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SEWERAGE DESIGN STANDARD

Supplementary Information to the WSAA Sewerage Code of Australia


WSA 02-2002-2.3 Melbourne Retail Water Agencies Version 1.0

Western Water
December 2014
CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT | SEWERAGE DESIGN STANDARD

Executive Summary
This Design Standard has been produced as a guide for use by technical personnel involved with the
design and construction of gravity sewers within Western Water’s service area.

The design and construction of sewer mains required for provision of services to subdivisions and other
land development works should be carried out in accordance with this Design Standard and the WSAA
Sewerage Code of Australia WSA 02-2002-2.3 Melbourne Retail Water Agencies Edition Version 1.0
(“the Sewerage Code”). The requirements set out in this Design Standard take precedence over those
in the Sewerage Code.

This document is a guideline only, and not intended to be a detailed specification for the purposes of
the design and construction of sewer mains. Designers and constructors are responsible for the
respective aspects of the design and construction process and the justification of any variations from
the requirements set out in the Sewerage Code and this Design Standard. Where there are any
discrepancies or inconsistencies between the Sewerage Code, this Design Standard, or any other
documents, standards or practices these should be discussed with Western Water prior to proceeding.

Enquiries or suggestions relating to the information set out in this Design Standard are welcome and
can be directed via email to designstandards@westernwater.com.au

Western Water will update this document as changes become necessary, and the most up to date
version will be available on our website.

This edition applies to all developments and sewerage design projects issued to commence design on
or after the publication date unless otherwise stated in writing by Western Water.

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Table of Contents
Part 1: Planning and Design .................................................................................................... 6
2 SYSTEM PLANNING ........................................................................................................ 6
2.1 Sewerage System Philosophy and Definition.................................................................. 6
2.1.4 Level 3 operating units ......................................................................................... 6
3 FLOW ESTIMATION ........................................................................................................ 6
3.2 Design Flow Estimation Method ................................................................................... 6
3.2.1 General .............................................................................................................. 6
4 DETAIL DESIGN......................................................................................................... 6
4.3 Horizontal Alignment of Sewers ................................................................................... 6
4.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 6
4.3.7 Horizontal curves in sewers................................................................................... 7
4.5 Pipe Sizing and Grading .............................................................................................. 7
4.5.1 General .............................................................................................................. 7
4.5.4 Minimum pipe sizes for maintenance purposes ........................................................ 8
4.5.9 Maximum grades for septicity................................................................................ 8
4.6 Vertical Alignment of Sewers ....................................................................................... 9
4.6.1 General .............................................................................................................. 9
4.7 Corrosion Prevention .................................................................................................. 9
4.7.2 Internal corrosion ................................................................................................ 9
5 PROPERTY CONNECTION ................................................................................................ 9
5.3 Methods of the Property Connection ............................................................................. 9
5.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 9
5.6 Location of Connection Points ...................................................................................... 9
5.7 Y-Property Connections .............................................................................................. 9
6 MAINTENANCE STRUCTURES ........................................................................................ 10
6.2 Locations of Maintenance Structures .......................................................................... 10
6.3 Spacing of Maintenance Structures ............................................................................ 10
6.3.1 General ............................................................................................................ 10
6.3.2 Maintenance Structure Spacing – Reticulation Sewers ............................................ 10
6.4 Special Considerations for Location of Maintenance Structures ...................................... 11
6.6 Maintenance Holes (MH) ........................................................................................... 11
6.7 Maintenance Shafts (MS) .......................................................................................... 12
6.7.3 Property Connection Sewer into MSs and TMSs ..................................................... 12

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MRWA 6.7.4 Inspection Shafts (IS)................................................................................. 12


7 ANCILLIARY STRUCTURES ............................................................................................ 13
7.2 Water Seals, Boundary Traps and Water-Sealed MHs/Gas Check MHs............................. 13
7.2.1 General design parameters ................................................................................. 13
7.3 Water Seals and Gas Check MHs................................................................................ 13
7.3.2 Design parameters for water seals and gas check MHs ........................................... 13
7.6 Near-Horizontal Boreholes ........................................................................................ 13
7.6.2 Design Requirements ......................................................................................... 13
7.8 Inverted Siphons ..................................................................................................... 13
7.8.2 Design parameters for inverted siphons................................................................ 13
7.9 Overflows / Emergency Relief Structures (ERS) ........................................................... 14
8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN .................................................................................................. 14
8.1 General .................................................................................................................. 14
9 DESIGN REVIEW AND DRAWINGS ................................................................................. 14
9.1 Design Review......................................................................................................... 14
9.2 Design Drawings...................................................................................................... 14
9.2.4 Structures ........................................................................................................ 14
Part 2: Products and Materials ............................................................................................... 16
10 PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS OVERVIEW ..................................................................... 16
10.6 Selection Guide for Pipeline Systems ....................................................................... 16
Part 3: Construction ............................................................................................................. 16
17 PIPE LAYING AND JOINTING ..................................................................................... 16
17.2 Horizontal and Vertical Deflection of Sewers ............................................................... 16
17.2.3 Horizontal curves............................................................................................... 16
17.12 Bored Pipes under Roads, Driveways and Elsewhere ................................................. 16
21 FILL ....................................................................................................................... 16
21.1 Trench Fill .............................................................................................................. 16
21.1.1 General ............................................................................................................ 16
21.1.3 Compaction of trench fill ..................................................................................... 16
21.1 Drives and Tunnel Fill .............................................................................................. 17
22 ACCEPTANCE TESTING ............................................................................................. 17
22.6 Deflection (Ovality) and Grade Testing of Flexible Sewers ............................................ 17
22.7 CCTV Inspection ..................................................................................................... 17
24 CONNECTION TO EXISTING SEWERS ......................................................................... 18
27 DEFECTS LIABILTY PERIOD ....................................................................................... 18

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Appendix A – Sewerage Design Checklist ................................................................................ 19


Appendix B – CCTV Inspection Acceptance Criteria For Newly Constructed Sewerage Assets.......... 24

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Part 1: Planning and Design

2 SYSTEM PLANNING
2.1 Sewerage System Philosophy and Definition

2.1.4 Level 3 operating units

2.1.4.2 Sewage pumping stations (SPSs)


New sentence:
Western Water may permit the use of sewer grades flatter than standard where there is opportunity to
avoid the need of a SPS. Refer to Section 4.5.1 for further details.

