the integration
points only up to third decimal; for computer implementation, values with higher
decimal points are used. The computations for Ell and B21 are shown below in
tabular forms:
I
Bll ~ 81JI (y"  y"s  Y23t),
1
B2, ~ 81JI (x" + x"s + X23I).
Points of Integration
Therefore,
...
312 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
Other terms of [k(!'] and the load vector(s) can be evaluated in a similar manner.
Step 5. Assemhly
Equations (1227) are assembled such that the potentials at common nodes
are compatible. The final assemblage equations are
[K,J(r,} ~ (O). (1232)
Under the application of only Dirichlettype boundary conditions, Eq.
(1232) is modified for given rpl and then solved for nodal potentials.
Applied Fluxes
drp

dn
+ q
 _ 0. (1233)
Tfwe provide for Q and ii, the variational function in Eq. (1214) becomes
n, ~ fH[(~~)'+ (~~)
A
2  2Q ]dxdy  L iirpdS. (1234)
~ (Q,) + (Q,)
is the nodal forcing parameter vector.
Evaluation of [Q}
(Q,J = ff[NY{QJdxdy
A
~ J', J', [NY{QJIJI dsdt
, 
~ L: [N(s"
1=1
1,)y{QJ I J(S" I,) I W,
N! (s" I,»)
, N2(s" I,) _
=~ N(3 Sj, t,) QIJ(s"1,)1 W,. (1236)
1_1
I N,(s" I,)

