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African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic

Volume 5, Issue 12 NEWSLETTER December 2010

OVERPOPULATION / DE-POPULATION
Uganda has Youngest What is the African Traditional
Population Herbal Research Clinic?
We can make you healthy and wise
By Raymond Baguma
Nakato Lewis
20th September, 2010 Blackherbals at the Source of the Nile, UG Ltd.
New Vision
UGANDA has the youngest population in the whole The African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic located
world after Niger, according to the latest Population in Bukoto, Uganda is a modern clinic facility created to
Reference Bureau’s (PRB) 2010 World Population Data establish a model space whereby indigenous herbal
Sheet released in July. practitioners and healers can upgrade and update their
skills through training and certification and respond to
The data sheet ranks Niger the worst, with 50.1% of its
common diseases using African healing methods and
population below 15 years, while Uganda follows
traditions in a modern clinical environment.
closely with 48.7%. In third place is Burkina Faso,
followed by DR Congo, Zambia and Malawi.
Traditional healers are the major health labor resource
Afghanistan, Chad, Somalia and Tanzania are in the top in Africa as a whole. In Uganda, indigenous traditional
ten countries with the youngest populations in the world. healers are the only source of health services for the
majority of the population. An estimated 80% of the
On the other hand, Japan has the oldest population, with
population receives its health education and health care
22.6% of Japanese aged above 65 years. Germany is in
from practitioners of traditional medicine. They are
second place, followed by Italy, Sweden, Greece,
knowledgeable of the culture, the local languages and
Portugal, Bulgaria, Austria, Latvia and Belgium in tenth
local traditions. Our purpose is to raise public
position.
awareness and understanding on the value of African
Other indicators that are exammined include the birth traditional herbal medicine and other healing practices
and death rate, migration rates, population projections, in today’s world.
Continued on page 2
The Clinic is open and operational. Some of the
INSIDE THIS ISSUE services we offer are African herbal medicine,
3 Afrikan Spirituality – Traditions and Customs of Njovu Clan reflexology, acupressure, hot and cold hydrotherapy,
4 Feature – Calculated Optimism body massage, herbal tonics, patient counseling, blood
6 Feature – Radical Population Control and Eugenics pressure checks, urine testing (sugar), and nutritional
8 Feature – Food Crisis is not about a Shortage of Food profiles. We believe in spirit, mind and body. Spiritual
9 Researchers advocate for Biotechnology
counseling upon request.
10 9 Million Children Worldwide died before Age 5
16 Southern Africa Life Expectancy Rising Slightly - UN Visit us also at www.Blackherbals.com
17 Feature – Population Time Bomb: 89M Ugandans by 2037
21 Why Horn of Africa is Starving Hours:10:00 am to 6:00 pm Monday thru Friday
23 Food Scarcity: Paradox of Hunger amidst Plenty Saturday by Appointment, Sundays – Closed
26 When Childbirth becomes a Deadly Gamble
28 Feature – Overpopulation / Population Reduction
31 Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage
33 Placenta: New Source for Harvesting Stem Cells
35 Placenta Traditions
37 African Heritage: African Background of Medical Science
40 Contraceptive Stockouts Threatens Family Planning
48 Black women are more likely to have Abortions than White
49 Polysorbate 80 in Swine Flu Vaccines-Infertility in Humans
50 CDC Falsifies Reports, 3,587 Miscarriages from Vaccine
56 Herb of the Month – Herbal Conceptives and Abortifacients
-1- Traditional African Clinic – December 2010
Cont’d from page 1 – Uganda has Youngest Population icant financial costs of meeting children’s health and
educational needs are prohibitive for many developing
child deaths, fertility rate, life expectancy, prevalence of countries,” the report notes.
HIV/AIDS, urban populations, contraceptive use,
maternal mortality rate, presence of sanitation facilities Population growth:
and mobile phone subscriptions. In population projections, the datasheet shows that
Uganda’s population currently stands at 33.8 million
The report establishes a relationship between the people. With the present population growth rate of about
respective countries’ population structures, to fertility
3.4, by mid-2050 the country’s population will stand at 91.3
rates in the named countries. For instance, Niger, which
million people.
has the youngest population, also has the highest fertility
rate in the world at 7.4 children per woman. Uganda in Projections for neighbouring countries show that Kenya’s
second position also has the second highest fertility rate population will rise from the estimated 40 million to about
in the world at 6.5. 65.2 million people by 2050; and Rwanda’s population will
stand at 28.3 million. Also, Burundi’s population will rise
“There are two major trends in world population today,”
from the current 8.5 million to 16.8 million and Tanzania
said the PRB president, Bill Butz. “On the one hand,
will be at 109.5 million people.
chronically low birth rates in developed countries are
beginning to challenge the health and financial security of Mobile phone subscription:
their elderly. The datasheet also shows that Uganda comes third in the
East African region after Kenya and Tanzania with the
On the other, the developing countries are adding over 80
highest number of mobile phone subscribers per 100
million to the population every year and the poorest of
inhabitants.
those countries are adding 20 million, exacerbating
poverty and threatening the environment.” In Uganda, for every 100 inhabitants, 27 have a mobile
phone, while for every 100 Tanzanians, 31 people have a
While the countries with the highest fertility rates are not
mobile phone. Also, for every 100 Kenyans, 42 have a
the most populous in the world, the datasheet points out
mobile phone.
that countries whose nationals are mainly below 14 years
of age, have a high dependency which burdens In Burundi, for every 100 Burundians, only 6 have a mobile
governments, communities and families. phone, while for every 100 Rwandans, 14 have a mobile
phone.
The datasheet notes that the total population of sub-
Saharan Africa stands at 865 people, with young people The East African Community member states score high in
making up more than 42% of the total population. Sub- mobile phone subscription compared to Ethiopia, where out
Saharan Africa consists of all countries of Africa except of every 100 Ethiopians, only two have mobile phones.
the northern African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, But in the United Arab Emirates, for every 100 nationals,
Morocco, Tunisia and Western Sahara. 209 have a mobile phone.
It also shows that this year, the global population has Sanitation:
risen to 6.9 billion from 6.1 billion 10 years ago, with About 69% of people in sub-Saharan Africa do not use
high population growth rates recorded in developing improved sanitation facilities such as latrines and flush
countries. toilets. The situation varies depending on location, with
The developed countries, which have a total population rural areas worst off. However, the use of improved
of 1.2 billion people, are recording ageing populations as sanitation is particularly low in some urban environments
the working age populations dwindle. On the other hand, as well.
Africa’s population is expected to stand at about 2.1 In sub-Saharan Africa, only 44% of urban residents use
billion by 2050. improved sanitation. In Uganda, the report cites, only 38%
However, this projection depends on the decline of the of the urban population uses improved sanitation facilities.
continental fertility rate in Africa from 5.2 to about 2.5 by http://www.newvison.co.ug/D/8/12/732624
2050 with rising use of family planning methods. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Countries with high youth dependency are advised to
provide high-quality and accessible education and health
services to young people.
“Without these investments, children are less likely to
grow into healthy and productive adults. But the signif-
-2- Traditional African Clinic – December 2010
AFRIKAN SPIRITUALITY
Traditions and Customs of the
Njovu Clan
Background
The Njovu Clan is one of the 56 recognised clans of
Buganda. Therefore, its traditions, customs and norms are not
different from those of other clans. They are part and parcel The traditional shrine as a symbol of our cultural history
of the culture and heritage of the Baganda people. The Clan
has no culture peculiar to itself.
It must be pointed out that these traditions and customs exist external religions, mainly Christianity and Islam,
in a traditional religious environment. They have been handed have impacted upon the traditions and customs of
down from generation to generation for centuries, and they the Baganda and therefore their traditional religion.
have become part and parcel of people’s lives. For this External religions have made great influence upon
reason, the Baganda have been described as being notoriously the Baganda through their faiths, their teachings,
religious. their ideals, and their schools and hospitals which
The traditional religion of the Baganda is the religious system have accompanied the Christian Gospel and Muslim
which the Baganda forefathers developed in response to their Dawa.
life’s situations. This religion, up to a point, gave the It must be pointed out, however, that the coming of
Baganda satisfactory answers to their problems, especially universal religions found the Baganda with no
those concerned with birth, marriage, death, the hereafter, religious vacuum since they had their own
misfortune, suffering, sickness, and so on. It also quenched indigenous religion; and that despite the spread of
their religious thirst, and helped them to find a meaningful universal religions and the abuses that were levelled
interpretation and understanding of the world in which they against African traditions, the Baganda have failed
lived. to totally abandon their traditional religious beliefs
The religion of the Baganda is reflected in their rituals, because of their significance and usefulness to their
practices, ceremonies and festivals, shrines, sacred places and survival. In any case, the beliefs, practices,
religious objects, art and symbols, names of people and ceremonies, and festivals are part and parcel of his
places, beliefs and customs, proverbs, riddles, myths and existence. They are part and parcel of their culture;
legends, values and morals, as well the people who conduct and are implied in the integrated patterns of human
traditional religious matters. This is what makes the Baganda behaviour that includes thoughts, communications,
notoriously religious. All aspects of the lives of the Baganda actions, customs, beliefs, values and institutions of
therefore are influenced by traditional religion, and social groups.
everything they do, whether knowingly or unknowingly, has
a religious connotation. In addition, modern changes, brought about by
external contact and cultural influences, have
The Baganda believed and still believe in the existence of a exerted and are still exerting great influence on the
supernatural force that makes things happen without traditions and culture of the Baganda.
necessarily man’s involvement. This invisible force is what Unavoidably, certain aspects of these traditions and
makes the Muganda to be religious. This concept of religion culture have become or are becoming outdated, but
has been with man since the time of creation. The traditional strong values, virtues, beliefs and practices will
religion of the Baganda is the product of the thinking and survive while weak ones will perish. Many of them
experiences of our fathers. It is an essential part of the way of will be changed or transformed to meet the needs of
life of the Baganda people. Its influence covers all aspects of the changing times.
life, from long before the Muganda is born, when he/she is
still in the loins of his/her parents, when he/she exists as a In the following notes, traditions and customs are
living human being and even after his/her death. discussed alongside modern changes and
trends. Information on this has been gathered
It should also be noted that certain changes brought about by through research involving:
--------------------------
Managing Editor: Nakato Lewis • A review of literature on the customs and
PUBLISHER: KIWANUKA LEWIS traditions of the Baganda put out by eminent writers
Published monthly and freely by BHSN for the ATHR Clinic Continued on page 52

-3- Traditional African Clinic – December 2010


African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 5, Issue 12 NEWSLETTER December 2010

FEATURED ARTICLES
Calculated Optimism: Africa's Growing Young
Population, Demographic Dividends, and the African
Renaissance
By Wilson Aiwuyor
August 23, 2010
population trend, claiming that the continent is
overpopulated. They are, understandably, concerned
about the strains of Africa’s population on the
environment and natural resources. They caution
against the effects of overpopulation on poverty
reduction effort and on the continent’s overall capacity
to sustain its people. But Africa’s population dynamic
must be put in simplified statistical perspective in
relation to other regions of the world in order to answer
questions about sustainability, poverty and
overpopulation.
Africa’s population has exceeded 1 billion, and is
projected to top 2 billion by 2050. In addition to having Is Africa Really Overpopulated?
the highest population growth rate, Africa is one of the The 2010 World Population Data Sheet reveals that
regions with the highest proportion of young Africa has a population density of 34 people per square
population. According to United Nations World kilometer. With a population density of 170 people per
Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision, 60% of square kilometer, Western Europe is five times more
Africa’s population is less than 25 years old. Only 5% densely populated than Africa. The European Union, on
of Africa’s population falls within the age range of 60 the other hand, has a population density of 115 people
to 80 years old, compared with, say, Europe whose per square kilometre, making it more than three times
figure for the same age group is 26%. Consequently, as densely populated as Africa. Yet, unlike Africa,
while Africa’s population doubles by 2050, Europe’s, neither Western Europe nor the EU bloc is considered
which is currently over 700 million, will shrink to 691 overpopulated in popular discourse.
million. What are the economic implications of
Africa’s population dynamic? Is there any correlation With a total area of over 30.3 million square
between Africa’s burgeoning young population and the kilometers, Africa has more than enough space to
realization of the African Renaissance – which is the accommodate the geographical areas of China, India,
vision to transform the continent into a prosperous, US, Western Europe, and Argentina combined – whose
stable, and integrated continent? total areas is about 29.9 million square kilometers.
Meanwhile, Africa’s present population is less than half
The purpose of this article is to show that Africa could the 3.6 billion people in China, India, US, Argentina,
reap enormous demographic dividends from its young and Western Europe combined. In essence, it is
and fast growing population if over the next decade counter-intuitive to regard Africa as overpopulated
leaders on the continent embrace good governance and when other regions that have more than twice Africa’s
implement adequate social policies targeting population within a smaller area are not considered
improvement in education, health care, infrastructure, overpopulated.
and women empowerment.
Africa has only 15% of global population but possesses
Some analysts have expressed concern over Africa’s Continued on page 5

-4- Traditional African Clinic – December 2010


Continued from page 4 – Calculated Optimism ageing population for the most part of the 21st century. By
2050, Africa’s working-age population, which is currently
54% of the continent’s total population, will climb to 62%.
In contrast, Europe’s working-age will shrinks from 63% in
2010 to 51% in 2050. European economy policy is already
feeling the pinch of an ageing population. One analyst, Tim
Colebatch, observes:
European governments have stared into the future and they
don't like it. They see a dwindling European workforce
struggling to support a rapidly expanding number of
retirees. They see their budget deficits swelling as millions
of elderly people force up spending on pensions, health-
care and nursing homes, while their populations fall and
their tax base shrinks.
Africa will have more than enough workforce to sustain its
economy. Europe (and other regions of the world where
there is an ageing population) will increasingly need
Africa’s surplus labor. In fact, the European Union has
opened immigration job centers in parts of Africa.
Additionally, Africa’s population will serve as a vast
market for domestic production and to support the global
economy. The McKinsey Global Institute forecasts the
Between Overpopulation and Sustainability spread of Africa’s potential demographic dividend beyond
60% of the world’s uncultivated arable land. The the continent in its recent publication titled Lions on the
continent holds 20% of the world’s natural resources. Move: The Progress and Potential of African Economies.
If Africa’s area alone can accommodate China, India, The publication states: “By 2040, it (Africa’s labor force) is
US, Western Europe, and Argentina, whose combined projected to reach 1.1 billion, overtaking China’s and
3.6 billion population is more than half the world India’s. If Africa can provide its young people with the
population, then the continent should be able to sustain education and skills they need, this large workforce could
a population that would be about 2.1 billion in 40 account for a significant share of both global consumption
years. and production.” This is the Africa that is referred to in the
Thus, the focus should be on good governance and vision for an African Renaissance as enshrined in the
responsible leadership. With good governance and Vision of the African Union (AU); an Africa that would be
adequate social policy, Africa can build the capacity to “prosperous and peaceful, an Africa driven and managed by
properly manage its resources, develop its human its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the
capacity, and maintain a sustainable population international arena.”
growth. There are enormous benefits to be accrued to The Dividends and the Renaissance
the continent if African governments invest heavily in
education, health care, infrastructure development, The African Renaissance is an age-long vision that requires
youth development and women empowerment. In fact, good governance to translate into reality. The concept of
education and female empowerment alone can African Renaissance was first used by the Senegalese
significantly regulate Africa’s population within scholar Cheikh Anta Diop to refer to an Africa that can
sustainable proportion. assert itself politically, economically, and culturally. In his
collection of essays, Towards the African Renaissance:
Africa’s Demographic Dividends Essays in Culture and Development, Diop cited
Africa’s demographic dividends would be enormous fundamental requirements to achieve the renaissance.
and transformative when the continent attains political Among these requirements were continental integration and
stability and take due advantage of its booming young economic viability. In another book, Black Africa: The
population. Africa’s population dynamic indicates that Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State,
the continent, unlike other regions of the world, would published in 1974, Diop presented an elaborate blueprint
neither face any shortage in domestic labor supply nor for the achievement of the African renaissance.
worry about the economic burden of an increasingly Continued on page 10

-5- Traditional African Clinic – December 2010


African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 5, Issue 12 NEWSLETTER December 2010

FEATURED ARTICLES
The Radical Population Control and Eugenics Agenda
of the Global Elite
By Admin
July 19, 2009
The vast majority of average Americans never spend government are filled with officials who are obsessed
much time thinking about things like "population with population issues.
control" or "eugenics", but for the ultra-wealthy of the
For example, John P. Holdren, Barack Obama's top
global elite and for the politicians that serve them,
science advisor co-authored a book in 1977 in which he
population control and eugenics are issues of the
advocated mass sterilization using the food and water
highest priority, and in fact it would be difficult to
supply, mandatory bodily implants that would prevent
overstate the sick obsession that these elitists have with
couples from having children, forced abortions for
reducing the population of the planet.
American couples trying to have too many children and
Most of the time this sick obsession with population a global police force to enforce population control.
control does not make headlines, but a couple of recent
Really? Yes, really.
news events has brought these issues back to the
forefront once again. The first involved Supreme Court Now keep in mind, this is Barack Obama's number
Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. one science advisor.
In an absolutely stunning interview with the New York Holdren advocated these insane proposals in a 1977
Times, Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg textbook entitled "Ecoscience", which he co-authored
alluded to the fact that abortion is all about getting rid with Paul Ehrlich (who worked in the Bush
of certain types of people that the elite do not want to administration) and Anne Ehrlich.
have around: When rumors of Holdren's book first began to surface,
"Frankly I had thought that at the time Roe was they were quickly dismissed by many because it just
decided, there was concern about population growth seemed so inconceivable that the top science advisor to
and particularly growth in populations that we don’t the president of the United States would advocate such
want to have too many of." bizarre ideas.
Now in what kind of sick world is it EVER acceptable However, once one blogger posted pictures of the pages
to use the phrase "populations that we don't want to of Holdren's book up on the Internet, people started to
have too many of"? realize that Holdren actually did write these sick things.
That has got to be one of the most offensive statements What follows are some of the more shocking quotes
made by any public figure in recent memory. from Holdren's book.
Yet the mainstream media has mostly let is pass On page 837, the book states that compulsory abortion is
without objection. perfectly legal under the Constitution of the United
States:
Fortunately, at least one member of Congress took
notice. Representative Joseph Pitts, a Republican from “Indeed, it has been concluded that compulsory
Pennsylvania, gave a stirring speech on the floor of the population-control laws, even including laws requiring
U.S. House of Representatives denouncing Ginsburg’s compulsory abortion, could be sustained under the
comment. existing Constitution if the population crisis became
sufficiently severe to endanger the society.”
Unfortunately, Ginsberg's comments are hardly an
isolated case. The reality is that the top levels of On page 786, it says that single mothers should have
Continued on page 7
-6- Traditional African Clinic – December 2010
Continued from page 6 – Radical Population Control and at puberty and might be removable, with official permis-
Eugenic Agenda of the Global Elite sion, for a limited number of births.”
their babies taken away by the government and that they On page 838, the authors state their belief that there is
could be forced to have abortions if the government nothing wrong or illegal about the government dictating
decides that is what is best: family size:
One way to carry out this disapproval might be to insist “In today’s world, however, the number of children in a
that all illegitimate babies be put up “for adoption— family is a matter of profound public concern. The law
especially those bore to minors, who generally are not regulates other highly personal matters. For example, no
capable of caring properly for a child alone. If a single one may lawfully have more than one spouse at a time.
mother really wished to keep her baby, she might be Why should the law not be able to prevent a person from
obliged to go “for adoption—especially those born to having more than two children?”
minors, who generally are not capable of caring properly
for a child alone. If a single mother really wished to keep On pages 942 and 943, the authors call for the creation of
her baby, she might be obliged to go through adoption a “planetary regime” that would control the global
proceedings and demonstrate her ability to support and economy and enforce population control measures:
care for it. Adoption proceedings probably should remain Toward a Planetary Regime
more difficult for single people than for married couples,
in recognition of the relative difficulty of raising children “Perhaps those agencies, combined with UNEP and the
alone. It would even be possible to require pregnant United Nations population agencies, might eventually be
single women to marry or have abortions, perhaps as an developed into a Planetary Regime—sort of an
alternative to placement for adoption, depending on the international superagency for population, resources, and
society.” environment. Such a comprehensive Planetary Regime
could control the development, administration,
On pages 787 and 788, the book advocates the mass conservation, and distribution of all natural resources,
sterilization of humans by putting drugs in the food and renewable or nonrenewable, at least insofar as
water supply: international implications exist. Thus the Regime could
“Adding a sterilant to drinking water or staple foods is a have the power to control pollution not only in the
suggestion that seems to horrify people more than most atmosphere and oceans, but also in such freshwater
proposals for involuntary fertility control. Indeed, this bodies as rivers and lakes that cross international
would pose some very difficult political, legal, and social boundaries or that discharge into the oceans. The Regime
questions, to say nothing of the technical problems. No might also be a logical central agency for regulating all
such sterilant exists today, nor does one appear to be international trade, perhaps including assistance from
under development. To be acceptable, such a substance DCs to LDCs, and including all food on the international
would have to meet some rather stiff requirements: it market.”
must be uniformly effective, despite widely varying doses “The Planetary Regime might be given responsibility for
received by individuals, and despite varying degrees of determining the optimum population for the world and
fertility and sensitivity among individuals; it must be free for each region and for arbitrating various countries’
of dangerous or unpleasant side effects; and it must have shares within their regional limits. Control of population
no effect on members of the opposite sex, children, old size might remain the responsibility of each government,
people, pets, or livestock.” but the Regime would have some power to enforce the
On pages 786 and 787, the authors discuss the agreed limits.”
involuntary sterilization of women after their second or On page 917, the authors advocate the surrender of
third child: national sovereignty to an armed international police
Involuntary fertility control force:

“A program of sterilizing women after their second or “If this could be accomplished, security might be
third child, despite the relatively greater difficulty of the provided by an armed international organization, a global
operation than vasectomy, might be easier to implement analogue of a police force. Many people have recognized
than trying to sterilize men. this as a goal, but the way to reach it remains obscure in a
world where factionalism seems, if anything, to be
The development of a long-term sterilizing capsule that increasing. The first step necessarily involves partial
could be implanted under the skin and removed when surrender of sovereignty to an international
pregnancy is desired opens additional possibilities for organization.”
coercive fertility control. The capsule could be implanted Continued on page 13
-7- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 5, Issue 12 NEWSLETTER December 2010

FEATURED ARTICLES
The Food Crisis is not about a Shortage of Food
By Jim Goodman
Common Dreams
September 17, 2010

The food crisis of 2008 never really ended, it was Remember, next year those farmers will have to buy their
ignored and forgotten. The rich and powerful are well seed. Interesting to note that the Gates Foundation
fed; they had no food crisis, no shortage, so in the purchased $23.1 million worth of Monsanto stock in the
West, it was little more than a short lived sound bite, second quarter of 2010. Do they also see the food crisis in
tragic but forgettable. To the poor in the developing Africa as a potential to turn a nice profit? Every
world, whose ability to afford food is no better now corporation has one overriding interest - self-interest, but
than in 2008, the hunger continues. surely not charitable foundations?
Hunger can have many contributing factors; natural Food shortages are seldom about a lack of food, there is
disaster, discrimination, war, poor infrastructure. So plenty of food in the world, the shortages occur because
why, regardless of the situation, is high tech agriculture of the inability to get food where it is needed and the
always assumed to be the only the solution? This inability of the hungry to afford it. These two problems
premise is put forward and supported by those who are principally caused by, as Francis Moore Lappe' put it,
would benefit financially if their "solution" were a lack of justice. There are also ethical considerations, a
implemented. Corporations peddle their high higher value should be placed on people than on
technology genetically engineered seed and chemical corporate profit, this must be at the forefront, not an
packages, their genetically altered animals, always with afterthought.
the "promise" of feeding the world.
In 2008, there were shortages of food, in some places, for
Politicians and philanthropists, who may mean well, some people. There was never a shortage of food in 2008
jump on the high technology band wagon. Could the on a global basis, nor is there currently. True, some
promise of financial support or investment return fuel countries, in Africa for example, do not have enough
their apparent compassion? food where it is needed, yet people with money have their
fill no matter where they live. Poverty and inequality
The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
cause hunger.
an initiative of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
and the Rockefeller Foundation supposedly works to The current food riots in Mozambique were a result of
achieve a food secure and prosperous Africa. While increased wheat prices on the world market. The UN
these sentiments and goals may be philanthropy at its Food and Agriculture organization, (FAO) estimates the
best, some of the coalition partners have a different world is on course to the third largest wheat harvest in
agenda. history, so increasing wheat prices were not caused by
actual shortages, but rather by speculation on the price of
One of the key players in AGRA, Monsanto, hopes to
wheat in the international market.
spread its genetically engineered seed throughout
Africa by promising better yields, drought resistance, While millions of people go hungry in India, thousands of
an end to hunger, etc. etc. Could a New Green kilos of grain rot in storage. Unable to afford the grain,
Revolution succeed where the original Green the hungry depend on the government to distribute food.
Revolution had failed? Or was the whole concept of a Apparently that's not going so well.
Green Revolution a pig in a poke to begin with?
Not everyone living in a poor country goes hungry, those
Monsanto giving free seed to poor small holder farmers with money eat. Not everyone living in rich country is
sounds great, or are they just setting the hook? Continued on page 9

