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Application of Computers and

Operations Research in the
Mineral Industry


Sean D. Dessureault
University of Arizona

Rajive Ganguli
University of Alaska Fairbanks

Vladislav Kecojevic
The Pennsylvania State University

Jami Girard Dwyer

National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health

A.A. BALKEMA PUBLISHERS Leiden / London / New York / Philadelphia / Singapore

Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

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For the complete set: ISBN (book + CD-ROM) 04 1537 449 9

ISBN book : 04 1537 450 2
ISBN CD-ROM : 04 1537 451 0

Printed in Great Britain

Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry –
Dessureault, Ganguli, Kecojevic & Dwyer (eds)
© 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 04 1537 449 9

Table of Contents

Preface XI
Acknowledgements XIII
APCOM 2005 Organizing Committee XV
APCOM International Council Past Chairs XVII
APCOM International Council Rotating Members XIX

1. Business systems and project management

An updated and modified O’Hara cost estimating model based on World and Iran
economic conditions 3
A.D. Akbari & M. Osanloo
Mining methods selection based on multicriteria models 19
A.T. de Almeida, L.H. Alencar & C.M.G. de Miranda
Controlling of BOT-based infrastructure projects explained at Lübeck Herren tunnel
in Northern Germany 25
K. Böde
Evolution of the mechanism for selecting multi-criteria alternatives for optimizing strategies
of investment into the mineral-raw industry 35
N.I. Fedunets & I.E. Teymenson
Managing key business indicators through their lifecycle 43
C. Lumley
Technical efficiency analysis in Illinois coal mining sector 49
A.R. Samal, M.K. Mohanty & S.C. Sharma
Automatic information economic system for analysis, forecasting and decision-making by
mineral and macroeconomic indicators of world countries’ dynamic models 55
I.E. Teymenson & I.E. Teymenson
Optimum dynamic management of mining machinery exploitation life: models with limited interval 65
S. Vujic

2. Data and enterprise information system utilization

Improving mine mill performance in large metallurgical complexes 73
O.A. Bascur & J.P. Kennedy
Efficient utilization of LIMS data and integration with mining process management systems 85
N. Hitchcock
Improving operations in the mining industry with business process management technology 89
P.A. McGrath

Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Truck assignment performance evaluation by using data mining techniques 95
M. Yildirim & S. Dessureault

3. Emerging technology
Use of physical dynamic scale models with AWJ in mine planning 103
R.C. Azevedo, G.R. Martín Cortés, G. Tomi & W.T. Hennies
GPS and sonar guidance of an underwater mining system 109
C.J. Di Maggio, J. Atkins, J. Munkittrick & D. Robinson
Automatic acquisition and determination of rock discontinuity properties using
three-dimensional laser scanning 113
J. Donovan, J. Handy, J. Kemeny & G. O’Brien
Stochastic modelling of open pit slope stability in heterogeneous hydrogeological medium 119
D.A. Gabeva
Tools for the integration of sustainability into the mine design process 125
C.J. Odell & M. Scoble
Feasibility of gas production of offshore gas hydrate deposits by integration with GTL process 133
S.L. Patil & N.R. Nanchary
Potential techniques for production of natural gas from hydrate reservoirs 143
S.L. Patil & N.R. Nanchary
P9 project information management model, a mineral industry metadata case study 153
H.W. Xu, R. Morrison & Y. Gu
Applications of computation intelligence in mining engineering 163
Q.X. Yun, C.W. Lu, Y.F. Chen & M.J. Lian
The dynamic incremental maintenance algorithm and technology of data warehouse 173
H. Zhang & Y. Liang