[Q2J =
S2
I
f NNN'jqxdS.
2
N4
_
@
(1237a)
@)}~I
We note that along side 12, coordinate I has a constant value equal to
I, and s varies from I to +
I. Therefore, the N, specialize to N,
to  s), N, = t(l + s), N, = 0, and N, = O. Hence, we have
(l237b)
Chapter 12
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
314
I + S\
I
_ /, 1 s _ (l237c)
{Q2}  4 ~ q,ds,
which reduces to
This indicates that the total flux on side 12 in the x direction is divided
equally between nodes 1 and 2. Contributions of other applied fluxes in both
the x and y directions can be evaluated in an identical manner.
where [k.] is the element property matrix and [q.Y ~ ['fIl 'fI2 'fI3 'fI,] is the
vector of nodal stream functions.
The boundary conditions are expressed as
The velocities can be computed by using Eq. (125). For the velocity
potential approach,
B"J!::)'
B24 qJ3
(1243)
'fl'
and for the stream function approach,
B24J[;:) . (1244)
B" !1JI3
lJI,
The quantity of flow Qr across a section AA in an element (Fig. 126)
can be now found as
Q!iAA) = A V"' (1245)
where A is the crosssectional area at section AA and V" is the velocity
normal to the section. V" can be computed from the two components Vx and
vy for an element as
(1246b)
where j denotes the cross section and M is the total number of elements
across the cross section.
f ' /
/
f I
ill
315
Example 122. Potential Flow Around Cylinder
(a) Velocity Potential Solution. Figure 127(a) shows the problem of uniform
fluid flow around a cylinder of unit radius. The flow domain is 8 x 8 units. Due to
symmetry, only onehalf of the domain is discretized, as shown in Fig. 127(b).
Figure 127 Analysis for potential flow around cylinder. (a) Flow
around cylinder. (b) Finite element mesh for half flow domain.
(0,0) etc., denote coordinates.
____ ~lf,~
I· L=Bunits
(al
.1
@
® ( 8,41
(0 ,41
1M M,
./ <;
:
»> I
.
V~b r.
11 & fA 9
1/@@@\APocox;mat;on
! ClrClle
@\=@
to
( 8,01
(0, 01
@ @ @ @
51
~
® (bl Oriqln for closed form solutions
Origin for
finite element
analysis
316
_______ s1Iil....
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 317
26 0.5000 0.5000
31 0.3743 0.3780
36 0.2500 0.2765
41 0.1875 0.2132
51 0.03125 0.0000'
"Prescribed.
Figure 129 shows the distribution of computed values of 1If. Table 122 gives
comparisons between closed form solutions and numerical predictions for IIf along
the line of nodes 2630. The closed form solution is given by (2)
For the line considered, B = 90 deg, and r = (x2 + y2)1/2 = Y. The value of U =
(0.5  0.0)/4 = 0.125.
10.001
11.001 10881 10.761 10.631 10.571 10.501
10.571 10.501
~
I~ IO.OOl
'lS
:g
~
11.001 10.881 10.771 <l:
~81 10.501
10.001
11.001 {0.891 10.79 {0.721
Prescribed
10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501 10.501
10.391 10.391
10.371 10.371 10.361 10.361
'lQ;71
10.241 10241 10.231
V 10.211
10.271
~
V~41 (o15I1~
10.12)
10.01 10.01
10.121 10.111
10.01
17~;;"~\
10.01 10.01 10.01 1001 (001
Prescribed
I~ 
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
320
26 0.0000 0.0000'
27 0.1473 0.1529
28 0.2625 0.2746
29 0.3678 0.3892
30 0.4688 0.5000'
• Prescri bed.
or
Vx = I +..L. (1251)
V y2
The numerical results plotted in Fig. 1210 are the values of V)C in element(s) adjoin
ing the section.
The comparisons in Tables 121 and 122 indicate that the finite element predic
tions yield satisfactory solutions for the flow problem. The plots for v.TIU in Fig.
1210 show that both the velocity potential and stream function approach give
satisfactory comparisons. The velocity potential approach yields the lower bound
2.0
Closed form
Stream function
2. 1.0
> Velocity potential
29 30
26 27 28
Nodes
___________ F71111116..
11
and the stream function approach the upper bound of the exact velocity. If neces
sary. the numerical solutions can be improved by using finer meshes.
In the case of the heat flow problem, the general governing equation is
essentially the same as Eq. (12la) except that the meanings of various terms
are different. The unknown can now be the temperature T at a point; k .,
k; and k, are thermal conductivites; Q is the (internal) applied heat flux;
and q is the (surface) intensity of heat input. In addition, there is the possi
bility of heat transfer due to the difference between the temperature of the
medium, T, and the surroundings, To The differential equation for two
dimensional steadystate heat flow then becomes
a'T
kXax2 + k'aya2T + Q ~
2
0, (1252)
(1253a)
and
which will lead to additional contributions [k.] and [Q,} to the element
matrix and the forcing parameter vector, respectively:
[k.] = f s,
IX[NYlN]dS, (1255a)
[Q,} = f s,
IX[N)T[To]dS. (1255b)
r
of the elemen t. As an illustration, consider side 12 (Fig. 125) as before:
w 5)2 HI  5') 0 OJ
= !Xl,S'
2 _,
l ·W 
0
o
S2) ·W + S)2
0
0
0
0
0
O~dS
= !Xl'2 lt 0
o
t ~ ~J'
0 0 0
0 0 0
(1256)
\ 100.0000'
2 100.0000·
J tOO.OOOO·
4 74.9998
5 74.9998
6 74.9998
7 49.9999
8 49.9999
9 49.9999
\0 25.0000'
11 25.0000*
12 25.0000*
*Prescribed.
_________ F1IIIIIIIIIIIII
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 323
3 ®
~
o
& &,
o
o 
(3)
<,
@ c
o
N
&
1 10
SEEPAGE
Seepage is defined as flow of fluid, usually water, through porous (soil) media.
The governing equation is similar to Eq. (12la) except the meanings of
various terms are
Unknown, rp = E:
y
+ z is the total fluid head or potential,
,,
\/
lal
z
= ~ S~~face seepage
l x
~~ /~
Ibl
;/
0) 0)1051 0 10.01
12.01
Refs. [4][6].
Example 124. Steady Confined Seepage
Figure 1212(c) shows a rather simple problem of seepage through porous (soil)
media with coefficients of permeability k, = k, = O.005(LITl and thickness =
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
325
Chapter 12
Element v, v,
0.005 0.48 X 108
t
0.005 0.18 X 108
2
v, ~ k
arp
ax ~ 0.005 x 2
2
~ 0.005.
As expected, the y components of velocity are very small, almost equal to zero. The
quantity of flow [Eq. (I246b)] was found to be equal to 0.01 unit.
The foregoing problem is rather simple and can permit hand calculations. Now we
consider a problem that is more difficult and needs use of the computer.
A problem of steady confined flow through the foundation soil of a structure
(dam, sheet pile) is shown in Fig. 1213(a). The foundation consists of two layers
with different coefficients of permeability. The soil is assumed to be isotropic, that
is, k , = k.; this assumption is not necessary because anisotropic properties can be
included in the finite element procedure. The structure itself is assumed to be
impervious. The twolayered foundation rests on a material which has a very low
permeability; hence, at the depth of 10 m, impervious base is assumed. This
implies a zero flow (natural or Neumann) boundary condition.
Steady fluid heads ifJu and ifJd act on the upstream and downstream sides, respec
tively. For this problem, we have assumed
ifJu = 1 m, (1262)
I'
if, ~ 0, I
which constitutes the geometric (or forced or Dirichlet) boundary condition. Because
the problem is linear, results for this boundary condition can be extended to any
multiple of {jJu and ifJd with proportional difference in the head. For instance, the
subsequent results can be used to derive solutions for ifJu = 100 m and ifJd = 50 m
by multiplying the computed nodal heads by 50.
The foundation medium extends toward "infinity" in the lateral direction.
Because we can include only a finite part of this extent in the analysis, an approxi
mation must be made to fix the discretized end boundaries. For instance, in
F:o:re:e:d~b:o:u~n:d~a~rv~e~o~:~d~;t~;o:n:~~"jlll~S~t~ru~et~u~r~ellll,;~:'~"£=~o~ !
5 m k, = k, = 3 m/day
 m
",0
5 I I~
I~
&.
z
&
1 x
aI
2=0
I
~
D iscretized end boundary
oz
[b]
Discretized endboundar'
l ;;
~ ",,0
, I!
"
I
I \
I
I \ \
I
I
Il I
50 30 20 10
40 o
Percent
lei
326
Chapter 12
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow
327
Fig. 1213(b) we have chosen the end boundaries at a distance of 20 m (equal to the
width of the structure) from the edges of the structure; this involves an assumption
that at that distance the fluid potentials will be approximately equal to the applied
potentials on the upstream and downstream sides. Often, it may be necessary to
perform parametric studies to find the distances at which such conditions can be
assumed. Further discussion on this topic appears in Chapter 13.
Figure 1213(b) shows a finite mesh with 95 modes and 72 elements. A nodal line I
is needed at the interface between the two layers. The geometric boundary condi II
tions at the upstream and downstream nodes are ifJu = I m and ifJd = 0 m, respec
tively. At the bottom boundary we have arp/az = 0; being the natural boundary
condition, it is satisfied automatically in an integrated sense. Consequently, in the
III
finite element analysis, we computed fluid heads at nodes at this boundary. Since the
problem is symmetric, we could have solved it by considering mesh only for onehalf
of the medium [Fig. 1213(c)]. Then at the centerline we can assume a natural boun
I
dary condition; that is, arp/ax = O. This is valid since at the centerline the rate of
change of rp vanishes.
Figure 1213(c) shows the finite element computations for nodal heads obtained
by using the code FfELD2DFE. The equipotential lines are shown as a percentage
of the total head difference ifJu  ifJd.
From the results in Fig. 1213(c), we can find the seepage forces causing uplift
on the structure. Moreover, the finite element procedure allows computations of
velocities in all or selected elements and the quantity of flow at selected sections. AI!
this information can be used for analysis and design of structures founded on porous
soil foundations through which seepage occurs.
I I
ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBLEMS I I
I
axa (av)
kxax + aya ( k'ayav) = 0, (l263a)
V'v = 0,
(J263b)
where V is the electric or magnetic potential, V' is the Laplacian operator,
and kx and k, are the material properties; in the case of electrical flow they
are the permittivities in the x and y directions, respectively.
The finite element formulations and details will follow essentially the same
procedures as in the case of the field problems covered in this chapter and
Chapter 11. For further details on this topic the reader can consult various
publications [7, 8J.
Thus, we once again observe the similarities of various phenomena in
Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow Chapter 12
328
different disciplines in engineering and physics and how the finite element
method provides a common ground for their solutions.
This is a general code for field problems and permits solution of torsion,
potential flow, steadystate seepage, and heat flow. The user needs to supply
appropriate properties relevant to the specific problem and specify codes for
the type of problem as follows:
Torsion
Potential flow
Velocity potential 2
Stream function 3
Seepage 4
Heat flow 5
In fact, the code can be used easily for other steadystate problems such as
electrostatic and magnetic flow. Further details of the code are given in
Appendix 4.
PROBLEMS
121. Derive in detail [k] and {Q} for potential flow by using a triangular element
(see Chapter 11).
122. Find (Q2) [Eq. (1237)] if s, and q, were applied on sides 12 and 23,
respectively.
123. By using numerical integration, compute the coefficients k"'l~ and k",,, for
the square element in Fig. 124(c).
124. By hand calculation, find the element matrix [k] for steadystate heat flow
in a square plate of unit thickness (Fig. 1214) discretized in four equal
square elements. The boundary conditions are
________ .. F5IIIItI..
Chapter 12 Potential, Thermal, and Fluid Flow 329
y
®
6
10,21 ®
12,21
&® ill
o ®
ill(3) ffi II
(j)
CD x
10,01 12,01
Figure 12·14
125. In Prob. 124, consider heat flux ij = 0.1 unit per unit length along the side
369 and compute temperatures at nodes 4, 5, and 6. Hint: You may use
the results in Eq. (1237) for finding the forcing function vector {Q}.
126. In Prob. 124, consider a source (or sink) Q = 0.1 units at node 6 and find
the temperatures at nodes, 4, 5, and 6. Hint: You may use Eq. (1236) to
evaluate {Q], which will need numerical integration similar to that used in
Example 121.
127. Use the same domain as in Prob. 124 but composed of a porous medium
such as a soil with
kx = ky = 0.1 ern/sec
1"(0, y) ~ 10 em,
1"(2, y) ~ 5 em.
128. Consider Prob. 127 but include ij = 0.1 cm3/seccm along the side 369
and find fluid heads at nodes 4, 5, and 6.
129. Consider Prob. 127 but include Q = 0.1 ems at node 6 and compute fluid
heads at nodes 4, 5, and 6.
1210. Consider Example 125. Prepare three meshes with discretized boundaries
at 10, 20, and 40 m from the edges of the structure. By using a computer
code, compare the results from the three analyses and offer comments on
the effect of the distance of the end boundaries on the numerical predic
tions of the heads under the structure.
b _
REFERENCES
[1] DESAI, C. S., and ABEL, J. F" Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972.
[2) STREETER,V. L., Fluid Dynamics, McGrawHili, New York, 1948.
[31 ABRAMOWlTZ, M., and STEGUN, I. A., (eds.), Handbook Mathematical Functions
with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Applied Math. Se 55,
National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1964.
a
[4] DESAI, C. S., and CHRiSTIAN, J. T. (eds.), Numerical Methods in Geote(./11lic l
Engilleering, McGraw~Hill, New York, 1977.
[5] DESAI, C. S., "Finite Element Procedures for Seepage Analysis Using an
Isoparametric Element," in Proc. Symp, on Appl. 0/ FEM in Ceo/echo Eng.,
Waterways Expt. Station, Vicksburg, Miss., 1972.
[61 DESAI, c. S., "Seepage Analysis of Earth Banks Under Drawdown," J. Soil
Mech. Found. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 98, No. SMI, 1972.
[7] SILVESTER,P., and CHARI, M. V. K., "Finite Element Solution of Saturable
Magnetic Field problems," IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS 89, 1970, pp. 16421651.
[8] CHARI, M. V. K., and SILVESTER,P., "Analysis of TurboAlternator Magnetic
Fields by Finite Elements," IEEE TrailS. Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.
PAS 90,1971, pp. 454464.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
DESAI, C. S., "Finite Element Methods for Flow in Porous Media," in Finite Ele
ments ill Fluids, Vol. I (Gallagher, R. H., Oden, J. T., Taylor, C, and Zien
kiewicz, O. c., (eds.), Wiley, New York, 1975, Chap. 8.
DOHERTY, W. P., WILSON, E. L., and TAYLOR, R. L., "Stress Analysis ofAxisym
metric Solids Utilizing Higher Order Quadrilateral Finite Elements," Report
693, Suuct. Engg. Lab., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Jan. 1969.
ERGATOUDIS, I., fRONS, B. M., and ZIENKIEWICZ, O. C, "Curved, Isoparametric
Quadrilateral Elements for Finite Element Analysis," Int, J. Solids Struct.: Vol.
4, No. I, 1968.
ZIENKIEWICZ, O. C, MAYER, P., and CHEUNG, Y. K., "Solution of Anisotropic
Seepage by Finite Elements," J. Eng. Mech, tn« ASCE, Vol. 92, No. EM1,
1966.
332
13
TWODIMENSIONAL
STRESSDEFORMATION
ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION
PLANE DEFORMATIONS
Figure 131 shows a (thin) beam and a plate subjected to loads that are
applied in the plane of the structure, that is, in the xy plane. The thickness is
small compared to the xy dimensions of the body. Such loadings are often
333
Chapter 13
Two_Dimensional StressDeformation Analysis
334
I
Y. v v, v
L x.u
L x. u t
h
~
(bl
(al
figure 13.1 Plane stress approximation. (a) Beam. (b) Plate·C "'t~',.,·~)
referred to as inplane or membrane (stretching). Under these conditions, and
the assumption that the variation of stresses with respect to z, that is, across
the body, is constant, it is reasonable to assume that out of the six com
ponents of stresses in a three_dimensional body [13] three of them, a" ~""
and r ,,, can be ignored in comparison to the remaining three, a" a" and
r ,,. This idealization is called plane stress and involves only the following
lYxJ
In Eqs. (131) and (132), a and E denote components of normal stress and
strain and r and y denote components of shear stress and strain, respectively,
and [aY = [a, a, ~,,} and [£Y = [E, E, y,,] are the vectors of stress and
strain components. In view of the plane stress assumption, we need to con
sider only two components of displacements at a point, " and v, in the x and y
directions, respectively.
If we restrict ourselves to linear, elastic, and isotropic materials, the
material behavior can be expressed by using the generalized. Hooke's law for
the three components of stress and strain [1, 2}. Thus
E vE
a x = v 2 E
I
v 2 E y.
x + ;:\
(133a)
vE E
aY=~1v 2EX+~1  v 2Ey,
E
Chapter 13 TwoDimensional StressDe/ormation Analysis 335
or in matrix notation,
v
expressed as
y, v
z, w
z,
Jx,u~
w
[a] Ibl
Figure 132 Plane strain approximation. (a) Strip load. (b) Long
underground tunnel.
Axisymmetric Idealization
Figure 133 shows a body symmetrical about its centerline axis and
subjected to a load symmetrical about tbe axis. In view of the symmetry, the
•
336 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis Chapter 13
't
I
It
I
Ie, w
! 0, v
ffi~
~r
I
e,v
~r,u
r., rrz
The constitutive or stressstrain relation for this case is
Iv v v 0
l~v v 0
E
[a} = [C][e} = (1 + v)(1 2v) Iv 0 [e}. (137)
sym. 1  2v
2
StrainDisplacement Relations
f au
x
ax
f, av
ay (l38a)
au + av
y" ay ax
Axisymmetric:
au
ar
f')
f, u