3 FLOW ESTIMATION
3.2 Design Flow Estimation Method

3.2.1 General
Include the following specific information for design flow estimation in Western Water’s area:
For estimation of design flows in Western Water’s area, use the values specified in the following table.
For catchments where these values are known or expected to vary, they should be adjusted
accordingly.

Parameter Value
450 for new lots (post 2012)
Flow (L/lot/day)
555 for existing lots (prior to 2012)
Population per lot 2.5 (for new lots post 2012)
PortionWet (% of sewer network below groundwater table) 35%
PortionImpervious (% of gross plan area impervious) 90%
Soil aspect, Saspect 0.8
Network defects and inflow aspect, Naspect 0.4
Containment ARI (years) 5
I1,2 (from design rainfall isopleth – AR&R, Volume 2) 19mm/hr

4 DETAIL DESIGN
4.3 Horizontal Alignment of Sewers

4.3.1 General
Include the following general information:
The horizontal alignment of sewers generally depends upon the following critical inputs:
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• Location of existing services;


• Location of existing easements;
• Location of existing above ground features (power poles, trees etc.);
• Areas of environmental significance;
• Areas of cultural heritage significance;
• Council requirements for works within land owned by Council;
• VicRoads requirements for works within the road reserve of VicRoads declared roads and freeways;
• VicTrack and/or V/Line requirements for works within railway reserves;
• Melbourne Water and/or Southern Rural Water requirements for works in the vicinity of waterways;
• Community preference (typically for larger sewers);
• Minimum offset requirements from private or public property.

4.3.7 Horizontal curves in sewers


New paragraph:
Western Water approval is required for all horizontal curves and sweep bends.

4.5 Pipe Sizing and Grading

4.5.1 General
Replace the first sentence with the following:
Pipe size and grade is typically based upon the following factors:

• Ability to transport the design flow;


• Ability to achieve self-cleansing velocity at least once per day;
• Effect of topography, geotechnical conditions and existing services on the pipe grade;
• Pipe material (various materials having different hydraulic roughness characteristics).

Western Water may consider the use of flat grades on reticulation, branch or trunk sewers where there
is opportunity to avoid the need for a sewage pumping station. New paragraph:
At the planning stage, consideration should be given to whether a sewage pumping station can be
avoided by using grades flatter than those specified in Table 4.3. Western Water may permit the use of
such grades after an assessment of the following information submitted by the developer/designer:

• Demonstration that sewer capacity and minimum air space requirements will not be compromised;
• Maximum daily velocity that will be achieved in the flat sewers;
• Likely maintenance schedule that will be required over the life of the sewer;
• Net Present Value (NPV) analysis over the life of the pumping station and sewer, to demonstrate
the total life cycle cost benefit of avoiding the need for a pumping station;
• Demonstration that the sewer can be constructed at the grades specified, and discussion of the
measures that will be taken during construction to reduce the risk of the sewer being laid flatter
than the design grade.

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4.5.4 Minimum pipe sizes for maintenance purposes


Western Water deems the pipe grades in the Sewerage Code to be too flat for a DN150 reticulation
sewer with 1 to 4 units upstream, and has minimum pipe size requirements for industrial areas.

Reticulation sewers to industrial areas are required to be 225mm diameter or greater unless otherwise
approved in writing. Property connection branches in industrial areas are required to be 150mm
diameter unless a larger connection is required to cater for estimated flows from particular site use
proposed.

Replace Table 4.3 with the following table:


TABLE 4.3
MINIMUM PIPE SIZES FOR RETICULATION AND PROPERTY CONNECTION SEWERS
Diameter (DN) No of Units Minimum Grade No of Units Minimum Grade
Residential Industrial & Commercial
100mm Not permitted for any reticulation sewers
150mm 1 to 4 units 1 in 80 1 to 4 units1 N/A
1
5 plus units 1 in 150 5 to 15 units N/A
225mm 1 to 15 units N/A 1 to 4 units1 1 in 100
1
16 to 50 units 1 in 200 5 to 15 units 1 in 150
50 plus units 1 in 300 16 to 30 units1 1 in 200
1
50 plus units 1 in 300

1 to 4 units2 1 in 100
5 to 20 units2 1 in 150
2
20 plus units 1 in 300
NOTES:
1 Applies only to commercial lots ≤ 300 m2 and properties zoned the equivalent of “light” or “urban”
industrial.
2 Applies only to commercial and industrial properties other than specified in Note 1.
3 Minimum grades for property connection sewers are 1 in 60 for 100mm diameter and 1 in 80 for
150mm diameter.

4.5.9 Maximum grades for septicity

4.5.9.2 Reticulation sewers


The Sewerage Code limits only the pipe half-full velocity to 3m/s. Replace the first sentence with:

Sewers must not be laid at grades were the maximum velocity will exceed 3 m/s in either partial flow,
full flow or under pressure flow.

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4.6 Vertical Alignment of Sewers

4.6.1 General
Include the following additional factors:

(h) Requirements for crossing the assets of Council, Vicroads, VicTrack and other authorities;
(i) Requirements of Melbourne Water and/or Southern Rural Water for crossing drains, creeks and
waterways;
(j) Geotechnical conditions; and
(k) Topography.

