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Craft Brewers

GUIDE
Welcome
Based in the heart of the Suffolk countryside, Muntons manufacture
and supply malt and extracts of malt to breweries around the globe.
Muntons understands the importance that you, the brewer, place
on the quality and consistency of the malt that you use in your
brewing process and the importance of reliability of supply.
This pack has been prepared to provide you with sufficient
background information about our company and brewing
products to answer any questions that you may have, along with
details explaining how to start your account.

COMPANY BACKGROUND
PRODUCT RANGES
MALT AND BEER FLAVOUR WHEELS
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
PRODUCT PACKAGING/HANDLING
BEER TROUBLE SHOOTING
QUALITY ASSURANCE
COMPANY background
The Baker-Munton family had been trading in malt and grain in Following Britain’s entry to the EU in the 1970s, the malting capacity trebled to 35,000 tonnes, a new malt flaking plant has been
London since the 19th Century and, shortly after the end of the soon became fully utilised and expansion was essential. Cedars installed; two vacuum band driers have been added to compliment
First World War, in 1921, Muntona Ltd was established to meet the Maltings, Stowmarket opened in 1978 to meet the demand and our spray-drying capability.
demand for malt extract from both the brewing and food industries. group production capacity was brought to 95,000 tonnes per annum.
Added to this the automation of the 25kg sack packing line for
Company founder Munton Baker-Munton recognised the need to
whole and crushed malts and the expansion of the milling and kibbling
manufacture malt extract in England and
The Baker-Munton it was
family hadthis ideatrading
been that led in him
malt The 1980s saw a continuing modernisation and refurbishment
facilities. Muntons have also installed efficient varinox burners in
to the Phoenix Brewery
and in Bedford
grain owned
in London by Charles
since the 19thWells Ltd. and,
Century programme and group capacity was increased to 110,000 tonnes
both Cedars and Flamborough maltings. Additionally we established
shortly after the end of the First World War, in 1921, per annum.
Muntons Malt Supply Chain Ltd to ensure quality and sustainability

COMPANY
Muntona Ltd was established to meet the demand
Expansion continued with a new modern maltings being built at of malt supply from farm to factory which brings developments at
for malt extract from both the brewing and food

background
Bridlington, in two phases, beginning in 1993. Phase 1 increased Muntons up to date.
industries. Company founder Munton Baker-Munton
the group capacity to 120,000 tonnes per annum; the completion
recognised the need to manufacture malt extract
of phase 2 in 1997 brought capacity to 150,000 tonnes per annum. Today Muntons supplies customers all over the world and
in England and it was this idea that led him to the
is acknowledged as the leader in its field.
Phoenix Brewery in Bedford owned by Charles Wells Continued investment in malting plant improvements has brought
Ltd. the group capacity today to 175,000 tonnes.
Muntona Ltd in Bedford grew steadily and in 1934 acquired Edward
Development of the malted ingredients business continued in parallel
Fison Limited in Ipswich.
Muntona This enabled malt for
Ltd in Bedford grewextract manufacture
steadily and in 1934
with the malting business, with significant investments being made.
to be produced in-house
acquiredandEdward
established
Fisonthe Company’s
Limited first supply
in Ipswich. This
Over the last twenty years alone malt extract capacity has more than
of malt with the British brewing
enabled maltindustry. A new
for extract site in Stowmarket
manufacture to be produced
followed, replacing in-house
those at Bedford and Ipswich.
and established Malt production
the Company’s first supply
at the renamed Muntonof malt & Fison Ltd British
with the exceeded internal
brewing requirements
industry. A new site
and so the sale of maltinbecame a priority.
Stowmarket followed, replacing those at Bedford
and Ipswich. Malt production at the renamed Munton
In the late 1950s malting facilities were expanded and moved
& Fison Ltd exceeded internal requirements and so the
closer to the Scottish whisky distillers. The site chosen was
sale of malt became a priority.
at Bridlington, East Yorkshire and in 1964 the 45,000 tonnes
Flamborough Maltings In theopened.
late 1950s malting facilities were expanded and
moved closer to the Scottish whisky distillers. The site
chosen was at Bridlington, East Yorkshire and in 1964
the 45,000 tonnes Flamborough Maltings opened.
Following Britain’s entry to the EU in the 1970s,
the malting capacity soon became fully utilised
and expansion was essential. Cedars Maltings,
Stowmarket opened in 1978 to meet the demand and
group production capacity was brought to 95,000
tonnes per annum.
Muntons has a continued focus on new product
development and to help enable this service to
expand has invested in an onsite facility - the
‘Centre for Excellence’. This facility is the base for
Muntons’ New Product Development team and
facilities include a one hectolitre capacity craft
brewery and winery, test kitchen, bakery, sensory
and sample room.
The small scale brewery housed within the Centre
for Excellence is an ideal facility to test brew a
vast range of beers. Our doors are always open
to help you. If you have a recipe development
project or need to test out a new seasonal brew
then please contact a member of our staff who
will be able to advise you on how to go about
booking this facility and develop that award
winning beer you have been thinking of!
craft brewery
PRODUCTS
Muntons is proud to have been involved in the craft brewing market since
its early beginnings and recognises that this sector is continually growing.

GRAIN MALTS LIQUID MALT EXTRACTS DRIED MALT EXTRACTS


Muntons offers a wide range of brewing grains to make the In addition to our extensive range of grain malts, Muntons offers a Muntons also offers a range of spray dried malt extracts which
sourcing of your grist needs as simple as possible. In recent years, wide range of liquid malt extracts in both hopped and unhopped can be used as an alternative base material for your recipe or as a
Muntons has introduced a number of new varieties which have form specifically developed for the mini brewing market. brew-house extender.
proved to be impressive in meeting our customers brewing
requirements. Liquid malt extracts are produced by the aqueous extraction of Spraydrying is a particularly gentle and uniform way of converting
sugars from malted barley, and their subsequent concentration our liquid malt extracts into easy to store and handle powders.
Technical details of all of our specifications are shown on the malt into a viscous syrup.
analysis. Unopened and stored in cool and dry conditions, Spraymalt will
All of Muntons’ grains are available ex stock, ready packed in Liquid malt extracts can be used in commercial brewing as a keep for at least two years. The drying process converts each
25 kg lined polypropylene sacks. They are made to the highest partial grain malt replacement or, when added to a conventional droplet of liquid malt extract into a fine powder particle in less
standards from premium grade, locally sourced, raw materials. mash, as a brew extender. Our hopped liquid malt extracts than four seconds, which ensures that the full flavour of the malt
Larger pack sizes are also available for brewers with a greater provide a great start to any recipe, offering a carefully balanced is retained and that no off-flavours or taints are introduced.
requirement. formulation designed to provide the ideal base for your own
recipe. In addition, we also offer liquid malt extracts made using
selected coloured malts to provide a darker base material for your
beer recipes.
improve beer colour NATURALLY
Clarimalt XD Liquid - clarity without compromise