r
(138b)
f, aw
y" r az
au + aw
az ar
Initial Stress and Strain: As explained in Chapter 5, it is possible to include
initial or residual strains or stresses existing in the structure before the load is
applied.
The initial strain (or stress) state may be caused by factors such as known
temperature, (fluid) pressure, creep effects, and geostatic stresses. For instance,
I in the case of temperature,
I
(139)
o 2
o Iv
337
FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION
As shown in Fig. 134, the finite element discretization will involve two
dimensional elements such as triangles and quadrilaterials (squares, rectan
gles, trapezoids) in the xy plane. The third dimension (z) is generally included
hy specifying unit thickness for plane strain or a thickness h in the case of
plane stress.
v, v
'~"u P(x,vl
~ (L1, L2. L3)
P [x, vi
(5, t)
~ x. u
where {uY ~ [u v], lay ~ [00, 00, 00, 00. /3, /3, /3, /3.], and [<Ill is the
338
Chapter 13 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis 339
or
JX}
1y ~
[[N]
[0]
[O]]J(X,}}
[N] l(y,} ,
(1317b)
(2 x I) (2 x 8) (8 x 1)
where (x,}" ~ [x, x, x, x,] and (y"f ~ [y, y, y, y,].
This leads to the definition of the element as the/ournode isoparametric
element.
For plane problems, the approximation models must satisfy the inter
element compatibility at least up to derivative of order zero; that is, the dis
placement between adjoining elements must be compatible. This is tied in with
the highest order of derivative 11 in the energy function, Eq. (1321) below.
Since n = 1 in Eq. (1321), the minimum order for interelement compati
bility is equal to 11  I = O.
The approximation of Eqs. (1313) and (1315) yields continuous bilinear
distributions of II and v within an element and linear distributions along the
element boundaries. It can be seen (Fig. 135) that the displacements along
common sides of two elements are compatible since only the straight line can
pass through two nodal displacements common to both elements. For the
twodimensional plane deformation problems, the approximation function
provides for rigid body displacements and constant states of strains: Eo''''
Ey• Yxr However, the function does not include all terms in the polynomial
expansion represented by the Pascal's triangle, Chapter II.
Lines a, b , and a2 b2
coincide
Equal
au au as all at
f .• = ax = as ax + at dX
(l3ISa)
Similarly,
av avas avat (13ISb)
f, = JY = as ay + Or ay
Chapter 13 TwoDimensional StressDe/ormation Analysis 341
and
au av (aU as ay at) (aVaS av at)
y" = ay + ax ~ as OJ + at ay + as ax + at dX . (1318c)
Finally, we have
Y:J<
r E 0"
21
0
B" B"
0 0
B24
B"
B"
B"
BIl
B"
B"
B~,}q]
B"
(1319)
or
(e] = [B][q], (1320)
where the B,) are defined in Eq. (1224c) and (q] is defined in Eq, (1314b).
IT, = ~ II
A
(eY[C][e]dxdy  h II
A
(uJT[X]dxdy  h L (uJT[t}dS, (1321)
IT, = ~ [qy II A
[BY [C] [B] dxdy [q]
(lxS) (SxJ)(JxJ)(JxS) (SxI)
 h [qy f s,
[NY [t] ss. (1322)
(l x S) (S x 2)(2 x I)
By taking partial derivatives of Il, with respect to lit, VI' etc., and equating
to zero,
aITp
0[qJ 
_ 0
, (1323)
where (5" I,) denote the local coordinates of the integration point i and so on.
Often, for quadrilateral elements, 2 X 2 or fourpoint (N ~ 4) integration
(Fig. 124) is used.
The first part (Q,] of the load vector can be computed as follows:
N _
(Q,j ~ h L: [N(s" 1,)YlX]W,.
;=1
(1328a)
If we assume a uniform body force intensity i' (per unit volume) [Fig.
136(a)], X = 0, the expanded form of (Q,j is
N, 0
N2 0
N, 0
N N, 0
(Q,j =h L: o {~) IJ(s" I,ll W,. (l328b)
i= I N,
o N,
o N,
o
The subscript (s., I,) denotes that the matrix is evaluated at points (s, t,). For
instance, the fifth component of (Q,j,
N _
'x
[a]
lbl
N, O
N, 0
N, 0
[Q,} ~ h [
N,
0
0
N, r'ldS
T"
(1329a)
0 N,
0 N,
0 N,
'
344 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis Chapter 13
0 (1 + s)/2
0 0
0 0
We used here the transformation relation in Eq. (1238). Upon required
integrations, we have
tX1
TXl
0
0
[Q2} = hi' (1329d)
T"
t Y1
0
0
where I, = length of side 12. This implies that the applied load is distributed
equally at the two nodes pertaining to the side 12. This is a consequence of
the fact that the interpolation function [Eq. (1315)] is linear along the sides
of the quadrilateral. If we use a different (higherorder) approximation, the
results may not be similar. Furthermore, in the case of the higher order
approximation, it may be easier to perform numerical integration, as was
done for [Q,}.
The assembly of element equations can be achieved by following the
principle that the displacements at the common nodes are compatible. The
procedure is essentially the same as illustrated in Chapters 3, 4, 5, 7, II, and
12 and as illustrated subsequently in Examples 131 and 132.
The assemblage equations are modified for the boundary conditions in
terms of prescribed values of II and v on partes) of the boundary. Solution of
Chapter 13 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis 345
the resulting equations gives nodal displacements. Then strains and stresses
are computed by using Eqs. (1320); and (133), (135), and (137), respec
tively.
Triangular Element
[N] ~ [~'
N2
0
N3
0
0
N, N,
0
~J (1330b)
where the N, are defined in Eq. (l13b) and the b, and a, are given in Eq.
(l13c).
The general form of the element equations is identical to that for the
quadrilateral element [Eq. (1324)]; only the orders of various matrices are
different. The stiffness matrix has the order of 6 X 6 and is given by
[k] ~ h[BYrC][B] Sf dA
A
= hA[BYrC][B]. (1331)
The load vector has the order 6 X I. For a uniform body weight i' (X = 0)
[Fig. 137(a)],
(1332a)
The uniform surface traction is divided equally among the two nodes
belonging to the side on which traction is applied. For instance, for Tx;
acting on side I [Fig. 137(b)] we have
1,1
y
Side 1
+~x
(bl
Figure 137 Loading on triangular element. (a) Body force. (b) Sur
face traction.
Figure 138 shows a square isoparametric element (see also Example 121, Fig. 124)
subjected to a surface traction t;
equal to 1 kg/em on side 23. Material properties
are E ~ 10,000 kgjcm> and v ~ 0.30.
First we show brief details for the computation of matrix [B]. Referring to Eq.
(1220c), we have
y
1 kg/em
10,11 (1,11
@) G)
+ +
(0.577, 10.577,
0.5771 0.5771
(0.577, (0.577,
0.5771 0.5771
+ +
CD (?)
to. 01 (I, 01 x
+ Integration points
Then
I J I ~ H( 1)( 1)  ( 1)( 1) + 5[1 X 0  ( 1)(0)]
+ 1[(0)(I)  (0)(1)]
~ i(1 + I)
~ 0.25,
which is onefourth of the area of the square. Therefore, use of Eq. (1224c) gives
I 1
8" 8 X 0.25[1  0 X 5 _. (1)1] ~ 2(1 + I),
1 1
8" ~ 2[+1 + 0 x s + (1)1] ~ 2(1  I),
1 1
8" ~ 2[1 + 0 x S + (1)1]~ 2(1 + I), o _ll_lt)
[)'~2\.
821 ~ ~[I + I x 5+0 x IJ~+(I +s),
I 1
822 ~ 2[ I  1 x s  0 X I] ~ 2( 1  .s),
I 1
8" ~ 2[1  (1)5 +0 X I] ~ 2(1 + s),
I I
B" ~ 2[1 + (1)5  0 X I] ~ 2(1  .s).
CIIBy] GllS21 En 
CJZB21Bll CllBllB12 CI1Bl1B13 C12BllB23 CllBllB14 ClzBI1B24
+ + + + + + + +
C3JBL CJ3BZ1B11 CJ3BllB22 C3jBllB12 e33S21 B23 CJjB21B1J C33B21Bz4 CJ3B21Bl4
+ + + + "
C33B~3 C33Bz3B13 C33B23B24 ens2] 814
+ + +
Syrn. C33Bh CJ3B13B24 C33B13B14
C11BY4 C12B14B24
+ +
C33BI4 C33Bz4BI4
C22BI4
+ Ii
C33BI4
::;
N
II
q
>
I
q II II I I
'' 9 9
" '" '"
~
~
.J
00
~
N
....
W
~
~
>:::j
00
+
.., 9P Vt 0\ N 00 \..oJ 0'1
II
~N
o I I
o it ;;5 .I ~ VI
.9 t; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Example 132. Triangular Element
Evaluate element stiffness matrices for the problem in Example 31 subdivided into
two triangular elements (Fig. 139). Assemble and solve for displacement and
stresses with the following data.
The surface traction i; on side 24 of element 2 = 1 kg/em per unit thickness.
Boundary conditions:
11(0,0) ~ v(O, 0) ~ 0.0,
v(I, 0) ~ ~ 0.0,
(1335)
11(0, I) ~ v(O, 1) ~ 0.0,
v(l, 1) ~ ~ 0.0.
Thickness h "" 1 em
4
@
~
&,
4 5 3 6
2
3
CD 02
Element 1 Element 2
Local node
CD Global node
350
Chapter 13 Two Dimensional Stress Deformation Analysis 351
We first consider element 1 (Fig. 139). Here we have numbered local degrees
of freedom as 1,2,3,4,5, and 6, corresponding to local displacements Uj, liz, Ii),
VI> Vl. and V3' respectively. The global degrees of freedom are numbered by assign
ing consecutively two indices to each node corresponding to displacement com
ponents u, v, respectively. Thus in Fig. 139 there are a total of 8 degrees offreedom.
The terms required for finding the matrix [B] are evaluated as follows:
B ~ +l ,I
0
I
I
0 0
0 I
0
I
I
o 00 OJ
I .
1 0_
(1336)
For plane stress conditions, we use Eq. (133(b)) and (1331) to yield
[k] ~ hA[B]T[C)[B]
l~~Jl~
I o I
1 o o I 0 0 0
o o 1 E v o 0 I 0 (1337a)
= hA
o I 1 1 ~ v2 0 0 1  v
, I 0 ]
o o 1
o I 0_
and hence
GIObal~ 1 3 5 2 4 6
Element 1 (
Local \j" VIc VI, ", V3
1 3  v
1
(1  v) l+v
2
(I  V)
v
1 2 2 2
2 o v o v 2
v (I  v) IV
o 3
3 2 2
E 2
(l337b)
[1<] ~ 2(1  V2) 3  v (1  v)
4 2 2
o 4
Iv
5 sym. 2 o 5
6 6
1
Locall Element 2
7 5 3 8 6 4<Globai
II
0
'"1.o
000
NO
I I I
? ? 0 0
b ~ 2;: ~ g ~
I I
~! O??? a 0 ~ o
g ~ ~ ~ g t: W
en
I I I .0
00 ~ ? 0 0 0 ~ N
g ~ ~ ~ ~ e:
I
o 9
g ~
I
o ? ::
°oooww
o 0,
Global> I 7 2 4 6 8
I 0.00 II, a
I

