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Unit 5

ANCIENT WORLDS

5Pre-reading
Task 1) Ancient Greece Mini Quiz: circle the letter next to the correct answer.
1) Who won the Peloponnesian War?
a) Sparta b) Corcyra c) Athens d) Sicily

10 2) How does history tell us Socrates died?


a) poison b) old age c) firing squad d) hanging

3) Who was Alexander the Great’s teacher?


a) Aristotle b) Archimedes c) Ptolemy d) Plato
15
4) When was the first modern Olympiad held?
a) 1896 b) 1904 c) 1900 d) 1908

5) Which Persian king did the Greeks defeat at the Battle of Marathon?
20 a) Xerxes b) Reza Pahlavi c) Cyrus d) Darius
(https://www.britannica.com/quiz/ancient-greece)

Task 2) Answer the following questions:


1) What were two most important city-states in Ancient Greece?
25 2) What were the their characteristics?

Reading
Task 1) Read the text Ancient Greece and do the comprehension task below.
Ancient Greece

30Greece is a country in south-eastern Europe, known in Greek as Hellas or Ellada, and


consisting of a mainland and an archipelago of islands. Greece is the birthplace of Western
philosophy (Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle), literature (Homer and Hesiod), mathematics
(Pythagoras and Euclid), history (Herodotus), drama (Sophocles, Euripedes, and
Aristophanes), the Olympic Games, and democracy. The concept of an atomic universe was
35first posited in Greece through the work of Democritus and Leucippus. The process of today's
scientific method was first introduced through the work of Thales of Miletus and those who
followed him. The Latin alphabet also comes from Greece, having been introduced to the
region by the Phoenicians in the 8th century BCE, and early work in physics and engineering
was pioneered by Archimedes, of the Greek colony of Syracuse, among others.
40The geography of Greece greatly influenced the culture in that, with few natural resources and
surrounded by water, the people eventually took to the sea for their livelihood. Mountains
cover eighty percent of Greece and only small rivers run through a rocky landscape which, for
the most part, provides little encouragement for agriculture. Consequently, the early Greeks
colonized neighboring islands and founded settlements along the coast of Anatolia (also
45known as Asia Minor, modern day Turkey). The Greeks became skilled seafaring people and
traders who, possessing an abundance of raw materials for construction in stone, and great
skill, built some of the most impressive structures in antiquity. Greek history is most easily
understood by dividing it into time periods.