Clarimalt XD liquid is made to meet increasing demand for natural,


readily dissolvable, flavour and colour addition in the brewing industry.
All Clarimalt products are virtually 100% soluble in water and are
resilient to freeze-thaw, boiling and extremes of pH (3-10), making
them ideal for use in the brewing industry.
Clarimalt gives improved colour and mouth feel to soft drinks and
beers.
Clarimalt can be used for the post fermentation characterisation of
beer, where further declaration may not be required.
Clarimalt is made from the finest European sourced roasted black malt
to ensure only natural colouring to your beer. The addition of 1.1kg of
clarimalt XD liquid will change 100hl by 1°EBC.
The clarimalt range is available in 25kg jerry cans.
Muntons malt extracts contain no E numbers or artificial additives
which helps to keep your labels clean. The suggested ingredient
declaration for Clarimalt XD liquid for retail packaging is ‘Roasted
Barley Malt Extract’
product RANGE
COLOUR COLOUR APPROX. COLOUR COLOUR APPROX.
PRODUCT (IoB 515ml) (IoB 515ml) EXTRACT L°/ USE RATE COLOUR/FLAVOUR NOTES PRODUCT (IoB 515ml) (IoB 515ml) EXTRACT L°/ USE RATE COLOUR/FLAVOUR NOTES
EBC unit Lovibond unit kg (dwt) IoB EBC unit Lovibond unit kg (dwt) IoB

Pale Malts Amber 40 - 75 17 - 33 270 Mild, Bitter, Ales, IPA, brown ale, <15% Straw/golden colour, nutty, light toast.
Maris Otter® (Winter) 3.4 - 5.2 2-3 308 Any warm fermented beers <100% Traditional pale malts for top quality stout, porter
warm fermented beers. Slightly darker Brown 140 - 160 60 - 69 250 Mild, Bitter, Ales, brown ale, stout, <10% Brown/dark amber, coffee, roast, strong
Maris Otter Extra Pale
®
2.2 - 3.4 1.5 - 2 308 IPA, bitter, golden ales, light beers <100% porter toast flavour.
and ‘maltier’ than lager malt. The extra
Maris Otter® / Propino 3.4 - 5.2 2-3 308 Any warm fermented beers <100% pales are similar colour to lager malts Light Chocolate* 400 - 600 171 - 256 250 Mild, Bitter, Ales, IPA, brown ale, <10% Dark brown/ruby colour, burnt coffee/
(50:50) but with pale malt qualities. See wort stout, porter chocolate bean, bitter.
Propino Pale (Spring) 3.4 - 5.2 2-3 310 Any warm fermented beers <100% profiles for comparisons. Chocolate 900 - 1100 384 - 470 250 Mild, Bitter, Ales, IPA, brown ale, <10% Dark brown/ruby colour, burnt coffee/
Propino Extra Pale 2.2 - 3.4 1.5 - 2 310 IPA, bitter, golden ales, light beers <100% stout, porter chocolate bean, bitter.
Venture Pale (Winter) 3.4 - 5.2 2-3 310 Any warm fermented beers <100% Black 1200 - 1400 512 - 598 230 Mild, Bitter, Ales, IPA, brown ale, <8% Dark brown/black colour, burnt toast,
Lager 2.8 - 3.4 1.8 - 2 308 Any cold fermented beers <100% Cereal, grainy. stout, porter charcoal, dry, bitter.
Roast Barley 1050 - 1450 448 - 619 230 Mild, Bitter, Ales, IPA, brown ale, <8% Dark brown/black colour, burnt toast,
Pilsner 2.5 - 3.4 1.7 - 2 308 Any cold fermented beers <100% Cereal, grainy, honey.
stout, porter charcoal, dry, bitter.
Munich 12 - 20 6.2 - 10 300 Any beer <70% Biscuit, toasted, bready. Gives fuller body
and rich malt flavour.
Malt Adjuncts
Vienna 7 - 12 3.8 - 6.2 308 Lager, continental beers <100% Inbetween pale and munich, golden and
full bodied. Wheat Malt <5 <2.9 315 Lager, ale, wheat beer <100% Cereal, nutty.
Super Pale 2-3 1.4 - 1.9 310 IPA, bitter, golden ales, light beers <100% Our lightest ever pale malt, good for Torrified Wheat 2-6 1.4 - 3.3 280 All beers <10% Use for mouthfeel and head retention.
showcasing hops/yeasts. Malted Wheat Flakes 25 - 55 11 - 24 n/a All beers <10% Use for mouthfeel and head retention.
Mild 5-6 2.9 - 3.3 308 Bitters, milds, stouts, porters <100% Sweeter than pale malt. Good to use Gives a nutty flavour.
with high ratios of adjuncts. Malted Rye Flakes* 10 - 40 5.3 - 15 n/a All beers <10% Use for mouthfeel and head retention.
Gives a spicy/nutty flavour.
Coloured Malts Malted Oats 3-7 1.9 - 3.8 230 All beers <15% Use for mouthfeel and head retention.
Caramalt 22 - 43 9 - 19 290 IPA, bitter, mild, stout, porter, <20% Golden colour, toffee/caramel, sweet. Gives a sweet
golden characteristic.
Crystal 110* 95 - 125 41 - 54 285 IPA, bitter, mild, stout, porter <15% Copper/red/amber colour, sweet toffee,
Crystal 150 130 - 170 56 - 73 285 IPA, bitter, mild, stout, porter <15% biscuit, nutty, malty flavours. These
Crystal 240* 210 - 270 90 - 116 285 IPA, bitter, mild, stout, porter <15% increase as colour increases. Starches are
crystalised.
Crystal 400 360 - 440 154 - 188 277 IPA, bitter, mild, stout, porter <15%
Dark Crystal Rye 200 - 300 86 - 128 277 IPA, bitter, mild, stout, porter <15% Copper/red colour, spicy, sweet toffee,
biscuit, nutty, malty flavours.
product RANGE
COLOUR COLOUR APPROX. COLOUR COLOUR APPROX.
PRODUCT (IoB 515ml) (IoB 515ml) EXTRACT L°/ USE RATE COLOUR/FLAVOUR NOTES PRODUCT (IoB 515ml) (IoB 515ml) EXTRACT L°/ USE RATE COLOUR/FLAVOUR NOTES
EBC unit Lovibond unit kg (dwt) IoB EBC unit Lovibond unit kg (dwt) IoB