-8- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 8 – The Food Crisis is not about If the Gates Foundation is serious about ending hunger in
Shortage of Food Africa, they need to read the IAASTD report, not
well fed, those without money go hungry. We in the US Monsanto's quarterly profit report. Then they can decide
are said to have the safest and most abundant food how their money might best be spent.
supply in the world, yet even here, surrounded by an Jim Goodman is a dairy farmer and activist from Wonewoc, WI
over abundance of food, there are plenty of hungry and a WK Kellogg Food and Society Policy Fellow.
people and their numbers are growing. Do we too have a http://www.sott.net/articles/show/215404-The-Food-Crisis-is-
food crisis, concurrent with an obesity crisis? Not-About-a-Shortage-of-Food
Why is there widespread hunger? Is food a right? Is ☻☻☻☻☻☻
profit taking through speculation that drives food prices
out of the reach of the poor a right? Is pushing high Researchers advocate for
technology agriculture on an entire continent that could
feed itself a (corporate) right?
Biotechnology to improve
In developing countries, those with hunger and poor
Food Security in Africa
food distribution, the small farmers, most of whom are By LOMINDA AFEDRARU
women, have little say in agricultural policy. The
framework of international trade and the rules imposed October 27 2010
by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank on The Monitor
developing countries, places emphasis on crops for To overcome rampant problems of malnutrition and food
export, not crops for feeding a hungry population. insecurity in Africa, today’s farmer should adopt modern
Despite what we hope are the best intentions of the Gates farming tools like conventional breeding and biotechnology
Foundation, a New Green Revolution based on methods, says a team of science scholars from Uganda,
genetically engineered crops, imported fertilizer and South Africa and Germany in a report entitled GMOs for
government imposed agricultural policy will not feed the African Agriculture, challenges and opportunities which
world. Women, not Monsanto, feed most of the worlds was published in July this year.
population, and the greatest portion of the worlds diet Biotechnology according to the scientists is an extension of
still relies on crops and farming systems developed and traditional plant breeding where one selects genes from
cultivated by the indigenous for centuries, systems that different crop varieties in order to come up with a new
still work, systems that offer real promise. variety that is resistant to pests and diseases as well as
The report of 400 experts from around the world, The resistant to climatic conditions such as drought.
International Assessment of Agricultural Science and The report which was launched in Kampala during the
Technology for Development (IAASTD), is ignored by Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa
the proponents of a New Green Revolution, precisely (OFAB) on October 22 comprises contributions from
because it shows that the best hope for ending hunger scientists from the Academy of Science of South Africa
lies with local, traditional, farmer controlled agricultural (ASSAf) in partnership with Uganda National Academy of
production, not high tech industrial agriculture. Sciences (UNAS), the union of German Academies and
To feed the world, fair methods of land distribution must Humanities and the Network of African Science
be considered. A fair and just food system depends on Academies.
small holder farmers having access to land. The function According to Professor Patrick Rubaihayo one of the
of a just farming system is to insure that everyone gets to planning committee members, the committee that
eat, industrial agriculture functions to insure those comprised six members had its first meeting in 2009 and
corporations controlling the system make a profit. they decided to focus the report on agricultural crops,
The ultimate cause of hunger is not a lack of Western especially genetically engineered crops within the context
agricultural technology, rather hunger results when of Africa for purposes of addressing the issue of food
people are not allowed to participate in a food system of insecurity which the continent is faced with.
their choosing. He said members agreed that in order for farmers to
practice sustainable agriculture in the continent, there is
Civil wars, structural adjustment policies, inadequate
need for them to adapt to modern Biotechnology
distribution systems, international commodity
mechanism in their crop production.
speculation and corporate control of food from seed to
table - these are the causes of hunger, the stimulus for He said biotechnology has been with us for a long time
food crises. Continued on page 20
-9- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 5 – Calculated Optimism Relations. He is a Public Policy and International Affairs
Similarly, Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana’s first independent Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School of Princeton
president and champion of Africa’s decolonization University
movement, made a compelling case for Africa’s unity http://assign-africa.blogspot.com/2010/08/calculated-optimism-
and economic integration geared toward continental africas-growing.html (Part I)
transformation. Meanwhile, earlier in 1963, Dr. Kwame http://assign-africa.blogspot.com/2010/09/calculated-optimism-
Nkrumah had proposed in his book, Africa Must Unite, africas-growing.html (Part II)
that a united Africa should integrate and pool its ☻☻☻☻☻☻
resources to put an end to economic dependency and
conflicts. 9 Million Children Worldwide
In 1995, Nelson Mandela asserted that Africa was died Before Age 5
moving into a “new era of renaissance.” This statement
marked the re-emergence of the vision that was Rate of under-five mortality dipped slightly from 2006,
articulated by Diop and Nkrumah decades earlier. After UNICEF says
Mandela’s reference to the Renaissance in 1995, the Reuters
concept gradually became the overarching term for the September 11, 2008
vision to bring about a united, stable, peaceful, and
prosperous Africa; an Africa that can improve the LONDON - More than 9 million children globally died
quality of life of its citizens and give the continent a before their fifth birthday in 2007, down slightly from
pride of place in the global community. 2006, but a huge gap remains between rich and poor
countries, especially in Africa, UNICEF said on Friday.
The vision of the African Renaissance and the paradox
that Africa is the future of the world are no joke. In Efforts to promote breastfeeding, immunizations and anti-
May, French President Sarkozy said it point blank malaria measures have helped cut child deaths to 9.2
during the Africa-France Summit that, "Africa is our million from 9.7 million a year ago and 12.7 million in
future." In July, former British Prime Minister Gordon 1990, the figures from the United Nations Children’s Fund
Brown buttressed Sarkozy's statement. showed.
"Future growth in the world economy, and future jobs “Since 1960, the global under-five mortality rate has
in the developing world, will depend on harnessing declined more than 60 percent, and the new data shows the
both the productive potential and the pent-up consumer downward trend continues,” UNICEF Executive Director
demand of this continent," asserted Brown. Ann Veneman said in a statement.
Advanced economies in the West and developing Improvements in Latin America and the Caribbean, Central
countries in the global south, including China, India, and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and in parts
and Brazil are now seeking new ways to either assert or of Asia drove the overall decline, but deaths remain high in
re-assert themselves in Africa - a development that sub-Saharan Africa where one in seven children dies before
some analysts refer to as a new scramble for Africa's age 5.
resources. Despite the scramble for Africa's natural AIDS is still a major killer of children in sub-Saharan
resources, the continent's greatest asset remains its Africa, though countries such as Eritrea, Malawi,
human resources anchored on its booming youth Mozambique, Niger and Ethiopia have made significant
population. progress in cutting mortality rates, UNICEF said.
Indeed, the enthronement of good governance and “Sub-Saharan Africa now accounts for almost half of the
investment in human resource across Africa would 9.2 million deaths among children in this age group
better position the continent to reap the demographic annually,” according to the UNICEF report published in the
dividends and achieve the African Renaissance. Again, journal Lancet.
high population growth rate is not Africa’s fundamental
problem. Africa is not overpopulated. African leaders “High levels of fertility...together with high levels of
should be made to govern well and implement adequate mortality in children aged less than 5 years have led to an
social policies to improve education, health care increase in the absolute number of deaths (in this region).”
delivery, infrastructural development, human capital Worldwide, the death rate for children under age 5 was 68
development, and the empowerment of African women. per 1,000 live births in 2007, down from the 93 per 1,000 in
Wilson Idahosa Aiwuyor is a student of International 1990 and 72 per 1,000 a year ago. Continued on page 11

-10- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 10 - 9 Million Children Worldwide died Hispanics, with Hispanic teens giving birth at a rate of
Before Age 5 nearly three times the rate of whites, and blacks giving birth
Sierra Leone had the worst under-five mortality rate in at nearly two times the rate of white teens in 2007.
the world with 262 out of every 1,000 children dying But population differences alone cannot explain the
before their fifth birthday. The rate in industrialized regional differences in birth rates, the CDC researchers
nations was 6 per 1,000. said.
A number of countries, including Laos, Bangladesh, Education and income, sexual activity and contraceptive
Bolivia and Nepal, have also made good progress toward use, and attitudes among teens toward pregnancy and
meeting global targets to reduce the child mortality rates childbearing are all factors, the CDC researchers said.
by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, UNICEF said.
Birth rates for white teens in 2007 ranged from 4.3 per
“Recent data also indicate encouraging improvements in 1,000 in the District of Columbia to 54.8 per 1,000 in
many of the basic health interventions, such as early and Mississippi.
exclusive breast feeding, measles immunization, Vitamin
A supplementation, the use of insecticide-treated nets to For black teens, birth rates ranged from 17.4 in Hawaii to
prevent malaria, and prevention and treatment of AIDS,” 95.1 in Wisconsin. And for Hispanic teens, birth rates
Veneman said. ranged from 31.1 in Maine to 188.3 in Alabama.

“These interventions are expected to result in further U.S. states with the lowest teen birth rates include North
declines in child mortality over the coming years.” Dakota, Minnesota, Maine, New Hampshire, New York
and Connecticut.
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26665596/
☻☻☻☻☻☻ "This new CDC report makes it crystal clear that the teen
birthrate is lower in states that provide students with
U.S. Teen Birth Rates Highest comprehensive, evidence-based sex education," Leslie
Kantor, National Director of Education, Planned
in Southern States Parenthood Federation of America, said in a statement.
By Julie Steenhuysen She said the surest way to cut teen pregnancy is to give
young people -- especially blacks and Hispanics --
October 20, 2010
comprehensive sex education.
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Birth rates among U.S. teenagers
The Obama administration's 2010 budget included $155
vary widely by region, with the highest rates clustered in
million in funding for medically accurate information about
southern states and the lowest in the Northeast and upper
sex and eliminated spending for abstinence-only programs
Midwest, government researchers reported on
favored by many social conservatives who oppose the
Wednesday.
teaching of contraception to teens in U.S. schools. Such
Birth rates fell to 41.5 births per 1,000 U.S. teens in 2008 programs received about $1.3 billion in federal funds since
from 42.5 in 2007, spurred by drops in 14 states. That the late 1990s.
followed an increase in 2005-2007, according to the
Teen birth rates in the United States are higher than in a
report from the Centers for Disease Control and
number of other developed countries. In Canada the teen
Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.
birth rate is 13 per 1,000, one-third the U.S. rate. And in
The findings reflect differences in access to medically Germany, the teen birth rate is 10 per 1,000. The report is
accurate information about sex, one expert said. available on the CDC's web site.
☻☻☻☻☻☻
They are important because teen parents are less likely to
pursue higher education, their children are less likely to Under Five Mortality in Africa by Region, 2007
be healthy, and they earn less on average than people
East Africa – 30% (1.5M)
who have children later.
West Africa – 42% (2.1M)
Teenage birth rates by state ranged from a low of 25
babies per 1,000 females aged 15-19 in Connecticut, Central Africa – 18% (0.9M)
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont to a high
Southern Africa – 18% (0.9M)
of 60 babies per 1,000 teens in Arkansas, Mississippi,
New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. North Africa – 2% (0.lM)
Teen birth rates are typically higher among blacks and Total – 6.5M
-11- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
White women remain the most likely not to have had a
Women without Kids Up 80 child, but the childless rates have grown more quickly for
Percent from 30 Years Ago blacks, Hispanics and Asians over the past decade,
according to the figures.
by Catherine Donaldson-Evans
Never-married women still had the highest incidence of
AOL Health childlessness, though those rates also have declined over
November 12, 2010 the past 10 years. By comparison, the childless rates have
The number of American women without children has increased for those who are married or were at one time
risen to an all-time high of 1 in 5, a jump since the 1970s referred to as the "ever-marrieds."
when 1 in 10 women ended their childbearing years "A lot of women can't find someone, or they're very picky
without having a baby, according to the Pew Research or very educated," Corio said. "Contraception is also better.
Center. A lot of pregnancies in the past may have been accidents
About 1.9 million women aged 40-44—or 18 percent— where they decided to keep the baby. It's also money - they
were childless [1] in 2008, an 80 percent increase since think, we're not in the financial situation [to have
1976, when just 580,000—10 percent of those in that age children]."
bracket—had never given birth, the Census Bureau's Among the women aged 40 to 44 without children, the
Current Population Survey shows. number of those who didn't want to have children [4]
Childlessness has increased across racial and ethnic equaled the number of those who did but weren't able to
groups and most education levels, but has dropped among conceive, according to figures from the National Survey of
women with advanced degrees in the past decade, Family Growth.
according to the research. In 2003, about 6 percent of women in that age group were
Part of the reason for the rise in the number of childless voluntarily childless, 6 percent were involuntarily childless
women is an overall pattern toward delaying marriage and 2 percent didn't have children but wanted them in the
and having kids, the research showed. Experts say that a future.
drop in societal pressure to be a parent is also responsible Along with the population changes have come shifts in
for the trend, along with an increase in career attitude, with public opinion showing more acceptance of
opportunities and an improvement in birth control options women without children, Pew Research reported. Most
and effectiveness. adults - 59 percent in 2002 - said they disagree with the
"People put off getting pregnant [2]," said women's statement that people who don't have kids "lead empty
health expert Dr. Laura Corio, a member of AOL Health's lives," compared to only 39 percent who didn't agree with
Medical Advisory Board. "Even when they're married the statement in 1988.
they're putting off getting pregnant. Then they wake up Similarly, a 2007 Pew survey showed that 41 percent of
one day and they're 40 and they want to have a child. It's adults believe children are important for a successful
like, hello?" marriage, down from 65 percent who expressed the same
Explanations for the trend vary, but for some, the reason views in 1990.
behind delaying parenting [3] is a simple joie de vivre. About 46 percent of people said the trend has no bearing on
"They're freer. People are enjoying their lives: they're society, according to a 2009 Pew survey, but 38 percent
traveling, shopping, eating out," Corio told AOL Health. said it was bad for society -- up from 29 percent in 2007.
"Putting a baby into the situation is going to change http://www.yourtango.com/node/87202
everything." ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Though the most educated women are still among those
most likely to never give birth, there was a 31 percent
decline in those aged 40-44 with master's, doctoral or
professional degrees who had not had babies between
1994 and 2008, when 24 percent of women in that
category were childless.
The data represents combined statistics from 2006 and
2008 (referred to as 2008 in the study) and from 1992 and
1994 (referred to as 1994).
-12- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 7 – Radical Population Control and There was a total news blackout by the American media of
Eugenic Agenda of the Global Elite this clandestine gathering. The group reportedly met at the
It would be easy to dismiss Holdren as an eccentric nut home of Sir Paul Nurse, a British Nobel prize biochemist
job, but the truth is that his views are an accurate and the president of Rockefeller University. The secret
representation of what is commonly believed among the meeting supposedly so discreet that many of the
global elite. They are obsessed with the notion that this billionaires’ aides were only told they were at "security
planet is massively overpopulated, and that if briefings".
strict population control measures are not implemented Fortunately, however, some details about the secret meeting
quickly it will have catastrophic consequences for the have emerged.
planet.
According to one major U.K. newspaper, one anonymous
Scientists who advocate eugenics and radical population person who attended the meeting said that "a consensus
control are funded and promoted by the global elite. In emerged that they would back a strategy in which
fact, prior to becoming Obama's top science advisor, population growth would be tackled as a potentially
Holdren was the Teresa and John Heinz Professor of disastrous environmental, social and industrial threat."
Environmental Policy at the Kennedy School of
Government at Harvard University. The same article included some other incredibly shocking
quotes about the meeting from that same anonymous
The truth is that academia is littered with nutjobs such as source.....
this who want to see the vast majority of humanity wiped
out. Another example of this is Professor of Biology at "This is something so nightmarish that everyone in this
the University of Texas at Austin Eric R. Pianka. group agreed it needs big-brain answers."

In an article entitled "What nobody wants to hear, but "They need to be independent of government agencies,
everyone needs to know", Pianka makes the following which are unable to head off the disaster we all see
startling statements: looming."

First, and foremost, we must get out of denial and So the super-wealthy "big-brains" are going to come up
recognize that Earth simply cannot support many billions with the answers to overpopulation and impose those
of people. answers on the rest of us?

This planet might be able to support perhaps as many as How arrogant can they possibly be?
half a billion people who could live a sustainable life in You know all of that money that Bill Gates and Warren
relative comfort. Human populations must be greatly Buffett donated to "charity" some time ago? Well, the
diminished, and as quickly as possible to limit further reality is that a whole lot of it is going for population
environmental damage. control programs - especially in the third world.
I do not bear any ill will toward humanity. However, I am The reality is that this secret meeting is just another
convinced that the world WOULD clearly be much better example of the sick obsession that the global elite has with
off without so many of us. population control.
So the world "might" be able to support half a billion Even in the western world now it seems as though there is a
people? What about all the rest of us? non-stop program to promote abortion, sterilization, family
Oh yeah, we apparently have to die. size limits, lower birth rates and other even more extreme
population control measures.
But these nutjob scientists would not have the influence
and positions they do if they were not funded by the In fact, the chair of the U.K. government's Sustainable
ultra-wealthy global elitists who are also obsessed with Development Commission, Jonathon Porritt, said that
population control. parents who have more than two children are being
“irresponsible” by creating an "unbearable" burden on the
On May 5th, 2009, Bill Gates, David Rockefeller Jr., environment.
Warren Buffett, George Soros, Michael Bloomberg, Ted
Turner, Oprah Winfrey and a number of other ultra- Porritt also said that curbing population growth through
wealthy Americans gathered for a super secret meeting in abortion and contraception is absolutely necessary if the
Manhattan. Reportedly the goal of the meeting was fight against global warming is going to be won.
to evaluate how their combined wealth could be used to And it is the "environmental movement" that is behind
slow the growth of the world’s population.
Continued on page 14
-13- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 13 – Radical Population Control and *In the U.K., one influential think tank says that it is an
Eugenic Agenda of the Global Elite "eco-crime" to have too many children and that we really
much of this. It is becoming increasingly popular to need to examine the impact our large population is having
think of humans as a "virus" that are destroying the on the earth.
planet, and that what we need to do is to radically *In South America, the government of Peru goes door to
reduce the population to bring things back into balance. door pressuring women to be sterilized and they are funded
For thousands of years, the freedom to marry and by American tax dollars to do this.
reproduce and to raise a family has been one of the Did you know that American tax dollars are being spent to
most cherished and most basic of all human freedoms. sterilize the women of Peru?
But now all of that is changing. Now you have The reality is that the desire by the global elite to limit the
governments like China that have implemented a "one population of the earth has been around for centuries.
child policy" and you have other governments that are Between 1798 and 1826, English economist Thomas
starting to talk about limits on family sizes. Malthus published six editions of his work entitled "Essay
But even without formal government action, today on the Principle of Population", which argued that
there are many, particularly in the Western world, who population growth inevitably outstrips food production.
are been convinced by government propaganda to The primary argument advanced by Malthus was that the
willingly restrict their own reproductive capabilities. English working class was poor not because they were
For example, one 27 year old woman named Toni exploited, but rather because there were way too many of
Vernelli told the Daily Mail why she decided to get them. Malthus opposed welfare and higher wages because
permanently sterilized: "Every person who is born uses he believed they would allow the poor to survive and breed,
more food, more water, more land, more fossil fuels, thus compounding the overpopulation problem and leading
more trees and produces more rubbish, more pollution, to more poverty. Of course Malthus was completely and
more greenhouse gases, and adds to the problem of totally wrong about all of this, but nonetheless his theories
over-population." gained Many years later, Margaret Sanger, the founder of
Planned Parenthood, vigorously promoted this type of
Some "environmental activists" have even gone to the twisted thinking in the United States. The following is one
absolute extreme by forming "The Voluntary Human of Margaret Sanger's most infamous quotes:
Extinction Movement" which seeks to reduce the
presence of humanity on earth completely. "The most merciful thing that a family does to one of its
infant members is to kill it."
Their motto is: “May we live long and die out”.
Now keep in mind that this quote came out of the mouth of
Doesn't that sound wonderful? the founder of Planned Parenthood.
So is what they are saying true? Unfortunately, the sick viewpoints of Malthus, Sanger and
Is the ballooning population of the planet a huge threat other population control advocates did not die out. Rather,
to the environment? they seemed to gain steam as the population of the world
absolutely exploded in the 20th century.
Do we need to implement strict population control for
the good of humanity? U.S. environmentalist Paul Ehrlich, in his 1968 book
entitled "The Population Bomb", argued for very strict
The truth is that the world has more than enough space population control measures, especially in the poorer areas
and resources for everyone if the elite were not so of the world. He warned that if we did not implement such
greedy, but instead the elite are pushing the measures we would be facing catastrophic problems very
governments of the world to implement population quickly. Of course most of his dire predictions have now
control programs. been documented to have been completely wrong, but his
We have started to see some of these population control theories continue to wield a great deal of influence to this
measures begin to pop up in the Western world..... day.
*Women in the Netherlands who are deemed by the Dr. Arne Schiotz, World Wildlife Fund Director of
state to be unfit mothers will be sentenced to take Conservation, said this in 1984:
contraception for a period of two years, according to a "Malthus has been vindicated, reality is finally catching up
new bill before the Dutch parliament. with Malthus. The Third World is overpopulated, it’s an
Continued on page 15
-14- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 14 – Radical Population Control and relative numbers in each species within any particular
Eugenic Agenda of the Global Elite habitat. I realize this is a very touchy subject, but the fact
economic mess, and there’s no way they could get out remains that mankind is part of the living world….
of it with this fast-growing population. Our philosophy Every new acre brought into cultivation means another
is: back to the village." acre denied to wild species."

Unfortunately, the philosophies of Erlich, Schiotz and Are you starting to understand how the global elite sees
other population control advocates have garnered a us? The truth is that they see us as a "flock" that must be
substantial following even among powerful members of culled from time to time. How incredibly sick is that?
the United States government. Just check out the In fact, Prince Philip, the "Eco-Warrior", also once said
following shocking quotes from Thomas Ferguson, that he would like to come back to earth as a disease
who formerly worked in the State Department Office of after he died to help reduce the human population.
Population Affairs.....
But Prince Philip is far from alone on this issue. The call
“There is a single theme behind all our work–we must for human depopulation is coming from a myriad of
reduce population levels. Either governments do it our other sources as well:
way, through nice clean methods, or they will get the
kinds of mess that we have in El Salvador, or in Iran or John Guillebaud, professor of family planning at
in Beirut. Population is a political problem. Once University College London has said this: “The effect on
population is out of control, it requires authoritarian the planet of having one child less is an order of
government, even fascism, to reduce it…." magnitude greater than all these other things we might
do, such as switching off lights. An extra child is the
“Our program in El Salvador didn’t work. The equivalent of a lot of flights across the planet."
infrastructure was not there to support it. There were
just too goddamned many people…. To really reduce He also made this shocking statement: “The greatest
population, quickly, you have to pull all the males into thing anyone in Britain could do to help the future of the
the fighting and you have to kill significant numbers of planet would be to have one less child.”
fertile age females…." The infamous Club of Rome is certainly clear about who
“The quickest way to reduce population is through they think the "enemy" is.....
famine, like in Africa, or through disease like the Black "In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up
Death….” with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming,
Unfortunately, the quotes above are typical of the water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill….
mindset of the global elite. The call for radical But in designating them as the enemy, we fall into the
population control has grown louder than we have ever trap of mistaking symptoms for causes. All these dangers
seen before. College professors are given standing are caused by human intervention and it is only through
ovations by their students when they call for a 90 changed attitudes and behavior that they can be
percent reduction in the human population of the overcome. The real enemy, then, is humanity itself."
planet. Ted Turner makes the radical statement that, "A –Club of Rome, The First Global Revolution, 1991
total population of 250-300 million people, a 95%
decline from present levels, would be ideal," and the Mikhail Gorbachev has also weighed in on his view on
global elite applaud him for it. The Georgia overpopulation. Many were stunned when he made this
Guidestones which call for us to "maintain humanity shocking statement: "We must speak more clearly about
under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature" sexuality, contraception, about abortion, about values
are increasingly cited by our leaders as an important, that control population, because the ecological crisis, in
and perhaps even necessary, goal. short, is the population crisis. Cut the population by 90%
and there aren't enough people left to do a great deal of
When did it become "a good idea" to wipe out 90 to 95 ecological damage."
percent of mankind?
The truth is that we are getting increasingly closer to the
Even Prince Philip, the husband of Queen Elizabeth, is kind of world where the "useless eaters" that Henry
obsessed with reducing population: Kissinger talked about will be "eliminated".
"You cannot keep a bigger flock of sheep than you are Is this the kind of future that you anticipated for your
capable of feeding. In other words conservation may children and your grandchildren?
involve culling in order to keep a balance between the Continued on page 16

-15- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 15 - Radical Population Control and Reuters
Eugenic Agenda of the Global Elite October 20, 2010
A world where the human "flock" is regularly "culled" * New treatments starting to tell against AIDS - report
to please the global elite? Not that it matters that the
world is not even experiencing runaway population * Southern Africa still behind in life expectancy
growth. UNITED NATIONS - A dramatic fall in life expectancy in
While the earth's population is indeed growing, the rate southern Africa caused by AIDS in the 1990s appears to
of growth is definitely slowing. The population of the have bottomed out, with new treatments bringing a slight
world grew by 140% between 1950 and 2000. rise in recent years, a U.N. report said on Wednesday.
However, authorities are predicting a rise of only 50% But the region remains the only one in the world where life
between 2000 and 2050, and a rise of just 11% in the expectancy is currently less than it was in the early 1990s --
50 years beyond that. and in the case of women, much less, the report said.
In fact, in Russia they are actually starting to pay Women form the majority of HIV-positive adults in sub-
people to have children because the population there Saharan Africa, as well as in North Africa and the Middle
has been declining too much. But the global elite have East, said the report, "The World's Women 2010." The
decided that the earth should only have about 500 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS.
million people, and that they are going to have to get
rid of about 90 percent of us. In the period 1990-95, life expectancy at birth in southern
Africa -- South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland and
And one of the truly sad things is that many of you who Lesotho -- was 64 for women and 59 for men. That fell to
will read this article actually agree with the global 51 for women and 49 for men in 2000-05, but rose slightly
elite. Many of you believe that we need sterilization, in 2005-10 to 52 for women and 51 for men.
family size limits, forced abortion and even more
draconian measures in order to avoid an environmental In Eastern, Central and Western Africa, where some
catastrophe. countries were also hard-hit by AIDS, life expectancy
increased slowly but steadily over the same period and now
The truth is that you have been brainwashed. stands at 57 for women and 54 for men.
The truth is that you have been lied to. The report by the U.N. department of economic and social
The truth is that you have bought into a philosophy of affairs attributed the modest uptick in southern Africa to the
death which completely devalues human life. development and improved availability of medical
treatments for HIV.
But this is what is being taught in universities all over
the United States and Europe. The population control Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region worst affected by
and eugenics agenda of the global elite is being HIV, accounting for some two thirds of all people living
propagandized by professors, scientists and government with the virus worldwide. But a U.N. report last month said
officials who have bought into this madness. new infections fell by more than a quarter in 22 countries
between 2001 and 2009.
However, what most people do not realize is that the
global elite not only intend to theorize about population In South Africa, at least 5.7 million people out of a
control and eugenics. They fully intend to radically population of 50 million are infected with HIV and an
reduce the population of the earth in their lifetimes - estimated 1,000 people die each day due to AIDS-related
whether you like it or not. complications. But the country now has the world's largest
program to treat the disease with anti-retroviral drugs
http://signsofthelastdays.com/archives/the-radical- (ARVs), which can prolong the life of those suffering from
population-control-and-eugenics-agenda-of-the-global-elite the incurable illness. Former President Thabo Mbeki was
☻☻☻☻☻☻
criticized for questioning accepted AIDS science and not
making ARVs widely available.
Southern Africa Life
More Men than Women
Expectancy Rising Slightly - The latest U.N. report found that women live longer than
UN men in all regions of the world, typically by about five
years, but are more likely than men to die from
By Patrick Worsnip cardiovascular diseases, especially in Europe.
Continued on page 20