4.7 Corrosion Prevention

4.7.2 Internal corrosion


Replace the last sentence with the following:

Western Water requires the application of an approved lining or protective coating on all new
maintenance hole (MH) structures on sewers ≥DN450, gas check MHs, rising main discharge MHs,
sewage pumping station wet well/ valve pit chambers, and other specific structures as directed.

Where a rising main discharges to a gravity sewer system, the Designer shall undertake a detailed
odour and septicity assessment as outlined in Western Water’s Sewage Pump Station Design Standard
and WSA 04-2005. This assessment shall include a predictive analysis of hydrogen sulphide generation
to determine likely odour and corrosion impacts at the point of discharge and recommend any
appropriate control and/or elimination measures.

5 PROPERTY CONNECTION
5.3 Methods of the Property Connection

5.3.1 General
New paragraph:
Where a property connection is required within the close proximity to a maintenance hole, it is
preferred for the property connection to be connected directly to the maintenance hole, where
practical.

5.6 Location of Connection Points


New sentence:
For both undeveloped and developed lots, property connection points are to be located beyond the
property or easement boundary by a minimum of 500mm.

5.7 Y-Property Connections


Delete entire clause and replace with the following:

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Western Water does not permit the use of “Y” property connections.

6 MAINTENANCE STRUCTURES
6.2 Locations of Maintenance Structures
Western Water does not permit Maintenance Shafts to be used. The following table replaces the
equivalent rows of Table 6.1:

Application Acceptable Options


MH MS TMS/IS
Change of grade at same level YES NO NO
Change in sewer horizontal direction YES NO NO
Permanent end of a reticulation sewer YES NO YES
Only where there is
a MH within 45m
downstream
Straight sections of sewer between YES NO NO
MHs

6.3 Spacing of Maintenance Structures

6.3.1 General
Western Water requires spacing of maintenance structures to be determined by access from the
downstream maintenance hole. The inefficiency, occupational health and safety and environmental
risks (of solids spills) associated with jetting from upstream access chambers to clear blockages and
perform maintenance is unacceptable to Western Water.
Replace the second paragraph with:
The design shall ensure that access to every part of a sewer is achievable from the downstream
maintenance hole using equipment installed on a service vehicle legally parked on the nearest
boundary of the nearest road or readily accessible public land. “Legally parked” shall include street side
parking in road carriageways (but not freeways) and public care parks, but shall exclude parking within
the minimum specified distance of intersections. The measured distance between the service vehicle
and the maintenance structure shall be the slope distance in steep terrain, together with an allowance
for the vertical drop from ground level to sewer invert inside the maintenance structure itself. Where
these criteria cannot be met, the design shall include appropriate provisions for maintenance access

6.3.2 Maintenance Structure Spacing – Reticulation Sewers


The maximum distance permitted by Western Water between maintenance holes is 100m. Replace the
first two sentences with:
For reticulation sewers, the maximum distance between any two consecutive maintenance structures
shall be 100 m and subject to the provisions of Clause 6.3.1.
Max distance X is the lesser of: X = 100 m, or
X = 150 m – dist. to parked truck – depth of maintenance structure

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Western Water requires a MH to be located within 45m downstream of the permanent end of a
reticulation sewer. Replace Figure 6.1 with:
Where the last maintenance structure is a TMS or IS, a MH must be located with 45m downstream.

6.4 Special Considerations for Location of Maintenance


Structures
Western Water does not permit sewers to be located within the 1 in 5 year flood level. Replace point
(ii) with the following:
(ii) Location of sewers and MHs within the 1 in 100 year flood level shall be avoided as far as
practicable. Prior Western Water approval is required for the location of any new sewer inside
the 1 in 100 year flood level. Location of a sewer MH below the 1 in 5 year flood level will not
be permitted.

6.6 Maintenance Holes (MH)

6.6.2 Types of MH construction


Western Water does not permit the use of precast maintenance holes. Replace this section with the
following:

Standard MH construction shall be poured in situ comprising a poured base, channels and walls with a
poured or precast concrete cover slab.

Precast MHs must not be used unless written approval is obtained from Western Water. Such approvals
will only be granted in exceptional circumstances.

MH construction details are shown on Drawings SEW-1301-V, SEW-1302-V, SEW-1303-V, SEW-1304-


V, SEW-1305-V, SEW-1306-V, SEW-1307-V and SEW-1308-V.

Special MH construction may be permitted by Western Water. These include using other corrosion-
resistant materials such as PVC either as formwork or as a corrosion barrier, in conjunction with non-
standard construction techniques that may offer lower life cycle costs.

MHs may also be constructed from PE and other plastic materials provided that an approved product is
used.

Special MH construction details are shown on Standard Drawings SEW-1310-V, SEW-1311-V and SEW-
1312-V and Drawings SEW-1309-V and SEW-1313-V.

6.6.8 Ladders, step irons and landings


New sentence:
Step irons and ladders shall be located directly over the downstream MH base channel within 1050mm
and 1200mm diameter MHs. In MHs larger than 1200mm diameter the stepirons and ladders shall not
be located over the MH base channel and shall be located with an unobstructed area immediately in
front of the step irons or ladder as per Clause 6.6.6. Step irons and ladders shall be located a
minimum of 200mm from any drop pipe within the MH.
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6.6.9 MH Covers
New sentence:
MH covers are to be circular Gatic type which are opened with the standard Gatic lifter and have a
concrete infill.

6.7 Maintenance Shafts (MS)


Western Water does not permit Maintenance Shafts to be used, except as a TMS. Delete all references
to the use of MSs (except at TMSs) in the entire Section 6.7.