Malt Extract Heat Darkened Malt


Cedarex Light <7 <3.8 300 Brew extender in any beer <50% Malt extracts are a liquid form of pale malts. Extract
Cedarex Amber 12 - 16 6.2 - 8.2 300 IPA, golden, bitter <50% Useful for space saving and reducing spent Actimalt EXD200 180 - 220 77 - 94 270 Suitable additions for any max 3% Malted and unmalted barley extract. Gives
material disposal. Malt extracts will provide Actimalt EXD400 300 - 400 128 - 170 270 beer max 3% red/brown colour. Flavours include, liquorice,
Cedarex Medium 24 - 28 9.5 - 11 300 Bitter, mild, porter <50%
approximately 300L° extract. Best added prior to Actimalt EXD800 750 - 850 320 - 363 270 max 2% molasses, plum, roasted notes. Increases
Wheat Malt Extract <10 <5.3 300 Wheat beers, lagers, bitter <50% mouthfeel. Colour and flavour will increase with
the boil. Actimalt EXD1000 925 - 1075 395 - 459 270 max 2%
Clarimalt XD 680 - 925 290 - 395 n/a IPA, bitter, mild, porter, stout max 2% Roasted barley extract. Improve colour and the higher numbers. Best added prior to boil.
Clarimalt XD3 1200 - 1400 512 - 598 n/a Bitter, mild, porter, stout max 2% mouthfeel. The darker liquids have less roasted
character. Can be added during the brewing Malt Extract Recipes
Clarimalt XD5 1600 - 1800 683 - 770 n/a Bitter, mild, porter, stout max 2%
process or in final product. Actimalt Liquid <12 <6.2 300 Suitable for any beer <100% Blend of raw barley and malted barley. Slightly
Red Sorgum Extract* <10 <5.3 300 Produces gluten free beer. <100% Once brewed, all gluten drops out to give a Regular sweeter in style than 100% malted barley
Product not gluten free gluten free beer. *Testing needs to be done for extract giving a slight toffee flavour.
every batch to certify for gluten free.* Actimalt Liquid C15 12 - 20 6.2 - 10 300 Suitable for any beer <100% Actimalt regular with the addition of roasted
black malt to give more colour. Slight increase in
Dried Malt Extract roasted flavour.
Spraymalt Extra Light <7 <3.8 320 Lager, pilsner, light ales max 50% Spraymalts are a dried malt extract (DME), useful Actimalt Liquid Crystal 15 - 25 7.7 - 11 300 Suitable for any beer <100% Actimalt regular with the addition of crystal
for space saving and reducing spent material C18 malt to give more colour. Biscuit and malty
Spraymalt Light 8 - 12 4 - 6.2 320 Brew extender in any beer max 50% flavour with added caramel/toffee.
disposal. Spraymalts provide approximately
Spraymalt Amber 12 - 14 6.2 - 7.2 320 IPA, bitter, mild, porter, stout max 40% 320L° extract, high fermentability, silky Actimalt Liquid C30 27 - 33 10 - 13.5 300 Suitable for any beer <100% Actimalt regular with the addition of roasted
Spraymalt Medium 24 - 42 9.5 - 16 315 IPA, bitter, mild, porter, stout max 40% mouthfeel. Best added prior to boil. Coloured black malt to give more colour. Increased
Spraymalt Dark 44 - 70 17 - 27 315 Mild, porter, stout max 30% DME’s have had small additions of roast barley. roasted flavour.
Unhopped Irish Stout 225 - 275 96 - 118 290 Suitable for stouts <100% 100% malted barley extract with roasted black
Spraymalt Extra Dark 70 - 120 27 - 45 315 Mild, porter, stout max 10%
ME malt to give high colour. High malty and roasted
Spraymalt Super Dark 1000 - 1500 427 - 640 n/a Mild, porter, stout max 5% Dried from pure roast barley extract.
flavour.
Wheat Malt Extract <10 <5.3 300 Suitable for wheat beers <100% Blend of malted wheat and malted barley for a
characteristic wheat beer. More cereal in flavour
than 100% malted barley.

Actimalt Dried Regular 5 - 12 2.9 - 6.2 310 Not suitable for brewing n/a Band dried Actimalt Liquid Regular.
*
Indicates products that may only be available in whole form or may have limited availability
Actimalt Dried C35 30 - 40 13 - 17.5 310 Not suitable for brewing n/a Band dried Actimalt Liquid 30.
English Pale Ale RECIPE
RECIPES MALT:
Pale Ale: 92%
Amber: 4%
Caramalt: 4%

66°C/151°F mash
with 70 minute stand
79°C/174°F sparge

HOPS:
Challenger bittering: IBU 35
Northdown Aroma: 400-800g/BBL off boil
1-1.8lb/US BBL

70 minute boil

WATER TARGET:
Alkalinity: 40
Chloride: 200ppm
Sulphate: 300ppm
American IPA RECIPE Stout RECIPE
MALT: MALT:
Pale Ale: 81% Pale Ale: 41%
Caramalt: 4% Munich: 41%
Spraymalt Extra Light: 15% Crystal: 5%
Crystal Dark (400): 6%
66°C/151°F mash Chocolate: 2%
with 70 minute stand Black: 3%
79°C/174°F sparge Roast Barley: 2%

HOPS: 68°C/154.5°F mash


Magnum bittering: IBU 50 with 90 minute stand
Blend up to 3 varieties: 1000-1500g/BBL off boil 79°C/174°F sparge
2.2-3.3lb/US BBL
T90 Pellets: 300g/BBL in FV at point of chill HOPS:
0.7lb/US BBL Northdown bittering: IBU 65

70 minute boil 80 minute boil

WATER TARGET: WATER TARGET:


Alkalinity: 40 Alkalinity: 150
Chloride: 150ppm Chloride: 300ppm
Sulphate: 400ppm Sulphate: 100ppm
Porter RECIPE Wheat/Weiss Beer RECIPE
MALT: MALT:
Pale Ale: 21% Pale Ale: 40%
Cedarex: 21% Wheat Malt: 60%
Munich: 44%
Crystal: 4% 67°C/152.6°F mash
Crystal Dark (400): 7% with 70 minute stand
Chocolate 2% 79°C/174°F sparge

67°C/152.6°F mash HOPS:


with 90 minute stand Tettnang bittering: IBU 20
79°C/174°F sparge Hurkules Aroma: 300-700g/BBL off boil
0.7-1.5lb/US BBL
HOPS:
Northdown bittering: IBU 45 80 minute boil
Target: 500-800g/BBL off boil
1.1-1.8lb/US BBL YEAST: Mauribrew Weiss
Ferment at 18°C/64.4°F
80 minute boil
WATER TARGET:
WATER TARGET: Alkalinity: 40
Alkalinity: 100 Chloride: low
Chloride: 300ppm Sulphate: low
Sulphate: 300ppm
MALT ANALYSIS parameters - 1 On your quality malt certificate this is what you will see.