50From the Archaic to the Classical Periods


The Archaic Period (800-500 BCE) is characterized by the introduction of Republics instead
of Monarchies (which, in Athens, moved toward Democratic rule) organised as a single city-
state or polis, the institution of laws (Draco’s reforms in Athens), the great Panathenaeic
Festival was established, distinctive Greek pottery and Greek sculpture were born, and the
55first coins minted on the island kingdom of Aegina. This, then, set the stage for the flourishing
of the Classical Period of Greece given as 500-400 BCE or, more precisely, as 480-323 BCE,
from the Greek victory at Salamis to the death of Alexander the Great. This was the Golden
Age of Athens, when Pericles initiated the building of the Acropolis and spoke his famous
eulogy for the men who died defending Greece at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. Greece
60reached the heights in almost every area of human learning during this time and the great
thinkers and artists of antiquity (Phidias, Plato, Aristophanes, to mention only three)
flourished. Leonidas and his 300 Spartans fell at Thermopylae and, the same year (480 BCE),
Themistocles won victory over the superior Persian naval fleet at Salamis leading to the final
defeat of the Persians at Plataea in 379 BCE.
65Democracy (literally Demos = people and Kratos = power, so power of the people) was
established in Athens allowing all male citizens over the age of twenty a voice in government.
The Pre-Socratic philosophers, following Thales' lead, initiated what would become the
scientific method in exploring natural phenomena. Men like Anixamander, Anaximenes,
Pythagoras, Democritus, Xenophanes, and Heraclitus abandoned the theistic model of the
70universe and strove to uncover the underlying, first cause of life and the universe.
Their successors, among whom were Euclid and Archimedes, continued philosophical inquiry
and further established mathematics as a serious discipline. The example of Socrates, and the
writings of Plato and Aristotle after him, have influenced western culture and society for over
two thousand years. This period also saw advances in architecture and art with a movement
75away from the ideal to the realistic. Famous works of Greek sculpture such as the Parthenon
Marbles and Discobolos (the discus thrower) date from this time and epitomize the artist's
interest in depicting human emotion, beauty, and accomplishment realistically, even if those
qualities are presented in works featuring immortals.
All of these developments in culture were made possible by the ascent of Athens following
80her victory over the Persians in 480 BCE. The peace and prosperity which followed the
Persian defeat provided the finances and stability for culture to flourish. Athens became the
superpower of her day and, with the most powerful navy, was able to demand tribute from
other city states and enforce her wishes. Athens formed the Delian League, a defensive
alliance whose stated purpose was to deter the Persians from further hostilities.
85The city-state of Sparta, however, doubted Athenian sincerity and formed their own
association for protection against their enemies, the Peloponnesian League (so named for the
Peloponnesus region where Sparta and the others were located). The city-states which sided
with Sparta increasingly perceived Athens as a bully and a tyrant, while those cities which
sided with Athens viewed Sparta and her allies with growing distrust. The tension between
90these two parties eventually erupted in what has become known as the Peloponnesian Wars.
The first conflict (c. 460-445 BCE) ended in a truce and continued prosperity for both parties
while the second (431-404 BCE) left Athens in ruins and Sparta, the victor, bankrupt after her
protracted war with Thebes.
This time is generally referred to as the Late Classical Period (c. 400-330 BCE). The power
95vacuum left by the fall of these two cities was filled by Philip II of Macedon (382-336 BCE)
after his victory over the Athenian forces and their allies at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338
BCE. Philip united the Greek city states under Macedonian rule and, upon his assassination in
336 BCE, his son Alexander assumed the throne.
(adapted from https://www.ancient.eu/greece/)
Reading Comprehension
100Task 1 Write whether the next statements are true or false (T/F). Find evidence for your
claims in the text.
1) The Greek culture was heavily influenced by the geography of Greece.
2) The Archaic Period is associated with the rise of city-states or polis.
3) The Classical Period spans the period from the Greek victory at Salamis to the
105 death of Alexander the Great.
4) All citizens over the age of twenty were given the right to vote.
5) Athens was perceived as a bully and a tyrant by Sparta and its allies.

Vocabulary in Context
110Task 1 Task 1) Circle the letter next to the correct answer.
1) In line (6), posited means
a) postulated
b) invented
c) imagined
115
2) Seafaring (16) people are
a) people having tickets for ships
b) people travelling and/or working on the sea
c) people afraid of sea
120
3) If your strove (41) to do sth, you
a) you needed help to achieve or do sth
b) you failed to achieve or do sth
c) you tried very hard to achieve sth
125
4) The verb epitomize in line (47) means
a) represent
b) justify
c) support
130
5) If Athens was to deter (55) the Persians from further hostilities, it means that
Athens aimed to
a) prevent
b) separate
135 c) suffer
the Persians from further hostilities.

Task 2 Fill in the missing words to complete the collocations. Check back in the text if
140necessary. Translate the sentences into Croatian.
1) This, then, ________________ the stage for the flourishing of the Classical
Period of Greece.

4
2) Greece ___________________ the heights in almost every area of human
learning during this time.
145 3) Men like Anixamander, Anaximenes, Pythagoras, Democritus, Xenophanes, and
Heraclitus _____________________ the theistic model of the universe.
4) The second (431-404 BCE) conflict _____________________ Athens in ruins.
5) Philip united the Greek city states under Macedonian rule and, upon his
assassination in 336 BCE, his son Alexander __________________ the throne.
150Task 3 Find the expressions in the text which refer to wartime words and collocations,
e.g. victory at (Salamis), win victory over (the Persian naval fleet) etc. Could you
categorize them along certain semantic lines?

Task 4)
155 a) Translate the following geographical and personal names into English. Check in
the text above if necessary.

Tales Miletski _______________________


Mala Azija _______________________
160 Bitka kod Maratona _______________________
Filip II Makedonski _______________________
Aleksandar Veliki _______________________

b) Fill in the missing prepositions. Check back in the text if necessary.