-16- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 5, Issue 12 NEWSLETTER December 2010

FEATURED ARTICLES
Population Time Bomb: 89M Ugandans by 2037
By Evelyn Lirri
21 August 2010
Saturday Monitor
these numbers.
It’s a time bomb! But one that will take another thirty
years to explode and when it does, Uganda could find
itself unable to feed its population, it will not have
enough schools, hospitals, there will be more squalid
settlements and traffic jam will probably be ten times
worse than what we know of today.
Thousands will be jobless and ultimate chaos could be
the rule other than the exception leading to serious
political mayhem but only if, as a country we do not
In Summary control our population growth.
• Uganda has the world’s 2nd youngest population The average age of Uganda’s 31 million people is just 15
years, ranking the country in second position in the world
• 48.9 per cent under age of 15
with the youngest population after Niger, according to the
• Fertility rate is six children per woman 2010 world data sheet from the Population Reference
Bureau.
• Education, healthcare and jobs key to challenges to
Uganda But a young population with more consumers than
producers has enormous implications for a developing
• One of the highest teenage pregnancies at 25 per cent country like Uganda, particularly in the area of social
• Majority of females marry by age of 24 services and the growth of the economy in general.
• Two in three women begin childbearing by age of 19 The PRB data sheet shows that in sub-Saharan Africa,
young people make up more than 42 per cent of the total
• At current fertility rate number of UPE pupils will population, and there are only 1.3 working-age adults for
increase from current 7.5m to 18.4m by 2037. every child under 14.
• This would require a significant rise in the number of In more developed countries, children under 14 make up
teachers from 152,000 to 459,800 in the same year. only 17 per cent of the total population, and there are 4.1
• In developed countries, children under 14 make up adults of working age for every child under 14. As a
only 17 per cent of the total population and there are result, youth dependency or the number of children
4.1 adults of working age for every child under 14. economically dependent on the working-age population is
relatively low.
The latest Population Reference Bureau report indicates
that Uganda has the world’s second youngest population. “In countries such as Uganda, where a woman has on
Up to 48.7 per cent of Ugandans are under 15 years of average more than six children, there is a 1-to-1 ratio of
age. This explosion of young people places the country at working-age adults and children under 14. This high
the edge of a demographic challenge. Saturday Monitor's youth dependency burdens governments, communities,
Evelyn Lirri asks how Uganda will employ and feed and families as they try to meet the needs of large, young
populations,” the report reveals. Continued on page 18

-17- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 17 – Population Time Bomb Uganda has one of the highest teenage pregnancies in
Demographers' take Africa (25 per cent). Dr Peter Ibembe, the national
Demographers agree that providing for the needs of programme manager at Reproductive Health Uganda
young people, particularly education and healthcare (RHU), says the majority of young females in Uganda are
makes more economic sense if it is distributed over a married off by the age of 24 and two in three women in the
larger number of working adults, which is the challenge country begin childbearing by the age of 19.
that Uganda will have to confront as it tries to satisfy the “Part of the reason for this is that not all young people have
needs of the bulging numbers. been reached with reproductive health services,” says Dr
Mr Charles Zirarema, the acting director at the Ibembe. Because reproductive health services don’t easily
Population Secretariat, explains that having more than reach young people, he explains that contraceptive use
half of a country’s population under the age of 18 years among this category of people remains at a low 10 per cent
not only stretches the economy, it also makes it highly compared to the national average of 23 per cent. This has
dependant. consequently led to a high rate of induced abortion; many
using crude high risk methods and maternal deaths among
According to the National Development Plan, the young girls under 24 years of age.
dependency ratio stands at 110 per cent - meaning that for
every nine workers, there are 10 dependents. The result While current legislation supports making available
of this has been high unemployment coupled with a high adolescent sexual and reproductive health services,
dependence burden, denying the country the potential inadequate enforcement and implementation has led to
contribution of this redundant labour force. many young people being left out of key reproductive
health messages.
“The danger is that you have a small working group
stretched to service the young largely unproductive group The introduction of free primary education in 1997 was
of people,” said Mr Zirarema. Yet this is not about to meant to increase the enrolment of girls in school but also
change. If anything, Uganda’s population is increasingly delay marriage which could consequently reduce early
becoming younger, with the proportion of children under pregnancies. But a high dropout rate-especially among girls
the age of 18 having increased from 51 per cent in 1969 had frustrated the programme.
to 56 per cent when the 2002 National Census was “This is the reason why we are advocating that young girls
conducted. should be allowed to go back to school even after giving
Population boom birth because their future will be affected if we allow them
The Population Secretariat says this population boom is to continue having more children when they are young,”
likely to eventually overwhelm government. In a report said Dr Ibembe.
titled “Uganda: Population Factors and National Experts observe social services, housing, jobs and
Development”, it notes that Uganda’s population has opportunities have not expanded at the same pace as
been growing rapidly from five million in 1948 to 31 population growth.
million by 2009.
The Population Secretariat report has projected that if
Like the global population that rose from 1.6 billion in population continues to grow at its current pace, it will
1900 to 6.9 billion in 2010, much of this bulge is a affect all sustainable development objectives in virtually all
consequence of high fertility rates and an equally high sectors-health, education, agriculture, environment,
unmet need for family planning services. economic development and urbanisation.
In Uganda, fertility rate stands at 6.7 per cent among “A fast growing population only discounts all other gains in
women of child-bearing age, while contraceptive use is at education, health and infrastructure. With a lower growth
a low 23 per cent. Projections from the Population rate, we would have a lot more gains,” says Prof. Augustus
Secretariat show with continued high fertility, the Nuwagaba, a development economist at Makerere
population would increase from about 30 million to 50.9 University.
million in 2022 and 88.8 million by 2037.
The report has projected that if fertility rate continues as it
But in the case of a declining fertility projection, the is the number of pupils in primary school will increase from
population would increase to 62.4 million persons in the current 7.5 million to 18.4 million by 2037. This would
2037, meaning there would be nearly 26.6 million fewer require a significant rise in the number of teachers from
persons. Health experts say one underlying reason for the 152,000 to 459,800 in the same year.
high fertility rate is the high teenage pregnancy where
Continued on page 19
women start child bearing as early as 14 years.
-18- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 18 – Population Time Bomb “There is a mismatch between what is learnt in schools
However if fertility were to drop to 2.2 per woman, the and what the job market offers,” he said. Development
number of children in primary school would only experts like Prof. Nuwagaba agree.
increase to a modest 10.3 million by 2037, and this would According to him, while the country has a relatively well
require only an additional 253,900 teachers. According to educated population; most of this populace is not skilled.
the report, over the projection period, the cumulative This is in part because the current higher education
saving made by having to fewer teachers and children in training system is more theory based and less focused on
school would be Shs230bn. practical, hands-on teaching.
“Some of the savings could be used to increase According to Prof. Nuwagaba, many graduates are
expenditures to achieve and sustain free education, missing out on good jobs because the education
enhance teacher training and improve classrooms,” the curriculum does not place enough emphasis on practical
report notes. skills. “Getting a university degree is not a big deal any
The effect of the high population growth is also being felt more. What the country needs is a person who is able to
in the health sector. It is projected that the need for health earn a living by the skills that they hold but not the
facilities will increase with the continued rapid degree,” he says.
population growth and better health seeking behaviours. He argues that Uganda needs to redesign the teaching
In 2007, there were 3,045 health centres II, III and IV-or curriculum so that it focuses on the skills needed to
I, for every 9,500 people. If this ratio per person of health develop its human capital and make it more competitive.
centres continues in the future, with a high fertility rate “What we should be seeing are innovative and skilled
the country would need 9320 health centres by 2037. But graduates who are able to create goods and services, and
with a restrained fertility rate- this figure would be 6,550 not just graduates looking for jobs. Countries like
health facilities. Malaysia have done this successfully,” he told Daily
Public health costs would also rise with increasing Monitor.
fertility. With the current high population growth rate of 3.2 per
Job pressure cent per annum, Prof. Nuwagaba says Uganda will need a
Due to the growing young population as well as a high GDP growth rate that is four times the population growth
fertility rate, population and development experts observe rate. At the moment, Uganda’s economy is growing at an
that Uganda is likely to face an increase in job creation annual rate of six percent, meaning that the population is
pressure for the youth over the coming decades. growing faster than the economy can support.

Unemployment is already a huge challenge in the This means that to sustainably support a huge population,
country, where officials say almost 400,000 students GDP growth rate should be at least 12.8 per cent by 2037.
graduate from tertiary institutions every year only to “This is likely to be unachievable given that even a
compete for 18,000 government jobs created in the same country like China which has the highest GDP growth in
period. the country at the moment is growing at 10.3 per cent,”
said Prof. Nuwagaba.
Consequently, those who fail to enter the job market end
up in the informal sector or without jobs at all. The NDP While a big population size has generally led to
is what the government believes will transform Uganda prosperity in many countries like China, Prof. Nuwagaba
from a predominantly peasant society to a middle income says Uganda’s fast exploding population is a liability.
country by 2015. “Uganda’s population is a poor quality one because it’s
highly dependant, unskilled and doesn’t create demand
It shows that out of the 12 million Ugandans in the and jobs.”
working age group, only 6.4 million were actively
working by 2002. Big labour force
According to him, Uganda will have to ensure that its
One of the constraints to the performance of the labour labour force is far larger than both its dependant young
and employment sector, according to the NDP is the population and older population-with the ability to
current education and training system which prepares generate wealth, save and invest. Demographic gift or
graduates to be job seekers, other than job creators. Mr dividend is the rise in the rate of economic growth due to
Zirarema says Uganda will need to change the education a rising share of working age people in the population.
system to reflect the needs of the economy, but also
Continued on page 20
address the growing unemployment.
-19- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 19 – Population Time Bomb future”. However modern biotechnology involves
Demographic dividend usually happens when fertility manipulation of various genes from various plant species
rate falls and the youth dependency ratio declines. The for purposes of obtaining quality product.
drop in fertility rate was one of the key factors that, for “Over the past 40 years the world’s population has
example, helped Thailand and Singapore-which once had doubled to six billion people. According to the United
the same GDP per capita as Uganda to become middle States projection it could go as high as 10.7 billion in
income economies in a single generation. 2050 and according to recent United States statistics
The government hopes to address challenges of about 800 million people in the world are chronically
population and development through its recently malnourished and 40 per cent of the world’s children
launched NDP and the National Population Policy. The experience stunted growth, 33 per cent are underweight
NDP addresses structural bottlenecks in the economy in and 10 per cent are wasted therefore a need to increased
order to accelerate socio-economic transformation for food production,” Professor Rubaihayo said. He said in
prosperity like creating employment, raising average per Uganda, malnutrition is a very big problem with the
capita income levels, improving the labour force worst being in Bushenyi district in Western Uganda
distribution and improving Uganda's competitiveness. which is producing a lot of food that is not properly
utilised.
The national population policy was also launched in 2008
to address development challenges posed by a rapidly The report highlights issues of African agriculture being
growing population. faced with a lot of challenges ranging from low
productivity to poor nonexistent markets and
http://www.monitor.co.ug/SpecialReports/-/688342/993704/- infrastructure. It states that there has been a decline in the
/g1m42s/-/index.html production of cereal crops over the past four years which
☻☻☻☻☻☻ has been attributed to low input because the farming
Continued from page 16 – Southern Africa Life system is based on reduced use of fertilizers, herbicides
Expectancy Rising Slightly - UN and insecticides as well as decline in soil fertility. Other
challenges are erratic climate conditions and lack of
The longest-lived women are to be found in Japan, with government commitment to fund development efforts in
an average life expectancy of 86, and the longest-lived the research area. Therefore biotechnology that offers a
men in Iceland, where the figure is 80. At the other end of mechanism to increase crop productivity in Africa should
the scale, life expectancy in Afghanistan and Zimbabwe be adopted by farmers so as to contribute towards food
is below 45 for both men and women. security and poverty eradication.
The report said there had been a "noticeable recovery" in The scientists state that although biotechnology is
longevity in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, gradually being embraced across the globe, it still faces
where life expectancy plummeted following the collapse much opposition which include; perception and attitude
of communist rule in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Men of the people, the cost effects to conduct research and
in particular are living longer due to reductions in heart above all enactment of regulations and policies to
disease deaths. (Editing by Jim Marshall) safeguard the product. Dr Gospel Omanya of the African
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39767433/ns/health/# Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF) based in
☻☻☻☻☻☻ Nairobi, Kenya said it is important for African continent
to adapt this technology because it helps address the issue
Continued from page 9 - Researchers advocate for of weeding the farms and value addition in the nutrition
Biotechnology to improve Food Security in Africa area. He contends that countries like Asia with a huge
because our great ancestors used mechanisms such as population are overcoming the problem by adapting to
brewing and processing local beer and now people are this technology.
interested in processing food stuffs like meat, fish and http://www.monitor.co.ug/Magazines/Farming/-
there is artificial insemination in animals for purposes of /689860/1041016/-/2nnc73z/-/index.html
coming up with exotic breeds. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
To him biotechnology is a tool for fighting poverty 135 of 1000 Ugandan children die before
amongst the African population most of whom depend on celebrating their first birth day and 13.7 per cent
agriculture for their livelihood. He invited the African pass on before the fifth birthday according to UNDP
population to read a poem by an Egyptian scientist which statistics, while 435 mothers die of every 100, 000
says, “A country in poverty which is relaxing has no giving birth.

-20- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


pressure on scarce natural resources. There is shortage of
Why Horn of Africa is arable land as farmers are forced to cultivate intensively
Starving and often cannot replenish the soil.
Land ownership issues and the increasingly limited
June 23 2010 access to cultivable land, water and other natural
In Summary resources are key to rural populations’ livelihoods, yet,
they have become a raison d’être for population
Those suffering most from food insecurity are movements and conflicts.
subsistence farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists
whose livelihoods largely depend on agriculture and Conflicts
animal production. The long history of conflicts both internal and across
boundaries has disrupted agricultural and livestock
With the history of food emergencies in Africa, the productions and marketing systems, causing mass
revelation that 40 per cent of the continent’s population displacements of already marginalised populations,
are at the risk of starvation, is a cause of concern. 40 per thereby intensifying hunger and putting vulnerable
cent of Africans suffer starvation, and Uganda is one of populations even more at risk of food insecurity.
the countries listed whose population is suffering hunger. The tensions are the hotbed for the influx of refugees and
The interagency Taskforce on the UN Response to Long- IDPs putting further pressure on already scare resources
Term Food Security, Agricultural Development and accessible to host populations, thereby affecting their
Other Related Aspects in Africa that was established by food security situation and potentially initiating
Kofi Anan in 2001 identified natural hazards, conflict and additional tensions.
population growth as the main underlying causes of food More than half of the populations in the region survive on
insecurity. less than a dollar (Shs2,000) per day. With little or no
Between 15 to 20 million people in Africa especially the savings and lack of skills to diversify their sources of
pastoralist communities live mainly in arid and semi-arid income, the poor people are exposed to more dangers let
low lands. They suffer from droughts where food alone starvation.
production is reducing and many risk losing their assets. Poor health
With limited food and water availability, animals produce Countries in Africa have some of the lowest health
less milk, are more prone to diseases and their death standards in the world. Whilst rural communities in
incidence rates increases. general have limited access to adequate health services,
those worst served are the nomadic and semi-nomadic
The UN organisation says others factors contributing to pastoralist communities. Among them, children and
food insecurity are forced displacement, poverty, trans- women are the most vulnerable with high children
boundary diseases, poor health, gender inequalities, weak undernourishment and mortality rates related to
infrastructure, poor economies, as well as inadequate preventable diseases (measles, malaria etc.) and high
national policies and governance issues, aid failure and level of maternal mortality. There are more than four
weak knowledge and information systems. million people living with HIV/Aids in the Horn of
Current situation Africa alone, according to the 2008 Unaids report. The
According to the Food Security, Integrated Phase organisation projected that by 2010, twice as many
Classification (IPC) map released in April, food security people in rural areas will be infected compared to those in
in Africa is a cause for concern with many areas said to urban areas.
be in acute food shortage especially Southern Sudan, Gender Inequities
Northern Kenya and North eastern Uganda. Increasingly, men are migrating to urban areas looking
The situation is most alarming in Sudan (Darfur) and for labour, leaving women with the burden of taking care
Somalia (Central) where populations cannot live without of the family farms. Although women are in charge of
humanitarian aid. Natural hazards, drought and floods are cooking and collecting water for the household, land
the driving forces behind the looming hunger across the rights are often passed on through male relatives. Often
continent, especially because they hit they hit the poorest lacking sufficient education, women have limited options
(mostly rural) communities the hardest. because of food insecurity and poverty. Gender inequities
also often translate into gender based violence, affecting
Land regime food security at household and community level.
The population in Africa has more than doubled since
1974 and is continuing to grow rapidly, putting further Continued on page 22

-21- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 21 - Why Horn of Africa is Starving Climate change
Weak infrastructures Climate change threatens to further exacerbate food
Due to the poor conditions or nonexistence of roads, insecurity in Africa. Crop yields in dry, tropical and
populations living in remote rural areas have very limited semitropical regions risk to decrease due to global
access to external markets and many farmers and agro- warming. Extreme climate events such as droughts,
pastoralists are therefore isolated from the national and flooding and heat stress are increasing both in frequency
regional economy. Access to safe drinking water is also and gravity; which affects food production, stability and
insufficient, rural populations in Somalia, Eritrea and availability, especially as their combination and
Ethiopia are particularly affected. recurrence set the right conditions for human, crop,
livestock pests and diseases to spread. Increased
Poor economies incidence of water born diseases in flood-prone areas,
Economic growth in Africa has generally been slow and and new diseases will increase human health risks.
unequal, widening the gap between the poor majority and Access to safe drinking water is also likely to become
the wealthy. more scarce.
Pastoralist communities have benefited from the The resilience of smallholder and subsistence farmers
liberalisation of markets in Africa and are generally better will be challenged, which may lead to further
off than farmers. However, when there is a natural environmental degradation, further population
disaster, they are most vulnerable as they risk losing all movements and increasingly to resource-based conflicts.
their assets. Little has been done to support pastoralists Unless adequate action is taken, it is predicted that the
systems and initiatives that have been taken have often food security and nutrition situation will negatively
deteriorated the situation by increasing livestock numbers affected Sub- Saharan Africa.
and leading to overgrazing rather than regulating the
systems. http://www.monitor.co.ug/Magazines/Farming/-
/689860/944062/-/view/printVersion/-/oy92nq/-/index.html
Governance failure ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Unstable Government institutions in conflict and post-
conflict countries, over centralisation, corruption and Climate Change threatens
insufficient political commitment to address food
insecurity; are factors to food insecurity but also Food Security in Africa
represent considerable obstacles for donors and the By ZAHRA ABIGABA
international community to provide effective emergency
relief and sustainable basis for economic growth. November 3, 2010

Financial crisis The success in addressing challenges of climate change to


The dramatic rise of global food prices in early 2008 agriculture and food security in Africa will require a
rapidly followed by the global financial crisis and comprehensive approach of technical, institutional and
economic recession had the most drastic consequences on financial innovations, a survey report has shown.
the global food and nutrition in decades. Their overlap The move is to ensure that both adaptation and mitigation
caused socio-economic, environmental and security strategies are consistent with efforts to safeguard food
related issues worldwide. Countries in Africa affected by security, maintain ecosystem services, provide carbon
the 2006 drought had no time to recover before the sequestration and reduce emissions. Agriculture in Africa
soaring food prices and a drought crisis that hit them once according to the report is likely to be severely impacted
more in 2009. The most devastating effects of these two by climate change and cannot continue in the present
crises were felt in the agricultural sector and amongst the unsustainable way.
urban poor and the food insecure. Poor households saw
their coping mechanisms strained to their limits and “The agricultural sector needs reform to attain much
hunger and undernourishment incidences increased greater harmony with the natural and human
dramatically in the region. Whilst food prices have environment, this is in tune with the principle of a green
decreased overall in the region, they are still above the economy and the ongoing comprehensive Africa
five year average and are likely to remain volatile for agricultural development programme (CAADP) reforms
some time, putting further pressure on the most process,” reads part of the report titled, Climate change,
vulnerable as remittances are decreasing and both formal agriculture and food security.
and informal economies at local and regional levels are Speaking during its launch Ms Rhoda Peace Tumusiime,
affected. Continued on page 23

-22- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 22–Climate Change threatens Food
Security in Africa FOOD SCARCITY: Paradox
the Commissioner of African Union for Rural Economy of Hunger amidst Plenty
and Agriculture asked leaders to consider how Africa can
benefit from carbon credit instruments like the Clean
Alfred Tumushabe
Development Mechanism. November 10, 2010
Daily Monitor
She said that two per cent of the total projects come from
Africa comprising sustainable land management that has Ankole sub region on the outside is a place flowing
the potential to mitigate climate change and strengthen with milk and honey. But children here are at risk of
the resilience to its impacts and economic growth food malnourishment because most of the food is not grown
security and environmental health. to feed homesteads but for sale.
Ms Tumusiime said “The conference resolutions would
be part of the efforts to advance Africa’s position on
Climate Change and to make sure that Africa benefits
from such discussions thereby keeping its initial position
on ensuring transparency in discussions and putting
agricultural aspects on the discussion table.”
The report says while agriculture is critically important to
Africa, it often lacks priority and funding. The Ugandan
government has since increased its budgetary allocation
to the Agriculture Ministry in the 2010/2011 financial
year to Shs310b, from Shs223b in 2008/2009.
The 2008 International Assessment of Agriculture
concluded that unchecked climate change will make it Such children in Isingiro are at risk of suffering from
increasingly difficult to feed a growing population, and malnutrition while the area is steaming with abundant foods
before the end of the century, the world will not be able because their parents sell almost all their pro-duce leaving
to support the present population without radical change. little or nothing to eat in their homes. Photo by Alfred
Tumushabe
It reported that Africa’s population is projected to double
by 2050 to about Shs2b. “More than 60 per cent of global A three-year old child resting on its mother’s lap is
population growth between 2008 and 2010 will be in being observed by dietitians at Natasha Child
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Climate change therefore Nutritional Centre at Mbarara Regional Referral
represents a serious external shock which could challenge Hospital. Mark Natamba is scaly skinny and visibly
the future food security of many millions of Africans,” it underweight. Dr Francis Oriokot of the Department of
adds. Paediatrics and Child Health at the hospital says the
centre receives many listless children like Natamba.
“In fact, a warming of 1 to 2° celsius is expected to
decrease agricultural yields in arid, semi-arid and tropical He says children are affected first by diseases like
regions. malaria because of underfeeding. “There is poor
feeding in homes in this region. So when children catch
Agro-ecological zones may shift in ways difficult to diseases they weaken so fast,” he says. The doctor says
predict: some traditional practices will become less up to 50 per cent of children in the Southwest are
relevant and more on-farm research and extension malnourished. This information is corroborated by the
support will become necessary,” says the report adding 2006 Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS)
that the drying of the Sahel is one example of a change report.
that has already been observed with negative
consequences for traditional pastoral livelihoods. “…Regional variation in nutritional status of children is
substantial, with stunting being the highest in
http://www.monitor.co.ug/Magazines/Farming/- Southwest (50 per cent) and lowest in Kampala (22 per
/689860/1045486/-/view/printVersion/-/t80dyl/-/index.html cent),” the report says.
☻☻☻☻☻☻
This is far above the 15 per cent national malnutrition
prevalence. Dr Kaguna Amoti, the District Health
Continued on page 24
-23- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 23 –Food Scarcity Under integrated farming system, farmers are
Officer of Mbarara District says 38 to 40 per cent of the encouraged to grow various food and cash crops, fruits
children below five years in the district are chronically and rare livestock. But this, can in most cases be
malnourished and stunted due to poor feeding. practical only with those who have a huge chunk of
land, yet land resource eludes many.
Ironically, the poor feeding occurs highly in a region
endowed with abundant foods, presenting a case of Ms Byarugaba says population pressure in the region
“paradox of poverty amidst plenty.” Mbarara, Isingiro, has reduced land for cultivation to the extent that
Bushenyi, Ntungamo, Ibanda and Kiruhura have majority of the people are now dependant on only
compelling food produce varieties. Gardens, plantations matooke, which does not give adequate nutrients. “In
and markets are bursting with mounds of matooke, fruits, Rubindi, Kagongi, Bugamba (Mbarara) and Nyakitunda
cabbages, Irish potatoes and carrots courtesy of good (Isingiro) sub counties, population is very high for the
climate, soils and hard work. The region is also the bread available land. People just have a small plot where they
basket for milk, beef and poultry farms which all provide grow banana plantations on which they survive, you
good sources of foods necessary for body building and can imagine!” she says.
energy giving foods. On the other hand she also attributes the poor feeding
What is the cause of malnutrition then? to ignorance of best feeding ways and the poor
Dr Kaguna believes that the cause of malnutrition in the preparation of foods. “Most people do not know how
region is partly due to parents’ and children caretakers’ children should feed. They don’t know how to balance
lack of knowledge on feeding. the diet. They think if children are well fed when they
eat full plates of matooke,” Ms Byarugaba says.
“We have come to realise that children don’t take milk
yet we have it in plenty,” he says. Milk in villages is sold According to Ms Byarugaba, men share the blame of
as cheaply as Shs200, fruits like passion, avocado and poor feeding in homes because they have left the role
mangoes are abundant in homes and crops like beans and of what children should eat to women alone.
groundnuts are largely grown in the region, he says. Ms Julius Mwesigwa, a resident of Rwanyamahembe
Sub County concurs that people have totally turned
Dr Kaguna adds that some family heads opt to sell off food crops into cash crops.
these foods to get money to spend on alcohol. He blames
the limited or lack of awareness on government’s failure “People no longer grow coffee and few rear livestock
to commit enough resources to promoting good nutrition because of lack of land. They depend on growing and
practices. selling of bananas, millet, beans and groundnuts to
raise money,” he says. He says this wouldn’t be a
Ms Jadress Kayesu from Kabuhaama in Rubindi Sub problem if families were eating enough of the produced
County who has been trained to teach her village mates foods and stored the rest to safeguard against hunger.
on sanitation and feeding has since abandoned the task “Fresh produce like beans in some homes are not eaten
because she is not facilitated. She says lack of knowledge at all, they are set aside for selling.
on good feeding contributes to malnutrition. “People
don’t know how to feed children though they have a lot It is because of such practices that you find many frail
of food,” she says. and stunted children in homes,” says Mweigwa. He
also says villages Saccos and Kafuna (private money
From her experience, Ms Kayesu, the 27-year-old senior lenders) compel farmers to sell all their produce
two dropout, has found out that people are reluctant to because farm inputs are got on credit. “Inputs (money)
learn. “Convening people to teach them is not that easy. are sometimes borrowed, so farmers have to sell the
They are reluctant to attend because they will not be produce to pay back,” he says.
given money from the training,” she says.
Unscientific population
Ms Beatrice Byarugaba, Mbarara District Coordinator What do ordinary people make of good feeding?
and acting Naads coordinator too believes malnutrition is According to Dr Oriokot, there is less understanding of
high in the region because what is produced is all sold food substance by the population. “The population is
without reserving enough for homesteads. “Farmers sell not scientific. They understand things by visibility. For
almost everything they produce. That is why Naads has them the issue is satisfying hunger. They don’t think
been promoting integrated farming where one can have about balancing foods. The amount of protein you take
more than three enterprises. The aim is that you sell part in should be balanced with carbohydrates,” he says.
of the produce and remain with what to eat,” she says.
Continued on page 25