MOISTURE % EXTRACT, IoB (dwt, 0.7mm grind), L°/kg TOTAL SOLUBLE NITROGEN, dwt, %
- The drier a malt is, the less potential it has for mould growth, and less potential for - IoB refers to the Institute of Brewing, who specify this method. 0.7mm is the mill - The amount of nitrogen in soluble form, expressed as a percentage of malt weight.
flavour and aroma being lost during storage. The upper limit for acceptable moisture setting to give a coarse grind. ‘dwt’ refers to the dry weight result (as opposed to The TSN gives an indication of the protein modification of the grain during malting
content is usually around 6%. The moisture content generally reflects the quality of the ‘as is’ result which incorporates the moisture). The extract result is quoted as litre and an indication of how much nitrogen will be extracted into the mash. TSN is used
the malting itself, a high moisture malt may be poorly kilned. degrees per kg. The coarse grind ‘extract’ value gives a numerical value of the amount to calculate the soluble nitrogen ratio.
Important note regarding wort production for analysis: of soluble extract that you are likely to derive from the malt, in the wort. It gives a
There are two ways of mashing to create an extract: Institute of Brewing method (IoB) better indication of the degree of starch modification that the grain underwent during SOLUBLE NITROGEN RATIO
and European Brewery Convention method (EBC). The EBC mash is made at 0.2mm the germination stage of malting. Because breweries tend to mill at around 0.7mm, - The SNR is the total soluble nitrogen divided by the total nitrogen, expressed as
(fine) and 1.0mm (coarse) grinds and is a mash which gradually rises in temperature, the coarse grind extract value gives a closer approximation the extract achieved in the a ratio. If the Institute of Brewing analysis method is used, the SNR is quoted. The
thus extracting more and producing a different wort than the IoB mash which is at brewhouse. SNR gives an indication of the level of protein modification during malting (and malt
one temperature (isothermal) and 0.2mm (fine) and 0.7mm (coarse) grinds. These modification). The higher the number, the more highly modified the malt. It also
two analysis systems are in the process of being merged. For the present both can be FINE/COARSE DIFFERENCE gives an indication of how much nitrogen will be extracted into the mash. Malts
reported: EBC analysis as % extract, IoB extract as litre° of extract per kilogram (L°/kg). - This is the difference between coarse and fine grinds. If the difference is small then destined for infusion mashing should have an SNR of 36-42%, or up to 45% for
the malt is very consistent throughout and easily milled and extracted. High values light-bodied beer. At a percentage much over 45% SNR, the beer will be thin in body
FINE EXTRACT, dwt, % reflect that certain parts of the malt are not sufficiently malted. and mouthfeel. For traditional lager malts, 30-33% indicates undermodification, and
- Fine refers to the fine grind of the malt that is analysed, it is a 0.2mm grind. ‘dwt’ 37-40% indicates overmodification.
refers to the dry weight result (as opposed to the ‘as is’ result which is dependent on TOTAL NITROGEN, dwt, %
the malt moisture). The fine grind ‘extract’ percentage value gives a numerical value - The percentage of nitrogen gives an indication of the protein content of the grain KOLBACH INDEX
of the maximum soluble yield that you are likely to derive from the malt into the wort. and represents all the nitrogenous matter in the malt, including insoluble forms. In - The Kolbach Index is the total soluble nitrogen divided by the total nitrogen,
The higher the extract value, the more soluble the material and the less husk and general, the more protein in the grain the less starch, which results in a lower extract expressed as a ratio. If the European Brewing Convention analysis method is used, the
protein. This is a good measure of the quality of the grain itself. yield. For 100% malt brews, TN values exceeding 1.9% indicate that the beer may Kolbach Index is quoted. The Kolbach Index gives an indication of the level of protein
haze or present mash runoff problems. Nitrogen levels less than 1.9% are adequate modification during malting (and malt modification). The higher the number, the more
for head-formation, body, and healthy fermentation and produce less chill haze. TN is highly modified the malt. It also gives an indication of how much nitrogen will be
used to calculate the soluble nitrogen ratio. In general the greater the nitrogen in the extracted into the mash.
grain, the greater the potential enzyme production is provided the malting process
allows time for it to be released.
MALT ANALYSIS parameters - 2 On your quality malt certificate this is what you will see. MALT flavour wheel
Malty,
MALT SENSORY ANALYSIS Biscuit,
WORT COLOUR, 450g MASH ALPHA AMYLASE/DU @ 20°C (dwt) Hay,
- 450g refers to the weight the sample is made up to with water during analysis (as - This test measures only alpha amylase. DU refers to dextrinising units, which are
Currently malt tasting is not part of any malt specification, Berry, Husky,
opposed to making the volume up to 515ml with water which was an older method a unit of measuring alpha amylase. Dextrins are medium length carbohydrates that
but offers possibilities to differentiate both positive and Jam Rusk
of analysis, now not used). Once the wort weight has been standardised to 450g, the are formed by the action of alpha amylase cleaving starch. The result is given as (dry
colour of the wort is measured using industry standard EBC colour discs. weight) ‘dwt’, (as opposed to the ‘as is’ result which incorporates the moisture). negative flavours. Conventional malt analysis may suggest
that malts are identical, yet the processing parameters T
BETA GLUCAN, mg/l used could have been different and therefore the flavour
- As above, the wort is made upto 450g with water to standardise the weight. profile also slightly different (Chandra et al, 1997). It
The result is given as mg/l. It is a measure of the soluble beta-glucan present in is thus important to have a sufficiently discriminatory
the malt. Beta-glucan (a type of polysaccharide) is a chain of the beta isomer of method to flavour profile malts that reflects the range of
glucose molecules. High beta-glucan can increase the viscosity of the wort, impeding malt flavours available. Some customers require tasting of
worts for the correct flavour profile. This doesn’t reflect C
filtration. Also high beta-glucan indicates poor modification.
contribution of the husk and the sweetness of worts
DIASTATIC POWER, °IoB predominates, making full profiling impractical. A method TREACLE
- Diastatic power is a numerical value for the combined enzyme activities of alpha that fully describes the profile of malt has been developed
amylase, beta amylase and limit dextrinase. These enzymes are naturally present in that creates a ‘porridge’ by grinding the whole malt and
the malt. IoB refers to the Institute of Brewing analysis method used. The diastatic mixing with a small amount of water. This avoids the
power indicates the level of starch digestion you can achieve during mashing. There problems for the taster of drying out the palate if tasting Beany
is an alternative method for determining Diastatic Power and it can be expressed at whole malt or dry ground samples. When given free
units WK. The formula to convert IoB to WK is: DP WK =(DP°IOB*1.07*3.5)-16 rein to describe malt flavours, tasters tend to use food
products as descriptors. It has proved possible to group
these into a smaller number of sensory terms to create
a unique profile for the entire range of malts (Murray et
al, 1999). This malt flavour wheel allows distinct profiles
Veg,
to be created for the wide range of malts and malted Sulphidic
ingredients we produce. Card, Sulphic

Mouldy
MALT flavour types BEER flavour wheel
Beer flavour wheels are designed to describe the full range
of taste and aroma detectable in beer. Originally developed
FLAVOUR MALT TYPES SHOWING THIS CHARACTER by Meilgaard in the 1970’s it has many variants today. The
principles are the same for all. Both taste and aroma are
CEREAL Wheat, Ale included. For taste the characteristics are Fullness, Mouthfeel,
Bitter, Salty, Sweet, Sour and Oxidised with many sub-
SWEET Ale, Amber, Munich
descriptors. Aroma characters are Aromatic, Fragrant, Fruity,
BURNT Black, Roasted Barley or Malt Floral, Green, Cereal, Caramel, Roasted, Phenolic, Soapy,
NUTTY Caramalt, Ale Fatty, Diacetyl, Sulphury and Stale. Compounds are sometimes
GREEN Lager, High Enzyme, Diastatic grouped into types such as Cereal – derived from basic
SULPHURY Positive DMS: Lager grain and malt flavours through to Maillard which develop
in speciality malts that are stewed and roasted or Sweet
Negative: Sulphitic and Sulphidic
notes that are more honey-like. Other flavours are described
SOLVENT Should not be present in any malt type as Aromatic such as fruity, spicy. Another group describes
TOFFEE Crystal up to colour 240 EBC Vegetable type notes such as woody, beany. Mouthfeel
CARAMEL Crystal up to colour 110 EBC, Caramalt and Fullness are important characteristics and include the
COFFEE Chocolate, Black descriptors of gassiness, dryness, alcoholic. Sulphury notes are
particularly important determinants of lager and ales where
CHOCOLATE Very dark Crystal
presence of the more positive DMS, sweetcorn notes is often
TREACLE Crystal over 240 EBC colour more desirable in lagers whereas the sulphidic and sulphitic
SMOKY Peated notes are quite undesirable in both. Sensory analysts can be
PHENOLIC Peated trained to detect the presence and relative levels of each of
FRUITY Crystal colour up to 110 EBC, Munich these attributes over time and develop a unique fingerprint
for a beer to establish not only its unique selling points but to
BITTER Chocolate, Black
establish its trueness to type in production and detect any off
notes that develop due to problems along the supply chain.
MALT WORT flavour profiles
These worts were tasted from a standard 65° mash

Propino Wort Venture Wort Maris Otter Wort Propino Beer Venture Beer Maris Beer
Malty Malty Malty (minus bitterness) (minus bitterness) (minus bitterness)
6.0 6.0 6.0
5.0 5.0 5.0 Malty Malty Malty
Toffee 4.0 Sweet Toffee 4.0 Sweet Toffee 4.0 Sweet 6.0 6.0 6.0
3.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
2.0 2.0 2.0 Toffee 4.0 Sweet Toffee 4.0 Sweet Toffee 4.0 Sweet
1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Nu4y 0.0 Bi4er Nu4y 0.0 Bi4er Nu4y 0.0 Bi4er 2.0 2.0 2.0
1.0 1.0 1.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
Nu<y Astringent Nu<y Astringent Nu<y Astringent
Green Astringent Green Astringent Green Astringent

