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# HYPOTHESIS

## Hypothesis. Quite often we test hypotheses about statistical parameters. A statistical

hypothesis is claim or a statement about the value of a single parameter of about the value of a
single parameter or about the values of several parameters. Setting up and testing hypotheses is
essential part of statistical inference. In order to formulate such a test a theory has to be put
forward, either because it is believe to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument
but has not been proved.

A statistical hypothesis test in an algorithm to state the alternative (for or against the
hypothesis) which minimizes certain risks (http://en. Wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical hypothesis
testing). It is the use of statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true.

## There two type of hypothesis of relationship between or among variables or hypothesis of

difference between among groups.

## The usual process of hypothesis testing consists of for steps;

Formulate the null hypothesis (commonly, that the observation are the result of pure
chance) and the alternative hypothesis (commonly, that the observation show a real

Identify a test statistic that can be use to assess the truth of the null hypothesis.

Compute the p-value, which is the probability that a test statistic at least as significant as
the one observed would be obtained assuming that the null hypothesis were true the smaller the
value the stronger the evidence against the null hypothesis.

In using the critical value for manual computation, the higher the computed value of the
test statistics against the critical value the stronger evidence against the null hypothesis. The
critical value (s) for a hypothesis test is a limit to which the value of the test statistic in a sample
compared to determine whether or not the null hypothesis is rejected.

## Make your decision whether to accept or to reject the null hypothesis.

EXAMPLE 1:

The research problem: is there a relationship between the admission examination score in
mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra.

The null hypothesis (ho) is: there is no relationship between the admission examination score in
mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra. Alternative hypothesis (ha) is:
there is relationship between the admission examination score in mathematics and final
examination score in collage algebra.

## One-tailed (directional) versus the two-tailed test (non-directional)

the specific form of the research hypothesis can be either direction or non-directional,
depending upon the particular question that is at issue in the research. The version of Ha that we
have just given is non-directional, in the it assert there is relationship between the admission
examination score in mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra.

## It is tantamount to saying: there is relationship between the admission examination score

in the mathematics and final examination score in collage algebra. Since we have no basis for
predicting in which the difference may take either direction as support for our hypothesis.

A directional hypothesis, on the other land, is one that does specify the particular direction of the
relationship. If there is relationship. If there is relationship, it could be positive (direct relationship
between the two variables) or negative relationship (inverse relationship).

## Non-directional test assert the relationship

between the admission examination score in
the mathematics and final examination score
in mathematics and final examination score in
collage algebra. The relationship does not
specify whether the correlation is positive or
Level of significance

The significance level of a test is the probability of error that would be observed, assuming the
null hypothesis. Hence, the alpha significance level is the probability of the type I error (type I
error is committed when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true).

## Significance is usually represented by the Greek symbol, a (alpha). Popular levels of

significance are 5% 1% and 0.1%.

Using the critical value as gauge to reject the null hypothesis, the greater the computer
value of the test statistic , the more significant the value becomes.

Using the p-value to reject the null hypothesis, if a test of significance gives a p-value
(probability of error) lower than the a-level, the null hypothesis is rejected. Such results are
informally referred to as statistically significant’ example, if someone argues that there’s only ine
chance in a thousand this could have happened by coincidence,’’ a 0.1% level of statistic
significance is being implied. The lower bthe significance level, the stronger the evidence that
the decision made is not occurring by chance
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/statistical_significance ).

The probability of the type II error is called the beta level (β). This is the probability of accepting
the null hypothesis and it is true. The selection of a level inevitably involve a compromise
between significance and power, and consequently between the type I error and the Type II error.

EXAMPLE:

## This study tested the following null hypothesis:

1 . there is no significant relationship between the academic performance of student and the following
singly or in combination:
a. personality factors
b. socio-Economic status
c. collage Aptitude

## 5. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of the study reveals the intellectual merit of the proposed activity: how the study shall
advance knowledge and understanding, pressing reason why this study needs to be conducted. It shall
also indicate the broader impact of the proposed activity on the advance discovery and understanding
while promoting teaching, learning, and enhancing the infrastructure for the benefit of the bigger
society from the study.

EXAMPLE 1:

## Significance of the study

The finding of the study have a great value in helping the parent, teacher, administrator as well as
the learners.

performance of the learners. The factors would be used as a guide in the classroom instruction and
interaction; attention could be focused on them to the improve academic performance…………..

EXAMPLE 2:

## Significant of the study

This study would serve as data to determine how development project are being implemented by
LGUs in the province of Tarlac. This would guide policy makers as to the responsiveness of local
projects’ to the constituents to improve or to slash out the project to adopt schemes to improve
their implementation

This study would serve as guide to the LGUs to enhance their accountability in undertaking development
projects to enhance better government and administration.

To constituents, this would provide more information on how the LGUs plan projects for their
benefit. The result of this study would result to better planning of the development project which would
be for their benefits.
7. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

## Scope and delimitations comprise one important section of research paper.

Scope . The scope defines the limit of the study in terms of the area or locality, population and sample,
sampling design and the duration or period of the study. The nature of the variables as they are declared
in the statement of the findings and the treatments they received
Should be (drake, 2005).

Delimitation. Limitations are shortcomings, conditions or influence that cannot be controlled by the
researcher. Any limitations that might influence the result should be mentioned (drake 2005).

Delimitations provide the condition beyond the control of the researcher. They are made known
because they may place restraint in writing the conclusions and their application to other situation and
maturation of the respondents, policies, etc.

EXAMPLE 1

## Scope and delimitation

This study attempted to look into the factors that are related to the academic performance of
the Fourth year High School Students of Dee Hwa Liong Collage Foundation of mabalacat, Pampanga for
the school year 2005-2006

The study specifically determined the level of academic performance of the students based on
the Grade Point Average. The personality factors were measured using the sixteen personality factor by
Cattell. The socio-economic status (SES) was determined by a questionnaire. The College Aptitude test.
Results were filed at the guidance office of the Dee Hwa Liong College Foundation. All test were available
in the guidance office. The SCS questioner was modified base on the suggestion of the panel members of
Tarlac state university.

The study also determined the relationship of the personality factors. CAT, and SES

To academic performance of students. The subject of this study were 187 students in the Fourth year
High School at the Dee Hwa Liong Collage Foundation in Mabalacat pampanga, during the school year
2005-2006.

The respondents of the study were the personnel of INTECO Pangasinan branch which cover
Dagupan and Urbaneta. There were a total of 41 employees in these two branches as of February 10,
2007 as per the list available on administration department. All of them were included in the study.

EXAMPLE 2

## Scope and Delimitation

This study focused on the evaluation of internal revenue allotment (IRA) funded development
projects implement by province of Tarlac for the last three years, 2005 to 2007: how they were financed,
and their responsiveness. Responsive was measured as to timeliness and access. Evaluation of timeliness
was based on the duration of the project. If it was finished on time thus, as requested and delivered on
time, then it is timely. Access was evaluated by the beneficiaries based on a given set of criteria.

The prioritization of the project of the project was determined in this study based on the number
of completed projects per category and the budget allocation for projects according category: social
development projects, economic environmental management and infrastructure projects. Problems
encountered in the implementation of the projects were indentified so that innovative strategies could be
proposed to improve the implementation of development projects. The evaluation of these areas was
done by a rubic based on the reports. The problems on the implementation of the projects were
identified in terms of the impediments encountered in the implementation of the projects.