-24- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 24 – Food Scarcity “Access to water for producing food will be one of the
He says some people don’t eat the recommended three important challenges the world will face when 2.3
meals a day, others eat much of carbohydrates and less of billion people will be added to the planet by 2050. All
fats and proteins while others take in much of proteins these services put significant pressure on this finite
and less of carbohydrates. resource, making its sustainable management critically
important,” says the World Bank report.
“Because the ratio is not balancing you end up with that
deficiency. What is crucial are the ratios,” he emphasises. The report explains that as the world population is
He says lack of proper feeding by pregnant and projected to surpass nine billion people by 2050 and
breastfeeding mothers lead to producing of underweight societies grow wealthier, countries will need to get
babies and lack of breast milk. He says babies are more from their agriculture and water use. It adds that
supposed to be exclusively breast fed during the first six feeding 2.3 billion more people and coping with the
months of life. “Some mothers don’t breastfeed children changing dietary demands from a richer population will
enough because they are busy. They copy child feeding require more efficient water use, particularly in
methods which are not appropriate,” he says. Like, Ms agriculture. With the situation being a reality rather
Byarugaba, Dr Oriokot says that some families are too than an assumption; the World Bank Group’s water
big without enough land and jobs to sustain themselves. strategy now calls for better information and a more
integrated approach to water management.
Solutions
“Unlike in the past today there are not enough resources The report also indicates that 39 per cent of the world’s
devoted to teaching proper nutrition. There is need for population does not have access to improved basic
more resources to carryout feeding awareness, otherwise sanitation. Taking into consideration that access to safe
food is affordable,” says Dr Kaguna. He adds that water is one of the components of the eight goals of the
households should be dissuaded from selling all food. United Nations Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs), the World Bank is concerned that if the
Moses Turyaramya, Mbarara District Farmers current trend continues unchanged, the international
Association Programmes Manager adds, “There are not community will miss the MDGs sanitation target for
enough food reservoirs in homes. What is produced is 2015 by almost one billion people. “We can’t properly
sold off. The government needs to intervene by teaching tackle global priorities of food security, renewable
people good feeding practices and ensuring food security. energy, adaptation to climate change, public health and
But now, the entire population is left on its own,” he says. urbanisation unless we manage water better,” said Mr
http://www.monitor.co.ug/Magazines/Farming/- Julia Bucknall, the water sector manager at the World
/689860/1049910/-/view/printVersion/-/iqrn6lz/-/index.html Bank. “And to manage water better, we really can’t
☻☻☻☻☻☻ sidestep solid hydrological analysis.”
Over the past years, donors have committed more than
Population Pressure poses $250 million to the Nile Basin Initiative based on East
Risk to Water Access in Africa’s River Nile shared by 10 countries: Burundi,
DR Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda,
Africa Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda, for capacity building,
project preparation and implementation of pre-
By Martin Luther Oketch investment activities. The report says: “The Nile Basin
September 7, 2010 is home to more than 300 million people who rely on
Nile waters for basic needs and economic growth. With
A recent report from the World Bank paints a worrisome
the potential for both conflict and mutual gain, the Nile
picture that more than one sixth of the world’s population
remains at the nexus of security and development.”
does not have access to safe drinking water.
Regarding the importance of water to the energy sector,
The report, which is titled ‘Sustaining Water for All in a
the report points out that leveraging the power of water
Changing Climate’, cautions that the sustainable
to support the transformation of the energy sector will
management of water resources has acquired a new
help to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas
urgency in the face of the global population expected to
emissions.
reach nine billion by 2050, economic development
spurring demand for more and better food and increased http://www.monitor.co.ug/Business/Business%20Power/-
hydrological variability caused by climate change. /688616/1004808/-/view/printVersion/-/ulfht0z/-/index.html
☻☻☻☻☻☻

-25- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


UN Secretary General during the MDG summit. Mr Ki-
A New Strategy to reduce Moon described the strategy as “our best chance for a
Maternal and Child Deaths multiplier effect on the goals.”

By Evelyn Libbi Besides saving the lives of women and children, the
strategy aims at preventing close to 33 million
September 30 2010 unwanted pregnancies and protecting 120 million
Uganda has developed a new national Millennium children from pneumonia. It further seeks to protect 88
Development Goal acceleration framework which it million children from stunting. “We know what works
hopes can help the country reduce its maternal and child to save women’s and children’s lives, and we know that
deaths. women and children are critical to all of the MDGs,”
Mr Ki-Moon said.
This comes after the latest scorecard report for Uganda
on the MDGs showed that the country will miss out on At the review conference, leaders agreed that child
the two goals even by the deadline date of 2015. With the mortality has reduced over the past decade but it is not
MDG goals set a decade ago, Uganda like several enough to achieve the 2015 MDG target while maternal
countries hoped to achieve the global targets including mortality remains unacceptably high, especially in sub
reducing poverty, increasing school enrolment and Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive. “Women and
reducing maternal and child deaths by 2015. But with children play a crucial role in development. Investing in
only five years left, most of the targets seem far from their health is not only the right thing to do, it also
being met. builds stable, peaceful and productive societies,” he
added.
Infant mortality rates remain high at 76 deaths per 1,000 http://www.monitor.co.ug/Magazines/Health%20&%20Livin
live births while under-five mortality rate stands at 137 g/-/689846/1020548/-/view/printVersion/-/eaay3dz/-
deaths per 1,000 live births. To achieve the MDG target, /index.html
maternal deaths should dramatically reduce from 435 to ☻☻☻☻☻☻
131 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2015.
Dr Jotham Musinguzi, the Africa regional director for
When Childbirth becomes a
Partners in Population and Development said Uganda Deadly Gamble
needs to invest in health infrastructure including human
resource if it is to significantly cut the number of mothers By Evelyn Lirri
who die in child birth or related complications. “Most of August 15, 2010
these mothers die in rural areas where they don’t have
access to emergency obstetric care or a skilled health In Uganda, childbirth can be deadly. With 435 deaths
worker attending to them at the time of delivery,”Dr for every 100,000 births, lack of modern family
Musinguzi said. planning methods, a poor health care system and
battered infrastructure means every pregnancy is a
In the MDG acceleration framework, government will gamble.
focus much of its attention over the next five years on
two of the eight development goals. Ms Margaret Ajok is expecting her sixth child. The 26-
year-old resident of Awere Sub-county in Pader District
The framework spells out a series of practical solutions had come for antenatal checkup when I met her at
which government hopes if implemented would Awere Health Centre. It is her fourth visit since she
significantly drive progress including making available became pregnant.
emergency obstetric care, skilled attendance at birth,
family planning and effective antenatal care. But it’s not A midwife at the health facility said Ms Ajok’s
only Uganda which has performed poorly in the health pregnancy has so far progressed well and there is no
related goals. At the MDG review summit in New York danger to the child and mother. But Ms Ajok’s
last week, leaders agreed progress was generally slow in experience of childbirth has not been without incident.
trying to reduce maternal and child deaths. When she was pregnant with her fourth child, she never
attended any antenatal care. “It was very expensive for
The United Nations has now unveiled a $40 billion global me to move from home up to here. I have to walk more
initiative it says can save the lives of close to 16 million than 10 kilometres to access the health facility,” she
women and children over the next five years. The said. And when it was time for her to have the baby, the
initiative known as the Global Strategy for Women’s and journey to the hospital was too long, she decided to
Children’s Health was launched by Mr Ban Ki-Moon, the Continued on page 27
-26- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 26 – When Childbirth becomes a men are more likely to die from complications like severe
Deadly Gamble bleeding and obstructed labour. “If you have a skilled health
worker with a mother during delivery, it will help her to
give birth at home - only with the help of a traditional
detect if there is any complication and immediately do
birth attendant. It was a still birth While Ms Ajok said
something to save the life of the baby and mother,” said Dr
she had given birth to her other four children at the
Hassan Mohtashami, the deputy representative of the UN
health facility, the daunting cost and expenses she
Population Fund (UNFPA) in Uganda. “If a mother needs
needed to travel had forced her to deliver at home.
specialised and sophisticated care by a doctor such as
Slight improvement caesarean and blood transfusion, then there should be a centre
According to the Uganda Demographic and Health equipped with these facilities where mothers can be referred,”
Survey 2006, there has only been a slight improvement he added.
in the proportion of mothers who deliver in health
This, intervention, according to Dr Mohtashami, has the
facilities from 38 per cent in 2001 to 41 per cent.
potential of saving up to one-third of women who would
“Now I don’t want to take any risk again. I have otherwise have died. But saving lives of mothers requires
already saved some money for transport when the time more than just medical intervention.
to deliver this baby comes,” she said. A journey from
Sensitisation lacking
Ms Ajok’s home to the health facility costs Shs5,000
Ms Thoraya Obaid, the executive director of UNFPA, told
on a boda boda.
Sunday Monitor in an interview that the underlying reasons
But in a country where more than 10 million people which make women not access information on reproductive
live on less than a dollar or Shs2,100 a day, being health issues should also be addressed.
pregnant can be potentially tragic for women like Ms
“We see that poor, uneducated young women have the least
Ajok who come from rural areas- and where services
information and services, and the highest rates of death or
are scarce or expensive.
injury during pregnancy and childbirth,” she said.
Pregnancy and childbirth-related complications are the She said that poor sexual and reproductive health is a leading
leading causes of death among women in Uganda, killer in Africa and the consequences are felt every day.
where for every 100,000 women who get pregnant, 435
Explaining the task of reducing maternal deaths, Dr
or 44 per cent die.
Musinguzi said while leaders have made several
Daily deaths commitments to reduce maternal and child deaths, little effort
This translates to an average of 16 deaths everyday. has been put to realise the actual results. “If you are to look at
Most of these deaths result from complications of the statistics, we are far from achieving the MDGs on
unsafe abortion, prolonged or obstructed labour where maternal and child health,” he said.
the woman’s body is too small for the baby to pass
To achieve the MDGs by 2015, countries must reduce the
through the birth canal, massive bleeding, high blood
number of mothers who die in childbirth by 75 per cent. This
pressure, malaria and HIV/Aids.
means Uganda will have to significantly reduce this figure to
But often the underlying cause of death is the high cost 131 per 100,000 from the current 435 - a figure that already
of maternal care. Maternity care, like all other health looks out of reach given the five years left to the MDG
services in Uganda, is supposed to be free but pregnant deadline.
women are asked to provide their own delivery items
Health and development experts say action on maternal and
like gloves, razor blades, cotton wool and birth sheets.
child health will do well to focus on family planning and
Dr Jotham Musinguzi, the African regional director for basic care and to ensure women do not have too frequent or
Partners in Population and Development (PPD), said too early pregnancies that increase their risk of death.
many of the women are dying from causes easily
But in Uganda contraceptive use among sexually active
preventable with basic medical care.
women has remained at a low 24 per cent, which is below the
“Maternal mortality is not purely a health issue. If we minimum needed to impact on fertility while the unmet need
want to get results, we need to have well functioning for family planning is 41 per cent.
facilities in place with health workers. There must be
“Family planning services enable women not only to plan
good roads in order to transport women incase of
their families but also to plan the rest of their lives. If a
emergencies and generally, there should be real
woman cannot decide voluntarily on the number and spacing
investment in the health sector,” Dr Muzinguzi said.
of her pregnancies, then she cannot decide on anything in her
Without a trained, experienced midwife on hand, wo- life,” said Ms Obaid. Continued on page 30
-27- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 5, Issue 12 NEWSLETTER December 2010

FEATURED ARTICLES
Over Population and Population Reduction
By Mama Mawusi Ashshakir
Master Herbalist and Healer

Guardian Director
The Body Temple institute of Herbal Studies
Overpopulation is when the number of people in a Does Fluoride in our drinking water, Tuskegee syphilis
population cannot be permanently maintained without Experiment, H1N1 sterilizing vaccine or addiction over
depleting resources and without degrading the processed foods make you feel safe. Well “They Say”
environment and the people's standard of living. Because that the main cause of Global warming is
the present word population is rapidly using up resources overpopulation, energy waste and consumption and
around the world, virtually all nations are overpopulated. “They Say” that the world’s population is two to three
This applies even more so to the rich nations. For times more than the Earth resources are able sustain.
example, Americans constitute only five percent of the
So you do the math………………..Are you convinced
world’s total population, but consume 26% of the world’s
that you are in the cross hairs yet? Let’s do a little
energy. Just as much as the population size, we need to
more digging, have you seen the” MAAFA 21”
consider the resources consumed by each person, and the
documentary? This documentary investigated the
damage done by technologies used to supply them.
eugenics movement, MAAFA 21 uncovered founder
U.S. population at the beginning of 2010 was over 308 Margret Sanger of The Planned Parenthood abortion
million! (Extrapolated from U.S. Census data). clinics which are mainly located in the African
American communities all over the United States
• Our population is growing by over 3,200,000
today. What about Kissinger’s policy to use food as a
people per year -- that's 365 per hour -- about half from
weapon for population control and the influx of high
new births and half from immigration (U.S. Census).
fructose corn syrup, flavorings and preservatives on our
According to a study by David Pimentel, the U.S. can
grocery store shelves? Or have you researched the
sustain a population of only 200 million... and that's only
H1N1 vaccine that was to become mandatory for
if we reduce our energy consumption by 50%!
pregnant mothers, children and the elderly the most
vulnerable segments of our population? It all seems so
• The average American consumes over 25 times harmless until you research the target populations of
more resources than the average person from a these dastardly deeds. The effects on Africans in
developing country. That means that a family in a America is a infant mortality rate that is three times that
developing country would have to have 50 children to of White Americans, drug and alcohol addiction (a
have the same environmental impact as an American weapon of mass destruction) at more than 3 times that
family with 2 children! of whites and a more covert but effective weapon
• The addition of 3.2 million Americans has a “food” is used to erode our health the tune of 25% of
greater resource impact upon the Earth than all of the all the deaths in 2006 due to heart disease (generally
millions of people added last year in India and Africa caused by the strategic marketing of processed foods).
combined.
According to radio host Alex Jones this population
Population Control Methods reduction issue is indiscriminant - but in my healing
“When there is an overpopulation of deer – it’s hunting practice I see more and more Africans in America
season.” Continued on page 29
-28- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 28 – Overpopulation and Population It would help answer scientific questions: Is the source
Reduction still out there? How does this cholera strain spread? Does
suffering from the deadly disease of ignorance and it pose a threat to the region, including the southern
following the herd of the voluntary “depopulationist”. United States?