Cereal Cereal Cereal


Green Cereal Green Cereal Green Cereal

Propino Beer Venture Beer Maris Otter Beer


Malty Malty Malty
6.0 6.0 6.0
5.0 5.0 5.0
Toffee 4.0 Sweet Toffee 4.0 Sweet Toffee 4.0 Sweet
3.0 3.0 3.0
2.0 2.0 2.0
1.0 1.0 1.0
Nu4y 0.0 Bi4er Nu4y 0.0 Bi4er Nu4y 0.0 Bi4er

Green Astringent Green Astringent Green Astringent

Cereal Cereal Cereal


MALT tasting profiles
These are tasted using a malt porridge: 40g malt ground in coffee mill or 0.7mm Buhler Miag then mixed with 60ml water and placed in petri dish

Lager   Ale   Crystal  140   Crystal  350  


Lager Ale Crystal 140 Crystal 350
Cereal   Cereal   Cereal   Cereal  
7   Sweet   7   Sweet   4   Sweet   4   Sweet  
6   6  
Bi6er   5   Burnt   Bi6er   5   Burnt   Bi3er   3   Burnt   Bi3er   3   Burnt  
4   4  
Fruity   Nu6y   Fruity   Nu6y   Fruity   2   Nu3y   Fruity   2   Nu3y  
3   3  
2   2   1   1  
9Phenolic   1   Green   9Phenolic   1   Green   6Phenolic   Green  
6Phenolic   Green  
0   0   0   0  

Smoky   9Sulphury   Smoky   9Sulphury   Smoky   6Sulphury   Smoky   6Sulphury  

Treacle   Solvent   Treacle   Solvent   Treacle   Solvent   Treacle   Solvent  

 Chocolate   Toffee    Chocolate   Toffee    Chocolate   Toffee    Chocolate   Toffee  


Coffee   Caramel   Coffee   Caramel   Coffee   Caramel   Coffee   Caramel  

Caramalt   Amber   Chocolate  600   Chocolate  1200  


Caramalt Amber Chocolate 600 Chocolate 1200
Cereal   Cereal   Cereal   Cereal  
7   Sweet   7   Sweet   5   Sweet   7   Sweet  
6   6   6  
Bi6er   Burnt   Bi6er   Burnt   Bi4er   4   Burnt   Bi6er   Burnt  
5   5   5  
4   4   3   4  
Fruity   3   Nu6y   Fruity   3   Nu6y   Fruity   Nu4y   Fruity   3   Nu6y  
2  
2   2   2  
1   1   1   1  
9Phenolic   Green   9Phenolic   Green   7Phenolic   Green   9Phenolic   Green  
0   0   0   0  

Smoky   9Sulphury   Smoky   9Sulphury   Smoky   7Sulphury   Smoky   9Sulphury  

Treacle   Solvent   Treacle   Solvent   Treacle   Solvent   Treacle   Solvent  

 Chocolate   Toffee    Chocolate   Toffee    Chocolate   Toffee    Chocolate   Toffee  


Coffee   Caramel   Coffee   Caramel   Coffee   Caramel   Coffee   Caramel  
QUALITY ASSURANCE PACKAGING
Muntons Stowmarket maltings and all malt ingredients activities are TRACEABILITY
covered by ISO 9001:2008 quality assurance system, ISO 50001:2011 Traceability is important. Being able to trace every product that we make back
energy management system, ISO 14001:2004 environmental to the origin of the raw material not only brings peace of mind to us but also
management system, ISO 22000:2005 food safety management system. to our customers. But it is not just the products that are covered under our
traceability scheme; it is also the product packaging.
Muntons laboratories are participants in the Malt Analytes Proficiency Testing
Scheme (MAPS) run by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist and openly We have systems in place to identify and trace all of the products that we
declare their results. manufacture and despatch. Our SAP R3 Management System allows full
traceability of all raw materials (including packaging materials and processing
Muntons encourages its staff to further their education and an ongoing
aids) through all stages of manufacture through to the distribution of the
training programme enhances the existing range of qualified Brewers
finished product. Our traceability system meets the requirements of article
and Maltsters.
18 of regulation EC 178/2002.

You could say that we can trace products “from farm to fork.”

ASSURED UK MALT
At the heart of the standard is a code of practice drawn up by industry experts
and audited by CCFRA, an independent food research organisation whose
ISO   9001:2008 & ISO   14001:2004 &  GM Declaration expertise is acknowledged around the world.
ISO 50001:2011 ISO 22000:2005

Not only does the new standard provide powerful raw material protection
to consumer and industry brands, but it complies with the British Retail
Consortium’s own code of practice and it enables much faster responses
to supply–chain dynamics. Above all, it sets UK malt apart from
the competition.
1 tonne 300kg 25kg 25kg 25kg 9kg and 10.8kg
      IBC bags steel and plastic drums polypropylene sacks jerry can cartons Cases of
Vegetarian Kosher Halal   Organic Muntons are accredited to the Assured UK Malt standard.
GRAIN MALT, MALT LIQUID EXTRACTS GRAIN MALT, MALT SPRAY and BAND HOMEBREW BEER
 
FLOUR and FLAKES FLOUR and FLAKES DRIED EXTRACTS and WINE KITS
handling of sacks
25kg POLYPROPYLENE AUTOMATED processing at the mill

         
1 2 3 4
Stand behind the sack with the
thickest stitch line facing away
Cut the thread with a sharp knife
or scissors close to the edge of
Once you have cut the stitching
you should be left with something
  Pull the middle thread to open the
sack.
from you. the bag on the right hand side. similar to the examples above.

LIFTING AND TIPPING THE POLYPROPYLENE SACK


Muntons cannot advise on manual handling practices. Please
look to your own company manual handling instructions for Bag filling, palletising and stacking are all
recommended lifting points. automated processes taking place in the mill area.

DISPOSING OF THE THE POLYPROPYLENE SACK


Bags can be disposed of in general waste once you have finished
emptying the product out or they can be re-used as the customer
wishes.
Butterscotch (Diacetyl, Buttery, Yeast. Can be positive if in ale.
Milky). May need longer maturation or fresh yeast.

Bacterial contamination. Check hygiene particularly in fermentation

TROUBLE SHOOTING TROUBLE SHOOTING


(Pediococcus, Lactobacillus).

flavour Maturation. Condition for longer. Increase yeast count.


Consider raising temperature. flavour
Trouble Shooting - Flavour Trouble Shooting - Flavour
Low wort FAN. Optimise wort specification.
Flavour Cause Action Flavour Cause Can be due to low valine level.
Action

Acetaldehyde (Green apple). Bacterial contamination. Check yeast handling and general hygiene Acetaldehyde (Green apple). Bacterial
Pipe lines.contamination. yeast handling
Check hygiene and general
and cleaning hygiene
processes.
Rapid fermentation. (Zymononas, Acetobacter). Rapid fermentation. (Zymononas, Acetobacter).
Poor 0² control. Avoid oxidation. Carbonation. Poor 0² control.
Conditioning. Avoid
Checkoxidation.
gas specifications and equipment serviceability.
Green/ rough beer. Remove with warm maturation before chill 21⁰c + Green/ rough beer. Remove with warm maturation before chill 21⁰c +
Catty / Blackcurrent leaves / Over aged product. Check storage temperature and stock rotation.
Ribes / Cat Urine (Tom cat).
Acetic (Vinegary). Bacterial spoilage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene Acetic (Vinegary). Bacterial spoilage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene
(Lactobacillus, Acetobacter). (Lactobacillus, Acetobacter).
Overpasteurisation. Check pasteurisation regime.
Astringent. Bacterial spoilage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene. Astringent. Bacterial spoilage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene.
Oxidation. Prevent / minimise air or oxygen entry during filling.
Oxidation. Reduce oxygen in headspace for packaging / storage. Oxidation. Reduce oxygen in headspace for packaging / storage.
Cheesy / Sweaty / Rancid. Aged or Stale Hops. Do not use old hops.
Check store temperature and stock rotation.
Pesticide residues. Check water (brewing liquor) supply. Pesticide residues. Check water (brewing liquor) supply.
Bacterial spoilage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene.
Over attenuation. Check fermentation control. Flavour Over
Causeattenuation. Check
Actionfermentation control.