1.35 1.00 0.35 0.00 0.65 0.35 0.30
1.00 1.00 + 0.35 0.00 0.35 0.30 0.00 0.30 + 0.35 0.35 112 0+1.0
0.35 0.00 0.35 + 1.00 1.00 0.35 0.35 + 0.30 0.00 0.30 II, a
0.00 0.35 1.00 1.35 0.00 0.30 0.35 0.65 II, _ 1 a + 1.0
10,000
T.82 2 0.65 0.30 0.35 0.00 1.35 0.35 1.00 0.00 v, 2 a
4 0.35 0.00 0.35 + 0.30 0.30 0.35 0.35 + 1.00 0.00 1.00 V2 a
6 0.30 0.30 + 0.35 0.00 0.35 1.00 0.00 1.00 + 0.35 0.35 v, 0
1 X 1.82
1.35112  0.3511, = 2 X 10,000 = 0.000091
and
These results agree with the solution by using the quadrilateral element.
Comment on Convergence
COMPUTER CODE
Figure 131O(a)shows a shear wall, which may constitute part of a building frame.
The wall has an opening 2 m wide x 5 m deep in the lower floor level. The prop
Chapter 13
TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis
355
erties of the wall are
By using the code PLANE2DFE or other available codes, analyze the Joad
deformation behavior of the wall assuming plane stress conditions. Obtain two sets
of results with two values of E for the shear wall with lateral loads only.
0,000 kg Bym
• 
I
I I I; I I
mt :
 ~ i I 1 I
 1_1 _______ 1 + __ 
I 1 I I
1 I
1  +,+ 11  E
A ~__ I I I I "'
I~L~ __ ~__ ~ A
I ll
2 0.000 kg S  Ii~e""'ll'mL~
II
__ 
I
S t
 f __ 1__ 

 I I
~
C  Ii
Waif Opening Wall
I

/' r."' 1(Column
Column
t
 , 
I I
,
i
I
1


c
I I
I,
,
8m
I I
,~
[
(a)
10,000k9§ I
1
~
I
i
I,
20, 000kg@ ~ ~
I
M
,
® I,
ill £
Origin""'""
?'% x %
®
{b]
Note Scales In Figs (a) and (b) are different
and offer comments concerning the influence of the stiffness of the shear wall on the
loaddeformation behavior.
Figure 13lOCb) shows a finite element mesh for the shear wall; relatively finer
mesh is used near the two horizontal beams. Figure 13I1(a) shows the computed
deflected shape of the left end vertical side of the structure for the two values of
stiffnesses for the shear wall. Figure 1311(b) shows the deflected shapes of the
entire shear wall for the two conditions.
Figure 1312 shows vertical (bending) stress along three horizontal sections
AA, BB, and CC [Fig. 1310(a)]. We have assigned the stresses at the center of the
element for sketching the variation shown in Fig. 1312.
Comments. Conventionally, shear walls are often designed by assuming them
to be thick beams idealized as onedimensional. Here the usual assumptions of beam
bending are considered to be valid (see Chapter 7). In view of the irregular geometry
and the large area of the structure, such an assumption may not be valid and can
give results that are different from reality.
Chapter 13 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis 357
Figure 1313 shows a concrete darn resting on a foundation consisting of two layers;
the bottom layer is underlain by a rock mass extending to considerable depth. There
exists a crack at the crest of the gallery. By using PLANE2DFE and assuming plane
l ,I
I
I I
I I
I I
I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I
I Scale: I
I Horizontal: /
I 1 cm "" 1.5 x 1O3m /
I Vertical: /
I 1 em = 0.788 m /
I I
I
I
I /
/
I /
I /
I I
I I
EWll11 "" 0.21 X 109 kg/m2 EWll11 "" 0.21 X 107 kg/m2
lal
'r
I
I
I /
r:
.
 ~
,
,,
I '',I
I
I
I / I /
I
'I rr'?"
,
I
I /
/
/ I ./ /
/ /
II
/ .
/
/I /l./
/
. I· /
/
/
.
/
I'
1/ I
I / /1
/. II
/ .
/1 / . f /1
1/ .
r
l'
t I (
/.
x
(b)
strain conditions, solve for displacements and stresses under the selfweight of the
dam and foundation. The properties are given as follows:
Concrete in dam:
E ~ 432 X 10' psf(~ 2.1 x 10' kgjm"),
V = 0.3,
y ~ 150 pcf (~ 2400 kgjm3).
Layer 1:
E ~ 144 x 10' psf(~ 7.0 x 10' kgjm),
v = 0.4,
y ~ 100pcf(~ 1600kgjm3).