Links: When riots broke out across northern Haiti this week, the
http://www.cosmosmith.com/human_population_crisis.htm U.N. blamed them on politicians trying to disrupt the
http://www.worldpopulationbalance.org/us_population upcoming vote. But observers say the U.N.'s early stance
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BIbuRMVVekg fanned the flames. "If the U.N. had said from the
http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvl beginning, 'We're going to look into this' ... I think that, in
id=6 fact, would have been the best way in reducing public
Mama Mawusi Ashshakir the Guardian Director of the anger," said Brian Concannon, director of the Institute for
Body Temple institute of Herbal studies is a Master Justice & Democracy in Haiti. "The way to contribute to
Herbalist and Healer. On her website, The Body Temple public anger is to lie."
Institute of Wholistic Health and Herbal studies, for right Brand-new disease in Haiti
health, right knowledge and sound community, she Before last month, there had never been a confirmed case
provides herbalist orientation, training and information. of cholera in Haiti.
She has agreed to become one of our featured writers.
In March, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
http://thebodytemple.ning.com/ Prevention said cholera was "extremely unlikely to
☻☻☻☻☻☻
occur" in Haiti. There were no cholera bacteria there.
Most foreigners were relief workers with good sanitation
UN Worries its Troops who come from countries where cholera is not an issue.
caused Cholera in Haiti Then it did. Even more surprisingly, it did not first appear
By Jonathan M. Katz in a major port, an earthquake tent camp or an area where
foreigners are concentrated, but instead along the rural
The Associated Press Artibonite River.
November 19, 2010
Speculation keeps returning to that river and a base home
PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti — It began as a rumor that to 454 U.N. peacekeepers from Nepal. They are perched
farmers saw waste from a U.N. peacekeeping base flow on a babbling waterway called the Boukan Kanni, part of
into a river. Within days of the talk, hundreds the Meille River that feeds into the Artibonite.
downstream had died from cholera.
People living nearby have long complained about the
The mounting circumstantial evidence that U.N. stink in the back of the base and sewage in the river.
peacekeepers from Nepal brought cholera to Haiti was Before the outbreak began they had stopped drinking
largely dismissed by U.N. officials. Haitians who asked from that section of the river, depending instead on a
about it were called political or paranoid. Foreigners were source farther up the mountain.
accused of playing "the blame game." The World Health
Organization said the question was simply "not a The latest Nepalese deployment came in October, after a
priority." summer of cholera outbreaks in Nepal. The changeover at
the base, which guards the area south of the central
But this week, after anti-U.N. riots and inquiries from plateau town of Mirebalais, was done in three shifts on
health experts, the top U.N. representative in Haiti said he Oct. 9, 12 and 16.
is taking the allegations very seriously. "It is very
important to know if it came from (the Nepalese base) or The U.N. says none of the peacekeepers showed
not, and someday I hope we will find out," U.N. envoy symptoms of the disease. But 75 percent of people
Edmond Mulet told The Associated Press. infected with cholera never show symptoms but can still
pass on the disease for two weeks — especially in
The answer would have implications for U.N. countries like Nepal where people have developed
peacekeeping missions around the world, he said. It immunity. The CDC has said the strain of cholera in Haiti
would affect the relationship between the U.N. and Haiti: matches one found most prevalently in South Asia.
If its peacekeepers misled, it could lose credibility for
tasks such as helping oversee next week's election. It "It very much likely did come either with peacekeepers or
could affect the job of U.N. humanitarian workers, who other relief personnel," said John Mekalanos, Harvard
work separately from the peacekeepers. Continued on page 56
-29- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 28 - When Childbirth becomes a Deadly is when they are pregnant,” said Mr Lapat.
Gamble
Studies show that addressing the unmet need for family
Many women admit they want to space or stop producing planning in Uganda can potentially avert some 16,877
more children than they already have but they do not maternal deaths and more than 1.1 million child deaths by
have access to contraceptives - especially long term 2015.
contraceptive methods because of frequent stock-outs in
public health facilities. Meeting the unmet need for contraceptives can also
potentially reduce maternal deaths by 40 per cent while
The result has been the high number of unwanted unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions would
pregnancies, which have consequently led to a high decline by 84 per cent.
number of induced abortions-297,000 every year,
according to a study conducted by the Guttmacher Because of the huge unmet need for family planning,
Institute and Mulago Hospital. fertility rates have also remained high with each woman
having on average seven children - some even more over
According to the Uganda Demographic and Health their reproductive lifetime.
Survey, at least 16 per cent of the estimated 6,000 annual
maternal deaths are due to abortions. The Guttmacher report shows that when women delay
The report reveals that 56 per cent (519,000) of the 1.2 their next birth or have fewer children, the rate of
million births that occur in Uganda every year are population growth declines and the potential to educate,
unintended. train, and meet the economic demands of a young
population becomes easier.
Averting danger
The report says these births could be averted if all the “Slower population growth can yield savings on the costs
women who wanted family planning services had access of providing health, clean water, sanitation, and social
to them. Ms Margaret Akello, the in-charge of the Family services,” the report reveals.
Planning Unit at Lira Regional Hospital for instance said To address the huge challenge of maternal deaths, health
because of stock outs, they have registered a high number experts say more investment will be needed in the health
of women with successive unintended pregnancies. sector. “Leaders will have to make reproductive health a
Health experts say more women now prefer the long-term priority and devote 15 per cent of their budgets to health
birth control methods, usually given in a single jab or as they agreed in Abuja.” “They also need to invest
fitting because it’s convenient and more effective than the resources in training doctors, nurses and midwives to
oral contraceptives which must be taken every day to tackle the gap of health workers,” said Ms Obaid.
prevent pregnancy. In Uganda only half of the jobs in the health sector are
Ms Aidah Edonga, a 35-year-old mother of seven currently filled while health budget spending is 9.7 per
children for example said she wanted a long term method cent of the national budget far below the commitment
but she could not get it at the health facility. This forced agreed to in Abuja in 2001.
her to resort to a private clinic. But even here, she said According to a report by the Population Secretariat, the
the cost was very high. Part of the problem is that policy body that advises government on population policy
makers are sometimes reluctant to make long term birth issues, the high population is already having huge
control methods part of the mix of contraceptive method implications on the health sector. It shows that currently
because of perceived cost barriers. there is one nurse for every 4,000 people while for every
On the other hand, short term methods are readily 9,500 people, there is one health facility. Ms Obaid said
available - even through commercial outlets and reducing maternal deaths eventually will require
community distribution programme. commitment and funding and a functioning health care
system.
At a clinic run by Reproductive Health Uganda in Lira
http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/-/688334/976568/-
Town, a senior clinical officer, Mr Geoffrey Lapat, said
/view/printVersion/-/a2ddw3z/-/index.html
contraceptives like Pills cost Shs500 while longer term ☻☻☻☻☻☻
birth control methods like inplants go for as high as
Shs20,000. Maternal Mortality could be reduced in Africa by giving
Oxytocin IM, after the birth of the placenta. Free to all
“When the women come here and find the costs for the mothers. No mother should die giving birth. In Uganda
long term methods are high, they just leave without 435 women die per 100,000 live births, most from PPH.
taking it. The next time you will probably see them again What do you think? Rommel Fox-White, R.N.
-30- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
of procedures, conducted during the third stage and
Preventing Postpartum collectively called active management, enhance the
Hemorrhage ability of the uterus to contract after the child is born. By
Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor - A decreasing the amount of time necessary to deliver the
placenta, active management can prevent PPH by
Maternal and Neonatal Health Program Best
preventing uterine atony. Active management consists of:
Practice
November 2001 • giving a drug (uterotonic), within one minute of birth,
that causes the uterus to contract;
There are numerous definitions of postpartum
hemorrhage (PPH). The most widely recognized • early clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord; and
definition is blood loss after childbirth in excess of 500
mL. Because it is often difficult to accurately measure • applying controlled traction on the umbilical cord
blood loss, the true incidence of PPH may be while applying counter-traction on the uterus.
underestimated by up to 50%. Following the delivery of the placenta, the uterus is
The majorities of cases of PPH occurs in the immediate massaged through the abdomen to ensure that it remains
postpartum period (within 24 hours after birth) and are contracted.
due to uterine atony, a failure of the uterus to properly • Uterotonic Drugs - Giving women oxytocin
contract after the child is born. As a result, bleeding from immediately after childbirth is probably the single
the blood vessels in the uterus is not controlled. Without most important intervention used to prevent PPH.
immediate and proper medical attention, a woman with Women given oxytocin lose less blood, resulting in a
PPH will probably die. Anemic women are particularly decreased incidence of PPH and anemia. A woman
susceptible to such blood loss. receiving oxytocin delivers her placenta faster and is
Maternal mortality due to PPH is highest where there is less likely to require manual removal of her placenta,
poor access to skilled providers, transport systems and a painful procedure that increases the risk of
emergency services. This is not surprising considering infection.
that a woman will die within two hours, on average, after • Timing of Administration - Oxytocin is most
the onset of PPH if she does not receive proper treatment effective when administered within one minute after
(e.g., appropriate drugs, blood transfusion or surgical the birth of the baby. Waiting to give oxytocin until
intervention). after the placenta is delivered increases the woman's
Consequences of Postpartum Hemorrhage risk of uncontrolled bleeding.
Women who survive PPH are likely to suffer from • Oxytocin and Ergometrine - Oxytocin alone and
anemia and other complications. These women often oxytocin plus ergometrine are generally equally
must receive blood transfusions and are susceptible to the effective in reducing the incidence of PPH. Giving
associated risks of transfusion reactions or infection with oxytocin alone, however, is associated with fewer
HIV or hepatitis. Bleeding that cannot be controlled using side effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting and increased
drugs often requires surgery, including hysterectomy. blood pressure). In addition, ergometrine cannot be
Such procedures are costly and painful and may be given to women with high blood pressure (a common
emotionally devastating to the woman and her family. In problem in pregnancy).
addition, these procedures carry the risk of infection,
reactions to anesthesia and other complications. • Misoprostol - Prostaglandins are effective in
controlling hemorrhage but most have the
Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage disadvantages of being more expensive and having
Although some factors have been associated with an increased side effects (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting and
increased incidence of uterine atony leading to PPH, two- abdominal pain). One notable exception is
thirds of the women who hemorrhage after childbirth misoprostol, a prostaglandin analogue currently being
have no identifiable risk factors. Therefore, every woman investigated as a potential uterotonic drug for use in
must be closely monitored after childbirth for signs of active management of the third stage of labor. Studies
hemorrhage. to date indicate that misoprostol is effective in
Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage: Active reducing the incidence of PPH without the side
Management of the Third Stage of Labor effects associated with other uterotonic drugs.
The third stage of labor is the period of time from the Furthermore, misoprostol is inexpensive, stable at
birth of the child until the placenta is delivered. A series Continued on page 32
-31- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 31 – Preventing Postpartum NUMBER OF MATERNAL DEATHS IN SOME
Hemorrhage
AFRICAN COUNTRIES
room temperature and can be given orally--all of
which are tremendous advantages over currently 13 African Materna Birth Estimated Extrapol-
available uterotonic drugs. Countries l Death rate Population ted
A Few Simple Procedures Save Lives Per 1000 \ (2010) Number
Active management of the third stage of labor can 100,000 Popula in of
substantially decrease the following: Births tion Thousands Maternal
• Length of the third stage of labor (2002) (2008) Deaths*
• Need for additional drugs to treat excessive CAR 1,100 33 4,845 1759
bleeding Malawi: 1,100 42 1,448 669
• Need for a blood transfusion Mozambique 1,100 38 22,062 9222
• Need for surgical intervention Eritrea 1,000 35 5,793 2028
• Incidence of anemia and other problems Guinea- 910 36 10,324 3382
associated with excessive blood loss Bissau
Percentage of Maternal Deaths Due to PPH Chad 830 42 10,543 3675
• Sub-Saharan Africa: 25% Zimbabwe 700 32 11,652 2610
• West Africa: 27% Zambia 650 41 12,057 3213
Cote d'Ivoire 600 33 21,059 4170
• 99% of maternal deaths occur in developing Niger 590 50 15,878 4684
countries
Benin 500 40 9,056 1811
• 2/3 of women with PPH have no identifiable risk
factors Uganda (2010) 48 33,399 6974
• 90% of cases of PPH are due to uterine atony 435
Nigeria** (2005) 37 152,217 61952
Performing just a few simple procedures--giving a 1100
uterotonic drug, clamping and cutting the umbilical
Summary 310,334 106149
cord, applying traction on the umbilical cord while
applying counter-traction on the uterus and United States 8 14 310,783 348
massaging the uterus through the abdomen--has the
potential to prevent more than 130,000 maternal Over 106,000 women of childbearing age will have died in 2010 in
deaths every year. 13 countries in Africa. This averages to 817 per 100,000 births in
a population roughly the size of the United States. Given an
http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/english/6read/6issues/6jtn/v4 approximately equal population of the US and 13 African
/tn110hemor.htm countries, a woman’s chance of dying of childbirth in Africa is
☻☻☻☻☻☻ over 300 times more than in the United States. The U.S. maternal
NUMBER OF MATERNAL DEATHS death rate is 8 per 100,000 births.
IN SOME There are 53 African countries. The population showed is roughly
AFRICAN COUNTRIES only 25% of the total African population. The highest death rate
(2002 figures) shows Nigeria, Central African Republic, Malawi,
SOURCES: Internet Usage Statistics for Africa Mozambique and Eritrea with over 1,000 per 100,000 births. The
(Africa Internet Usage and Population Stats ) highest birth rate is Niger at 50 per 1000/population, followed by
http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm Uganda.
UNICEF (United Nations Children?s Fund). 2002. Direct causes of maternal deaths are bleeding (pre or post),
Official Summary: The State of the World's Children infections/sepsis, hypertensive disorder and prolonged labour
2002. New York: Oxford University Press. account for over 80% of the causes, while unsafe abortion
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/hea_mat_mor- accounts for 13%. Indirect causes: malaria, anaemia, and HIV.
health-maternal-mortality ☻☻☻☻☻☻
*Maternal deaths all causes
**http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/nigeria_statis
tics.html
-32- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
The process involves freezing placentas in a way that
Placenta: New Source for allows them to later be defrosted and suffused with a
Harvesting Stem Cells compound that enables the extraction of viable stem cells.
The method will make it possible for companies to
ScienceDaily (June 23, 2009) — A groundbreaking gather, ship and store placentas in a central location.
study conducted by Children's Hospital & Research "We're looking for a partnership with industry to get
Center Oakland is the first to reveal a new avenue for placenta-derived stem cells in large quantities to the
harvesting stem cells from a woman's placenta, or more clinic," said Dr. Kuypers. He adds that much more
specifically the discarded placentas of healthy research and grant funding are needed to explore the
newborns. The study also finds there are far more stem maximum potential of this latest discovery. He remains
cells in placentas than in umbilical cord blood, and they encouraged. "Someday, we will be able to save a lot more
can be safely extracted for transplantation. kids and adults from these horrific blood disorders."
Furthermore, it is highly likely that placental stem cells, Children's Hospital & Research Center at Oakland (2009, June
like umbilical cord blood and bone marrow stem cells, 23). Placenta: New Source For Harvesting Stem Cells.
can be used to cure chronic blood-related disorders ScienceDaily.
such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and leukemia. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090623091119.
htm
The study, led by Children's Hospital & Research ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Center Oakland scientists Frans Kuypers, PhD, and
Vladimir Serikov, PhD, will be the feature story in the Placenta Removal: A Safer
July 2009 issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine.
The doctors and their team made the discoveries by Method after Caesareans
harvesting term placentas from healthy women
ScienceDaily (July 18, 2008) — In Caesarean deliveries
undergoing elective Cesarean sections. "Yes, the stem
the placenta is usually removed by hand or by a technique
cells are there; yes, they are viable; and yes, we can get
known as 'cord traction'. A recent systematic review by
them out," declared Dr. Kuypers.
Cochrane Researchers shows that cord traction poses less
Stem cells are essentially blank cells that can be risk to the mother than manual removal.
transformed into any type of cell such as a muscle cell,
Removal of the placenta in Caesarean births may affect a
a brain cell, or a red blood cell. Using stem cells from
woman's chance of complications such as endometritis
umbilical cord blood, Children's Hospital Oakland
(infection of lining of the womb) and post-operative
physicians have cured more than 100 kids with chronic
bleeding. One possible cause of endometritis is that
blood-related diseases through their sibling donor cord
bacteria on the surgeon's gloves are carried into the
blood transplantation program, which began in 1997.
womb during manual removal of the placenta. In cord
However, according to the American Cancer Society,
traction, the surgeon's hand doesn't enter the womb.
each year at least 16,000 people with serious blood-
Instead the woman is given oxytocin and external
related disorders are not able to receive the bone
massage, which detach the placenta and it is then pulled
marrow or cord blood transplant they need because
from the womb by gentle traction on the umbilical cord.
they can't find a match.
The new study compares the advantages of the two
Dr. Kuypers explained that even when a patient
techniques. Researchers reviewed 15 trials involving a
receives a cord blood transplant, there may not be
total of 4,694 women and found that there was an
enough stem cells in the umbilical cord to successfully
increased risk of endometritis and high blood loss in
treat their disorder. Placentas, however, contain several
caesareans where the placenta was removed by hand.
times more stem cells than umbilical cord blood. "The
Women who had manual removal also stayed in hospital
greater supply of stem cells in placentas will likely
longer after their operations.
increase the chance that an HLA (human leukocyte
antigen) matched unit of stem cells engrafts, making "Although cord traction may take a little bit longer, there
stem cell transplants available to more people. The are clear health benefits of this method over manual
more stem cells, the bigger the chance of success," said removal of the placenta," says lead researcher Rose
Dr. Kuypers. Drs. Kuypers and Serikov have also Anorlu, a gynaecologist at the College of Medicine of the
developed a patent-pending method that will allow University of Lagos in Nigeria.
placental stem cells to be safely harvested and made http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080715204805.
accessible for transplantation. htm
☻☻☻☻☻☻
-33- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Postpartum Hemorrhage Continued from page 56 – Some Herbal
Conceptives and Abortifacients
All midwives worry about postpartum hemorrhage. The
Contraceptive - Grind seeds of Abrus precatorius into
three main keys to avoiding its occurrence are 1) good
powder. A single dose acts as a long acting contraceptive
nutrition and supplements as needed; 2) knowing the
lasting up to three menstrual cycles.
mother; and 3) not rushing the delivery of the placenta.
The first key to preventing postpartum hemorrhage is Wash whole plant of Abrus precatorius and boil in water
good prenatal nutrition and supplements. Require obtained from fermented milled fruits of Zea mays. Take
mothers keep a five-day diet diary to give early in small glass cup three times daily before intercourse. To
information about their diet. As soon as possible restore fertility, stop taking the preparation.
recommend changes in their dietary habits if they are
Contraceptive and Abortifacient – Momordica
needed. Charantia - The seeds have demonstrated the ability to
The second key, knowing the mom, entails making sure induce abortions in rats and mice, and the root has been
that you have recent blood work for this pregnancy. documented with a uterine stimulant effect in animals.
Check hemoglobin and hematocrit, of course, but also The fruit and leaf of bitter melon has demonstrated an in
platelet count. You want to make sure the mother’s blood vivo anti-fertility effect in female animals; in male
will clot properly after the placenta detaches. This key animals, it was reported to affect the production of sperm
also includes knowing the mother’s nutritional status as negatively. Bitter melon traditionally has been used as an
discussed above. abortive and has been documented with weak uterine
stimulant activity; therefore, it is contraindicated during
The third key to preventing postpartum hemorrhage is to
pregnancy. This plant has been documented to reduce
not rush the delivery of the placenta. Almost all
fertility in both males and females and should therefore
postpartum hemorrhages, in my opinion, are caused by
not be used by those undergoing fertility treatment or
being in a hurry to deliver the placenta. In these cases, I
seeking pregnancy. Women in Latin American and the
believe hemorrhage is caused by the intervillous spaces
West Indies use the leaf for menstrual problems to
not having a chance to contract and help control the flow
promote discharge after childbirth. The tea is taken for 9
of blood. Also, the over manipulation of the uterus to
days after giving birth to clean out and tone up all the
facilitate placental delivery can cause lobes to be left on
organs involved in the delivery. Cerasee is also used as a
the uterine wall which result in uneven contraction of the
natural method of birth control, by taking two cups each
uterus. These lobes need to be manually removed to
day after intercourse, for three days. It is said that women
prevent postpartum hemorrhage and infection. This is not
who drink Cerasee daily will not conceive during that
any fun for the mother or the midwife! Many physicians
time.
and a few midwives do not give the placenta time to
deliver on its own. But a policy of hands off, unless there Reference
is due cause, is the most important key to preventing An Examination of the Usage of Herbal Contraceptives and
postpartum hemorrhage. Some bad postpartum bleeds, Abortifacients in Lagos State, Nigeria, Kadiri Akeem Bablola,
which may have been avoided if the practitioner had not Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 140-46. 200.9
A Medicinal Potency of Momordica Charantia, D. Sathish
intervened and over-managed the placenta delivery.
Kumar, et al, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Uterine atony is also a major reason for postpartum Review and Research, Volume 1, Issue 2, March – April 2010;
hemorrhage. This can be caused from a long labor, or a Article 018
precipitous labor, either of which can induce uterine Rashan Abdul Hakim, Basic Herbs and Healing, 1989
fatigue or facilitate possible partial separation of the ☻☻☻☻☻☻
placenta. Try to anticipate this if she has had either of
these labor patterns. Also, check and ascertain that she
More Women Die Giving
has not displaced her uterus by not emptying her bladder, Birth in Hoima
either shortly before pushing and/or after delivery of the
baby. November 28, 2010
Sunday Vision
Midwifery Today E-News (Vol. 2 Issue 20 May 19,
2000) Last year alone, 285 women died as a result of birth-
related complications in Hoima Hospital. While women
http://www.naturalchildbirth.org/natural/resources/postbirth/po also died in other regional hospital, the victims from
stbirth16.htm
Hoima (7:1) outnumber those from any other region.
☻☻☻☻☻☻
Continued on page 55
-34- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
journey back through the past until it reaches the burial
Placenta Traditions place of the placenta and await rebirth.
For centuries the placenta has received ceremonial In Cambodia, the placenta is carefully wrapped in a
handling by many cultures around the world. In western banana tree leaf, placed beside the newborn baby for
medicine the human placenta is usually regarded as three days and then buried.
nothing more than human waste.
In Thai culture the placenta is often salted and placed in
Revered for its symbolism of life, spirit and an earthen jar. On a day deemed auspicious for burying
individuality, it is often buried outside. Some people this clay pot, a site is prepared and the placenta is laid to
even promote cooking and eating it as a celebration of rest. The jar is buried under a tree that corresponds to the
birth and a source of rich nutrients. Here are some symbol of the Asian year of the child's birth and
cultural traditions from the different continents: depending on what month the child was born dictates
Africa which bearing the pot faces.
The Ibo of Nigeria and Ghana treat the placenta as the Europe
dead twin of the live child and give it full burial rites. The commercial use of "placenta extract" found in some
In many African cultures, "zan boku" means "the place cosmetics, such as facial cream, is sold in France. In
where the placenta is buried." and bury the placenta 1994, Britain banned the practice of collecting placentas
under a tree. in hospitals from unsuspecting mothers, after it was
The Kikuyu of Kenya place it in an uncultivated field learned that 360 tons of it were annually being bought
and cover it with grains and grasses, while other and shipped by French pharmaceutical firms. They used
cultures bury it in the dirt floor of the family's house. it to make a protein, albumin, for burns and to make
Some African nations swaddle the placenta in blankets enzymes to treat rare genetic disorders.
and bury it beneath a tree as a tree symbolizes ongoing North America
life. For Navajo Indians, it is customary to bury a child's
In Mali, it is thought that the placenta can affect the placenta within the sacred four corners of the tribe's
baby's mood or even make the baby ill. The placenta is reservation as a binder to ancestral land and people. The
washed, dried, placed in a basket and buried by the Navajos also bury objects with it to signify the profession
father. they hope the child will pursue.
A belief held by many Arabs is the future fertility of a In Hawaii the placenta is brought home and washed, then
woman is connected to the disposition of the placenta. buried following a religious ritual with a tree planted on
Should something unpleasant happen to it the woman it. It is believed this binds the child to his or her
might be rendered sterile. homeland. The “iewe” (placenta) of the newborn child is
sacred and must be handled in a sacred manner in order
Asia to provide for the physical health of the child.
In some cultures such as Vietnam and China the
placenta is viewed as a life-giving force. Therefore, it is South America
dried and added to certain placenta recipes in order to In some regions of South America the placenta is burned
increase a person’s energy and vitality. after birth to neutralize it and planted in the ground to
protect it from evil spirits.
In Indonesia, the placenta is seen as the baby’s twin or
elder sibling and is perceived as the baby's guardian The indigenous Bolivian Aymara and Quecha people
throughout life. It is the father’s responsibilities to believe the placenta has its own spirit. It is to be washed
clean, wrap, and bury the placenta on the day of the and buried by the husband in a secret and shady place. If
birth. Filipina mothers are known to bury the placenta this ritual is not performed correctly, they believe, the
with books, in hopes of a smart child. mother or baby may become very sick or even die.
In Korea the placenta is often burned and the ashes Oceania
kept. During periods of illness the ashen powder is New Zealand Maori gift the Placenta or Whenua as a gift
given in a liquid to help heal the child. to Papa Tua Nuku or Mother Earth. In Maori, the word
for land and placenta are the same - whenua, and
Among the Hmong culture, the word for placenta can
illustrates the connection between them and it is usually
be translated as "jacket," as it's considered an infant's
planted with a tree on family land.
first and finest clothing. The Hmong bury the placenta
outside as they believe that after death, the soul must Continued on page 36

-35- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 35 – Placenta Traditions legal. But in much of the developing world, abortion
Some Aboriginal tribes bury the placenta either under remains highly restricted, and unsafe abortion is common
the tree where they birthed or under an ant pit for the and continues to damage women’s health and threaten
green ants. Many believe that when the green ants eat their survival," Camp noted.
the placenta no more babies will come or at least not Since 1997, 19 countries have reduced restrictions in
for a while. their abortions laws and only three countries have
In Samoa the placenta must be totally burned or buried substantially increased legal restrictions. The report
so it will not be found by evil spirits. Burying or points out that abortion occurs at roughly equal rates in
burning it at home also ensures the child will remain regions where it is broadly legal and in regions where it is
close to home as it moves through life. If buried under highly restricted.
a fruit tree, the placenta provides nutrition for the tree The report states, "Restricting abortion by law does not
that in turn will provide years of nutrition for the child. guarantee a low abortion rate, nor does permitting it on
broad grounds guarantee a high rate. Legal status does,
http://www.birthtoearth.com/FAQs/Placenta+Traditions.html however, affect the safety of abortion."
☻☻☻☻☻☻
The Guttmacher Institute calls for expanded access to
Report: Abortions Fall; modern contraceptives and to legal abortion, arguing that
there would be "enormous individual and societal
Unsafe Procedures Still benefits – for women, their families and countries as a
whole."
Prevalent
But Deirdre McQuade, a policy director with the U.S.
By Audrey Barrick Conference of Catholic Bishops' Secretariat for Pro-Life
October 14, 2009 Activities, told The Associated Press that they need to be
"much more creative in assisting women with supportive
The number of abortions worldwide fell between 1995 services so they don't need to resort to the unnatural act
and 2003 as contraceptive use increased and more of abortion." She also contended that use of artificial
countries liberalized their abortion laws, according to a contraception could increase women's health risks and
new survey released by a pro-choice nonprofit. said they would fare better using natural family planning
From 45.5 million in 1995, the number of abortions methods approved by the church, as reported by AP.
dropped to 41.6 million in 2003, the Guttmacher While the Guttmacher Institute makes the case for
Institute reported Tuesday in "Abortion Worldwide: A contraception and legalized abortion, pro-lifers across the
Decade of Uneven Progress." states have found a different way to reduce the number of
The institute attributed the fewer abortions to the wide abortions. Participants in the annual 40 Days for Life
provision of contraceptive services. Globally, the campaign have helped save 251 babies from being
proportion of married women practicing contraception aborted in less than a month. Since Sept. 23 they have
increased from 54 percent in 1990 to 63 percent in stood outside abortion clinics in prayer and with signs
2003. Contraceptive use also increased among such as "Smile Your Mom Chose Life." They've helped
unmarried, sexually active young women in many change the minds of hundreds women who were
developing countries. The unintended pregnancy rate, considering abortion.
meanwhile, declined from 69 per 1,000 women aged The Guttmacher report was compiled to assess "progress
15-44 in 1995 to 55 per 1,000 in 2008. over the past decade regarding the legality, safety and
Sharon Camp, president and CEO of the Guttmacher accessibility of abortion services worldwide." It offers
Institute, said in a statement that the "progress" made in profiles on abortion in Asia, Latin America and the
increasing contraceptive use is good news. But she Caribbean, and Africa.
lamented the some 70,000 women who die each year Of the estimated 21.9 million safe abortions carried out in
from the effects of unsafe abortion, mainly in the less 2003, more than two-thirds (15.8 million) took place in
developed countries. While there have been reductions the less developed world, predominantly in Asia. In
in levels of safe abortions – from 20 to 15 per 1,000 Europe and the United States, 3.9 million and 1.5 million
women aged 15-44 – the number of unsafe abortions safe abortions were conducted, respectively.
has changed little from 19.9 million to 19.7 million.
The report comes as more Americans have shifted from
"In almost all developed countries, abortion is safe and Continued on page 46
-36- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 5, Issue 12 NEWSLETTER December 2010

FEATURED ARTICLES
AFRICAN HERITAGE SERIES:
THE AFRICAN BACKGROUND OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
By Charles Finch, M.D.
Moorhead School of Medicine
January 5, 2000
It has become increasingly clear that traditional African known "placebo" effect of modern pharmaco-medicine
cultures and civilizations knew and accomplished much arises from this.(4) We moderns like to deride this
more than has traditionally been assumed. Even after magico-spiritual medicine but it can and does produce
we've "restored" ancient Egypt - a civilization that was startling results that we do not understand.
the fountainhead of science - to its true and natural place
The Egyptians were writing medical textbooks as early
on African soil as an African creation, there is yet a
as 5,000 years ago.(5) This indicates not only a mature
profound reluctance to admit that Africa contributed
civilization but also a long period of medical
anything of substance to world science.
development. Out of the hundreds and thousands of
In this article, the author hopes to show that traditional medical papyri that must have been written, only 10
African physicians evolved effective - even sophisticated have come down to us, the most important being the
- diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in medicine which Ebers and Edwin Smith Papyri. These 10 papyri form
belie the notion that Africa was without a medical the basis of most of what Egyptologists know about
science. Egyptian medicine. It has been affirmed, however, that
much of the training and instruction of the healing
Just as any discussion of the achievements of Western
priests must have been orally transmitted, as it is in the
medicine harkens back to Hippocrates and Galen, so any
rest of Africa.(6) It is likely, therefore, that we have
discussion of African medical achievements harkens back
only a partial grasp of the true scope of Egyptian
to ancient Egypt. Newsome, among others, has shown
medical knowledge. Moreover, like their counterparts
what a debt Greek medicine owed to the priest-physicians
in the rest of Africa, the Egyptian priest-physicians
of Egypt.(1) Not only was the most important Greek
often kept their best knowledge secret.
healing deity, Asclepios, identified with the legendary
Egyptian physician-architect-aphorist Imhotep but Egyptian physicians were instructed in the "per ankh"
Hippocratic therapeutics had direct antecedents in or "house of life" which served as a university, library,
Egyptian medicine. The city-state of Athens used to medical school, clinic, temple, and seminary. The
import Egyptian physicians, as did most of the kingdoms numerous Greek philosophers who studied in Egypt,
of the Near East, and in the Odyssey, Homer says, "In such as Pythagorous, Thales, and Plato, must have
medical knowledge, Egypt leaves the rest of the world spent their time in a per ankh. In these centers of
behind."(2) learning, there was no sharp demarcation between the
fields of study; religion, philosophy, science,
Like all African medicine, Egyptian medicine has baffled
astronomy, mathematics, music, and hieroglyphics
scholars because of the complete interpenetration of
were all part of the same species of knowledge and
"magico-spiritual" and "rational" elements. Mostly, this
were reflected in one another.
magico-spiritual aspect has been downplayed or belittled.
However, at least one researcher concedes that healing, It is of interest that the Egyptians were alone among the
being a complicated psychic as well as physical process, nations of antiquity in the development of specialty
may be amenable to an approach that touches that hidden medicine. In the Old Kingdom, the diseases of each
area of the psyche beyond the reach of rational organ were under the care of a specialist. In the later
therapy.(3) Even modern medicine concedes that as much epochs, the specialists disappeared as the Egyptian
as 60% of illness has a psychic base and indeed, the well- Continued on page 38
-37- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 37 – African Background of nervous system and voluntary movements. In addition,
Medicine Science the ureters (the connections between the kidneys and
physician began to function as a generalist. However, the bladder) were known and named. Most writers state
during Ptolemaic times, specialization came back into that the Egyptians’ anatomical knowledge while
the vogue, probably as a result of renewed interest in relatively sophisticated, was, by modern standards,
the archaic culture. Not until the 20th century did rudimentary. They aver, for example, that the
anything comparable in the sphere of medicine Egyptians attached no special significance to the
develop. Contemporary doctors are accustomed to brain.(9) But at least one researcher, utilizing sources
believing that modern specialty medicine resulted from entirely different from the papyri, contradicts this
a progressive evolution of medical techniques and notion, asserting that their knowledge of neuroanatomy
knowledge, hardly realizing that it is a throw back to in particular was as detailed and advanced as that in
the earliest form of Egyptian medical practice. modern times.(10)