Overdose of roasted malts. Check recipe requirements. Cooked vegetable. Over pasteurisation.
Overdose of roasted malts. pasteurisation
Check recipe control.
requirements.

Bitter. Wild yeast. Check yeast handling and general hygiene. Bitter. Oxidation.
Wild yeast. air/oxygen
Check yeast ingress
handling andingeneral
processing / packaging.
hygiene.

Grist. Reformulate amount of speciality malt or hops. Dimethyl sulphide (DMS, Malt.
Grist. Check DMS precursor
Reformulate amount of(S-methyl
speciality methionine,
malt or hops.SMM) in
Tomatoes, Sweetcorn). malt.
Too much bittering hop. Adjust bittering hop quantity. Too much bittering hop. Adjust bittering hop quantity.
Bacterial spoilage. Check hygiene in fermentation (O. proteus)
Bready / Harsh / Drying. Speciality malt. Can be positive in stouts and porters. Bready / Harsh / Drying. Speciality malt. Can be positive in stouts and porters.
Adjust grist specification (less highly roasted product). Wort. Adjust
Ensuregrist specification
a vigorous, (less highly
evaporative boil. roasted product).

Over pasteurisation. Check pasteurisation control. Dry. Over pasteurisation.


Fermentation. Check
Do not pasteurisation
overattenuate.control.
Check mash temperatures.

Oxidation. Reduce oxygen ingress in packaging / storage. Earthy / Musty / Rusty. Oxidation.
Brewing liquor. Reduce oxygenadvice
Seek specialist ingressofinwater
packaging / storage.
consultant.

Butterscotch (Diacetyl, Buttery, Yeast. Can be positive if in ale. Butterscotch (Diacetyl, Buttery, Yeast.
Mould growth. Can bestorage
Check positiveareas
if in ale.
for dryness and hygiene.
Milky). May need longer maturation or fresh yeast. Milky). May need longer maturation or fresh yeast.
Estery (Fruity solvent). Fermentation. Reduce temperature and/or original gravity.
Bacterial contamination. Check hygiene particularly in fermentation Bacterial contamination. Check hygiene particularly in fermentation
(Pediococcus, Lactobacillus). (Pediococcus, Lactobacillus).
Fishy. Tank resin. Check integrity of tank linings.
Maturation. Condition for longer. Increase yeast count. Maturation. Condition for longer. Increase yeast count.
Consider raising temperature. Fruity (Estery). Yeast Check yeast
Consider strain.
raising temperature.
Check wort gravity is not too high.
Low wort FAN. Optimise wort specification. Low wort FAN. Optimise wort specification.
Can be due to low valine level. Goaty. Yeast. Check
Can beyeast strain,
due to wort composition
low valine level. and oxygenation.

Pipe lines. Check hygiene and cleaning processes. Grassy. Malt


Pipe or Hops.
lines. Keep
Checkstorage
hygieneareas dry and clean.
and cleaning processes.
Fat oxidation. Check pasteurisation and raw materials.
Wort. Ensure a vigorous, evaporative boil.
Additives. Check priming sugars, caramels and filter powder.
Dry. Fermentation. Do not overattenuate. Check mash temperatures.
Aged product. Reduce storage time.
Earthy / Musty / Rusty. Brewing liquor. Seek specialist advice of water consultant.

TROUBLE SHOOTING
Estery (Fruity solvent).
Mould growth.

Fermentation.
Check storage areas for dryness and hygiene.
Trouble Shooting - Flavour
Reduce temperature and/or original gravity.
flavour TROUBLE SHOOTING
Mouldy.
Brewing liquor.

StorageTrouble
area.
Seek specialist advice on water consumption.

Shooting Fungal
- Flavour
contamination.
Check holding tanks, packaging and fungicide stores.
flavour
Fishy.
Flavour Tank
Causeresin. Check
Actionintegrity of tank linings. Onion / Garlic.
Flavour Aged
Causehops. Check
Actionhop storage and usage.

Acetaldehyde
Fruity (Estery).(Green apple). Bacterial contamination.
Yeast Check yeast
Check yeast strain.
handling and general hygiene Acetaldehyde (Green apple).
Parsnips. Bacterial spoilage.
Bacterial contamination. Check yeast
Check yeast handling
handling and
and general
general hygiene
hygiene (O.
(Zymononas,
Check Acetobacter).
wort gravity is not too high. (Zymononas, Acetobacter).
proteus).
Avoid oxidation. Avoid
Pay oxidation.
particular attention to wort hygiene.
Goaty. Yeast. Check yeast strain, wort composition and oxygenation.
Acetic (Vinegary). Bacterial spoilage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene Acetic (Vinegary).
Phenolic (Spicy, Herbal, Bacterial spoilage.
Yeast. Check
Wild yeast
yeast handling and general hygiene
infection.
Grassy. Malt or Hops. (Lactobacillus,
Keep Acetobacter).
storage areas dry and clean. Cloves, Bakelite). (Lactobacillus,
(Can Acetobacter).
be a desirable note if a speciality yeast for wheat
beer or if peated malt is used).
Astringent.
Honey. Bacterial spoilage.
Yeast. Check yeast
Check yeast strain.
handling and general hygiene. Astringent. Bacterial spoilage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene.
Uncured lacquer. Check specification and integrity of tank and
Oxidation. Reducestorage
oxygentimes
in headspace for packaging / storage. Oxidation. packaging lacquers.
Reduce oxygen in headspace for packaging / storage.
Over ageing. Check / conditions.

Pesticide residues. Check mash


water and
(brewing liquor) supply. Dispense
Pesticide tubes.
residues. Check
Check integrity and sanitising
water (brewing CIP procedure for
liquor) supply.
Husky / Grainy. Mash conditions. Adjust sparge pH downwards. plastic tubing.

Lab-ox. Over attenuation.