4. Geostatistics and reserve estimation

Mapping water table level using piezometers readings and topography as secondary
information – Trevo Mine – Brazil 181
M.N.M. Boezio, J.F.C.L. Costa & J.C. Koppe
Collocated co-kriging application as an aid of longterm planning of the iron mines of Carajás 191
F.A.R. Carmo, A.P. Silva & A.Z. Remacre
Practical unfolding for geostatistical modeling of vein-type and complex tabular mineral deposits 197
C.V. Deutsch
Comparative evaluation of radial basis functions and kriging for ore grade estimation 203
S. Dutta, R. Ganguli & B. Samanta
Acceptable ergodic fluctuations and simulation of skewed distributions 211
O. Leuangthong, J.A. McLennan & C.V. Deutsch
Applications of three-dimensional modeling and geostatistics in mine planning at Atacocha Mine, Peru 219
A.E. Mondragon, D.F. Machuca & O.E. Frias
Analysis of time-series satellite images to document changes in historic hydro-environmental
conditions 227
E.L. Montgomery, M.J. Rosko, J. Blainer-Fleming & K.C. Horstman


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

An integrated GIS modeling approach to mineral potential mapping of copper deposits
of Singhbhum Belt, India 235
B. Mukerji & B.C. Sarkar
Indicator simulations of categorical variables 247
M.E. Rossi
Data mining approach for environmental data predictions and classification 253
E. Savelieva, A. Pozdnukhov, V. Timonin, R. Parkin, M. Kanevski, M. Maignan & V. Demyanov
The application of two stage indicator kriging in gold vein modeling 259
W. Sulistyana & S. Saptono
Comparing ordinary kriging interpolation variance and indicator kriging conditional variance
for assessing uncertainties at unsampled locations 265
J.K. Yamamoto

5. Open-pit mine planning and design

Cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations with consideration of dynamic
metal price and cost escalation during mine life 273
M.W.A. Asad
Intelligent optimal production scheduling estimator 279
H. Askari-Nasab, S. Frimpong & K. Awuah-Offei
Open pit mine planning and design – a case study 287
S.B. Baffoe & S. Al-Hassan
Quarterly schedule development for an open-pit iron ore mine with blending constraints 291
W.L. Cai
Optimization in Sungun copper mine, Iran 297
A. Farshchi, K. Samadani & M. Heidari
From geophysics to reality: sand and gravel deposit evaluation in the computer age 305
D.R. Hack
A model of discounted profit variation of open pit production sequencing optimization 315
R.A. Halatchev
The implementation and use of GPS grade control in surface coal mining 325
M.M. Heger
Application of Lagrange polynomial theory to surface mine optimization 329
M. Mukalay, S. Ilunga & M. Kamulete
A genetic algorithms approach for grade control planning in a bauxite deposit 337
B. Samanta, A. Bhattacherjee & R. Ganguli
Principles and models of block modeling of open-pit mining operations development 343
U.G. Vilkul, V.N. Korobko, A.S. Davidkovich
Haulage road design: a case study on surface mine in New Mexico 351
W.A. Wilkinson & V. J. Kecojevic

6. Process control and optimization

Optimizing grinding control in the Boliden Aitik mine 359
J. Albertsson, M. Walter & A. Berggren
Grinding circuit advanced control – increasing reliability and profitability 363
J. Anstey, M. Reed, O. Galan & G. Powley


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

On-line imaging of aggregates for process control 371
T.W. BoBo Jr. & M. Taylor
Application of boosting algorithm in neural network based ash measurement using online ash analyzers 379
S. Dutta & R. Ganguli
Decision support system to improve equipment effectiveness and reduce production cost
in KGHM “Polska Miedz”, Poland 385
A. Dyczko, J. Kicki & J. Paraszczak
Study on automatic separation of coal and gangue based on image processing techniques 391
J. Song & Z. Chen
Validation of the effectiveness of time series data for control of a mine ventilation environment 397
Y. Tominaga & S. Bandopadhyay

7. Real-time mining analytical systems

In-rest vehicle proximity systems with real-time transmission lock 405
A. Nieto & S. Miller
Wireless technology applied to mine planning 413
R. Sousa & G. De Tomi
Real time analysis for forecasting of chock shields performance a case study 419
S. Tadisetty, R.N. Gupta, K. Matsui & H. Shimada