6.7.3 Property Connection Sewer into MSs and TMSs


Not used. Western Water does not permit property connections into MSs, TMSs or ISs.

MRWA 6.7.4 Inspection Shafts (IS)


Western Water requires ISs to be upstream of all property connection branches at the termination of
reticulation sewers. Replace this section with:
Inspection shafts (ISs) are generally an acceptable alternative to TMSs for sewers ≤DN225. ISs shall
only be used at the design locations detailed in Table 6.1.

Where ISs are installed at the termination of reticulation sewers, i.e. for branches less than 45 metres
in length, the IS shall be constructed upstream of all property connection branches.

IS types include:
(a) Terminal (Type A) – used in conjunction with a property connection immediately downstream.
(b) Vertical drop (Type B) – not used by Western Water.
(c) Intermediate (Type C) – not used by Western Water.

MRWA 6.7.4.2 Vertical drop inspection shaft (Type B)


Not used by Western Water

MRWA 6.7.4.3 Intermediate inspection shaft (Type C)


Not used by Western Water

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7 ANCILLIARY STRUCTURES
7.2 Water Seals, Boundary Traps and Water-Sealed MHs/Gas
Check MHs

7.2.1 General design parameters


New paragraphs:
Gas check MHs are not usually required by Western Water and shall not be provided without prior
approval. Boundary traps are not usually required by Western Water, but shall be provided where
required by Western Water.

7.3 Water Seals and Gas Check MHs

7.3.2 Design parameters for water seals and gas check MHs
New paragraphs:
The design of any gas check MH if required, shall be undertaken in accordance with specific design
requirements as provided by Western Water.

7.6 Near-Horizontal Boreholes

7.6.2 Design Requirements


Additional requirements:
Rubber ring or solvent cement jointed PVC may only be used for bores of 3 pipe lengths or less.

Where Western Water approval has been obtained for the use of bored PE, the design drawings shall
specify that the pipe shall be internally de-beaded prior to commissioning. Design grades flatter than
1:180 will not be permitted for bored PE.

7.8 Inverted Siphons

7.8.2 Design parameters for inverted siphons


Additional sentence in point (ii):
(ii) The siphon shall incorporate an inlet and outlet structure, which facilitates maintenance
and inspection. The purpose of the inlet and outlet structures on new siphons is that they enable
one siphon to be taken offline for cleaning and inspection whilst the second stays in operation.

Western Water requires a pipe material analysis to be undertaken for inverted siphons. Replace point
(xi) with:
(xi) A pipe material analysis shall be carried out to assess the preferred pipe material for
inverted siphons. Typical pipe materials include fully welded PE and steel.
Western Water requires a scour point to be included in the inverted siphon design. Odour and septicity
control also needs to be considered. Include new design parameters:

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(xv) A scour point shall be provided at the lowest point in the siphon. The low point shall be
located close to the inlet or outlet structure and shall be designed to take into account ease of
access for maintenance activities (including access for Western Water vehicles and eduction
trucks). Western Water’s preference is for the low point to be located as close as possible to the
inlet structure so that blockages can be cleared from upstream.
(xvi) For long siphons, the plugged flow conditions are conducive to septic conditions. All
siphons shall be designed to ensure that septicity is managed and odour control measures are
implemented.

7.9 Overflows / Emergency Relief Structures (ERS)


Additional sentence:
All identified critical spill points including ERSs shall be also fitted with an independent ‘Fail Safe’ alarm
to provide early detection of system blockages, equipment failure or hydraulic overloading that if left
unreported have the potential to result in a sewage spill. The Fail Safe alarms shall be fully
independent of any other monitoring and be provided with dedicated back-up power.

8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
8.1 General
New paragraph to define trench fill specification used by Western Water:
For works within Western Water’s service area, the MRWA Backfill Specification 04-03.1 (revision 1)
shall apply.

9 DESIGN REVIEW AND DRAWINGS


9.1 Design Review
Western Water requires the Sewer Design Checklist (attached in Appendix A of this Design Guide) to be
completed and submitted along with the design drawings for auditing purposes. New paragraph:
Once the design has been completed, Design Drawings shall be submitted to Western Water for
auditing purposes, accompanied by Western Water’s Sewer Design Checklist which shall be completed
by the designer. In general, Western Water will audit designs in the order they are received. It is
Western Water’s expectation that all designs submitted for auditing will comply with Western Water’s
design standards and will match the information provided in the accompanying Sewer Design Checklist.
Where discrepancies are found, the designer will be expected to revise the design drawings and/or
checklist and submit them for re-auditing.

9.2 Design Drawings

9.2.4 Structures
New items to be included on the Design Drawings:
(j) A base detail must be shown for MHs where there are three or more incoming sewers, two or
more drops, angles of deflection greater than 90 degrees, unusual configurations of incoming
sewers, or sewers are offset from the centre of the MH.

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(k) A base detail must be shown for any connections to existing MHs, unless connection is to an
existing stub that will not need to be modified. The detail shall show the existing layout and the
modifications that are required so that the minimum working spaces are maintained in the MH.
It is expected that existing MHs will be inspected as part of the design to confirm that they are
suitable for a new connection.

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Part 2: Products and Materials

10 PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS OVERVIEW


10.6 Selection Guide for Pipeline Systems
New paragraph:
Pipe and other associated products used on Western Water sewerage works shall be approved Western
Water products and materials. Written approval from Western Water must be obtained for any
alternative pipe materials prior to their proposed use.

Part 3: Construction

17 PIPE LAYING AND JOINTING


17.2 Horizontal and Vertical Deflection of Sewers

17.2.3 Horizontal curves


Replace last sentence with:
Western Water approval is required for curves and sweep bends on sewers ≥225mm diameter

New sentence:
All curved sewers shall be accurately surveyed and recorded on the as-constructed drawings including
offset from property boundary, curve radius, and tangent points.