Chapter 13 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis 359
Scale}
tor c,
_
1cm1.57x10
4 I
kgm
2
+ Tension
a,  Compression
Layer 2:
E ~ 144 X 10' psf (~ 7.00 x 10' kg/m),
v ~ 0.3,
Y ~ 110 pef (~ 1760 kgjm").
Partial Results
Figure 1314 shows a finite element discretization for the dam. In this figure, the
nodes and elements are numbered in the x direction. It. may be computationally
economical to number them in the y direction, because according to Eq. (1339)
below, this numbering will reduce the bandwidth B. At the same time, it will need
a greater number of data cards. The mode of numbering will depend on the given
problem and capabilities of the code and the computer. In general, however, sclec
tion of a numbering system that minimizes B may be a better strategy.
50'0"
Nodes with same
coordinates
100'0"
100'0"
Gallery
Top layer
y Bottom layer
, It = 0,305 m
I·
x 250'0"
·1
Figure 1313 Dam on layered foundation.
100'
·1· 50'
·1 ' 100' •
ill"
C gII Water level
81 I ("
I
88
~
~@
(6'7
1
98
Concrete dam
Crack
I
50'
' It = 0.305 m
, '1 ,f ,
40 l 1~ Ihs \ Gallery •
l'
I I,Q, Ihllh~\ >
'~
B& 18 @I@I ~ 54
w>
m
61@ ~T
~/"'
"" g I/~/~~I/~I/g~ 0.
a
f &8 i
~N
~/T
/~
u
6 " t
"o '~
Gg G E "0
a
t>
@ ~.,
I"ft:: ~
(2)& 0) (2)
a m
"'j & G
;//"'
~ Discretized end boundar y \Both u and v == a = ri 9 id boundar y Discretized end boundary
 ,
I
362 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis Chapter 13
:;: .~
ro~
" ro
0>>;;
00
~"
0"0
0>
OL
.~\
~ O. "0
c
"0 OJ ro
C
0 ~~
en
2
o
0
co \gm •
.en
en
~
en E ~
"~
OJ '0
E en
ro
"0
§
e ~
E
~
u
c
8
en
"a
o
co
.~
en
=CJ en
;;
s
E
0>
~
"§
en
B "E
r f';
en
on
~
M
~
co co ~
:
en en en
0
ci
N
en
N i .N
en
OJ
~
.
en
0
en
r
.0
en
.0
en
363
Example 135. Beam Bending
N D B ~ (D + 1)[ NB' /I v /I v /I v
between any two node numbers D, the semibandwidth B, and the quantity NB2
are also shown in the table. The semibandwidth B is computed from the formula
B ~ (D + 1)[, (1339)
where f is the number of degrees of freedom at a node; here f = 2.
Figure 13~17(a) shows convergence behavior of computed displacements u, v
at points A, B, and C with the number of nodes, and Fig. J 317(b) shows their rela
tionship with NB2. Tn both cases the computed displacements tend to converge as
Nand N B 2 increase.
The quantity NB2 is proportional to the time required for solution of the global
equations, which constitutes a major portion of the time for the finite element solu
tion. Figure 1317(b) shows that refinement of mesh results in a faster increase in
NB2, that is, computational effort or cost. Tn other words, for a given desired ac
curacy, if the number of nodes are increased, the quantity NB2 increases at a higher
rate than the gain in accuracy. Thus there exists a tradeoff between accuracy and
computer effort or cost of a finite element solution [4].
Figures 1318(a), (b), and (c) show distributions of the bending 'stress (J x for the
three meshes. We can see that the distribution of bending stress improves with mesh
refinement.
Comments. The results of this example illustrate that, in general, we can improve
a finite element solution by progressive mesh refinement. Obviously, as the mesh is
refined, the number of elements increase with corresponding increases in the effort
for data preparation and computer time.
As noted in previous chapters, a finite element solution can also be improved by
364
•
1000 kg/m
/
ITT I I I I I A
~Q) ®
fA &
E == 2 x 109 kg/m2
E v » 0.3
N c Thickness = 0.2 m
& &,
"CD 8
5m
I· lal
·1
, A
® & @
~ ®
CD & @
B
I, 5m
I
(bl
® @)
A
, A\ '4£::,
A 8
@
Ie}
365
368 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis Chapter 13
using higherorder elements. For instance, for the plane problems, we can use
quadratic or secondorder approximation for displacement within the element. This
will require additional nodes; for the triangle there will be six nodes, and for the
quadrilateral there will be eight nodes. There will be a corresponding increase in the
size of the element matrices and the number of equations to be solved.
Which of the two approaches, refinement of mesh with a lowerorder approxima
tion or higherorder approximation, should be used will depend on the type of
problem. There are tradeoff's in using one approach over the other. This subject is
wide in scope and usually needs parametric studies for a specific problem on hand.
The analyst may need to use both approaches and then derive criteria for their use
for the given problem.
PROBLEMS
131. Compute the initial load vector [Qo} for a given initial strain [Eo} for the
triangular element number I in Fig. 139.
132. Compute [All in Eq. (l314c) and then find the interpolation functions
N, in matrix [N] [Eq. (1315)].
133. Fill in the details of the derivation of f."o fy, and y,>:y in Eq. (1318).
134. Obtain the load vector {Q2} for a traction load i; applied on side 41
[Fig. 136(b)].
135. Evaluate the stiffness matrix for the triangular element in Example 132 by
rearranging the load vector as
(q}T = t«. VI liz. V2 /(3 V3].
136. Find the element stiffness matrix for the triangular element in Fig. 139 for
plane strain conditions. Hint: Use [q from Eq. (135).
137. Evaluate the element stiffness matrix for the triangular clement in Fig. 139
for axisymmetric idealization.
138. By using PLANE2DFE or another available program, solve the shear wall
problem (Fig. 1310) with an additional vertical load of 10,000 kg at the
centerline of the wall. Plot the results in terms of displacements and stresses
and compare with those without the vertical load.
139. In Example 134, consider hydrostatic force caused by a water level of
40 ft (12 m) above the ground surface, in addition to the load due to the
weight of the dam. Use PLANE2DFE and obtain distributions of dis
placement along the ground surface and plot a s, a y. and 't'.ry within the dam.
Compare results with those from the analyses without the hydrostatic force.
Figure 1315 shows the deflected shape of the ground surface with hydro
static loading.
1310. Vary the relative values of £ in the two foundation layers in Fig. 1313 and
study their influence on displacements and stresses.
1311. For the beam in Fig. 1316. consider a concentrated vertical load of 5000 kg
at point A, and study convergence of displacements vs. Nand NB2.
1312. Figure 1319 show a finite element mesh for the beam in Example 35, with
, ® ®
I~~
@@@@@
'1~~
'b E
x," N
Nod
II II II
W'~
®
I I
, i
369
370 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis Chapter 13
a hole around the centerline. For the concentrated load shown, obtain the
finite element solution and study the concentration of stresses around (the
corners of) the hole.
]313. Figure 1320 shows a medium subjected to external loading. The medium
is of "infinite" extent. Assuming discretized boundaries (u = v = 0) at
distances of four times the width of the loading in the lateral and vertical
directions, decide on a suitable mesh. Choose your own value of B, material
properties of the medium, and the loading. By using PLANE2DFE or
another code, evaluate stresses and deformations in the medium assuming
(a) concentrated load at the center point with plane strain and axisymmetric
approximations, (b) strip load with plane strain approximation, and (c) cir
cular load with axisymmetric approximation. Change the boundaries to
6B, 88, and J DB in both directions and examine the displacements near the
discrerized end boundaries and near the loading.
V'
Concentrated load , = 4 6 B 10,
I, Discretize
A,B
1.2 4, 6, B, 10,
=
I
0
i
I
1314. Figure 1321 shows an underground tunnel (3~m diameter) with a structural
lining of thickness equal to 30 ern. The tunnel is excavated in a (homo
geneous) rock mass of large lateral and vertical extent. It is required to
compute the changes in the states of stress and deformations due to the
tunnel excavation. The material properties are shown in the figure. By using
the mesh shown in the figure (or any other suitable mesh) and a computer
code, compute stresses and deformations (a) before the tunnel is excavated,
that is, under the gravity loading. Here use the entire mesh including that
in the zone of the tunnel and lining. (b) Consider the elements in the tunnel
zone to be removed, and include the elements for the lining. It may be
necessary to renumber the nodes and elements. Compare the two analyses
and draw conclusions regarding the influence of tunnel excavation on the
states of stresses and deformations, particularly in the vicinity of the tunnel.
Chapter 13 TwoDimensional StressDeformation Analysis 371
/
" 20 m
E
0
N
Rock
E = 6 x 108 kg/m2
v = 0.3
= 2400 kg/m3 f~

·t
Uning ~~ ~
E = 2 x 109 kg/m2
= 0.25
E
0
N
u=o
vfre~
x
u  0, v a
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
372
Chapter 14
Building Frame and Foundation
373
VARIOUS COMPONENTS
BeamColumn
r
u,
"
0"
I,"
l I, A, E, Ix' Iy. Iz
I 'I
,I
~, t CD
I
1
I
0"
vr
0"
u,
0"
z z
y x x
t
Axial load
y
Bending in Bending in
xdirection vdirection
5 = + (144)
12 6/.
6/ 21'
[kx] = [ky] = [12 ::' , (l45c)
sym. 12 6/
41'
_ Ely
CXx  [3' (l45d)
[k.] ~
AE[ _II
"t: (145e)

376 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14
and the subscripts a and b denote axial and bending modes, respectively.
Plate or Slab
The general loading conditions on the frame can cause plane deforma
tions, bending, and twisting; for convenience we consider only the first two.
Figure 143 shows the two effects, which can be superimposed if we assume
small strains and deformations.
Membrane Effects
For the inplane or membrane loading we can assume the plane stress
idealization and use the element equations derived in Chapter 13, Eqs.
(1324) and (1331) for the quadrilateral and triangular elements, respectively.
v4 va
13)u 4
0 U3
L X
v,
CD
u,
0
v
v,
u, 8" a
8" o ~2
lal Ibl
lei
Bending
For isotropic flat plates, the governing differential equation is written as:
= [N, N2 N3 N,
~ [N,](q,j, (148a)
where [N,] is the matrix of interpolation functions, N, = NX1 Ny!> N2 =
1
380 Building Frame and Foundation Chapter 14
IIp ~ ; II
A
[eY(C](e]dxdy  h IIA
(XY(w]dxdy  L [TY(w]dS. (1412)
an  0 aIlp  0 (1414a)
p  ,. a[q,]  ,
which leads to the element equations as
[k,][q,] ~ [Q,], (l414b)
where
[k,] ~ h Sf [B,YlC][B,]dxdy
and
[Q,j =h Sf [NY[X]dxdy
+ f .s , [NYlT]ds.
The coefficients of [k,] can be found in closed form by integration. Their
values are tabulated in Ref. [4]. The load vector [Q,] can also be found in
closed form. For instance, for uniform transverse surface load p on the plate,
(Q r ~[pab pa'b pab2 pab pa'b p ab?
24 4
pab
, 4 24 24 4 24
pa'b p ab? pab p a'b pab2]
24 24 4 24 24
_ pab[6 a b 6 a b 6 a b
 24 6 a b]. (1415)
Here we have considered only one of the many possible and available
approximations for plate bending. In fact, the function in Eq. (148) can be
improved by adding the additional degree of freedom (Jx, = 2 [4,5]. a wja,a,
Assembly
The assembly of the element equations for beamcolumns and plates can
be achieved by using the direct stiffness approach, which assures the inter
element compatibility of nodal displacements and rotations.
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 381
Representation of Foundation
{al [b}
Figure 146 shows a square plate 25.4 em X 25.4 em divided into four equal ele
ments [3]. The thickness of the plate is 1.27 em, with E = 2.1 X 105 kg'cma and
v = 0.3. The concentrated load P = 181.2 kg. According to the closed form
approach [6], the maximum central deflection is given by
0.0056 x P X (25.4)2
wmax = D ' (I417)
where
D ~ =~E:::h,3~ 2.1 X 105(1.27)3 ~ 394 104.
12(1  v2) 12(1  0.09) . x
Therefore
0.0056 X 181.2 x 25.4' ~ 00166
Wmax = 3.94 X 104 . em.
The value of central deflection computed from the finite clement analysis IS
0.01568 em.
25.40 em
Figure 147(a) shows a plate fixed at two ends and free at the other two [3,8]. This
plate can also be approximately treated as a beam. A concentrated load equal to
0.453 kg is applied at the center point. The value of E = 7.0 x lOs kg/em! was
assumed.
Figure 147(b) shows a finite element mesh for the plate. In Fig. 148 are shown
the computed values of transverse displacements at center section CC of the plate
[Fig 147(b)].
We can compute the displacement by using the results from strength of materials
[9] if the plate is treated approximately as a beam. Figures 149(a) and (b) show the
distribution of bending moments and conjugate beam, respectively. Displacements
computed from this approach are shown in Fig. 148 in comparison with the finite
element solutions. For instance, the maximum deflection at the central section is
Chapter 14 Building Frame Gild Foundation 383
0.453 kg
1.905 em ~
.L ___ 0_.3_1_75em
Tf[
I,
r
26.67 em
P'
.1
to}
Ib}
Figure 147 Analysis for (thin) beam bending [8]. (a) Beam with
fixed ends loaded centrally. (b) Finite element mesh.
~
c 
OM
5.0
E '
o a
u
'" x 10.0
" uE