A study of ancient Egyptian diagnostic methods reads The Egyptians were well-versed in many pathological
disconcertingly like a modern textbook on physical syndromes. The identification of a disease syndrome
diagnosis. A physician summoned to examine a patient necessitates acute and painstaking clinical observation,
would begin with a careful appraisal of the patient's often over many years, and many of the ones described
general appearance. This would be followed by a series in the medical papyri are known today. Egyptian
of questions to elicit a description of the complaint. The physicians understood the origin of paraplegia and
color of the face and eyes, the quality of nasal paralysis from spinal cord injuries and recognized the
secretions, the presence of perspiration, the stiffness of traumatic origin of neurological symptoms such as
the limbs or abdomen, and the condition of the skin deafness, urinary incontinence, and priapism. They
were all carefully noted. The physician was also at described many syndromes of cardiac origin. They
pains to take cognizance of the smell of the body, knew that excess blood in the heart and lungs was
sweat, breath, and wounds. The urine and feces were pathological which is consistent with what we know
inspected, the pulse palpated and measured, and the about congestive heart failure today. They also seem to
abdomen, swellings, and wounds probed and palpated. have recognized the significance of heart palpitations
and arrhythmias and gave a rather precise definition of
The pulse taking is worth noting because it indicates angina pectoris:
that the Egyptians knew of its circulatory and
hemodynamic significance. Percussion of the abdomen "If thou examinest a man for illness in his cardia and he
and chest was performed and certain functional tests we has pains in his arms, in his breast, and on one side of
still use today were done, i.e., the coughing test for his cardia...it is death threatening him."(ll)
hernia detection; the extension-flexion maneuver of the The modern description of angina pectoris can hardly
legs to test for a dislocated lumbar vertebra. improve upon this. The phrase seen in the Ebers
Sometimes, the case required more than one Papyrus, "belly too narrow for food," seems to indicate
consultation and the physician might, as is done today, an esophageal or stomach stricture perhaps from an
embark on a "therapeutic trial" to ascertain the efficacy inflammatory or ulcerating process. Egyptian
of treatment. It also seems that the Egyptians practiced physicians also knew that a weak heart adversely
a form of socialized medicine. All physicians were affected the liver, calling to mind the pathological
employees of the state and medical care was available enlargement of the liver which we know to be due to
to everyone.(7) heart failure. Faintness due to a "dumb heart" was
The extant medical papyri show us that the Egyptians described which seems to be an allusion to a Stokes-
had quite an extensive knowledge of anatomy and Adams attack.(12) It is evident that the ancient
physiology. They understood the importance of Egyptian physicians had a fundamental grasp of the
pulsation and - 4500 years before Harvey - knew pathophysiology of many of the syndromes we know
something of the structure and function of the today.
cardiovascular system. They knew that the heart was Perhaps the most remarkable document among the
the center of this system, had names for all the major medical papyri is the surgical Edwin Smith Papyrus, a
vessels, knew the relation between heart and lung, and compendium of Egyptian anatomical knowledge and
knew the distribution of the vessels through the surgical methods. It is in this papyrus that the
limbs.(8) They had names for the brain and remarkable descriptions of the traumatic surgical
meninges(the covering of the brain and spinal cord) and lesions and their treatment are found. We also find that
also seem to have known the relation between the Continued on page 39
-38- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 38 – African Background of Patients with scurvy - caused by vitamin C deficiency -
Medicine Science were fed onions, a known source of vitamin C. Castor
the priest-physicians also recognized the signs and seeds, the source of castor oil, were used to make cath-
symptoms of sciatica, the sharp pain radiating down the artic preparations. Mandrake and henbane, sources of
leg caused by nerve compression in the lower spinal belladonna alkaloids, were also known and used. The
cord. Like many other peoples in Africa and the rest of belladonnas possess properties that stimulate the heart,
the world, the Egyptians practiced trephination. (13) decrease stomach motility, dilate the pupils, and cause
sedation. The Egyptians dispensed their prescriptions as
This operation, the forerunner of neurosurgery, pills, enemas, suppositories, infusions, and elixirs in
involves boring a hole through the skull to the outer accurate, standardized doses causing some to wonder if
covering of the brain. This was done to remove they had separate pharmacies and pharmacists. (16)
fragments from a skull fracture compressing the brain,
to treat epilepsy, or to relieve chronic headache. Today The Egyptians were also quite knowledgeable in
in Africa there are people who have undergone this handling obstetric and gynecological problems. They
operation with no apparent ill effects and there are knew and treated uterine prolapse. They had means of
skulls from ancient Egyptian graves with definite signs inducing abortions and preventing conception. They
of healing around the trephination site so it is clear that even had an effective pregnancy test! A sample of a
patients survived this operation. woman's urine was sprinkled on growing cereals; if the
cereals did not grow the woman was considered not
As is seen very commonly in Africa, there was a pregnant; if they did grow she was declared pregnant.
separate guild of bonesetters in Egypt who treated Modern experiments have shown that a pregnant
fractures and dislocations. These specialists devised a woman's urine has a permissive effect on the growth of
completely effective method for reducing collar bone barley in about 40% of the case, demonstrating that
fractures which Hippocrates later used. (14) The Edwin there must have been some validity in the world's first
Smith Papyrus also describes maneuvers for reducing pregnancy test. (17)
dislocated jaws and shoulders. Long bone fractures
were immobilized with tight splints and nasal fractures Our glimpse of the medical system of this ancient
were treated by the insertion of stiff nasal packings into African civilization shows that it deserves its reputation
the affected nostril, a method also used today for as the best and most advanced of antiquity. Indeed,
uncomplicated nasal fractures. medicine as we know it today began in Egypt rather
than Greece. A study of other African systems of
The Egyptians had perhaps 3-4 thousand years of medicine is more problematic, however, because of the
experience dissecting and bandaging mummies and this absence of surviving written records. Thus, most of
must have had beneficial effects on surgical technique. what we know comes from the testimony of European
They had an array of knives and scalpels to excise missionaries whose contemptuous view of traditional
tumors and drain abscesses. They used red-hot metal culture was most pointed when writing about traditional
instruments to seal off bleeding points and closed clean medical practices. Nonetheless, it can be shown that the
wounds with sutures or adhesive tape. They were best of the traditional healers in various parts of Africa
unsurpassed as "bandagists" and used their techniques acquired a startling level of proficiency and, contrary to
to control bleeding. Fresh meat was also used to stop contemporary opinion, were not without a medical
oozing hemorrhage from surgical wounds. Like the science.
ancient Chinese, they used molds from bread or cereals
to treat wound infections. Modern penicillin was It is pertinent to remember that Africa has been
extracted from a mold so the priest-physicians must subjected to centuries of almost continuous political,
also have been aware of its bacteriacidal properties. social, and cultural disruption and that - among cultures
(15) that rely heavily on oral transmission of knowledge - a
tremendous amount of knowledge has been lost. Thus,
Like all African peoples, the Egyptians had a large the state of traditional medicine today does not reflect
materia medica, using as many as 1000 animal, plant, the best of what the traditional doctors knew and
and mineral products in the treatment of illness. Night surviving fragments of eye-witness reports - as shall be
blindness, caused by vitamin A deficiency, was treated shown - indicate that they knew quite a lot.
with ox livers, known to be rich in vitamin A. Poppy
extract - the source of opium - was used to treat colicky Like ancient Egypt, all traditional African cultures had
babies. Modern physicians use paregoric - whose active a magico-spiritual conception of disease. Thus in this
ingredient is opium - for exactly the same purpose. setting, moral, social, or spiritual transgressions are
Continued on page 43
-39- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
With a high national fertility rate of 6.7 per cent, more
Long-term Contraceptive women are having frequent, unplanned pregnancies
Stockouts threatening Family often resulting from either the lack of access or wrong
use of contraceptives.
Planning Health experts say more women now prefer the long-
By EVELYN LIRRI term birth control methods, usually given in a single jab
or fitting because they are convenient and more
November 4, 2010
effective than the oral contraceptives like pills which
must be taken every day to prevent pregnancy.
Ms Filda Anish, the in-charge of RHU in Gulu said
demand for long term family planning methods is high
in the district. “It’s not only here in Agungu, but the
whole of the region where we are running programmes.
Many of the women complain that when they go to the
public health facilities, they only get the short term
methods,” said Ms Anisha. Ms Anisha explained that
even in some instances where the supplies are
available, they are often not enough to meet the already
huge demand.
SHORT TERM PLANNING: A nurse injects a mother with While contraceptives are supposed to be free at
Depo- Provera. Demand for long term family planning methods
government hospitals, many women admit they
is high.
particularly can’t find the long term methods, yet many
When health workers running a mobile make shift clinic at the same time can’t afford to purchase the long term
started setting up their equipment for the day’s work, Ms birth control method from the private clinics or health
Agnes Akullu was one of the first people to arrive. facilities which they say are very expensive. In most
The clinic, run weekly by Reproductive Health Uganda private clinics, long term family planning methods can
(RHU), offers a range of health care services to the cost as much as Shs20,000 while short term methods
residents of Agungu village, Paicho sub county in Gulu like pills go for as little as Shs500.
District. Ms Akullu was here to seek family planning Dr Jotham Musinguzi, the regional director for Partners
services. in Population and Development explains that family
The 27-year-old mother of five children says she now planning helps women to have healthy children,
wants to start on family planning because she doesn’t breaking the cycle of poverty and accelerating the
wish to have more children. “I first went to Unyama achievement of the internationally agreed Millennium
Health Centre II but I was told the long term methods are Development Goals like maternal mortality. Maternal
not there. That’s why I am here today,” she said. At mortality rates remain unacceptably high at 435 deaths
Unyama Health Centre II, there were only stocks for for every 100,000 women who get pregnant. Although
short term methods-specifically pills. the MDG targets is to cut this figure to 131 per 100,000
live births by 2015, latest estimates show the country is
Akullu’s earlier births, she explained were closely spaced already off-track and will not meet the goal.
because she didn’t have access to long term
contraceptives. “I was relying on the short term methods A big percentage of maternal deaths are due to the lack
but they had a lot of side effects and not reliable so I of contraceptives for women, as many end up having
decided to discontinue them. I now want the long term unwanted, high risk pregnancies. Dr Peter Ibembe, the
method,” she said. national programme manager at RHU says at least 44
per cent of all maternal deaths occur among young
Short term methods include condoms, pills, injections people aged between 15-24, and this is the same age
(Depo-provera) and long term methods include coils, group that largely has limited access to family planning
implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). services.
The mobile clinic is the only hope for many women like According to health experts, ensuring access to family
Akullu who want to stop having more children but who planning services can reduce up to a-third of deaths that
don’t have access to the long term family planning would have occurred as a result of pregnancy-related
methods. complications. Continued on page 41
-40- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 40 – Long-term Contraceptive Stock- contraceptive use in most rural areas remains particularly
outs threatening Family Planning low despite gains in national contraceptive prevalence rates
A 2009 Guttmacher Institute report for instance reveals from 2.7 per cent to 18 per cent in 2006. This is partly
that up to 56 per cent (519,000) of the estimated 1.2 because family planning services are not easily accessible
million births that occur in Uganda every year are especially in rural areas and the existence of rampant
unintended. The report says these births could be averted rumours, misconceptions and negative attitude about
if all the women who wanted family planning services contraceptives use and family planning. Often times, the
had access to them. negative attitude is influenced by our societal, cultural and
religious beliefs and practices.
Low funding
But funding for reproductive health remains low, with At the same time, most of these unwanted and unplanned
much of it coming from donors. Figures from the pregnancies result from failure to educate girls. When we
reproductive health division of the Ministry of Health fail to keep our girls in school, they end up in early and
show for instance in 2007/8 financial year, of the sometimes forced marriages leading to unplanned
$5,622,133 (about sh10.7billion) required for pregnancies.
contraceptive procurement, the government allocated It is clear that Uganda has reinvigorated political
only 1.458 billion (about 15 per cent). momentum to improve maternal health. Last year, Uganda
Government says it is investing an additional $30 million hosted the International Conference on Family Planning,
to address maternal and reproductive health needs of the largest global meeting focusing on family planning
women. This money, as Dr Francis Runumi, a since 1994. In May this year, Uganda launched the African
commissioner in the Ministry of Health explains is part of Union Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal
a $130 million loan from the World Bank to improve the Mortality in Africa (CARMMA) and also hosted the
country’s health care system. International Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition
meeting in Kampala. This July, we hosted African Heads of
http://www.monitor.co.ug/Magazines/Health%20&%20Living/ State for the 15th Summit of the African Union. The
-/689846/1046344/-/view/printVersion/-/ysf3ez/-/index.html summit was under the theme: “Maternal, Infant and Child
☻☻☻☻☻☻
Health and Development in Africa.”
Let’s Deliver on our Promises Uganda also has the technical knowledge of how to save
women’s lives. We have a clear plan: the Roadmap for
to Women through Family Accelerating the Reduction of Maternal and Neonatal
Planning Mortality and Morbidity in Uganda (2007-2015). It outlines
our shortfalls in service provision and lays out a clear plan
By Ruth Nvumetta Kavuma for how we must move forward to meet the targets of the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly those
September 6, 2010
to reduce maternal and child death.
According to the Uganda Demographic Health Survey
It is now time to live up to our promises to women. We
Report (UDHS 2006), Ugandan women give birth to an
need to finance this roadmap and align our budget to
average of seven children, which is the third highest
supporting women and children’s health. The good news to
fertility rate in the world. The children are also born too
all Ugandans is that the Ministry of Health will soon
early by teenage mothers. By continuing to give birth
acquire a loan worth 130 million US dollars (about 260
frequently, our mothers are exposed to high risk
billion Uganda shillings) from the World Bank to
pregnancies and births.
strengthen health systems in the country. Of this, 30 million
With an average of 435 deaths per 100,000 live births, dollars will go to maternal health and improving access to
maternal mortality in Uganda is very high. This translates family planning services.
to 6,000 women in Uganda dying needlessly during
This is a great achievement that also comes at a time when
childbirth or pregnancy each year and 16 women dying
President Museveni has just agreed that spending in all
each day. This translates into the death of one full
sectors of government should support women and
minibus load of women everyday. These deaths can be
children’s health. He agrees with the UNFPA Executive
avoided if we truly commit to making women’s health a
Director, Thoraya Obaid, that road construction and repair
priority in Uganda, in Africa, and globally.
should be planned to allow women easier transport from
Almost 40 per cent of pregnancies in Uganda are villages to health clinics and that electrification and water
unplanned. Of these, 15 per cent are unwanted yet
Continued on page 42
-41- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 41 - Lets Deliver on our Promises to Women tility and osteoporosis, and the Mirena IUD to
through Family Planning spontaneous abortions and even death. The Nuva Ring
projects should prioritise access for health facilities, and the Patch can result in weight gain and blood clots,
particularly in rural areas. Last week, family planning which can increase a woman`s risk of having heart
champions, technical leaders, and development partners from attacks and strokes. Women are taught that the risk of
eastern African countries (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, attacks and strokes. Women are taught that the risk of
Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda) met in Kampala for the third pregnancy cannot be avoided unless they take one of
Eastern Africa Reproductive Health Network (EARHN) these hormone-altering drugs. They are taught to treat
coordination meeting under the theme, “Repositioning Family fertility like a disease and medicate it away, not realizing
Planning and Reproductive Health in Eastern Africa.” At this what a detrimental effect this can cause on long-term
meeting, we agreed that champions and leaders must work health. They are rarely taught the usefulness of fertility
together to reinvigorate and push for family planning at tracking as a means of monitoring one's probability for
national and community levels. pregnancy throughout the cycle.

We also agreed that meeting the need for family planning can Fertility awareness is a subject learned thoroughly by
reduce population growth and make achieving the MDGs couples trying to conceive. By following their cyclic
more attainable. Family planning also directly contributes to calendar and observing telltale signs of fertile mucous,
the MDGs of reducing child mortality (MDG4) and women can plan their sexual activities around ovulation
improving maternal health (MDG5). Family planning helps in order to increase likelihood of a pregnancy. On the
reduce the number of high-risk pregnancies that result in high other hand, women trying to avoid pregnancy can use this
levels of maternal and child illness and death. information to refrain from sexual activities (or make
sure to use protection) when they are most likely to get
According to recent research, just by addressing unmet need pregnant. By combining fertility tracking with condoms,
for family planning, Uganda will avert 16,877 maternal the same desired results of birth control drugs are
deaths and more than 1.1 million child deaths by the target achieved, without the pressing health concerns.
date of 2015. The cost savings in meeting the five MDGs by
satisfying unmet need for family planning outweighs the Regardless of whether the goal is to conceive or to avoid
additional investment in family planning by a factor of 4 to 1! conception, every woman should understand and record
the patterns of her own cycle. The average cycle lasts 28
If Uganda spends $97 million on family planning, we will days, but anywhere from 21 to 35 is perfectly normal. As
save $13 million on malaria, $126 million on maternal health, it happens, women are not machines with identical
$59 million on water and sanitation, $52 million on wiring, so their organic bodies run unique courses.
immunisation and $158 million on education, adding up to a Unfortunately, women with cycles over 28 days are often
total savings of $408 million which can be invested urged by doctors to get on birth control drugs in order to
elsewhere. normalize "the problem." Having a regular 35 day cycle,
We need to make this critical investment in family planning though, is not a problem at all and women should not feel
to facilitate Uganda’s development and economic growth, pressured to take drugs in order to fix their bodies`
and more importantly, to live up to our promises to save the natural rhythm.
lives of women and children. Menstrual cycle length is measured by counting the first
Ms Kavuma is the Woman MP for Kalangala District day of bleeding as day 1 and the last day before the next
bleeding as the last day of the cycle. Assuming a 28 day
http://www.monitor.co.ug/OpEd/Commentary/-/689364/1004358/- cycle, somewhere between days 11 and 21, the ovary
/view/printVersion/-/q8ak4v/-/index.html
releases an egg which travels to the uterus and awaits
☻☻☻☻☻☻
fertilization. If sperm does not reach the egg during this
Knowledge: The Noninvasive time, the lining of the uterus will be shed on day 28 (or
on the last day), and the cycle will start all over again.
Birth Control It is important for women to log their cycle patterns in a
by Melanie Banzer calendar in order to get a clear picture of when ovulation
occurs. It usually begins some time between days 11 and
January 27, 2009 21, but this may vary every month. There are about 14
(NaturalNews) As of now, the FDA has yet to approve of a days between ovulation and the last day of the cycle, so if
safe option for birth control. The pill has been linked to a woman has a longer cycle, she can backtrack from the
higher breast cancer risk, the Depo Provera shot to infer- last day for a good estimate of when she ovulated. The
Continued on page 43
-42- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 42 – Knowledge: The Noninvasive Birth Fertility Awareness on American Pregnancy Association:
Control http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pr...
longer a cycle is tracked, the more reliable the results are. http://www.naturalnews.com/025423_fertility_birth_control_wome
By tracking one`s cycle for a full year, a fairly accurate n.html
picture of fertility can be assumed. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
In order to determine her fertility period, a woman should Continued from page 39 – African Background of
take her shortest cycle out of a year and subtract 18 days Medical Science
from it. If her shortest cycle was 28 days, then her fertility
likely to lead to illness because they create both individual
window begins on day 10. Next, she should take the longest
cycle and subtract 11 days from it. If her longest cycle was and communal disharmony. Without the psycho-spiritual cure
- without re-establishing this sensitive harmony - the
34, then the fertility window closes on day 23. She is most
medicinal cure is considered useless. The traditional
likely to ovulate and become pregnant some time between
practitioner is intimately acquainted with the psychic, social,
days 10 and 23 of her cycle. In other words, a woman who
and cultural nuances of his people and more than one
is trying to avoid pregnancy should either abstain from sex
during this time or use condoms as contraception. commentator has acknowledged that the traditional doctor is
often an expert psychotherapist, achieving results with his
There are other clues that one`s body offers when ovulation patients that conventional Western psychotherapy cannot.
time has arrived. For one, the basal body temperature will
Though there is no single paradigm of medical practice that
rise between 0.4 and 1 degree Fahrenheit. Cervical mucous
applies to all of Africa, many of the essential features of the
also becomes clear and stretchy. Some women will
various traditional systems are comparable and even
experience pain on one side of the lower abdomen the day
identical. Among the Mano of Liberia, for example, all
an egg is released from the ovary. Many women experience
children's diseases, all obstetrics, all of the "everyday"
tenderness in the breasts. By noting these subtle changes,
complaints are handled by women, particularly the elderly
fertility awareness can be achieved and used as a substitute
women; surgery, bonesetting, and special diagnostic and
to invasive birth control drugs.
therapeutic problems are handled almost exclusively by men.
Recording these patterns requires keen attention and a This is a pattern that repeats itself throughout Africa.
several month commitment, but is well worth it as an
alternative to birth control drugs. If fertility has been The approach to the patient can vary in different parts of
Africa. In some societies, where the doctor is credited with
tracked accurately and condoms are worn during the
paranormal insight, the physician may arrive at a diagnosis
fertility window, pregnancy can be easily avoided. Women
and prescribe treatment without questioning or examining the
who have more than one partner should note that fertility
tracking does not protect against STDs and condom use is patient since he is supposed to know what is wrong by virtue
encouraged throughout the cycle. For women who have of his special powers. However, other traditional doctors
affect an approach toward physical diagnosis closer to our
irregular cycles, results of fertility tracking will be less
own:
reliable. There are supplements such as chasteberry and
yam-based progesterone creams that can assist in regulating "Many Western-trained doctors concede that the traditional
cycles before trying to track them. medical experts have a profound knowledge of the human
body and anatomy. This is demonstrated by a usually careful
Although much less harmful to the body than
diagnosis beginning with a history of the disease followed by
phytoestrogen-containing birth control drugs, fertility
a thorough physical examination...He palpates the different
awareness should only be considered dependable if used by
parts and looks for tender spots. He feels the beating of the
responsible, dedicated individuals. Forgetting to mark a
heart, the position of the inner organs, checks the eyes and
cycle for a month or two can make getting an accurate
ears, and smells the mouth for bad breath." (18)
picture of one`s fertility very difficult. But for those who
have the diligence and ambition to understand their own Most commentators have disparaged the traditional doctor's
bodies, this is a highly recommended tool that can help knowledge of anatomy and physiology. The Mano, however,
avert unwanted surprises today and maybe even provide a have names for most of the major organs and know the
head start a few years down the road, when the time to have difference between normal and abnormal anatomy. (19)
a baby has come. Another author notes that the Banyoro of Uganda, renowned
in the last century for their surgical skill, had a wide
References:
knowledge of anatomy. (20) A Hausa maneuver to test for
Fertility Awareness on WebMD: impotence has been described:
http://www.webmd.com/infertility-an...
Continued on page 44
-43- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 43 – African Background of Medicine In some parts of Africa, it would seem that the traditional
Science doctor had a firm grasp of some fundamental public
"An individual is stripped and placed on a mat lying on his health principles. In Liberia, the Mano developed an
back. A pin or thorn is lightly rubbed over the inside of his admirable quarantine system for smallpox. They were
thigh. If the scrotum or testicles do not move, the individual well aware of its contagiousness and set aside a "sick
is considered impotent." bush" for affected patients. This was situated well away
from the village and the patient was attended by only one
There is a physiological basis for this procedure. The person; no one else was allowed to approach the area.
maneuver in effect tests the cremasteric reflex. The
cremaster muscle contracts and pulls the testicles upward The patient was put on a careful diet and was rubbed with
on stimulation of the inside of the thigh. (21) This passage topical anesthetic medications to prevent scratching
belies the notion that African doctors were without a which could lead to infection. When the illness ran its
knowledge of some of the body's physiological processes. course, the area was burned. The "sick-bush" approach
Moreover, Mano physicians - reputedly without an would do a modern epidemiologist proud. Of further
understanding of the body's cardiovascular system - knew interest is the centuries-old practice of small-pox
that the conditions of anasarca and ascites were due to fluid variolation which is carried out all over Africa. During an
overload and treated accordingly with diuretic preparations. epidemic, material from the pustule of a sick person is
These interesting fragments do not by themselves admit of scratched into the skin of unaffected persons with a thorn.
a sophisticated anatomical or physiological knowledge but In the majority of instances, there is no reaction and the
they hint at a greater degree of knowledge - perhaps in past persons inoculated are protected against smallpox. In
ages - than has hitherto been recognized. some cases, the inoculation will produce a mild, non-fatal
form of the disease which will also confer permanent
Some case studies of cultures in east-central Africa have immunity.(24) Centuries before Jenner, Africans had
brought to light some remarkable evidence revealing the devised an effective vaccination method against
presence of scientific medicine there. The practice of smallpox.
carrying out autopsies on patients dying of unknown causes
among the Banyoro of Uganda and the Likundu of Central In the area of surgery, the best evidence indicates that
Africa has been described. Almost always these were some African surgeons attained a level of skill
carried out to detect a possible witchcraft etiology but may comparable, and in some respects superior, to that of
well have contributed to a more extensive knowledge of Western surgeons up to the 20th century. As in ancient
anatomy than previously supposed: Egypt, the bonesetter guilds were separate from those of
the traditional doctors and were renowned for their skill.
"The procedures for autopsying bodies under the Likundu
culture have been reviewed, not for the purpose of Some commentators, observing the bonesetters of today,
considering the beliefs that impelled such procedures but to feel that this reputation was somewhat inflated and the
indicate that in some areas autopsies were frequently bonesetters' results were less than optimum by Western
carried out and that they involved searching in the body, a standards.(25) Yet other reports cite techniques that led
search which might be casual and superficial but which in tohighly satisfactory results. Mano bonesetters treated a
other cases might be prolonged and exacting and involved patient with a thigh fracture by placing him in the loft of
opening up and examining a variety of organs. These are a house allowing the affected leg to dangle free with a
precisely the circumstances under which considerable heavy stone attached. This was a very effective traction
knowledge of anatomy and pathology could be acquired by method and once the fracture was reduced, it was
persons who, for any purpose, might wish to do so. (22) immobilized with a tight splint. (26) In addition, the
patient was encouraged to exercise a fractured leg and we
Further, there is a report of a Banyoro king who know today that new bone is laid down more rapidly over
commissioned a traditional doctor to travel around the the fracture site when there is some exercise of the limb.
countryside to investigate, describe, and search for a cure
for sleeping sickness, which was ravaging the country at the Bonesetters in other parts of Africa would dig a deep pit
time.(23) This clearly indicates that a spirit of clinical for the purpose of exercising traction on a fractured limb
investigation did exist among Banyoro physicians and and in East Africa, the bonesetters reduced fractures and
probably among other traditional practitioners as well. In dislocations by manual manipulation and traction. These
many parts of Africa, treatments were devised for new examples indicate that the bonesetters' reputation was not
diseases like venereal disease and scrofula that were entirely undeserved.
imported into Africa and this would presuppose some form In many areas, especially among warlike peoples, the
of clinical investigation and experimentation. Continued on page 45

-44- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 44 - African Background of Medicine Some bleeding points in the abdominal wall were touched
Science with red hot irons. The surgeon completed the uterine
traditional physician was particularly adept in treating incision, the assistant helping by holding up the sides of the
traumatic wounds. One report describes the treatment of an abdominal wall with his hand and hooking two fingers into
open wound by the following method: plant juices with the uterus. The child was removed, the cord cut, and the
anti-septic properties were squeezed into the open child was handed to an assistant." (33)
wound, a red hot metal tip was used to cauterize bleeding The report goes on to say that the surgeon squeezed the
points and burn away damaged tissue, the wound edges uterus until it contracted, dilated the cervix from inside with
were closed with a tough thorn, an awl, and fibrous suture his fingers (to allow post-partum blood to escape), removed
and a fiber mat was wrapped tightly around the wound to clots and the placenta from the uterus, and then sparingly
prevent bleeding. The wound was never closed until the used red hot irons to seal the bleeding points. A porous mat
bleeding had been stopped. (27) was tightly secured over the wound and the patient turned
In another documented instance, a native surgeon over to the edge of the bed to permit drainage of any
successfully resected part of a patient's lung to remove a remaining fluid. The peritoneum, the abdominal wall, and
penetrating arrow-head.(28) In the Congo, a native surgeon the skin were approximated back together and secured with
was seen using stiff elephant hairs to probe for and seven sharp spikes. A root paste was applied over the
successfully remove a bullet.(29) In Nigeria, a man who wound and a bandage of cloth was tightly wrapped around
had had his abdomen ripped open by an elephant was it. Within six days, all the spikes were removed. Felkin
treated by the doctor by replacing the intestines in the observed the patient for 11 days and when he left, mother
abdominal cavity, securing them in place with a calabash and child were alive and well. (34)
covering, and finally suturing together the overlying In Scotland, Lister had pioneered antiseptic surgery just
abdominal wall and skin. Not only did the man recover but two years prior to this event but universal application of his
was soon back working on a road gang. (30) In the methods in the operating rooms of Europe was still years
testimony of one author: away. Caesarean sections were performed only under the
"Witch doctors of many tribes perform operations for most desperate circumstances and only to save the life of
cataract. They squeeze the juice from the leaves of an the infant. A Caesarean section to save the lives of both
alkaloid-containing plant directly into the eye to desensitize mother and child was unheard of in Europe nor are there
it, then push the cataract aside with a sharp stick. A records of such a procedure among the great civilizations of
surprising number of these cases turn out successfully."(31) antiquity. As one commentator has said:

In East Africa, Masai surgeons were known to successfully "The whole conduct of the operation as Felkin described it
treat pleurisy and pneumonitis by creating a partial collapse suggests a skilled, long-practiced surgical team at work
of the lung by drilling holes into the chest of the conducting a well-tried and familiar operation with smooth
sufferer.(32) It is pertinent to now consider one of the most efficiency and unhurried skill...Lister's team in London
remarkable examples of African surgery ever documented. could hardly have performed with greater smoothness."
This is an eye-witness account by a missionary doctor (35)
named Felkin of a Caesarean section performed by a Not only did the surgeon understand the sophisticated
Banyoro surgeon in Uganda in 1879: concepts of anesthesia and antisepsis but also demonstrated
"The patient was a healthy-looking primipara (lst advanced surgical technique. In his sparing use of the
pregnancy) of about twenty years of age and she lay on an cautery iron, for example, he showed that he knew tissue
inclined bed, the head of which rested against the side of damage could result from its overuse. The operation was
the hut. She was half-intoxicated with banana wine, was without question a landmark, reflecting the best in African
quite naked and was tied down to the bed by bands of bark surgery.
cloth over the thorax and thighs. Her ankles were held by a African midwives possessed a good understanding of some
man...while another man stood on her right steadying her fundamental obstetric and pediatric principles.
abdomen...the surgeon was standing on her left side holding
the knife aloft and muttering an incantation. He then Mano midwives pulled repeatedly at the breasts of women
washed his hands and the patient's abdomen first with in labor, a maneuver which induces the release of oxytocin
banana wine and then water. The surgeon made a quick cut - a stimulator of uterine contractions - from the pituitary
upwards from just above the pubis to just below the gland. They sometimes took laboring mothers upon their
umbilicus severing the whole abdominal wall and uterus so backs walking around with and shaking them.
that amniotic fluid escaped. Continued on page 46

-45- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 45 - African Background of Medicine an antihypertensive medication.
Science
The list of effective drugs in the African pharmocopeia
This undoubtedly had the effect of causing the cervix to dilate is too extensive to elucidate here but suffice to say that
and the head to engage, thus facilitating labor.(36) traditional doctors in Africa had and have effective
Some Bantu midwives were known to use Indian hemp remedies against intestinal parasites, vomiting, skin
during labor for its sedative properties. Newborn babies ulcers, rashes, catarrh, convulsions, tumors, venereal
and infants were taken and exposed to the sun for a period disease, bronchitis, conjunctivitis, urethral stricture and
each day "to make them strong." One author attributed the many other complaints.
rare occurrence of rickets among Mano children to this There are at least two documented instances of
practice.(37) In addition, these women healers recognized the Europeans benefiting from the ministrations of the
causes of malnutrition and retarded development, putting traditional physician. In the last century, a Bushman
such children on special diets high in vitamins and doctor cured a European woman dying of sepsis that
carbohydrates with favorable results.(38) the European doctor could not treat. In Swaziland, a
Traditional African cultures have an abundant materia European doctor, dying of dysentery, was cured by a
medica. The Zulus, for example are reputed to know the native physician. (45) Moreover, the native physicians
medicinal uses of some 700 plants. (39) Ouabain, capsicum, in this area were so skilled at treating Typhoid Fever
physostigmine, kola, and calabar beans are just a few of the that the European doctors used their decoctions for the
substances from the African materia medica that have made same purpose.
their way into the Western pharmacopeia.(40) #This article has attempted to show that the traditional
The traditional midwives often have drugs that can induce doctors of Africa from the earliest times had a high
abortion in the first three months of pregnancy and in level of medical and surgical skill, certainly much more
Uganda, in an area where there is a high incidence of dystocia than they have been given credit for. It is to be hoped
(retarded labor), the midwives have preparations which that more substantive and careful investigations will be
stimulate uterine contractions. "Fever-leaf" is used all over carried out among the traditional healers of Africa
Africa to treat the recurring fevers of malaria. Certain Bantu- before Western-style medicine supplants them entirely.
speaking peoples use the bark of Salix capensis (willow) to http://www.raceandhistory.com/selfnews/viewnews.cgi?new
sid995545990,4925,.shtml
treat the musculoskeletal complaints of rheumatism.(41) This
☻☻☻☻☻☻
family of plants yields salicylic acid, the active ingredient in
aspirin, a sovereign remedy the world over for Continued from page 36 - Report: Abortions
musculoskeletal pains. Kaolin, the active ingredient in Fall; Unsafe Procedures Still Prevalent
Kaopectate is used in Mali to combat diarrhea. Caffeine-
containing kola nuts are chewed all over Africa for their the pro-choice position to the pro-life camp. A Pew
Research Center survey, conducted in August, found
stimulating and fatigue-combating properties. To combat
that the percentage of Americans who support legalized
snakebite, plants containing ouabain and strichnine are used.
The former is a heart stimulant and therefore useful against abortion dropped from 54 percent in previous years to
cardiotoxic venoms and the latter is a nerve tonic, useful 47 percent this year. Opposition to abortion grew from
against neurotoxic venoms. In Nigeria in 1969, the rootbark 40 percent to 44 percent.
http://www.christianpost.com/article/20091014/report-
Annona senegalensis was found to possess strong anti-cancer abortions-fall-unsafe-procedures-still-prevalent/
properties.(42) ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Even more recently in 1979, herbal preparations that were
used in Nigeria to treat skin infections were found have To Save Women's Lives in
definite bacteriocidal activity against gram-positive bacteria,
the very organisms that cause skin infections. (43) There was
Africa, bring Abortion out of
an interesting case in 1925 of an eminent Nigerian in England the Shadows
who was suffering from severe psychotic episodes not
amenable to treatment by English doctors. A traditional By Sharon Camp
doctor from Nigeria was summoned who was able to relieve 12 November 2010
the patient of his symptoms with decoctions made from a Guardian.co.uk
rauwolfia root. (44) The Rauwolfia family of plants is the
source of modern-day Reserpine, first used as a major Every year, 5.5 million women in Africa risk their lives
tranquilizer to treat severe psychosis but now used mainly as when they decide to terminate a pregnancy, due to poor
Continued on page 47
-46- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 46 – To Save Women’s Lives in Africa, achieving their purported goal – stopping women from
bring Abortion out of the Shadows obtaining abortions. Evidence from around the world
health services. These are not risks any woman should be shows abortion happens at about the same rate in regions
forced to take where it is highly restricted and where it is broadly legal.
The key difference is safety.
More than 250 health professionals, advocates and
parliamentarians from countries throughout Africa and If a country's leaders want to reduce abortion, punitive
other regions have gathered in Accra to address the issue laws clearly are not the way to go. Rather, they should
of unsafe abortion, one of the continent's biggest threats focus on reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies.
to women's health. The single biggest thing a country can do to reduce the
number of abortions, both safe and unsafe, and to
While abortion is very safe in countries where it is legal improve women's overall health is to make sure all
and provided by trained medical professionals, women have access to and information about effective
clandestine abortion – the norm in most of Africa – can contraceptive methods.
lead to death and serious injury. Approximately 26,000
African women die as a result of unsafe abortion every But in Sub-Saharan Africa today, about 60% of women
year. Another 1.7 million are hospitalised, and many who want to avoid a pregnancy are not using family
others also suffer serious health complications, but never planning or rely on a less effective traditional method.
seek treatment. Research by the Guttmacher Institute shows that
Over 90% of African women of childbearing age live in expanding the availability of family planning in Sub-
countries with limited or no access to safe abortion Saharan Africa, so that all women who want to delay
procedures. According to the most recent data available, pregnancy have access to effective contraception, would
of the 5.6m abortions carried out in the region every year, reduce the number of unsafe abortions from 5.2m to
only 100,000 are performed under safe conditions. 1.2m. The number of women needing care for
complications of these unsafe procedures would fall from
Here's another way to think about that statistic: every 2.2 million to 500,000. Achieving these reductions will
year, about 5.5 million women in Africa risk their lives require significant financial investment from African
when they decide to terminate a pregnancy. Drinking governments and donor countries alike, but one with far-
bleach or inserting sharp objects into their cervix are only reaching benefits: fewer unplanned pregnancies, fewer
two of the horrifying methods they use. These are not unsafe abortions and fewer maternal and newborn deaths.
risks any woman should be forced to take.
The evidence is clear and compelling, but if it falls on
The terrible toll of unsafe abortion goes well beyond the deaf ears women will continue to die and suffer from
individual woman. Losing their mother and care-giver unsafe abortions. But as this week's conference in Accra
devastates the lives of children and families, and losing a shows us, people are listening. There are dedicated
healthy woman's many contributions to society weakens individuals from all over the continent working together
her community. Unsafe abortion is also a serious drain on to take the evidence and translate it into action that will
very limited public health resources. African save the lives of African women. Government leaders
governments spend, on average, $114 per case to provide must also start paying attention to the evidence that will
care for illness and disability associated with unsafe help guide them toward laws, policies and programmes
abortion, yet per-capita spending on healthcare averages that will better protect women and build stronger
just $48. families, communities and, ultimately, nations.
While some African nations have loosened abortion Poverty Matters Blog in partnership with the Bill and
restrictions, 14 countries still prohibit it under all circum- Melinda Gates Foundation
stances – even to save the pregnant woman's life. This
flies in the face of considerable evidence that legalising http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-
matters/2010/nov/12/abortion-africa-health
abortion saves lives and reduces persistently high
☻☻☻☻☻☻
maternal mortality rates. One good example is South
Africa, where – just six years after the country liberalized Theory: When human populations face unexplained
its abortion laws – the number of women dying from extinction, does the fertility rate of those populations
unsafe abortion dropped by 50%, and the number of increase? Does a law of nature account for this or
women suffering serious complications fell dramatically does this come under survival of the fittest? Black
as well. people are still here and producing more than ever.
Restrictive abortion laws are also not very effective at How would you explain this? BHSN
-47- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
will you accept from me these (poems) that you may allow
Black Women are more likely to the young people of your nation to have them?
have Abortions than White After the war, when Dear Herr Hitler had rather given the
Women whole sterilisation thing a bad name (well before they
began murdering Jews, the Nazis forcibly sterilised 400
Guardian icon Marie Stopes would be pleased “Rhineland bastards”, children of French African soldiers
and German mothers), the eugenics crowd turned to
By Ed West legalised abortion as the next best thing.
March 8, 2010
As Dennis Sewell recalls in The Political Gene, in 1992
Here is a provocative quote: Lord Steel (not himself a eugenicist, of course) paid tribute
to the role of the Abortion Law Reform Association
The abortion industry is targeting the black woman. There is
(ALRA) in helping pass the 1967 Abortion Act. The
no lynch mob wearing white sheets and hoods. What they’ve
ALRA was founded by five members of the Eugenics
done is take off the hoods and put on suits and say: let’s go
Society. Indeed, one of David Steel’s medical advisers
and kill the black people. It’s cloaked itself by talking about
during the passage of the Bull was a fellow of the Eugenics
choice. But the industry has targeted the black community. If
Society. (Another of his advisers joined a couple of years
people were put on the endangered species list then certainly
later.)
black children would be there because more are aborted than
at any time in history. Today in Britain, as Department of Health figures for 2008
show, black women exercise their right to choose
So says Catherine Davis, an African-American anti-abortion
proportionately more often than white women. The woman
activist who is leading a campaign that particularly offends
of the millennium would be very pleased.
the Guardian. As that newspaper reports:
http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/edwest/100029002/black-
Anti-abortion activists have been accused of exploiting women-are-more-likely-to-have-abortions-than-white-women-
America’s tragic racial history with a growing campaign to guardian-icon-marie-stopes-would-be-pleased/
persuade black women that the high rate of terminations ☻☻☻☻☻☻
among African Americans is a racist conspiracy on a par with
slavery and lynching. What the Hell did Ruth Bader
The strategy has also focused on the fact that a leading Ginsburg mean when she
abortion provider, Planned Parenthood, was founded by a
woman [Margaret Sanger] who was a leading proponent of linked Abortion and
eugenics, a belief that the human gene pool could be
improved by selective breeding and sterilisation, and who
Eugenics?
heavily promoted birth control among black people. By Damian Thompson
But ghastly though Margaret Sanger was, she was an angel July 12th, 2009
next to Britain’s Marie Stopes, voted “Woman of the
Millennium” by Guardian readers in 1999 and in 2008 The mainstream media have been incredibly slow to pick
honoured on a UK postage stamp. Stopes once said: Utopia up on a creepy comment by Supreme Court Justice Ruth
could be reached in my lifetime, had I the power to issue Bader Ginsburg in a New York Times interview published
inviolable edicts… I would legislate compulsory sterilisation today but flagged last week. In it, Ginsburg talks about Roe
of the insane, feeble-minded… revolutionaries… half-castes. v Wade, the 1973 ruling that legalised abortion:

The insane? Feeble-minded? Revolutionaries? Who would be Frankly I had thought that at the time Roe was decided,
left to buy the Guardian? there was concern about population growth and particularly
growth in populations that we don’t want to have too many
Stopes was so obsessed with improving the gene pool that she of. So that Roe was going to be then set up for Medicaid
went as far as attending the International Congress for funding for abortion.
Population Science in Berlin in 1935, not, as any keen student
of history will notice by the time and place, a very What? You can find the full context of the remark here, in
progressive event. But she was always motivated by love, as the Times interview, but it doesn’t settle matters. And the
she wrote to one friend: (pro-choice) media haven’t exactly jumped on the story.
Bloggers are incredulous. This is what Creative Minority
Dear Herr Hitler, Love is the greatest thing in the world: so Report had to say yesterday: Continued on page 49

-48- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 48 – What the Hell did Ruth Bader women take both drugs in a clinic, doctor's office or
Ginsburg Mean…….. hospital, although home administration is permitted in
Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s comments about using abortion as Sweden, Reuters reports.
population control raised a lot of eyebrows in the For the study, Helena Kopp Kallner of the Karolinska
blogosphere. Over 9,236 to be precise, according to Google Institutet in Stockholm and colleagues followed about
blog search. 3,000 medical abortion patients at their clinic in
Huge sites too like Hot Air featured the story prominently. Sweden from January 2004 through April 2007. Of the
Even Drudge ran with the story yesterday. women, 395 opted for home administration of
misoprostol. Of those 395 women, 203 were fewer than
But as of this morning the mainstream media have 50 days pregnant and 192 were 50 to 63 days pregnant.
completely ignored the story about one of the most The home-administration group took mifepristone
powerful people in the country essentially endorsing orally at the clinic and was given four misoprostol
eugenics on populations “we don’t want to have too many tablets to administer vaginally up to two days later.
of”.
Among women who were fewer than 50 days pregnant,
What the heck is going on here? What are we to make of 199 experienced complete abortions, while 186 of the
the media’s complete silence on this issue? They don’t see women who were between 50 and 63 days pregnant
a little eugenics between friends as a big deal? They experienced complete abortions. Ten women required
thought it was taken out of context? surgery. About six in 10 women in both groups needed
As the large metropolitan newspapers die, they’re extra pain medication. The study concluded that home
wondering why. This is why. administration of misoprostol is "safe and highly
acceptable also to women with a gestational length of
Fair point. You might think the New York Times might 50-63 days as compared with shorter gestations".
want to trumpet its exclusive. But the mindset of that
pompous, prickly, boring, self-regarding publication is so Source: MediLexicon, 12 March 2010
overwhelmingly liberal that it didn’t even realise it had a http://www.ippf.org/en/News/Intl+news/Study+Home+admi
story on its hands. nistered+misoprostol+safe+abortion+option+for+women+up
+to+63+days+pregnant.htm
http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/damianthompson/100002972/w
☻☻☻☻☻☻
hat-the-hell-did-ruth-bader-ginsburg-mean-when-she-linked-
abortion-and-eugenics/
☻☻☻☻☻☻ Polysorbate 80 in Swine Flu
Study: Home-Administered Vaccines = Infertility in
Misoprostol Safe Abortion Humans
Option for Women Up To 63 November 2009
Days Pregnant Would you feel comfortable being injected with a
vaccine that contains a substance that has been strongly
March 15, 2010 linked to infertility? Well, if you take the Fluarix swine
flu vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline or any
A team of Swedish researchers concludes that taking
of the other swine flu vaccines that contain Polysorbate
misoprostol at home as part of a medical abortion regimen
80 that is exactly what you will be doing. If you are
is a safe option for women who are 50 to 63 days pregnant,
considering getting the swine flu vaccine, or any other
according to a study published in the journal Human
vaccine for that matter, perhaps you should educate
Reproduction. The study's authors said that their research is
yourself about EXACTLY what is in these vaccines
the first published report to examine at-home medical
before you allow them to be injected into your body.
abortion in women who were more than 49 days pregnant.
Perhaps you think that linking the swine flu vaccine
In the U.S., women have been permitted to take physician-
with infertility is quite a stretch. Well, let's take this
prescribed misoprostol at home since 2000. Mifepristone --
one step at a time.
the first drug in the medical abortion regimen, which is
taken three to four days prior to misoprostol -- is #1) Polysorbate 80 is in the Fluarix swine flu vaccine
administered at a clinic, physician’s office or hospital. Most manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline according to the
European countries require that Continued on page 50
-49- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 49 – Polysorbate 80 in Swine Flu solution, and additionally preferably contains Tween 80
Vaccines (about 0.2% vol/vol to about 0.8% vol/vol, preferably
CDC. This is confirmed by the CDC in the document about 0.4% vol/vol)."
below..... #6) The United Nations is actively seeking ways to limit
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/ap and control population growth around the globe. An
pendices/B/excipient-table-2.pdf incredibly shocking U.N. population division policy brief
from March 2009 asked this very disturbing question:
#2) A medical study done in Slovakia injected newborn
female rats with Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80). These What would it take to accelerate fertility decline in the
newborn female rats were injected with Polysorbate 80 at least developed countries?
days 4 to 7 after birth. The researchers found You can read this almost unbelievable document here:
that Polysorbate 80 accelerated the maturation of the female
rats, damaged the vagina and womb lining, caused http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/UNPD_po
significant hormonal changes, severe ovary deformities and licybriefs/UNPD_policy_brief1.pdf
ultimately rendered the young female rats infertile. The reality is that for the super wealthy global elite and
In fact, Dee Nicholson, the National Communications the majority of the social engineers at the United Nations,
Director for Freedom in Canadian Health Care is not shy population control is a major obsession.
about saying that Polysorbate 80 is "linked to infertility in The truth is that the more people learn about what is in
mice". these vaccines, the less likely they are to take them. It is
#3) In the package insert for Fluarix, GlaxoSmithKline important to do your own research before letting anyone
specifically mentions that they cannot guarantee that their inject anything into your body. Those who blindly trust
flu vaccine will not damage your fertility: "FLUARIX has the government or world health authorities are likely the
not been evaluated for carcinogenic or mutagenic potential, ones to end up being extremely disappointed in the end.
or for impairment of fertility." Thanks to foolishly passed http://organichealthadviser.com/archives/polysorbate-80-in-
laws by the U.S. government, you will not be able to sue swine-flu-vaccines-infertility-in-humans
anyone if it does leave you infertile. ☻☻☻☻☻☻

#4) GlaxoSmithKline is not alone in using Polysorbate 80.


It is being reported that Novartis is using the adjuvant
CDC Allegedly Falsifies
MF59 in its swine flu vaccine. The MF59 Reports--Ignoring up to
adjuvant contains Tween80 (Polysorbate 80) and squalene
among other things. 3,587 Miscarriages from
#5) On the World Intellectual Property Organization, a H1N1 Vaccine
patent application for a "fertility impairing vaccine". The
NCOW Press Release
University of Georgia Research Foundation is listed as
the patent applicant. September 17, 2010
In the description section of the patent applic-ation, Tween A shocking report from the National Coalition of
80 (Polysorbate 80) is listed as a preferred ingredient: Organized Women (NCOW) presented data from two
different sources demonstrating that the 2009/10 H1N1
"In a preferred embodiment the vaccine comprises oil,
vaccines contributed to an estimated 1,588 miscarriages
preferably a biodegradable oil such as squalene oil, in an
and stillbirths. A corrected estimate may be as high as
amount of about 2.5% to about 15%, preferably about 8%
3,587 cases. NCOW also highlights the disturbing fact
to about 12%. In preparing the vaccine it is advantageous to
that the CDC failed to inform their vaccine providers of
combine a concentrated oily adjuvant composition with an
the incoming data of the reports of suspected H1N1
aqueous solution of the antigen, pZP glycoprotein.
vaccine related fetal demise.
Typically, the vaccine is prepared using an adjuvant
concentrate which contains lecithin (about 5% to about 15 NCOW collected the data from pregnant women (age 17-
% wt/vol, preferably about 12% wt/vol) and STDCM 45 years) that occurred after they were administered a
(preferably about 25 mg/mL to about 50 mg/mL) in 2009 A-H1N1 flu vaccine. The raw data is available on
squalene oil. The term % wt/vol means grams per 100 mL the website. Using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting
of liquid. The aqueous solution containing the isolated pZP System (VAERS), including updates through July 11,
glycoprotein is typically a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) Continued on page 51
-50- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 50 – CDC Allegedly Falsifies Reports Excerpts and adaptation from speech delivered by
2010 as a second ascertainment source, capture-recapture Eileen Dannemann, Director, National Coalition of
statistical methods* were used to estimate the true number Organized Women Friday, September 3, 2010 to the
of miscarriages and stillbirths following A-H1N1 flu Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV)
vaccination in the U.S. Typically, even so-called meeting.
"complete" studies conducted by the CDC have been shown “Initially, at the beginning of the H1N1 pandemic
to miss from 10% to 90% of the actual cases because of consequence management drill there were allegedly 30
under-reporting. maternal deaths. It was these deaths that the CDC used
The statistical method employed is an expeditious and cost as the basis to initiate a strenuous and aggressive
effective method of attempting to ascertain a complete campaign to vaccinate the pregnant population with the
count of all cases when two or more ascertainment sources untested H1N1 vaccine. The CDC ascertained that
(VAERS and NCOW survey) have failed to collect all the there were eventually a total of 56 maternal deaths
existing cases. Overall, this approach shows that (assuming the fetuses died with them). Dr. Alicia
approximately only 15% of the occurrences of a Siston’s JAMA study (CDC) acknowledged that most
miscarriage or stillbirth were actually reported. of these deaths were ‘unconfirmed’ H1N1 virus caused
The corrected estimate for the total number of 2009-A- deaths despite the fact that the CDC had tests that could
H1N1-flu-shot-associated miscarriages and stillbirths have verified, for certain, that these were H1N1 related
during the 2009/10-flu season is 1,588 (95% goodness-of- deaths.
fit confidence interval, 946 to 3587). That is, the lower and Vaccine-related fetal demise reports from VAERS
upper range-probability of miscarriage and stillbirths due to increased 2,440%--from 7 cases in 2007/8 to 178 in
the H1N1 vaccine was as low as 946 and as high as 3,587. 2009/10. Seventy deaths reported from another source
Eileen Dannemann, Director of NCOW, presented the had 7 overlapping cases with VAERS, yielding 241
findings for the second time to Dr. Marie McCormick, chair unique cases. Simplistically speaking, it would have
of the Vaccine Risk and Assessment Working Group, been 85 to 192 times safer not to vaccinate from the
during the Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines perspective of the in-utero child.
(ACCV) meeting, Sept 3, 2010. Just prior to Ms. Considering that the total of 56 maternal deaths in Dr.
Dannemann’s presentation Dr. McCormick, had Alicia’s Siston’s study, allegedly due to the H1N1 virus
pronounced that there were absolutely no H1N1 vaccine- itself, are unverified and in light of the overwhelming
related adverse events in pregnant women in 2009/10, adverse events reported, we emphasize that inoculating
directly contradicting the evidence publicly available. “This pregnant women with another untested vaccine
baseless and fallacious assessment by the CDC assessment containing a combination of components found in the
group” says, Dannemann, “has given the green light to the offending 2009 H1N1 vaccine is insupportable. Thus, it
CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices must be argued that the CDC was grossly negligent to
(ACIP) to continue their recommendation to give the fail to inform their vaccine providers of the incoming
2010/11 flu shot to all people, including pregnant women. VAERS data, while providers blindly followed the
This upcoming 2010/11 flu vaccine contains the same CDC “standard of care” guidelines to vaccinate every
elements that are implicated in the killing of these fetuses, pregnant woman in 2009/10. Furthermore, in the face
the H1N1 viral component and the neurotoxin mercury of these findings and the purposeful withholding of
(Thimerosal). Additionally, it contains 2 other viral strains- these findings by CDC’s Dr. Marie McCormick and her
a 3 in 1 shot for all people”. vaccine risk assessment group, for the CDC’s Advisory
The very next week at the Sept 14th National Vaccine Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to
Advisory Committee (NVAC) meeting Dr. McCormick, recommend another iteration of the same vaccine to
(despite having been informed on two previous occasions pregnant women in 2010/11 may be argued as more
of the VAERS data) pronounced, once again, that there than gross negligence -but rather- an act of willful
were no adverse events in pregnant women. At the misconduct.
conclusion of the NVAC meeting, during public comment, We strongly recommend that the CDC withdraws their
Dannemann submitted the data for the 3rd time and continued recommendation to pregnant women,
concluded with, “Why hasn’t Dr. McCormick looked in the instead, strictly adhering to the FDA/manufacturers
VAERS data base?” “She looked where she knew she warning on the insert packages that the flu shot not be
would not find”, a disquieting thought, Ms. Dannemann, given to pregnant women unless clearly needed. As
said in retrospect. well, we suggest that the CDC advise all Ob/Gyns,
Continued on page 52
-51- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 51 – CDC Allegedly Falsifies Reports taken immediately to ensure the safety of the baby and
vaccine providers and the public this year, of last season’s the mother during and after pregnancy.
VAERS reports on H1N1 vaccine-related fetal deaths” Steps taken to ensure a safe birth and safety of the
despite the fact that it may be contrary to CDC’s vaccine child
uptake performance goals”. The pregnant woman has to observe certain regulations
*Gary S. Goldman, Ph.D, author of various peer-reviewed and taboos in order to protect the baby and herself. In
medical journal publications, has verified the capture- traditional Kiganda society, she has to leave the marital
recapture (C-R) figures published in the NCOW report. Dr. bed and stop sleeping with her husband altogether after
Goldman previously worked for 8 years as a Research about the 6th month of pregnancy and until roughly
Analyst for the L.A. County Department of Health Services three months after delivery. It is great taboo for her to
in an epidemiological study project funded by the CDC. be intimate with a man who is not her husband because
it is believed that the baby will die. She is barred from
Downloadable version [PDF 123K] eating certain foods that are considered harmful to the
http://www.progressiveconvergence.com/Final%20Press%20Releas baby and her, e.g. salt, yam leaf broth (ettimpa), lima
e%20CDC%20Allegedly%20falsified.htm beans, ripe plantain (gonja), certain types of fish, fat
☻☻☻☻☻☻ meat, grasshoppers (enseenene) and pork because of
Continued from page 3 – Traditions and Customs of their fat content. She is advised not to assume certain
the Njovu Clan postures that can affect the positioning of the baby in
the womb and eventual delivery, e.g. sitting sideways.
among whom are J. Roscoe, Sir Apolo Kaggwa and M.
B. Nsimbi; Old women help her to put the baby in a proper
position (okuteereza omwaana mu lubuto) and they
o Consultation with Hajj Mahmoud Ssekimpi Ssemmambo, give her herbs to soften the passage of the baby when
the Katikkiro of the Njovu Clan and with members of the delivery comes (okumenya). A pregnant woman is not
Clan’s top executive committee, and with some leaders supposed to attend burials. It is great taboo for a
within the Njovu Clan; and pregnant woman to touch her husband’s, fetishes,
o Discussions with people who are considered authorities spears, or shield because it is believed that the
on these matters such as Omutaka Dr. Adam Kimala, pregnancy makes the woman ritually unclean.
Ssenga Joyce Nnalujja Tomusange, Mr. Edward The pregnant woman receives traditional ante-natal
Ssemukuutu, and Mr. Kefa Ssentoogo Ssenjoobe. care. From the moment she finds that she is pregnant,
o Personal observation at many traditional ceremonies and she begins taking certain herbs and medicines to
festivals. safeguard the baby and herself, and to be assured of a
safe delivery. She also bathes in certain herbs and
Birth customs and Traditions medicines for the same reason. These herbs and
Pregnancy medicines are normally supplied by her mother-in-law,
There is great joy when a wife is expecting a baby. Children her own mother, and her aunts and even trusted old
are looked upon as the buds of society and as a continuation women who are known to have a “good” or “lucky
of the life of their parents, the family, the clan and the hand”. She is massaged during pregnancy. She
community. Therefore, the birth of a child in the family is one normally bathes in cold water in order to make her
of the greatest blessings from God to that family; and it is strong and immune to certain weaknesses and ailments
greeted with great joy and satisfaction. brought about by inactivity. She is supposed to keep
The pregnant woman informs her husband and her friends, herself out of the public eye to avoid the evil eye.
her mother, her mother-in-law and other close relatives. Modern Changes
Before long, other people get to know about it. Pregnancy is a The pregnant woman, especially one who lives in an
great moment for the woman and her family. For the young urban area, receives modern ante-natal care services
woman who has never had children before, the pregnancy is from a health facility, such as a clinic, dispensary,
proof of her fertility and ability to bear children, thereby health centre, or hospital, where:
feeling liberated from the stigma of barrenness. She is now
more assured of her marriage and she is treated with greater (b) she can be counselled and guided on primary
respect than before by her husband’s relatives. healthcare, motherhood, reproduction, HIV/AIDS
and other sexually transmitted diseases, family
The pregnancy is the first indication that a new member of planning, feeding and nutrition, and immunisation
the clan and of society is on the way, and steps begin to be against killer-diseases; Continued on page 53