17.12 Bored Pipes under Roads, Driveways and Elsewhere


New sentence:

A CCTV report shall be submitted at the completion of the work. The report must be prepared in
accordance with Western Water’s CCTV Inspection Standard: Supplementary Information to the WSAA
Conduit Inspection Reporting Code of Australia WSA 05-2013-3.1 Third Edition

21 FILL
21.1 Trench Fill

21.1.1 General
New sentence at end of 1st paragraph:
For works within Western Water’s service area, the MRWA Backfill Specification 04-03.1 (revision 1)
shall apply.

21.1.3 Compaction of trench fill


New sentence:
Flooding or jetting of fill materials in excavation is not permitted under any circumstances.

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21.1 Drives and Tunnel Fill


New sentence at end of 1st paragraph:
For works within Western Water’s service area, the MRWA Backfill Specification 04-03.1 (revision 1)
shall apply.

22 ACCEPTANCE TESTING
22.6 Deflection (Ovality) and Grade Testing of Flexible Sewers
Western Water requires Laser Light Profiling to be undertaken on all newly constructed sewer systems
to test deflection and grade. New paragraph:

Laser light profiling shall be undertaken on newly constructed sewer systems based on the criteria set
out in Clause 22.7 for the purpose of:

• Recording of sewer deflection (ovality).


• Recording of sewer grade against chainage to verify the sewer has been graded as per the
design.
The Contractor shall submit a Laser profiling report containing the following:

• Video in AVI format.


• Ovality profile in MS Excel or PDF.
• Long section chart/grade profile in MS Excel or PDF.
• Written summary outlining the results in relation to the acceptance criteria as stated in Table
22.7 (deflection) and 23.2.3 (grade).

The Laser Profiling/CCTV Contractor must demonstrate to Western Water that they have undergone
training in the use of the Laser Profiler and are competent in its use. The Laser Profiling equipment
must be regularly serviced and certified to WRc standards by a reputable certification scheme. Prior to
use, the equipment shall be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations and
documentation to this effect available on site.

With Laser Profiling being used to assess sewer deflection, ovality proving using a proving tool is not
required in addition to Laser Profiling.

22.7 CCTV Inspection


Western Water takes a risk based approach to determining CCTV inspection requirements of newly
constructed sewer systems. New paragraph:
Western Water requires CCTV inspection of all newly constructed sewer systems, over and above the
requirements for MH vacuum testing, deflection testing, air/vacuum testing and compaction testing, in
the following circumstances;

• All sewers ≥300mm - <750mm diameter require CCTV and Laser Profiling Ovality inspections to
be undertaken.
• All sewers ≥750mm diameter require either Infrared distance meter inspection or CCTV and
Laser Profiling Ovality inspection. (subject to equipment availability).
• All sewers <DN300mm diameter which are greater than 5 metres in depth or have been
constructed using trenchless methods require CCTV and Laser Profiling Ovality inspections to be
undertaken.

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• All reticulation sewers <DN300mm diameter and less than 5 metres in depth shall be
acceptance tested using a proving tool (ovality ball) unless there is evidence of unusual
installation problems or risks.

A CCTV report shall be submitted at the completion of the work. The report must be prepared in
accordance with Western Water’s CCTV Inspection Standard: Supplementary Information to the WSAA
Conduit Inspection Reporting Code of Australia WSA 05-2013-3.1 Third Edition. Acceptance criteria for
newly constructed sewerage assets shall be as per Appendix B.

Testing shall be undertaken as per Table below:

Deflection Testing
Flexible Pipes
Diameter (DN) CCTV Rigid Pipes (ie.
Laser Profiling
Proving Tool VC)
Ovality Inspection
≥300mm YES N/A YES N/A
<300mm where depth
>5m or has been
YES N/A YES N/A
constructed using
trenchless methods
ON WW
<300mm YES ON WW REQUEST1 N/A
REQUEST1
Note 1. On WW Request at the initiation prior to award of contract

24 CONNECTION TO EXISTING SEWERS


New paragraphs:
Cut-ins to live sewers shall only be carried out by contractors accredited to work on live sewers. The
contractor must have obtained a Works Approval and a Certificate of Entry from Western Water for the
date and time of the sewer connection. These forms are available at www.westernwater.com.au.

The contractor must provide all confined space entry equipment and staff in accordance with
Occupational Health and Safety regulations current at the time, and provide appropriate bypass
pumping arrangements and standby equipment prior to attempting a connection to a live sewer.

New section 27:

27 DEFECTS LIABILTY PERIOD


Unless otherwise advised by Western Water, the Defects Liability Period for all sewer works shall be 12
months.

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Appendix A – Sewerage Design Checklist

Criteria Complete Comments


Survey Datum
Is the Australian Height Datum (A.H.D) noted on design plans?
Is the Australian Map Grid (A.M.G) / Geocentric Datum of
Australia (G.D.A) noted on design plans?
Are PBMs and/or TBM's shown on design plans and are
AMG/GDA co-ordinates for these PBMs/TBMs shown?
Has the whole catchment (required to be controlled through this
development) been controlled?
Gravity Sewers, Rising Mains or Siphons
Are all sewers along the front of properties located within road
reserve and not within the property unless otherwise approved
by Western Water?
Are there any curved sewers? Note that curved sewers are only
permitted for 150mm diameter sewers.
Are all curved sewers designed correctly (radius greater than
the standard, jointing technique, no property connections on the
curved sections etc.)?
Is minimum cover achieved on all pipes?