0
15.0
Finite element solution
Strength of materials solution
PO 0453 X 26.67'
Wmu ~ 192£/ ~ 192 X 7.0 X 10' X 0.00508 (1418)
~ 0.0126 em,
where
I ~ bh' = 1.905 X 0.3175' ~ 000508
12 12 ..
sis; the latter is based on the assumption of a point of inflection at the midsection of
a member. 1t can be seen that the values from the two methods differ widely at
various locations. The finite element approach shows the redistribution of moments
in the frame.
I 203,103 327,224
2 203,103 191,750
2 I 67,701 21,474
2 67,701 95,712
3 1 406,205 355,139
2 406,205 258,680
4 1 135,402 120,860
2 135,402 17,260
5 I 203,103 312,616
2 203,103 179,523
6 1 67,701 30,914
2 67,701 99,495
7 I 270,803 213,223
2 270,803 190,466
8 1 270,803 189,069
2 270,803 210,436
9 1 67,701 95,714
2 67,701 85,694
10 I 67,701 87,565
2 67,701 99,495
Figure 14~12(a) shows the layout of a building frame idealized by using a one
dimensional beamcolumn, twodimensional plate membrane, and bending ele
ments; Fig. 1412(b) shows the loading at the two floor levels. Two analyses were
performed; one without floor plates and the other with floor plates. The properties
of the frame material are
E ~ 2.1 X 10' kg/em',
Ix = 27,346 crrr',
I, = 27,346 cm,
Area of cross section, A = 94.84 ems,
v ~ 0.3.
Table ]42 shows a comparison between moments (MJ at typical nodes for the
analyses with and without floor slabs. It can be seen that without floor slabs,
the middle section of the frame will have higher loads (moments) that those at the
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 387
3 32,597 31,289
6 93,747 104,875
12 49,077 22,741
15 158,825 116,723
21 32,576 32,386
24 93,712 105,206
Second
floor level
@
1'"7(+7(
,r 1,1
I II I II~
I II I 11\t.jJ
1&;1 I I I 1
A.. I I I I / I First
~ I I I I I floor level
, I@ I' ,@

'V
!
/ft)rt&,
13'filr'+'fi'~' ;' {
I / I
~
I
I '& I
I
7
!
I ' I
I
6
'I '
I I I 1
E
c
~
N
e ill &, ill
CD 8) (j) ~of
%/ 0 '"
+
%
I, 732 em 732 em
(a)
"'1'" 'T T
11,633 23,266 11,633
1 I !
1268
634¥¥__¥
Second floor level
"~1 ! j
'"~.. j!r~' ji'"
10,274 20,548 10,274
1268J#__¥
First floor level
(b)
Figure 1412 (Contd.) (b) Loadings at first and second floor levels.
edges. Moreover, the displacements at the central section are significantly reduced
if floor plates are included. For instance, the y displacement at node 12 with plates
is 0.24393 em and that without plates is 0.40225 em.
To examine the effect of restraint on the behavior of the frame shown in Fig.
14lO(b), a rotational spring ko." (kgern/cad) is introduced at the three supports
(Fig. 1413). The magnitudes of kox were varied as shown in Table 143. The results
indicate that a very low value of kox essentially models a simple support, whereas a
Chapter 14 Building Frame and Foundation 389
rr,,
&,
E
0
~
...
N
&:,
 I
&
E
~
N
0
& 732 em 732 em
&
e
~~ ~ ~
kQ, 1/ kax
k"
very high value produces results close to those with total restraint (see Table 141).
Near the value of ko, between 108 and 107 the point of inflection can be near the
midsection, as assumed in many conventional analyses for frames.
ko,
(kgem/rad) End Member 1 Member 5 Member 8
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES
used to define the entire body. We note, however, that our final aim is to
•
(1419a)
where lx, mx, etc. are the direction cosines of angles between the local and
global axes; for instance t x represents the direction cosine of the angle
between x' and x axes and so on. \\, .
As a simple illustration, let us consider the beamcolumn element in the
twodimensional xy plane, Fig. 1414(b); the local coordinate x' is inclined
at an angle of (1, with the global axes x. Here the transformation matrix [t]
is given by
(1419b)
The transformation matrix [t] is orthogonal, that is, its inverse equals its
transpose:
(1419c)
z
y'
x'
CD x: Y',Z ~Iobal
x , y ,z Local
"'_x
(a}
, x
where [k,J and {Q,l are the corresponding matrix and vector referred to the
global system, x, y, z.
In the foregoing, the transformation matrix [T] is composed of [t] in Eq.
(l419a); for instance, [T] in Eq. (1420) is given by
[I] 01
[1l ~ [I] (l420c)
[I]
[
o [t]
where [u,] and [Ug] are the vectors of displacements at a point for local and
global systems respectively.
The element equations at the global level are now expressed as
[k,](q,} ~ (Q,} (1422)
where (q,} is the vector of element nodal unknowns obtained by using Eq.
(1421).
Once the global relations are obtained, they can be assembled by using
the direct stiffness assembly procedure by fulfilling the interelement com
patibility of the unknowns.
The foregoing concept can be used and extended for other onedimen
sional, and two and threedimensional elements. The process is usually
straightforward. For further details, the reader can consult various references
including those in Chapter 15.
PROBLEMS
141. Derive the load vector (QJ in Eq. (146) for uniform body force X and uni
form traction t causing bending. Hint: See Chapter 7.
142. Evaluate the matrix [BbJ in Eq. (1410). Hint: Find second derivatives of w
in Eq. (l48a) as indicated in Eq. (1410).
14·3. Derive the part of the stiffness matrix for the beamcolumn element cor
responding to the twist about the z axis.
Solution:
[k,] ~ GJ[ 1
1 1
1
J,
where G is the shear modulus and J is the polar moment of inertia. The cor
responding degrees of freedom are Ozl and Ozz at nodes 1 and 2, respectively.
REFERENCES
15
PRELUDE
TO ADVANCED STUDY
AND APPLICATIONS
394
Chapter 15 Prelude to Advanced Study and Applications 395
THEORETICAL ASPECTS
I. Formulation Procedures
a. Variational: potential, complementary, mixed, and hybrid approaches;
Ritz and RaleighRitz methods.
b. Weighted residuals: collocation, least squares, subdomain, and
Galerkin.
2. Transformations of Coordinate Systems
3. Isoparametric Formulations
4. HigherOrder Approximations
a. Polynomial, Lagrangian, Hermitian, and spline interpolation.
b. Requirements for approximation functions.
c. Mesh refinement.
d. Higherorder approximation versus mesh refinement.
5. Mathematical Aspects
a. Basis of formulation: linear and nonlinear operators, normed spaces.
b. Accuracy, convergence, stability, consistency, error bounds.
c. Initial and boundary value problems.
d. Integration of equations.
e. Time integration and properties.
f. Singularities.
g. Eigenvalue problems.
h. Solution of equations.
6. Factors
a. Arbitrary geometries.
b. Nonhomogeneities.
c. Composite materials.
d. Boundary conditions, nonlinear boundary conditions, freesurface
problems.
e. Loading.
I. Static, dynamic, and repetitive.
d. Hypoelastic.
e. Elasticplastic.
i. Perfectly plastic: nonfrictional.
11. Perfectly plastic: frictional.
f. Viscoelastic.
g. Creep.
h. Thermoviscoelastic.
i. Endochronic.
8. Nonlinear Analysis
a. Material and geometric nonlinearities.
b. Incremental, iterative, and mixed procedures.
c. Initial stress, strain procedures.
9. Coupled Problems
a. Thermoelastic.
b. Consolidation.
c. Liquefaction.
10. Fluid Flow
Multidimensional seepage and consolidation.
11. Environmental Problems: Mass Transport, Diffusion, and, Convection
12. Fluid Mechanics and Hydrodynamics
13. Thermodynamics
14. Eigenvalue Problems
15. Computer Implementation
a. Bandwidth and wavefront techniques.
16. Evaluation and Comparisons of Various Schemes
BffiLiOGRAPHY
HUEBNER, H" The Finite Element Method for Engineers, Wiley, New York, 1975.
MARTIN, H. c., and CAREY,G. F., Introduction to Finite Element Analysis, McGraw
Hill, New York, 1973.
NORRIE, D. R., and DE VRIES, G., The Finite Element MethodsFundamentals and
Applications, Academic Press, New York, 1973.
ODEN, J. T., Finite Elements of Nonlinear Continua, McGrawHill, New York, 1972.
ODEN, J. T., and REDDY, J. N" Variational Methods in Theoretical Mechanics,
Springer, Berlin, 1976.
PINDER, G. F., and GRAY, W. G., Finite Elements in Subsurface Hydrology, Aca
demic Press, New York, 1977.
PRENTER, P. M., Splines and Variational Methods, Wiley, New York, 1975.
STRANG, G" and FIX, G. J., An Analysis a/the Finite Element Method, PrenticeHall,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973.
ZIENKIEWICZ, O. C.; The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science, McGraw
Hill, New York, 1971.
APPENDIX I
VARIOUS
NUMERICAL PROCEDURES:
SOLUTION OF
BEAM BENDING PROBLEM
INTRODUCTION
u = :t (1.,rfJ;.
1=1
(212)
The undetermined parameters (1.,are chosen such that the residual R(x) over
the domain D vanishes. This is usually done in an average sense by weighting
R(x) (Fig. 27) with respect to weighting functions W,(x). Thus,
398
Appendix 1 Solution of Beam Bending Problem 399
There are a number of ways to choose W" and depending on the choice of
Wi' we obtain different procedures.
In the case of the collocation method,
Wi = o(x  x.). (AI2a)
Then
R(x,)o(x  Xi) ~ 0, i = 1, 2, ... , 11, (AI2b)
where
I,
0= {
0,
is the Dirac delta function. This means that the residual is equated to zero at a
selected number of points in the domain. For instance, as shown in Fig.
AII(a), the residual is equated to zero at n ~ 5 points.
The total domain can be divided into a number of subdomains [Fig.
AII(b)], and the residual is integrated and equated to zero over each sub
domain. This yields the subdomain method. Here the weighting functions are
I, Xi<X<Xi+1,
W/= { (A 13a)
0, x < Xi and x > X'+1'
Then
W'=a'
aR (AI4)
",
and this leads to minimization of the integrated square residual as
In R'(x)dx = 0. (AI5)
This expression implies that the functions f{Ji are made orthogonal to the
residual R(x). In finite element applications, the approximation or trial
c
I, Domain 0
I
E k
R(3)
2
I I
3
I
4 5 i
R (x,1 = 0
= 1, 2, ... , 5
lal
~XiT'
) "R(X)dX = 0, i = 1,2,3,4
i , i+ 1 x,
[b]
~
I, 0 _I
lR
o
2
Ix)dx= O. i = 1. 2, ... ,5
Ie)
~
(dl
~
J:
~~,dX=O,i=I,2,3,4
Tbe beam and details are sbown in Fig. AI2. Assuming flexural rigidity to be
uniform, tbe governing differential equation is given by Eq, (71b), and tbe
residual is
d4w
R(x) ~ F dx'  p(x), (AI7)
Imi
Linear p{x} I
PB
PA
T~~II j j j 1
r:A '"
z L
MB
la} •
I
Ll5
•
2L15
•
3L15
•
4L/5
•
'I • Collocation
I
0 1 2 3 4 5 Finite difference
I
(bl
0
~+ Ll4 L/2
j, 'I'
3L14
·1
L
Subdomain
Galerkin,
(c) Least squares,
, Ritz
OL
1
I' ,&
•
11:, Finite element
Id}
CD (2) 1@
Figure Al2 Beam bending with different methods. (a) Collocation,
finite difference. (b) Subdomain. (c) Galerkin, least squares, Ritz.
(d) Finite element.
Tbe first set [Eq. (AI8a)] represents the essential or forced boundary condi
tions and the second set [Eq. (AI8b)] represents the natural boundary
conditions.
We now cboose tbe following trial or approximation function for the
unknown w*:
4
= L: (j"rp,(x),
1=1
(AI9)
where the rt,. are the undetermined parameters and the CPt are the known

