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hypothesis is claim or a statement about the value of a single parameter of about the value of a

single parameter or about the values of several parameters. Setting up and testing hypotheses is

essential part of statistical inference. In order to formulate such a test a theory has to be put

forward, either because it is believe to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument

but has not been proved.

A statistical hypothesis test in an algorithm to state the alternative (for or against the

hypothesis) which minimizes certain risks (http://en. Wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical hypothesis

testing). It is the use of statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true.

difference between among groups.

Formulate the null hypothesis (commonly, that the observation are the result of pure

chance) and the alternative hypothesis (commonly, that the observation show a real

Identify a test statistic that can be use to assess the truth of the null hypothesis.

Compute the p-value, which is the probability that a test statistic at least as significant as

the one observed would be obtained assuming that the null hypothesis were true the smaller the

value the stronger the evidence against the null hypothesis.

In using the critical value for manual computation, the higher the computed value of the

test statistics against the critical value the stronger evidence against the null hypothesis. The

critical value (s) for a hypothesis test is a limit to which the value of the test statistic in a sample

compared to determine whether or not the null hypothesis is rejected.

EXAMPLE 1:

The research problem: is there a relationship between the admission examination score in

mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra.

The null hypothesis (ho) is: there is no relationship between the admission examination score in

mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra. Alternative hypothesis (ha) is:

there is relationship between the admission examination score in mathematics and final

examination score in collage algebra.

the specific form of the research hypothesis can be either direction or non-directional,

depending upon the particular question that is at issue in the research. The version of Ha that we

have just given is non-directional, in the it assert there is relationship between the admission

examination score in mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra.

in the mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra. Since we have no basis for

predicting in which the difference may take either direction as support for our hypothesis.

A directional hypothesis, on the other land, is one that does specify the particular direction of the

relationship. If there is relationship. If there is relationship, it could be positive (direct relationship

between the two variables) or negative relationship (inverse relationship).

between the admission examination score in

the mathematics and final examination score

in mathematics and final examination score in

collage algebra. The relationship does not

specify whether the correlation is positive or

Level of significance

The significance level of a test is the probability of error that would be observed, assuming the

null hypothesis. Hence, the alpha significance level is the probability of the type I error (type I

error is committed when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true).

significance are 5% 1% and 0.1%.

Using the critical value as gauge to reject the null hypothesis, the greater the computer

value of the test statistic , the more significant the value becomes.

Using the p-value to reject the null hypothesis, if a test of significance gives a p-value

(probability of error) lower than the a-level, the null hypothesis is rejected. Such results are

informally referred to as statistically significant’ example, if someone argues that there’s only ine

chance in a thousand this could have happened by coincidence,’’ a 0.1% level of statistic

significance is being implied. The lower bthe significance level, the stronger the evidence that

the decision made is not occurring by chance

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/statistical_significance ).

The probability of the type II error is called the beta level (β). This is the probability of accepting

the null hypothesis and it is true. The selection of a level inevitably involve a compromise

between significance and power, and consequently between the type I error and the Type II error.

EXAMPLE:

1 . there is no significant relationship between the academic performance of student and the following

singly or in combination:

a. personality factors

b. socio-Economic status

c. collage Aptitude

The importance of the study reveals the intellectual merit of the proposed activity: how the study shall

advance knowledge and understanding, pressing reason why this study needs to be conducted. It shall

also indicate the broader impact of the proposed activity on the advance discovery and understanding

while promoting teaching, learning, and enhancing the infrastructure for the benefit of the bigger

society from the study.

EXAMPLE 1:

The finding of the study have a great value in helping the parent, teacher, administrator as well as

the learners.

To the administrator, the study would provide additional knowledge on how factors related to academic

performance of the learners. The factors would be used as a guide in the classroom instruction and

interaction; attention could be focused on them to the improve academic performance…………..

EXAMPLE 2:

This study would serve as data to determine how development project are being implemented by

LGUs in the province of Tarlac. This would guide policy makers as to the responsiveness of local

projects’ to the constituents to improve or to slash out the project to adopt schemes to improve

their implementation

This study would serve as guide to the LGUs to enhance their accountability in undertaking development

projects to enhance better government and administration.

To constituents, this would provide more information on how the LGUs plan projects for their

benefit. The result of this study would result to better planning of the development project which would

be for their benefits.

7. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Scope . The scope defines the limit of the study in terms of the area or locality, population and sample,

sampling design and the duration or period of the study. The nature of the variables as they are declared

in the statement of the findings and the treatments they received

Should be (drake, 2005).

Delimitation. Limitations are shortcomings, conditions or influence that cannot be controlled by the

researcher. Any limitations that might influence the result should be mentioned (drake 2005).

Delimitations provide the condition beyond the control of the researcher. They are made known

because they may place restraint in writing the conclusions and their application to other situation and

maturation of the respondents, policies, etc.

EXAMPLE 1

This study attempted to look into the factors that are related to the academic performance of

the Fourth year High School Students of Dee Hwa Liong Collage Foundation of mabalacat, Pampanga for

the school year 2005-2006

The study specifically determined the level of academic performance of the students based on

the Grade Point Average. The personality factors were measured using the sixteen personality factor by

Cattell. The socio-economic status (SES) was determined by a questionnaire. The College Aptitude test.

Results were filed at the guidance office of the Dee Hwa Liong College Foundation. All test were available

in the guidance office. The SCS questioner was modified base on the suggestion of the panel members of

Tarlac state university.

The study also determined the relationship of the personality factors. CAT, and SES

To academic performance of students. The subject of this study were 187 students in the Fourth year

High School at the Dee Hwa Liong Collage Foundation in Mabalacat pampanga, during the school year

2005-2006.

The respondents of the study were the personnel of INTECO Pangasinan branch which cover

Dagupan and Urbaneta. There were a total of 41 employees in these two branches as of February 10,

2007 as per the list available on administration department. All of them were included in the study.

EXAMPLE 2

This study focused on the evaluation of internal revenue allotment (IRA) funded development

projects implement by province of Tarlac for the last three years, 2005 to 2007: how they were financed,

and their responsiveness. Responsive was measured as to timeliness and access. Evaluation of timeliness

was based on the duration of the project. If it was finished on time thus, as requested and delivered on

time, then it is timely. Access was evaluated by the beneficiaries based on a given set of criteria.

The prioritization of the project of the project was determined in this study based on the number

of completed projects per category and the budget allocation for projects according category: social

development projects, economic environmental management and infrastructure projects. Problems

encountered in the implementation of the projects were indentified so that innovative strategies could be

proposed to improve the implementation of development projects. The evaluation of these areas was

done by a rubic based on the reports. The problems on the implementation of the projects were

identified in terms of the impediments encountered in the implementation of the projects.

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