165
along the coast ______________ Anatolia
Greek victory ______________ Salamis
Leonidas and his 300 Spartans fell ___________ Thermopylae
his victory over the Athenian forces and their allies ________ the Battle
170 ___________ Chaeronea

V Vocabulary development.

175Task 1) The gods of Mount Olympus represent an attempt by the ancient Greeks to
explain the chaos of the universe through human nature. Thus, like every deity invented
before and since, these gods and goddesses are embodiments of human solipsism. The
stories of their battles, bickering, and sexual conquests have indelibly influenced the
course of Western language and narrative.
180Match gods and goddess in Ancient Greece with the aspects of nature they controlled.

Zeus, Hera, Dionysus, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hades, Hermes,
Demeter, Poseidon.

5
185
___________________ the goddess of sex, love and beauty
___________________ the god of the sun, the music, crops and herds
___________________ the god of bloodlust.
___________________ the fleet-footed goddess of the hunt
190___________________ the goddess of reason, wisdom, and war.
____________________ an agricultural goddess
____________________ the ruler of the world of the dead
____________________ the cult of this god revolves around intoxication, sex, and
savage ritual sacrifice
195____________________ the queen goddess of Olympus
____________________ the cunning god of the trade
____________________ the Greek sea god, but he was also the god of horses and of
earthquakes
____________________ the chief deity
200
(adapted from https://www.britannica.com/list/12-greek-gods-and-goddesses)

Task 2) Translate the names of some famous historical figures below into English. The
205first two have been done for you:

a) Aleksandar Veliki Alexander the Great


b) Juda Izdajnik Judas the Traitor
c) Karlo Veliki ______________
210 d) Rikard Lavljeg Srca ___________________
e) Pipin Mali____________________
f) Plinije Mlađi__________________
g) Vilim Osvajač__________________
h) Elizabeta, Djevica Kraljica ______________________
215

VI Speaking. Classical Greece has left the world many legacies. Name some and
explain how they started (e.g. Olympic games, theatre etc.).

220VII Listening Ancient Greek Heroes: Odysseus

Task 1) Listen carefully and circle the right word.


Troy – the classic tale of a wooden horse that fooled/ was found in the city and won the
war. That’s the familiar story written down by a poet called Homer. But what happened
225next? The Trojan horse was the brainchild/bright plan of an art trickster Odysseus. After
fighting Troy, Odysseus, the conquering/conspiring king, is sailing back to Ithaca. This

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journey is subject/object of Homer’s great epic adventure The Odyssey. It begins with
the hero Odysseus thinking not of his victory but of home. Ten years earlier he left his
beautiful wife Penelope and his new-born/newfound son Telemachus. Now Telemachus
230is ten. Is Penelope still faithful? Is she still waiting? Odysseus is desperate/dedicated to
get home and find out. But the trip home from Troy to Ithaca will be more difficult and
more dangerous that he could possibly imagine It’s journey that will change his life
forever. He’ll be tested/tried by ghosts and monsters. He’ll be tempted by fame and
glory. And by a sex-goddess. Meanwhile, his wife is surrounded by men who want to
235shelter/seduce her and take Odysseus’ place. Will he get back in/on time? The Odyssey
is one of the great stories of the Greek mythology.

Task 2) Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate words from the box below. Use the
240correct forms of the words. Listen to the story and check your answers.

inner head-on envy tackle odyssey tribulations bleak twists

We still use the word ________________ today to describe a long journey full of
245adventures. But it also suggests an _______________ journey, too. And indeed the
________________ and turns, trials and ________________ of the original odyssey
were used by the ancient Greeks to teach them about themselves. On one level The
Odyssey was a great story. You might say it marks the beginning of the Western
literature. But that alone hasn’t kept it alive for 3000 years. The Odyssey is a story that
250______________ the question we all have to answer. What is life all about? The ancient
Greeks had a rather ______________ view of life: here today, gone tomorrow. They
______________ the gods they worshipped because the gods were immortal. They lived
forever. Homer tackles this view of life _____________ through the story of a hero
coming home from war.
255
VIII Grammar Tense Review (Past Simple and Continuous, Past Perfect and
Continuous), Oxford Grammar for EAP, pp. 8 – 10.