402 Solution of Beam Bending Problem Appendix 1
where ,\ ~ "IL.
Now we shall consider the solution of the beam bending problem by using
a number of different procedures. For this illustration, the following prop
erties are assumed:
E ~ 10 X 10' psi,
L = lOin.,
Collocation
As shown in Fig. AI2, we chose four points at x, ~ L15, 2L15, 3L15, and
4L15, i = 1, 2, 3, 4, from the end A. Note that the residual is identically zero
at the supports. Then we have
R(x = x,) ~ 0, i = 1,2,3,4. (AIlIa)
For instance, for Xl = LIS, we have
" . "L
A tljSInys
+ 16"A (X2S111Y;5
. 2" L + 81AlX3Smys
" . 3" L
+256,\4 0<4
. 4,,!::. _
sm L 5
PE 
L
PA L _ P ~ 0
5 A
(Alib)
Subdomain Method
f o R(x)dx ~ 0,
2£14
SL,.. R(x)dx ~ 0,
(AI15)
3L/4
R(x)dx ~ 0,
S 2L/4
R(x)dx = O.
S L
3L/4
Therefore,
. nx . 2nx
W 1 =S1l1[;, W 2 = sin T'
. 3nx . 4nx
W3 = smT' W 4 = sin T'
•
I" R(x)aR(x) ~ 0
Jo s«,
or
The final four equations and the resulting approximate solution are
4.06 x 1040;1 + 0 X 0':2 + 0 X 1X3 + 0 X (X4 = 4774.65
Galerkin's Method
Ritz Method
In the Ritz method [1,2J the potential energy in the body (beam) is
expressed in terms of the trial functions, and the resulting expression is
minimized with respect to o.; This leads to a set of simultaneous equations in
af• For instance,
an
aoc
p _

0
,
1
an
art p _

0
,
2
(AI24)
an
arx
p _

0
,
3
an
arx,  0 .p _
For this specific problem, the equations are the same as in the Galerkin and
leastsquares methods, and the approximate solution is the same as in
Eq. (AI2I).
Comment: It may be noted that in the Ritz procedure the potential energy
is minimized for the entire beam; in other words, the limit of the integral is
from 0 to L. The concept is thus similar to the finite element method (Chapters
35), except that in the case of the finite element method, the minimization of
Il, is achieved for the domain composed of a patchwork of elements.
Before the era of the finite element method, the finite difference method
was the commonly used technique for problems in engineering and mathe
•
matical physics. Details of this method are beyond the scope of this book.
However, we shall solve the beam problem using this method mainly to
complete the discussion of commonly used numerical methods. For study of
this method, the reader can refer to various textbooks [I].
The finite difference method is based on the concept of replacing the
continuous derivative in the governing differential equation by approximate
finite differences. For instance, various derivatives are approximated as (see
Fig. AI3)
dx  ~x ~x 2~x
Fourth derivative:
Use of Eq. (A 127) to replace the fourthorder derivative in Eq. (71 b) leads to
(AI28)
Wi_1
;~ wi:.;.
Wi;:.."'
.> I
To compare results from various methods, we first state the closed form
solution for the displacement based on the strength of materials theory [4]:
w = PAx(L'
24F
_ 2Lx' + x'} + (PH180FL'
 PA)x(3x'  lOL'x2 + 7£') .
(AI3l)
Deflection,
Location from End A
The results for the first five methods and the last procedure are obtained
by substituting various values of x into Eqs. (AI14), (AI17), (AI2l), and
(AI31). Since we did not have a point at x ~ 5, there is no direct result at
that point for the finite difference method. In the case of the finite element
408 Solution of Beam Bending Problem Appendix 1
method, once the nodal displacements and slopes are obtained, values at
other points can be obtained by substitution of (local) coordinates into
Eq. (72). We can also compute moments and shear forces by using the
results with second and third derivatives, as we did in Chapter 7.
For examples of solutions of problems similar to the beam bending and
other problems solved by using different procedures presented herein, the
reader can refer to various publications such as Crandall [I].
For the foregoing beam bending problem, the results for displacements
from various procedures are close to each other and to the result from the
closed form solution. These comparisons are presented only for the sake of
introducing the reader to some of the available numerical procedures. The
merits of the finite element method become evident as we solve problems with
greater complexities in factors such as material and geometric properties and
loading characteristics.
REFERENCES
....... 1