Has continuously jointed pipe been specified for any water


crossings?
Are there any railway crossings? Has the crossing design been
carried out in accordance with the Australian Standards and
VicTrack requirements? Has VicTrack provided written approval?
Note a detail drawing for the railway crossing to 1:500 scale in
addition to a locality plan should be provided.
Are all maintenance structures located out of the railway
reserve? Is a minimum of 1m clear space provided around
maintenance structure near confined boundaries?
Are there any freeway crossings? Has the crossing design been
carried out in accordance with the Australian Standards and
VicRoads requirements? Has VicRoads provided written
approval?
Does the alignment of the pipeline cross at right angles to the
freeway?
Are all maintenance structures located clear of the freeway
reserve?
Are minimum clearances from other services achieved?

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Criteria Complete Comments


Are there any crossings of Council Drains or Melbourne
Water/Southern Rural Water drains/waterways? Has written
approval to the design been obtained?
Does the location of the rising main comply with Western Water
requirements?
Western Water approval for installation of Siphon received?
Do offsets of the sewer comply with WSAA standards?
Have all existing utilities been identified on drawings?
Has a Dial Before You Dig (DBYD) search been carried out?
Are any works proposed within a VicRoads declared road?
Are any works proposed in the vicinity of Melbourne Water
assets and/or waterways? Has the design taken into account
Melbourne Water requirements?
Has the requirement for odour control measures been assessed
and incorporated into the design?
Maintenance Structures
Does the distance between maintenance structures comply with
standards (i.e. generally 100m as per Western Water
requirements)?
Are all maintenance structures numbered in accordance with
standards?
Is the area subject to flooding?
If subject to flooding, do all maintenance holes have bolt down
covers and are all cover levels above the 1 in 5 year storm
event level?
Are there any gas check maintenance holes? Has the use of gas
check maintenance holes been approved by Western Water?
Are Gas Check maintenance holes located in the road reserve
and are there ultimately more than 50 lots connected to it?
Are there any maintenance holes greater than 6m in depth?
Are landings, handgrips, ladders etc. in accordance with
standards and are correct materials specified on design plans?
Are structural computations of maintenance structures deeper
than 6m provided?
Are all maintenance structure locations in accordance with
Western Water standards and with a minimum of 1m clearance
from confined boundaries?
Are minimum clearances to other services achieved?
Are the maintenance holes’ cover class and cover size noted on
design plans?

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Criteria Complete Comments


Have any pre-cast maintenance holes been specified? Has their
used been approved by Western Water?
Are correct diameters of maintenance holes nominated on
design plans, as well as the minimum diameter to be used?
Is detailed MH table design required to be submitted? (e.g. two
or more internal drops, three or more incoming sewers, sewers
offset from the MH centre, angle of deflection >90o)
Are MH table designs in accordance with standards?
Are there any sewers or other underground structures to be
built next to existing structures?
Are guidance notes provided to the contractor for excavation
next to existing manholes to preserve stability of the manholes
during construction?
Where connecting to existing MHs, have these been inspected
as part of the design and are details provided on the drawings
of the existing layout and modifications required? Are working
spaces still to standard?
Design of Gravity Sewers (including Hydraulics)
Are the correct pipe diameters specified in accordance with
standards?
Does the grade of each pipe comply with standards?
Are IL's of sewers correctly identified?
Are all pipe materials, pipe classes, jointing methods etc.
specified on design plans and are they all approved products?
Is the trench width provided or referred to relevant design
standards?
Has the embedment material been specified and is it suitable
for the pipe and geotechnical conditions?
Are compaction requirements for trench bottom (if required),
embedment, and backfill specified or referred to relevant
Australian Standards?
Are backfill design specifications provided or referred to WSAA
code drawing or relevant standards?
Are embedment types specified according to WSAA standard
drawings or cross section details provided?
Are any grades steeper than 1 in 10 or flatter than 1 upon
diameter?
Have trench stops been provided where required?
Is the velocity through the pipe below 3 m/s in both partial and
full flow (or under pressure flow if a pressure main)?

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Criteria Complete Comments


For steeply graded sewers, is the energy dissipated in the
maintenance hole?
Are there any sewers greater than 5m in depth?
Has the ground conditions report been provided for sewers
deeper than 5m?
Are there wet/poor ground conditions?
Has a specialist geotechnical assessment been made?
Has adequate trench design been made and relevant details
provided?
Has an Emergency Relief Structure (ERS) been incorporated in
design?
Have HGL details been submitted ensuring that there is no
possibility of overflow upstream at MHs, property drains, etc?
Are structural design computations for trench design sewer
pipes provided?
Are water seals (i.e. boundary traps) specified where required,
and has Western Water approval been obtained for their use?
Property Connections
Are all properties provided with a property branch/connection
and is the type of branch/connection nominated on design
plans?
Have any Y-property branches/connections been nominated?
(note not permitted)
Is the depth for property connections junctions and end fittings
in accordance with the standard?
Do property connections extend beyond the property/easement
boundary by a minimum of 500mm?
Gravity Sewers greater than 225mm in Diameter
Are self cleansing/slime stripping velocities achieved at PDWF?
Is the class of pipe and all embedment details shown on design
plans?
Are any sewers surcharging under 1 in 5 year floods (i.e.
PWWF)?
Are property connections only on sewers 300mm in dia. and
less?
Inverted Siphons
Are minimum velocities achieved at PDWF?

Does the difference in inlet level and outlet level comply with
Western Water standards?

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Criteria Complete Comments


Has the siphon hydraulics been designed to confirm sediments
are flushed through the downstream reach of the siphon during
PDWF?
Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment
Has the designer, in designing the sewerage system element
that is being audited, integrated hazard identification and risk
assessment methods to eliminate the risk of injury throughout
the life of the system?