Packaging (Lubricants in Checkcans
Wash fermentation
correctly.control. Over attenuation. Check fermentation control.
Brewing liquor. Seek specialist advice.
cans).
Bitter. Wild yeast. Check yeast handling and general hygiene. Bitter. Wild yeast. Check yeast handling and general hygiene.
Bacterial spoliage. Check yeast handling and general hygiene (coliforms).
Lightstruck (Skunky). Ultraviolet light on hops / hop Keep product out of direct sunlight.
Grist.
products. Reformulate amount of speciality malt or hops. Grist. Reformulate amount of speciality malt or hops.
Rancid (sick / vomit). Bacterial spoilage. Check adjunct general hygiene (anaerobes).
Bready(Marmite).
Meaty / Harsh / Drying. Speciality malt.
Yeast. Can be
Yeast positive in(autolysis).
breakdown stouts and porters.. Bready / Harsh / Drying. Speciality malt. Can be positive in stouts and porters..
Adjust yeast
Check grist specification (lessand
strain, handling highly roasted product).
fermentation/ rest Rotten eggs (Hydrogen Bacterial contamination. Check
Adjust yeast hygiene in fermentation
grist specification (less highly and maturation
roasted product).
duration. sulphide). (Zymomonas, Pectinatus).
Check fermentation control (yeast strain, oxygenation,
Over pasteurisation. Check pasteurisation control. Over pasteurisation. Check pasteurisation control.
pitching rate, temperature etc).
Medicinal/ TCP Plastic packaging or tubing. Check sanitizer formulation and usage.
Oxidation. Check
Reduceintegrity
oxygenofingress
tubing in
and packaging.
packaging / storage. Oxidation. Reduce oxygen ingress in packaging / storage.
Yeast. Check yeast strain.
Brewing salts. Reduce SO4
Butterscotch (Diacetyl, Buttery, Water.
Yeast. Taste
Can bewater and ifseek
positive specialist advice.
in ale. Butterscotch (Diacetyl, Buttery, Yeast. Can be positive if in ale.
Milky). Wort – mash
May need run off,
longer phenols or
maturation coming through
fresh yeast. Milky). May need longer maturation or fresh yeast.
Flavour Cause Action Rotten vegetables (Leeks, Yeast breakdown. Check yeast during maturation.
Drains).
Metallic / Inky / Tin-like. Contact
Bacterialwith metalic surfaces.
contamination. Check
Check integrity
hygiene of all vessels.
particularly in fermentation Bacterial contamination. Check hygiene particularly in fermentation
(Pediococcus, Lactobacillus). (Pediococcus, Lactobacillus).
Over pasteurisation. Check pasteurisation control.
Fat oxidation. Check pasteurisation and raw materials. Flavour Cause Action
Maturation. Condition for longer. Increase yeast count. Maturation. Condition for longer. Increase yeast count.
Additives. Consider
Check raising
priming temperature.
sugars, caramels and filter powder. Salty. Brewing liquor. Reduce
Considercalcium
raisingchloride additions.
temperature.

Low wort
Aged FAN.
product. Optimisestorage
Reduce wort specification.
time. Coolant
Low wortleakage.
FAN. Check coolant
Optimise system for leaks.
wort specification.
Can be due to low valine level. Can be due to low valine level.
Brewing liquor. Seek specialist advice on water consumption. Sherry-like. Over-aged product. Check maturation conditions.
Pipe lines. Check hygiene and cleaning processes. Pipe lines. Check hygiene and cleaning processes.
Mouldy. Storage area. Fungal contamination. Soapy. Fermentation. Check yeast strain, oxygenation (before and during
Carbonation. Conditioning. Check holding
Check gas specifications and equipment
tanks, packaging serviceability.
and fungicide stores. Carbonation. Conditioning. fermentation) and wort composition.
Check gas specifications and equipment serviceability.

Catty // Blackcurrent
Onion Garlic. leaves / Over aged
Aged hops. product. Check hop
Check storage temperature
storage and stock rotation.
and usage. Catty / Blackcurrent leaves / Cleaning
Over agedprocess.
product. Check
Check all detergent
storage is rinsedand
temperature away during
stock CIP.
rotation.
Ribes / Cat Urine (Tom cat). Ribes / Cat Urine (Tom cat).
Flavour Cause Action

Salty. Brewing liquor. Reduce calcium chloride additions.

Coolant leakage. Check coolant system for leaks.

TROUBLE SHOOTING flavour TROUBLE SHOOTING production


Sherry-like. Over-aged product. Check maturation conditions.

Soapy. Trouble
Fermentation. Shooting Check
- Flavour
yeast strain, oxygenation (before and during
fermentation) and wort composition.

Cleaning
Trouble Shooting - Production
Flavour Cause process. Check
Actionall detergent is rinsed away during CIP.

Acetaldehyde
Solvent (Green apple).
(Nail varnish). Bacterial
Tank contamination.
lacquer Check integrity
Check yeast handling
of tank and general hygiene
lacquers. Beer fines then gets hazy
(Zymononas, Acetobacter).
Plasticiser leaks. Avoid oxidation.
Check for leaks. Cause Action

Acetic (Vinegary). Bacterial spoilage.


Yeast. Check yeast
Reduce handlingtemperature.
fermentation and general hygiene Wild yeasts or bacteria. Cellar / Improve hygiene. Fine at temperature lower than cellar or dispense. Check dispense
(Lactobacillus, Acetobacter). dispense temperature. python cooling.
Check yeast strain and oxygenation.

Astringent. Bacterial spoilage. Checkautolysis.


yeast handling Cask disturbed. Re-roll and put onto stillage.
Sour. Yeast. Yeast Checkand general
hygiene andhygiene.
yeast handling.

Oxidation.spoilage.
Bacterial Reduce oxygenCheck
Contamination: in headspace
hygienefor packaging / storage.
throughout
(Lactobabillus, Pediococcus).
Pesticide residues. Check water (brewing liquor) supply. Cloudy Wort
Spicy stock Yeast. Check for wild yeast contamination. Renew yeast.
Over attenuation. Check fermentation control. Cause Action

Stale / Oxidised / Cardboard / Over-aged product. Check storage temperature and stock rotation.
Bitter. Wild yeast. Check yeast handling and general hygiene. Partially degraded starch. Optimise temperature to 63-68°C during mashing (all in temperature). Stand for 1 hour
Papery.
(minimum) after mashing.

Grist.
Oxidation. Reformulate
Check amount ingress
for air/oxygen of speciality malt or hops.
in processing and Milling too fine. Husk pieces too small to form good filtration bed. Adjust mill to give less flour.
packaging.
Bready / Harsh / Drying. Speciality malt. Can be positive in stouts and porters.. Run-off too soon after mashing. Extend stand time. Reduce speed of run off.
Over pasteurisation. Adjust pasteurisation
Check grist specification (less highly roasted product).
control.
Overpasteurisation increases rate of aging.
Hole sizing in plates / plate Check that plate holes are correct size and that plates are placed in the correct
Over pasteurisation. Check pasteurisation control. placement. positions.
Sulphitic (striking match). Yeast. Check yeast strain and condition.
Oxidation. Reduce oxygen ingress in packaging / storage.
Other sources: Antioxidants, Finings, Primings. Excess or fluffy bottoms
Butterscotch (Diacetyl, Buttery, Yeast. Can be positive if in ale.
Milky). May needattenuation
longer maturation Cause Action
Sweet Fermentation. Increase limit. or fresh yeast.
Isinglass / Auxiliary finings Too much being added: optimise.
Toffee Bacterial contamination.
Overaging. Check hygiene
Reduce storageparticularly
time. in fermentation addition rate.
(Pediococcus, Lactobacillus).
Oxidation Check for air/oxygen ingress in processing and Too many fine particles. Optimise copper fining.
Maturation. Condition for longer. Increase yeast count.
packaging.
Consider raising temperature. Yeast count low/ high Increase yeast count. Readdress yeast pitching rate/ strain.
Worty / Cereal. Fermentation. Incomplete. Increase fermentation time.
Low wort FAN. Optimise wort specification.
Can be adue to low evaporative
valine level. boil to remove sulphury
Wort. Ensure vigorous Hot/cold wort clarity poor
notes and DMS.
Pipe lines. Check hygiene and cleaning processes.
Cause Action
Yeasty. Yeast. Yeast breakdown. Improve yeast handling.
Carbonation. Conditioning. Check gas specifications and equipment serviceability. Incorrect boiling regime. Time copper fining addition correctly.
Ensure boiling is vigorous and optimise evaporation rate and boil time.
Catty / Blackcurrent leaves / Over aged product. Check storage temperature and stock rotation.
Ribes / Cat Urine (Tom cat). Wort run-off clarity poor. Use slower run off.
Dead yeast. Remove tank bottoms.
Excess or fluffy bottoms

Cause Action
Layering

TROUBLE SHOOTING TROUBLE SHOOTING


Isinglass / Auxiliary finings Too much being added: optimise. Cause Action
addition rate.