APPENDIX 2
SOLUTION OF
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
INTRODUCTION
or simply as
Ax =b, (A22b)
where [A] is the matrix of (known) coefficients such as K'J [Eq. (222)J, [x) is
the vector of unknowns such as [r], and [b] is vector of (known) forcing
parameters such as [R}. In expanded form Eq. (A22) can be written as
409
T
METHODS OF SOLUTION
The two common methods for solution of Eq. (A23) are the direct and
iterative procedures. Gaussian elimination and a number of its modifications
are examples of direct methods, and Jacobi, GaussSeidel, successive over
relaxation (SOR), and symmetric successive overrelaxation (SSOR) are
examples of the iterative techniques [13]. We shall briefly illustrate some of
these techniques.
Gaussian Elimination
This is perhaps the simplest and a common method for solving linear
equations. It is based on the idea of creating a sequence of equivalent systems
of equations by using a number of steps of elimination, and then solutions for
the unknowns x are obtained by a process of back substitution. The equiva
lent systems have the same solutions, but each successive sequence is simpler
than the previous one. Let us consider the system of equations in Eq. (A23)
and denote the initial sequence by superscript (I) as
or
(A24b)
In the first step of elimination, we use the first equation in Eq. (A24a) and
multiply it by appropriate multipliers so as to annihilate the first terms of all
the subsequent equations. For instance, if the first equation is multiplied by
'\21 ~ (a\\'ja\?) and then added to the second equation, we have
o
(a~li 01aW)Xl 1 (aW + A.210W)X1 1 ••• 1 (a\l,,) + A110(1l,i)X" = (b\U + A.1.lb\ll) (A25)
or
0+ ai22)x2 + ... + ai~)x" = b&2),
where a&z.J. = aW + A11aW and so on and the superscript (2) denotes the
second sequence. Similarly, we can multiply the first equation by
A  aW A  aW A _ a~p
31   aPt 41   a\\P ... , "t   ai\)
Appendix 2 Solution of Simultaneous Equations 411
and add to the second, third, etc., equations to obtain a modified sequence at
the end of first step of elimination as
o
o + 0 I aWx31 + a~~)x, = b~3),
(A26b)
o + 0 I aWx31 + ap"lx" = b(i),
We note that Eqs. (A26a), (A26b), and (A26c) are equivalent to the
original Eq. (A24) in the sense that they all have the same solution. Equation
(A26c) is a triangular system of equations, and the solution for the unknown
x, can be obtained directly from the last equation.
Back Substitution
The first step here is the solution for x, from the last equation of Eq.
(A26c) as
•
(A27a)
Now the solution for X"_l can be found from the (n  l)th equation as
(A27b)
Since x, is known from Eq. (A27a), X"l can be found easily. The process can
be repeated until the solution for Xl is obtained.
The foregoing is the basic Gaussian elimination technique. A number of
modifications and alternatives such as Crout, Jordan, Aitken, and Gauss
Doolittle can be used depending on the characteristics of the system equa
tions [13].
SOLUTION PROCEDURE
Almost all systems of equations resulting from the finite element analysis
are relatively large and require the use of the computer. In fact, a major
portion of computational effort in a finite element solution is spent in the
solution of these equations. It is not difficult to program the elimination and
the subsequent iterative procedures on the computer.
For sake of introduction, we shall now illustrate the use of the foregoing
elimination process.
Example A21. Solution by Gaussian Elimination
Consider the system of three equations, Eq. (338). Tn Chapter 3, we solved these
equations by a form of Gaussian elimination. Here we follow the foregoing general
procedure:
lOO(1)Xl  100(l)xz l O(l)X3 = 7.5(1),
Details:
+100(1)
A21 = 100(1) = 1.
or
o l lOO(lJXZ  lOOCZ)x3 = 22.5(2).
Since the third equation already has zero in the first term, the modified equations are
lOO(1)xl100(l)xz+ 0 = 7.5(11,
o + 100(2) Xz  100(2) X3 = 22.5(2),
o  100(ZJxz + 200(l)X3 = 15.0(2).
67.5
100'
413
•
Iterative Procedures
where the superscript (0) denotes initial estimates. In the first iteration, we
compute the values of x as
X
"I
(l) 
 _ ~x~O) + ..!2L
all a"
_ az" x~O) + J!..L
azz a2l
_ G," x;O) +.!l (A21Ib)
an a33
414
J
Appendix 2 Solution of Simultaneous Equations 415
The foregoing procedure can be slow to converge; that is, it may require
a large number of iterations before an acceptable solution is obtained. The
rate of convergence can be improved by using the GaussSiedel procedure in
which the solution for an unknown during an iteration is used in the com
putation of subsequent unknowns:
_ ~x~mIJ _ ~x~ml)_
all all
+~.
a"
,01 ~
Xl
100(05)
100· +~
100
~ 0,575,
x,
In _ 100(06125)
 200 '
+ 200
15 ~ 0.38125,
Second iteration:
x\" ~ :~~(06125) +~
100
~ 0,6875,
J
... ..
416 Solution of Simultaneous Equations Appendix 2
Convergence check:
Xl"
,
~ 100(0609375)
100' + 12
100
~ 0.684375,
100 15
xl" ~ ;~~(0.684375) + 200(0.3796875) + 200 ~ 0.6070312, (A214c)
Convergence check,'
I xi"  x\" I ~ 0.003125 < 0.005}
Ixl"  xl" I ~ 0.002344 < 0.005 acceptable. (A215c)
Ixl"  xl" I ~ 0.001172 < 0.005
Hence the final solution at the end of three iterations is
x, ~ 0.6844,
x, ~ 0.6070,
x, ~ 0.3785.
We can improve on this solution by setting a more severe condition on convergence,
say f = 0.001. Then additional iterations are needed for an acceptable solution.
(A2l6b)
Land U are the lower and upper triangular parts of the matrix [A] and p is
the constant term at a given stage of iteration. For instance, in Example
A22, at m = I,
0
~
L [ ':
100
o
J
Appendix 2 Solution of Simultaneous Equations 417
o 1.QQ
l
100
U= 0
l~OJ'
200
o
7.S}
P~ I~O :~{ .
where OJ is the overrelaxation factor and the second term on the righthand
side denotes the correction term. Rearrangement of terms in Eq. (A216c)
gives
(A2!7)
COMMENTS
In the foregoing, we have presented only a very elementary introduction to
some of the solution procedures. There are also available a number of other
schemes and subschemes. Moreover, there are a number of aspects related to
the numerical characteristics of the set of equations that can influence the
accuracy and reliability of a procedure. For instance, the magnitudes of the
diagonal elements au which become "pivots" in the elimination procedure
can influence the computational characteristics. The initial guess or estimate
of the unknowns and the value of ill become important in the iterative
procedures. Detailed descriptions of the available procedures and the
characteristics of the equations are beyond the scope of this book. The reader
can refer to many publications [14] for further study.
REFERENCES
[IJ Fox, L., An Introduction to Numerical Linear Algebra, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1965.
[2J YOUNG, D. M., and GREGORY, R. T., A Survey of Numerical Mathematics,
Vol. 2, AddisonWesley, Reading, Mass., 1972.
[3] BATHE, K. J., and WILSON, E. L., Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis,
PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976.
[4] DESAI, C. S., and
ABEL, J. E, Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Van
t ..
Figure A32 (Contd.) (b) Mesh with "rigid" elements: linear ap
proximation. (c) Mesh with deformable elements: higherorder
approximation.
into four pieces (elements). A flexible string was passed through holes in each
element. The holes are provided by (copper) pipe, which makes each element
considerably stiff. Under a load, the composite will deform such that gaps
may develop at the junctions, thus violating interelement compatibility.
With sufficient tightness in the string, the model may not show gaps and can
indicate displacement compatibility at the junctions, but slopes at the junc
Appendix 3 Physical Models 421
Figure A33 shows a model for plate bending made out of (thin) plastic
sheet. The four elements are riveted (or glued) at the edges of the model
[Fig. A33(a)]. A screw arrangement [Fig. A33(b)] is provided at the middle
of the base plate such that the top of the screw touches the bottom (at the
center) of the four elements.
i .~
1
By moving the screw up and down, the plate assembly can be (progres
sively) deformed. The interelement compatibility in terms of displacement
(IV) and its three derivatives (aw;ax, awjay, and a'wjaxay) can be quali
tatively illustrated by observing the movements at the junctions of the plates.
The effect can be accentuated by attaching colored tapes on either side of a
junction.
COMMENTS
The foregoing are examples only of simple models. Other similar and
sophisticated models can be constructed to facilitate introduction of various
concepts in finite element analysis.
APPENDIX
COMPUTER CODES
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 5
423
•
CHAPTER 7
This code can solve problems such as beams, beamcolumns (Chapter 7),
beams on deformable foundations, axially and laterally loaded piles, and
retaining walls idealized as onedimensional. Linear and nonlinear stress
strain behavior for deformable supports such as soil foundations can be
included.
The output is in the form of nodal displacements and rotations, and
bending moments.
CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 10
424
CHAPTERS 11 AND 12
Option
Code
Problem NTYPE Relevant Problems Output Quantities
425

CHAPTER 13
426
CHAPTER 14
In a general building frame type of problem the beams and columns are
approximated as onedimensional beamcolumn elements, the slabs as plates
subjected to inplane and bending (Chapter 14), and the foundation is replaced
by equivalent spring elements. The spring elements can also be used to simu
late supports provided by members such as adjoining structures.
Surface and point loads can be applied in all the three coordinate
directions.
The output is in the form of nodal displacements and rotations, element
stresses, and bending moment and shear forces.
A modified version of this code includes nonlinear characteristics for
foundation media.
427
...
432 Index
Initial strain, due to temperature, 103107, Local coordinate systems, 3639, 85, 174
337 alternatives for, 38
Initial stress, 106,337 explanation, 36
Initial value problem, 114 for triangular element, 239
Integration, 53 (see also Numerical integration) in beam bending, 174
Interpolation functions, 39.4143,69, 174, in onedimensional problems, 38
175,239,339,377,379 in twodimensional problems, 238, 239
definition, 42 Local coordinates, (see Local coordinate
Hermitian, 175 systems)
in Galerkin's method, relevance, 69
in plate bending, 377 Mass matrix, 227, 230, 234236
Interpretation of results, 33, 65, 66. 100101 consistent, 227
Intcrelement compatibility, 22, 30, 43, 59, 242, lumped, 227, 234
360,376 Mass transport, onedimensional, 202, 2fE, 210
for approximation functions, 43 by diffusionconvection, 202
in assembly, 59 saltwater intrusion, 210
for different problems, 43 Mesh refinement, 67, 185187, 261
in plate problem, 376 in beam bending, 185189
in twodimensional problems, 242 in onedimensional problems, 67, 87
Isoparametric elements, 19, 42, 302, 332, 339, in torsion, 261
395 Methods of formulation, 24
concept of, 19 energy procedures, 24
explanation, simple, 42 residual methods, 24
quadrilateral element, 302, 330339 Method of weighted residuals, 26, 27, 80,
eight node, 330, 331 398A08 (see also Weighted residuals,
four node, 302, 339 methods of)
Isotropy, for approximation models, 4S Minimization, of potential energy, 48
Iterative methods, solution of equations, 410, example, 4851
414 manual,4850
GaussSiedel,415 mathematical, 50, 51
Jacobi, 414, 416 Mixed approach, 47,79, 194,284298
SOR, 414, 416, 417 HellingerReissner principle, 79
SSOR, 410, 417 in beam bending, 194
in torsion, 284
Jacobian, 305 residual method, 80
determinant, 41,305,306,311,360 Galcrkin, 80
Joint forces, explanation of, 51 variational method, 79
global level, 51 Mixed procedure (see Mixed approach)
local level, 51 Multicomponent systems, 372
434 Index