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Appendix B – CCTV Inspection Acceptance Criteria For


Newly Constructed Sewerage Assets

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TABLE B1
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR RIGID SEWERS – VITRIFIED CLAY, STEEL REINFORCED CONCRETE

Defect/Feature Characterisation 1 Characterisation 2 Quantification 1 Acceptance determination and explanation


Cracking C L, C, S, or M Surface cracking is common in concrete and is usually
not of concern. Such cracking is usually of limited
extent and does indicate structural failure. However,
surface cracking that is extensive may indicate a
problem with concrete quality. Report in remarks for
the Water Agency to review.
Surface cracking is unlikely in VC products currently on
the market although it should be noted that internally
glazed VC pipes are now again available. If surface
cracking is observed report in remarks for the Water
Agency to review.
Fracturing F L, C, S, or M Not acceptable – all of these types of cracking are
indicative of poor handling, unsatisfactory installation
or overloading.
Breaking B D, M, or E Not acceptable.
Deformation D Not acceptable.
Collapsed X Not acceptable.
Porous sewers Not acceptable.
(pipes) PP
Surface damage S S, AV*, or W Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Z Identify, report and refer to Water Agency for
acceptance determination.
* Not applicable to AP*, AM*, RC*, CP*, Not acceptable - unlikely to be observed in new
VC H* or WS* construction.
RV* or RVP* Not acceptable - cover to reinforcement is clearly less
than specified in relevant pipe standard.
continued

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Defect/Feature Characterisation 1 Characterisation 2 Quantification 1 Acceptance determination and explanation


Lining defective D, E, WD or L Defects indicated not acceptable. The lining is placed
PL** during manufacture in the top 330° of the pipe and is
** Applicable to required to be joined after installation at each pipe
plastics lined joint.
concrete pipes only Z Lining on invert of pipe (pipe installed upside down) –
not acceptable.
Identify other defects, report in remarks and refer to
Water Agency for acceptance determination.
Deposits on wall or E Not acceptable - should not occur in new sewer.
invert DE
S or R Not acceptable.
C Not acceptable.
W or Z Identify material, report in remarks and refer to Water
Agency for acceptance determination.
Exfiltration EX Not acceptable – exfiltration is most likely associated
with a joint defect or broken pipe.
Infiltration S S, D, R or G Not acceptable.
Ingress of soil ING Not acceptable.
Roots R T, F, or M Not acceptable – the presence of roots indicated a
possible problem with installation at joints, poor quality
concrete, cracks and/or fractures.
Joint displacement L Not acceptable – if joint displacement exceeds
JD maximum specified by manufacturer for the joint.
R >5 mm for pipe Not acceptable.
sizes up to DN 250
>10 mm for pipe
sizes from above
DN 250 to DN 500
>20 mm for pipe
sizes above DN 500

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Defect/Feature Characterisation 1 Characterisation 2 Quantification 1 Acceptance determination and explanation


A Normally unacceptable on ‘straight’ sewers (see
maximum limits for ‘curved’ sewers below). Report
deflection and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
For ‘curved’ sewers using ‘pulled’ pipes report the
distance between the end of spigot and end of socket
(adjoining pipe) at worst point and the angular
deflection at the joint. Refer to Water Agency for
acceptance determination.
Jointing material R N, HH, HL or B Not acceptable.
(seal) intrusion) JI
Z Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Point repair RP L, I, S, H or IC Some techniques may not be acceptable in new sewers.
Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Z Identify repair technique, report in remarks and refer to
Water Agency for acceptance determination.
Defective repair RX M or P Not acceptable.
B or Z Determine extent of ‘bellies’ or other defects. Report
and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Obstruction OB B, M, I, J or C Not acceptable.
Z Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
P or S Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Flow (water) level >15mm or 5% Not acceptable above the limit indicated.
WL whichever is the Flow (water) level above a nominal level may be caused
greater (no flow by flow from upstream or a blockage, debris in the
from upstream and invert or some other feature downstream. It is not a
no blockage or defect itself.
debris
It does indicate a defect. However, where there is no
downstream)
flow from upstream and there is no blockage
downstream, the most likely defect indicated in this

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Defect/Feature Characterisation 1 Characterisation 2 Quantification 1 Acceptance determination and explanation


situation is gradient misalignment (i.e. one of more
pipes have dropped below the grade and ponding has
occurred).
Defective junction P, D, B, BC, SR, SE or Not acceptable.
JX Z
Connection CN G or P Not acceptable - junction required.

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TABLE B2
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR FLEXIBLE SEWER PIPES – PLASTICS (PVC, PE, PP, GRP), DUCTILE IRON AND
STEEL

Defect/Feature Characterisation 1 Characterisation 2 Quantification 1 Remarks


Cracking C L, C, S, or M S Not acceptable. Not usually a feature of these pipe
materials but may be apparent in cement mortar linings
and internal corrosion barrier (“gel-coat”) of GRP.
Report as Lining defective ‘PL’.
L, C, S, or M W Not acceptable. Not usually a feature of these pipe
materials but where it does occur, it would generally
indicate excessive external loads from construction
equipment.
Fracturing F L, C, S, or M Not acceptable.
Breaking B D, M, or E Not acceptable.
Deformation D >5% after 60 days Not acceptable.
Local or point No code Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
deformation – no Record General determination. An unusual feature with many possible
code Comment GC causes.

Collapsed X Not acceptable.