Too many fine particles. Optimise copper fining. production Loose bottoms.

Too many fine particles.


Optimise isinglass / auxiliary finings.

Optimise copper fining.


production
Yeast count low/ high Increase yeast count. Readdress yeast pitching rate/ strain.
Poor cellar handling. Improve rousing and handling regime.

Hot/cold wort clarity poor Loose / fluffy bottom

Cause Action Cause Action

Incorrect boiling regime. Time copper fining addition correctly. Check grist composition. High sugar or syrup grist needs less copper fining. High dark malt grist needs less
Ensure boiling is vigorous and optimise evaporation rate and boil time. copper fining.
Optimise fining regime according to grist.
Wort run-off clarity poor. Use slower run off.
Copper fining addition rate. Too high: carageenans won't sediment.
Wort pH. Should be 5.1 - 5.3 for efficient copper fining.
Low Extract
Calcium level low. Seek specialist advice on water quality.
Cause Action
A reduction in hopping level. Increase fining rate since hop tannins normally increase cold break.
Grind too fine or coarse. Adjust mill.

Slow run-off Poor mixing in mash tun. Ensure even mixing.

Cause Action Leaks in system. Check all pipe work, especially pump glands.

Isinglass storage. Ensure Isinglass is fresh / within use by date. Store as cool as possible (but not below Mash thickness. Ensure liquor to grist ratio is correct for your system mash temperature.
4°C).

Auxiliary fining ineffective. Change auxiliary. Change isinglass blend. Leave at least 30 minutes between addition No flocculation or sedimentation
of isinglass and auxiliary.
Cause Action
Dead yeast. Remove tank bottoms.
Grease on tank or pipe work. Check cleaning regime.

Layering Water quality (ionic balance). Seek specialist advice on water quality.

Cause Action Suspended solids too low. Check brew house (mashing / copper) regime.

Loose bottoms. Optimise isinglass / auxiliary finings.

Too many fine particles. Optimise copper fining. Over attenuation

Poor cellar handling. Improve rousing and handling regime. Cause Action

Poor cooling / skimming. Skim and/or cool easier.


Loose / fluffy bottom
Fermentability too high. Check grist, mash thickness and temperature.
Cause Action

Check grist composition. High sugar or syrup grist needs less copper fining. High dark malt grist needs less Slow fermentation
copper fining.
Optimise fining regime according to grist. Cause Action
Check efficiency of wort separation.
Slow fining

Cause Action

Over attenuation Too many fine particles (<10mm). Optimise copper fining.

TROUBLE SHOOTING
Cause

Poor cooling / skimming.

Fermentability too high.


Action

Skim and/or cool easier.

Check grist, mash thickness and temperature.


production TROUBLE SHOOTING
Excess copper fining.

Yeast count too high or low.


Optimise copper fining.

Ensure yeast count about 1 million cells/ml. Rouse/mix racking tank to


ensure even distribution of yeast count throughout racking.
production
Wild yeast & bacteria. Improve hygiene of all vessels / attachments.

Slow fermentation Finings temperature too low. Store as cool as possible (not <4°C), but note: cold increases
viscosity; heat denatures protein.
Cause Action
Residual fermentables too high. Check primings addition. Secondary fermentation increases CO2
Yeast pitching rate. Pitch more yeast. Normal pitching rate for worts up to 1060° is 1.7- absorption, causing flocs to float.
3.3g/l (pressed yeast, or about double for barm). This can be
increased by up to 25% to compensate for poor viability.
Starch granules. Check wort for starch presence using iodine solution.
Yeast pitching time. Pitch after vessel about quarter full of wort.
pH. Keep in range 3.8 - 4.2.
Low yeast viability. Improve yeast handling. More frequent changes. Acid wash at 4°C to
remove bacterial contamination, but only every 6-8 generations. Sticking fermentation
Yeast viability should be at least 90% (target 95%). Store yeast <4°C,
but do not freeze. Use within 72h.
Slurry yeast in vessels at 1 to 2°C. Cause Action
Pitching temperature: 15 to 17°C.
Early / sudden cooling (thermal Adjust cooling sequence or raise temperature of attemperation coolant.
shock).
Wort temperature too low/high. Correct at pitching. Too high creates yeast bite.
Early flocculation. Increase rousing time.
Wort oxygen level out of specification. Adjust aeration (oxygenation). Rouse and check Investigate calcium / phosphate balance in water (seek specialist advice).
Range is 8 - 20 mg/litre. Use 10psi (0.7 bar) air differential at injection
point to ensure small bubbles.
Consider using pure (medical) oxygen. Mash temperature too high. Lower mash temperature.
Increase time / vigour of rousing.
Yeast deterioration. Acid wash yeast: 4°C maximum.
Zinc levels too low. Add zinc salt or yeast food. Aim for 0.05 - 0.1 mg/litre. Replace cultures more often.
Levels up to 0.25 mg/litre may be necessary.
Lack of oxygen. Adjust wort aeration (see Slow fermentation).
Low ambient temperature. Warm up room or vessels prior to use.

Wort cloudy. Optimise copper finings.


Patchy run-off / Intermittant cloudiness
Check efficiency of wort separation.
Cause Action
Slow fining
Channelled bed. Ensure good mixing during mashing.
Cause Action Coarse grist grind.
Check sparging doesn't create channels and is even.
Too many fine particles (<10mm). Optimise copper fining.

Excess copper fining. Optimise copper fining. Production of problem worts

Yeast count too high or low. Ensure yeast count about 1 million cells/ml. Rouse/mix racking tank to Cause Action
ensure even distribution of yeast count throughout racking.
Last runnings too weak. Cut off collection at 1005°. Liquor back if necessary.
Wild yeast & bacteria. Improve hygiene of all vessels / attachments.

Finings temperature too low. Store as cool as possible (not <4°C), but note: cold increases Slow run-off
viscosity; heat denatures protein.
Cause Action
Cause Action

Channelled bed. Ensure good mixing during mashing.


Coarse grist grind.
Check sparging doesn't create channels and is even.

TROUBLE SHOOTING
Production of problem worts

Cause

Last runnings too weak.


Action

Cut off collection at 1005°. Liquor back if necessary.


production
Slow run-off

Cause Action

Milling too fine. Adjust mill.

Blockages in mash system. Check for blockages in: plate holes, underbed, pipe work leading from mash
vessel.

Sparge conditions. Check that sparging is even. Check sparge temperature is high enough, but not
higher than 78°C.

Set mash. Optimise stand time/temperature after mashing (63-68°C, 1 hour minimum stand).
Underlet bed and recirculate to refloat bed. Rake bed gently.

Adjunct addition too high. Use higher percentage malt in grist.

Too fast a run off. Bed is pulled down and slows run off. Underlet bed and recirculate to refloat bed.

Pump blockage. Clear blockage.

Variation between casks

Cause Action

Yeast levels. Yeast slugs in cask. Improve agitation before fining and racking.

Fining homogeneity. Check mixing in holding tank. Rouse before use.

Poor fining dispersion. Roll casks before stillage.


Muntons plc
Cedars Maltings
Stowmarket
Suffolk
IP14 2AG
UK
t. +44 (0) 1449 618300
www.muntons.com

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