-52- Traditional African Clinic December 2010


Continued from page 52 – Traditions and Customs of the Njovu (olusuku).
Clan
Immediately on arrival, the baby has to give its first cry.
(b) she can be tested and treated for syphilis and other Normally, an implement, such as a hoe, is sounded to call
sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS; for response from the baby. Where no such instrument is
(c) she can be counselled and guided on primary available, the baby is held head up and legs down. The
healthcare, motherhood, reproduction, HIV/AIDS and baby normally responds by uttering a sharp cry. The cry is a
other sexually transmitted diseases, family planning, sign that the baby is alive and is getting familiarised with
feeding and nutrition, and immunisation against killer- the new surroundings and to the new world outside the
diseases; womb.

(d) she can be tested and treated for syphilis and other While the midwife is busy helping the mother to regain her
sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS; strength and posture, the baby goes from hand to hand
among the elderly women to check the baby’s physical
(e) she can get medication for prevention of malaria; and status. In particular, they establish whether the baby is
(d) she can obtain prescription for iron and vitamin deformed or lame or is otherwise abnormal. This shows that
deficiency. a child in Buganda is not an individual property but
It should be stressed that it is the common practice at everyone’s responsibility.
present for the pregnant woman to adopt both traditional The elderly women remove the placenta from the baby. The
safety measures and to receive a combination of both placenta, which is regarded by the Baganda as the second
traditional and modern ante-natal care. This is indicative of child, is buried and thus stored permanently (okufugika) on
the strength of African beliefs which cannot easily be done the banana tree as a symbol of fertility and blessing for both
away with. the mother and baby. The placenta of a baby boy is buried
The Birth in the soil surrounding a beer banana tree (ekitooke
Traditionally, the pregnant woman delivers her baby at her ky’embidde); while that of a girl is buried in the soil
home, or at her parents’ home. Some women feel more surrounding a food banana tree called Nnakitembe. The
secure to give birth at their parents’ homes. beer banana is regarded as the “male” banana; while
Whether the birth takes place at her home or at the home of Nnakitembe is regarded as the “female” banana.
her parents, the woman delivers the baby in a banana The Baganda believe that actually two babies are born: the
plantation among her own people. She is aided by a human child who is brought home; and the other one who
traditional midwife who has been her chief helper and remains at the labour site, i.e. the placenta stored in the
confidant during the pregnancy (mulerwa). The main role banana plantation where the birth takes place. They also
of the midwife is to ensure a safe delivery and the safety of believe that at death the human child joins the other child
the mother and baby. who was left in the banana plantation and that they become
The expectant mother is also surrounded by elderly women one once again in the soil as they were in the womb.
who have had long experience of delivering births, caring The Baganda also believe that the baby represented by the
for new mothers and babies immediately after birth, and placenta does live on as a spirit, and that he/she dies in
keeping confidential information about the birth, e.g. human form as the human baby is entering this world so
anomalies of birth. When she is in labour, they prepare the that the human baby who has been receiving nourishment
birth site, and prepare a fireplace on which they boil water from it (the placenta) may live.
and various herbs and medicines for the mother and the on-
coming baby. The umbilical cord is left on the baby until it peels of
marking the end of the period of confinement for both
The midwife and these women assist the expectant mother mother and baby. The peeled part (akalira) is kept in the
in her labour pains. They all have their toughest moment safest place. Negligence on the part of the mother reflects a
when the baby is arriving: they labour at all cost to save lot about her character.
both mother and baby.
By tradition, men, including the father of the baby, are not Next, the elderly women wash the baby with traditional
allowed anywhere near the site of birth. local herbs which are known to invigorate the baby, to
The banana plantation where the baby is born symbolises prevent infection and to combat evil. This step is taken to
fertility and continuity on the part of the mother. The protect and safeguard the new-born baby from harm which
banana plantation has special importance to the Muganda. can be caused by illness and evil-minded people. It is also
Many of the Kiganda practices, beliefs, ceremonies and taken to ensure a bright future for the baby.
festivities are connected with the banana plantation Continued on page 54
-53- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 53 – Traditions and Customs of the Njovu the child is born and even after in all other proceeding
Clan events in his/her life.
This can be regarded as today’s immunisation against Following the birth of a baby, both mother and baby
dangerous diseases and other related evils that hinder the remain in confinement inside the house until the
proper growth of the child. umbilical cord peels off and dries. Where the baby is a
Then, the mother is led into the house by the elderly women boy, the period of confinement is three days; but where
and she moves into confinement. The women prepare the the baby is a girl it is for four days. It is believed that
place of confinement (akaali) for her and the baby. It is a the baby born is normally stronger than the baby girl;
curtained part of the sitting room or lounge. so his period of confinement is shorter.

There is once again great joy when a child is born. The The period of confinement is intended to give time to
news of the arrival of the baby travels fast, and quite soon the mother to rest and recover, and to make her first
relatives and well-wishers come with gifts to congratulate observations about the baby. It is also intended to give
the mother and to praise God for the blessing. After the time to the baby to get familiar to its new environment
birth, the mother is accorded greater respect and honour by outside the womb as it begins its long journey in life.
her husband’s relatives. The gifts given indicate the It is usual to hold a small thanks-giving ceremony at
beginning of life and property ownership, from a world of the end the rest period where a gathering of relatives,
nothingness to a world of property of ownership (the friends and neighbours are invited to welcome the new
material world). baby and congratulate the mother. It is the custom to
The arrival of the baby has great significance. It is the final give the baby and mother gifts. It is also usual for the
seal to the marriage because once a child is born, the father-in-law to give the mother a goat as a token of
marriage is complete. The mother is now fully integrated appreciation for her role in enhancing the family and
into her husband’s family and kinship line or circle. the clan. The goat is slaughtered and its blood creates a
Furthermore, there is now a new member of the clan and of permanent bond between the child, the mother, the
the Baganda community at large. This causes great joy and clan, and the earth.
satisfaction. The ceremony has a lot of significance and meaning.
The mother and baby immediately after birth The mother is rewarded for proving to be profitable by
Traditionally, the mother is given herbs to enable her to bearing a child to the clan and society. The child is
suckle the baby successfully and to protect her from evil- initiated into the community. The values of
minded and jealous people who can cause her misery. Some communicating, sharing, giving and receiving, and
of the herbs are intended to increase her supply of breast rejoicing for birth are promoted through the meal that is
milk so that the baby becomes strong and healthy, and to prepared and served for the occasion. Society is given
increase the child’s level of resistance to disease and evil. the opportunity to receive both the mother and child
She is also provided with certain healing and life-giving when they come out into the open after seclusion.
herbs and foods to enable her have a good recovery from There is a renewal of the life of the community with a
the arduous task of producing a baby (okumukulisa new rhythm for everyone around marking the birth of a
okuwona olutalo lw’okuzaala). She bathes in a cocktail of baby.
herbs and local medicines to make her strong once again, The umbilical cord
and to prepare her for bearing another child. After the birth of a baby, the umbilical cord is dried up
Old women prepare a bath consisting of mixture of and kept with great care by the mother until the baby-
traditional herbs (ekyoogero) in which the baby is bathed naming and confirmation ceremony and festival. Loss
for the next two years. The baby is given some of this or poor custody of the umbilical cord signifies extreme
mixture to drink. This herbal cocktail serves the dual negligence and carelessness on the part of the mother.
purpose of protecting and safeguarding the baby so that it She is therefore put to great task to explain the loss or
has a bright future in which it will not be attacked by damage. The common saying: “okyekuuma ng’akalira
disease; in which it will not suffer from misfortune, k’omwaana”=”you protect the thing cautiously like the
witchcraft and sorcery; a future in which it will enjoy good baby’s umbilical cord”, reflects the great care with
fortune, happiness, longevity, prosperity and wisdom. which a mother is expected to exercise with regard to
the umbilical cord.
Medication in Buganda is a continuous process, as seen
above. The moment a woman expects a baby, herbal Resumption of normal life
medication is administered and this continues until when After about three months, the mother can resume sexual
Continued on page 55
-54- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 54 – Traditions and Customs of the After the arrival of the baby under modern conditions,
Njovu Clan the mother is given medication to ensure her a safe
relations with her husband. This resumption of sexual recovery and safety against possible post-natal
activity by the child’s parents is the subject of a ritual infections. The baby receives medication against
called: “okumala ekizadde”, which is roughly translated infections; and is immunised against the six killer
as “completion of the birth”. The husband rewards his diseases, namely, polio, tuberculosis, measles,
wife with a new beautiful bark-cloth to signify the end of diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus. Before being
the life where the wife was under pregnancy and to mark discharged from the health facility, the new mother is
the beginning a new life with a new member of the counselled about feeding and nutrition for herself and
household. The resumption is a symbol of change and the baby, and is given a programme for post-natal care
renewal for both husband and wife. Behind this and further immunisation of the baby against the killer
resumption is the hope and wish that the woman, who has diseases. When discharged, the new mother goes to her
proved her worth by producing a baby, will continue to home with the baby and both may, if conditions allow,
bear more children for the household and for the clan and remain in seclusion for a period of time as per tradition.
society. Many of the traditional birth practices are still in place,
Modern Changes although under modified form to suit prevailing modern
Nowadays, many babies are born under modern conditions. The majority of mothers combine both
conditions in maternity wards of health facilities, such as traditional and modern practices after the birth of their
health centres and hospitals; and this practice is on the babies. They still use ekyoogero (the traditional bath of
increase as many people live in urban centres and depend the baby) and the traditional herbal medicines. They
more on modern health services. still go into confinement after delivery. They still
During the birth, both the mother and baby are attended carefully preserve the umbilical cord where the family
to by a trained midwife and other specialist personnel, still does the traditional naming of its children. All
such as gynaecologists and paediatricians. These health these instances show the strength and durability of
personnel are there to ensure a safe delivery and the African traditions.
safety of the mother and the child. The mother is well However, many birth customs and traditions face the
prepared for the delivery as she would normally already threat of extinction. Many educated or “saved” mothers
have attended ante-natal clinical sessions during her (balokole), particularly those who live in urban
pregnancy. communities, do not wish to be subjected to practices
The father of the baby is rarely allowed to be present which they consider primitive or pagan. One
inside the labour ward when his wife is delivering their explanation for this attitude is that many of these
baby. But there are those who advocate for the presence women have not been brought up in traditional
of the husband in the labour ward to share the pain and environments. They are therefore largely ignorant about
experience of giving birth. the essence or meaning of these customs and traditions.
Additionally, many, if not all, of these women have
The placenta is often disposed of by health staff soon been brought up in a universal religious environment in
after delivery and is therefore not buried in the banana which African customs and traditions are not only
plantation, thus separating and alienating the two babies. despised and abused, but also condemned and wished
However, some women carry the placenta home and extinction.
dispose of it in the traditional manner.
http://njovu.org/traditions_customs.htm
It is believed that a child whose placenta was not treated ☻☻☻☻☻☻
in the traditional manner grows into an abnormally
unruly, wild, anti-social, violent and unstable being. This Continued on page 34 – More Women Die Giving
shows the strength of the traditions and beliefs of the Birth in Hoima
Baganda which they protect. No Muganda wishes to be Broken down, tis translates into one woman dying of
the parent of a child whose behaviour is unbecoming. birth-related complications for every day of the week
Some educated mothers do not take care to preserve the while only one dies weekly in other regions.
umbilical cord. But, quite a large number of mothers who The report, the Annual Health Sector Performance,
give birth under modern conditions keep the umbilical states that there are many more who die in smaller
cord. Apparently, the children of mothers who do not health centres and homes and not just in the hospital.
preserve their umbilical cords do not undergo the ☻☻☻☻☻☻
traditional baby naming ceremony.
-55- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 29 - UN Worries its Troops caused taking samples in clear jars with sky-blue U.N. lids,
Cholera in Haiti clearly horrified.
University microbiology chair. "I don't see there is any At the shovel-dug waste pits across the street sat
way to avoid the conclusion that an unfortunate and yellow-brown pools of feces where ducks and pigs
presumably accidental introduction of the organism swam in the overflow. The path to the river ran straight
occurred." downhill.
Rumors spreading The U.N. acknowledged the black fluid was overflow
Haiti runs on rumors, like a 10 million-player game of from the base, but said it contained kitchen and shower
broken telephone. Last year it was the local woman said waste, not excrement.
to have given birth to a fish. This year it was cholera —
all too true, even if the news came from the same places: The U.N. said it is up to the private contractor and local
in a group taxi, from a cousin, from the guy on the next mayor to ensure its dump sites are safe. Sanco Vice
farm over. President Marguerite Jean-Louis said it is up to the
mayor and the U.N. Mirebalais Mayor Laguerre
On Oct. 20, the news crackled over Haitian radio: 19 Lochard, who is running for Senate on Sunday, said he
people had died after fever, vomiting and severe diarrhea complained several times to the U.N. that the site was
at a hospital in St. Marc near the mouth of the Artibonite not safe but never received a response.
River. Most were children.
Jean-Louis said her company emptied the septic tanks
A day later, the disease was confirmed to be cholera. on Oct. 11, after the first shift of Nepalese troops
Tele-djol — "the mouth channel" — lit up. Some said arrived, and did not return again until after the outbreak
helicopters had dropped a black powder in the river, or began. At some point in mid-October, neighbors said a
that they heard poison was poured into a dam in the new Sanco driver they did not recognize came one day
Dominican Republic. Others said the epidemic was and dumped outside of the usual pits.
linked to the Nepalese base. Sanco returned to the base after the AP had been there
The rumors were easy to ignore. Mulet said the U.N. did for hours. There was more waste than usual, Jean-Louis
not address them right away because it did not know the said, possibly because the soldiers overlapped during
situation would turn into a crisis. their rotations.

"It was such a minor thing, like we have every day," Following protests at the base days later, the U.N.
Mulet said. "We didn't know this was going to be an opened the compound to the AP. The Nepalese soldiers
epidemic." acknowledged, after repeated questions and revised
statements, that the base had undergone an extensive
But the rumors got stronger in the mouths of politicians. clean-up and that they had replaced the broken pipe.
Even the health minister, whose government depends on Aboveground pipes from uphill latrines ran over a
the U.N. for protection, told the nation it was suffering drainage canal to the river. The U.N. spokesman
from an "imported disease." acknowledged what looked like human waste at the
On Oct. 26, U.N. spokesman Vincenzo Pugliese put out a bottom.
short statement saying that the base's septic tanks are The U.N. is now reviewing all sanitation systems at its
built to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards, military, police and civilian installations, officials told
that the waste is dumped 820 feet (250 meters) from the the AP this week.
river, and that the U.N. unit for environmental
compliance periodically checks waste management. The U.N. said none of the Nepalese soldiers had shown
signs of cholera, which some news outlets misreported
Sanitation at the base is handled by a private company, as saying the soldiers had specifically tested negative
Sanco Enterprises SA, which won the contract over the for it. Pugliese confirmed on Oct. 30 that they had not
summer by underbidding a rival. The U.N. said the septic been tested for the disease.
tanks were to be emptied once a week.
The U.N. also tested environmental samples the
But when the AP visited on Oct. 27, a tank was clearly soldiers took from the base. It says they came out
overflowing. The back of the base smelled like a toilet negative at an independent laboratory in Santo
had exploded. Reeking, dark liquid flowed out of a Domingo.
broken pipe, toward the river, from next to what the
soldiers said were latrines. U.N. military police were But the Santo Domingo lab, Cedimat, has been under
Continued on page 57
-56- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Continued from page 56 – UN Worries its Troops caused The CDC agrees that the movement of pathogens from
Cholera in Haiti one part of the world to another is an important public
contract to MINUSTAH, the U.N. mission's name in health issue. Its scientists are working on samples of
French, since 2004, said Dr. Maximo Rodriguez, the bacteria from 13 infected Haitians to sequence the
doctor whose name appears on the tests. Rodriguez is a cholera strain's genome, the results of which will be
general medicine doctor whose specialty is treating posted on a public database.
obesity. Cedimat is a patient-treatment facility. In fact, But the U.S. government agency has several caveats.
the test results were written on forms meant for people: First, it has not taken environmental samples or tested
The results provided to the AP by the U.N. had the the Nepalese soldiers. Second, it will not go public with
"patient's" name listed as "Minustha Minustha (sic)" — its analysis until all its studies are complete. And third,
age 40, male. it may not get enough information to say exactly how
Rodriguez said "any well-equipped laboratory" can do cholera got into the country.
tests for cholera. But epidemiologists say examining "The bottom line is we may never know," Dowell said.
environmental samples for cholera takes extra expertise,
because the disease can be hard to isolate. The WHO has repeatedly said the same.

"A positive test is informative, a negative test doesn't "At some time we will do further investigation, but it's
really prove anything," said Dr. Arthur Reingold, not a priority right now," WHO spokeswoman Fadela
chairman of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases Chaib said this week.
at the University of California-Berkeley School of Public But Mulet now says Farmer was right all along, and
Health. He is an adviser to the World Health that he is consulting with experts, including a French
Organization and a former CDC epidemiologist. epidemiologist who met with him this week to discuss
Tricky situation how to investigate the Nepalese base.
The idea that cholera was imported to Haiti by the U.N. "We agree with him there has to be a thorough
carries unique implications. investigation of how it came, how it happened and how
For decades, and especially since the Jan. 12 earthquake, it spread. ... There's no differences there with Dr. Paul
Haiti has depended on foreign governments, aid groups Farmer at all."
and the U.N. for everything from rebuilding to basic As recently as Nov. 10, the mission's spokesman told
services. The U.N. has had five peacekeeping missions in Haitian reporters that the U.N. was not undertaking any
Haiti since 1993, the current one arriving six years ago. other investigations because the concerns were not
Some Haitians see the peacekeepers as the only hope for "well-founded." The head of the mission said that is not
security in a nation where towns are ruled by drug lords the case today.
and coups d'etat are more common than elections. Others "One thing I can assure you: There has been no cover
resent heavily armed foreign armies on their soil and see up — there has been no cover up from our side — and
the soldiers as a threat to national sovereignty and pride. we have done everything we can to investigate," Mulet
The peacekeepers have saved lives in floods and defeated said. "Eventually we will find out what happened and
kidnapping gangs. They have also killed people in how it happened."
protests and accidents and had an entire unit dismissed http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40280944/ns/health/
for paying for sex, many with underage Haitian girls. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Earlier this month, Dr. Paul Farmer, who founded the
medical aid group Partners in Health and is U.N. deputy The World Health Report 2003
special envoy for Haiti, called for an aggressive About 90% of all HIV/AIDS and malaria
investigation into the source of the cholera, saying the
refusal to look into the matter publicly was "politics to deaths in children in developing countries
me, not science." occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where 23%
The CDC acknowledges politics played a role in how the of the world’s births and 42% of the
investigation unfolded. world’s child deaths are observed.
☻☻☻☻☻☻
"We're going to be really cautious about the Nepal thing
because it's a politically sensitive issue for our partners in
Haiti,"said CDC commander Dr. Scott Dowell.
-57- Traditional African Clinic December 2010
Mission Statement Herb of the Month
Our aim at The African Traditional Herbal Herbal Conceptives and Abortifacients
Research Clinic is to propagate and promote the
awareness in Afrikan peoples at home and abroad of
their health, biodiversity, history and cultural
richness. We gather pertinent information on these
issues and disseminate these freely to our people in
Uganda, the rest of the continent, and anywhere in
the Diaspora where Afrikans are located…. One of Abrus precatorius (Abrus) Momordica Charantia
the main ingredients for increasing poverty, sickness,
Herbal contraceptives and abortifacients are those plants
exploitation and domination is ignorance of one's used for birth control or in the prevention of pregnancy and
self, and the environment in which we live. for premature expulsion of a foetus from the womb. Many
Knowledge is power and the forces that control our plants have been reported to have sterilizing, contraceptive
lives don't want to lose control, so they won't stop at and abortifacient properties. Plants that have contraceptive
anything to keep certain knowledge from the people. and abortifacient properties may act through rapid
Therefore, we are expecting a fight and opposition to expulsion of the fertilized ova from the fallopian tube,
our mission. However, we will endeavor to carry inhibition of implantation due to a disturbance in oestrogen
forward this work in grace and perfect ways. - progesterone balance, foetal abortion, perhaps due to lack
of supply of nutrients to the uterus and the embryo, and also
“Where there is no God, there is no culture. on the male side through affecting sperm count, motility
Where there is no culture, there is no and viability. In Nigeria, some women prefer this
indigenous knowledge. Where there is no alternative means of birth control as it constitutes little or
indigenous knowledge, there is no history. no side effects when compared to the synthetic
Where there is no history, there is no science contraceptives and other abortion pills. Because of a
or technology. The existing nature is made number of reasons, patronage of traditional medicine
by our past. Let us protect and conserve our practitioners (TMPs) by the people has been on the increase
indigenous knowledge.” in the recent times. People patronize them for a wide range
of ailments which they claim are cured by herbs. The herbal
CALENDAR OF EVENTS preparations or recipes are formulated by traditional healers
SPECIAL EVENT: CLINIC OPENING who have enviably great knowledge of medicinal herbs,
PLACE: AFRIKAN TRADITIONAL HERBAL RESEARCH CLINIC though many, if not all, do not know the active properties
TIME: or toxicological effects of these herbs.
Continued on page 34
Afrikan Traditional Herbal Research Clinic BULK RATE
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54 Muwafu Road, P.O. Box 29974 PAID
Ntinda, Kampala, Uganda East Africa PERMIT
NO. 00000
Phone: +256 (0) 782 917 902
Email: clinic@blackherbals.com

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-58- Traditional African Clinic December 2010