Porous sewers Not acceptable. Not likely to be a feature of these
(pipes) PP pipes.
Surface damage S W Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Z Identify, where possible, report and refer to Water
Agency for acceptance determination.
CP or H Not acceptable. Unlikely to be observed in new
construction.
Lining defective PL D●, E●* or B ●* Not acceptable
* Applicable to internal corrosion barrier in GRP pipes
* Applicable to PE internal lining of ductile iron and
steel pipes

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Defect/Feature Characterisation 1 Characterisation 2 Quantification 1 Remarks


Z Identify other defects, where possible, report and refer
to Water Agency for acceptance determination.
Deposits on wall E Not acceptable - Should not occur in new sewer.
or in invert DE
S or R Not acceptable.
C Not acceptable.
W or Z Identify, where possible, report and refer to Water
Agency for acceptance determination.
Exfiltration EX Not acceptable – exfiltration is most likely associated
with a joint defect or broken pipe.
Infiltration S S, D, R or G Not acceptable.
Ingress of soil ING Not acceptable.
Roots R T, F, or M Not acceptable – the presence of roots indicated a
possible problem with installation at joints, poor quality
concrete, cracks and/or fractures.
Joint displacement L Not acceptable – if joint displacement exceeds
JD maximum specified by manufacturer for the joint.
R >5 mm for pipe Not acceptable.
sizes up to DN 250
>10 mm for pipe
sizes from above
DN 250 to DN 500
>20 mm for pipe
sizes above DN 500
A Normally unacceptable on ‘straight’ sewers (see
maximum limits for ‘curved’ sewers below). Report
deflection and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
For ‘curved’ sewers using ‘pulled’ pipes report the
distance between the end of spigot and end of socket
(adjoining pipe) at worst point and the angular
deflection at the joint. Refer to Water Agency for
acceptance determination.
Jointing material R N, HH, HL or B Not acceptable.

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Defect/Feature Characterisation 1 Characterisation 2 Quantification 1 Remarks


(seal) intrusion) JI Z Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Point repair RP L, I, S, H or IC Some techniques may not be acceptable in a new
sewer. Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Z Identify repair technique, report in remarks and refer to
Water Agency for acceptance determination.
Defective repair M or P Not acceptable.
RX
B or Z Determine extent of ‘bellies’ or other defects, report
and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Obstruction OB B, M, I, J or C Not acceptable.
Z Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
P or S Report and refer to Water Agency for acceptance
determination.
Flow (water) level >15mm or 5% Not acceptable above the limit indicated.
WL whichever is the Flow (water) level above a nominal level may be caused
greater (no flow by flow from upstream or a blockage, debris in the
from upstream and invert or some other feature downstream. It is not a
no blockage or defect itself.
debris
It does indicate a defect. However, where there is no
downstream)
flow from upstream and there is no blockage
downstream, the most likely defect indicated in this
situation is gradient misalignment (i.e. one of more
pipes have dropped below the grade and ponding has
occurred).
Defective junction P, D, B, BC, SR, SE or Not acceptable.
JX Z
Connection CN G or P Not acceptable - junction required.

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TABLE B3
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA PIPE AND FITTING CONFIGURATION – ALL SEWERS
The configuration of items in a new sewer is usually defined in design drawings, standard drawings and specifications
Compliance with some of these requirements may be determined by inspection
The inspector shall have a copy of design drawings, standard drawings and specifications applicable to the works being
inspected for reference in determining the acceptance of nominated and other features.
The following table describes nominated features that are to be reported to the Water Agency.

Feature Description Acceptance determination and explanation


Rocker These a shorter pipes than the normal unit pipe length and The required length of rocker pipe and the configuration of pipes at the
pipes are required by some Water Agencies adjacent to structures structure are specified in design drawings, standard drawings and or
such as maintenance holes, other structures and concrete specifications for particular pipe materials.
encasement The inspector should record the distance at each joint adjacent to the
The purpose is to allow for differential settlement between structure to determine the length of the rocker pipe and report it in
the structure and the pipeline without cracking, fracturing or remarks.
distortion of the pipe adjacent to the structure Length outside of tolerance of ± 150mm of required length not
acceptable – refer to Water Agency for acceptance determination.
Bends Bends occur in some sewers at changes of direction and or Not acceptable if the camera unit cannot pass through the bend.
grade. In some cases compound bends (vertical and Not acceptable if jointing materials at mitres intrude more than 10mm
horizontal) may be encountered into the sewer.
In small diameters up to DN 225 bends are likely to be The transition to bend from straight line should not exceed the angular
moulded or post-formed long radius. For ≥DN 225 it is likely deflection for the joint system used Record joint deflection if
that bends will be fabricated in a ‘lobster back’ with a series observable.
of mitre cuts and the pipes joined with epoxy, hot air
Where the installation of the bend results in ponding the acceptance
welding or some other technique
criteria applied for maximum water level in the previous tables shall
also be applied.
The distance at the start and finish of bends shall be recorded in the
inspection report.
Connections This is where another sewer to provide a service for a Not acceptable.
customer has been connected to the pipeline being
inspected after the pipeline has been installed The
connection is formed by making a hole in the original pipe
and setting the connecting pipe in place

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Feature Description Acceptance determination and explanation


This feature is not part of new sewer construction
continued
Junction A junction is a prefabricated fitting installed as part of the Not acceptable if configuration varied from Water Agency’s
original construction or post construction by inserting the specification/standard drawing.
junction fitting in the pipeline All junctions for direct customer connection should be provided with a
Junctions are provided to allow customers to connect house PVC plain wall solvent weld socket with screwed cap or for VC, a
drains directly to the sewer or allow a property connection plugged VC to PVC plain wall adaptor
sewer to be extended to the customer’s property Inspect each junction lateral and report compliance
Acceptable configurations of junctions should be specified by
the Water Agency
Maintenance Provide access to the sewer for maintenance equipment but Not acceptable if the CCTV camera and transportation unit cannot
shafts and not person entry traverse through the maintenance shaft.
chambers May have an integral bend or may have an adjoining The transition to maintenance shaft from bend or straight line must not
(generally upstream) long radius bend exceed the angular deflection for the joint system used
Can have up to three inlets Record joint deflection if observable and refer to Water Agency for
acceptance determination.

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