8. Safety systems
The development and implementation of a minerals industry risk management gateway 427
G.V. Kizil & J. Joy
Guide on the safety of computer-controlled mining hoists 435
J.J. Paques, R. Bourbonnière, L. Germain, M. Laflamme & M.C. Bétournay
NIOSH computer programs for bench crest failure analysis in fractured rock 439
J. Whyatt, S. Miller & J. Dwyer

9. Simulation
Equipment sizing of a material handling system using discrete event simulation 449
M.C. Albrecht
Justification of “on-demand” ventilation systems by means of simulation techniques 457
G. Baiden, Y. Bissiri, S. Hardcastle & C. Kocsis
CFD simulation of the auxiliary fans interference in underground coal mining areas 463
E. Delic, A. Basic & R. Sisic
Performance evaluation of face equipment transporting systems by discrete event simulation 467
H.H. Erdogan, S. Girdapli, C. Karpuz & S. Duzgunbaskan
Stochastic simulation-based risk assessment for drilling optimisation 475
S. Li, J. Scott & R. Dimitrakopoulos

10. Standardized networked communication in mining

GPS and satellite communication in underground mining; a 10 year development project
still not working 481
R. Elsrud & R.M. Toivanen


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

IREDES: Standardized integration of mining equipment into corporate IT infrastructures 489
C. Mueller
Impact of mine networking and machine – IT on future mine production 495
U. Olsson & C. Mueller

11. Special US Department of energy

Software tools for optimizing heavy medium cyclone circuits 505
C.J. Barbee, G.H. Luttrell, C.J. Wood & P.J. Bethell
Model-based camera vision evaluation of mining machine motion 513
G. Danko, J.S. Knowles & R. Tiwari
Effects of heterogeneous hydrocyclone feed in a magnetite grinding circuit 521
T.C. Eisele, C.H. Nurnberger & S.K. Kawatra
Detection of roof geology variation using recorded drilling parameters 527
Q. Gu, G.A. Watson & K.A. Heasley
Integrated sensor networks for rock-mass characterization and material handling 535
D. Hopkins, W.B. Davis, D. Türler & J. Kemeny
Modeling of damage response in high abrasive stress, fibrous monolith tools 547
L. Lu, P. Charalambides & M.C.L. Patterson
Simulation of ball and rock charge motion in semiautogenous mills for the design of shell
and pulp lifters 557
R.K. Rajamani & S. Latchireddi
Hyperspectral imaging for real-time ore grading 565
C. Smith, R. Swanson, M. Kehoe, T. Moon & B. Bolin
Development and demonstration of horizon sensor instrumentation for coal cutting drums 571
L. Stolarczyk & J. Duncan

12. Underground mine planning and design

An innovative algorithm for intelligent block caving operations 581
G. Baiden & Y. Bissiri
Estimation of structural response to mining-induced blast vibration using support vector machines 587
Y. Cheng-Xiang & F. Xia-Ting
The development of hydrogen mine vehicle power plant functions controllers 595
G. Desrivières, M. Bétournay, O. Velev & D. Barnes
Remote geomechanical instrumentation system developments and experience 603
K. Judge & M.C. Bétournay
Increasing underground coal mine productivity through a training program 611
E.B. Kroeger & M. McGolden
Mitigating the risks associated with planning for the extraction of underground coal pillars
in South Africa 621
G.H. Lind
Object-oriented analysis and modeling for the mining production system of fully mechanized
sub-level caving 631
J. Li, H. Song, D. Geng & Q. Ma


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Integrating uncertainty in block cave production scheduling 635
E. Rubio & W.S. Dunbar
The connection between production schedule and cut-off optimization in underground mines 643
M.L. Smith & A. O’Rourke
An integrated, multidisciplinary evaluation of ultra-deep layouts 655
F.M.D.C. Vieira
Sequence optimisation for long-term mine planning 667
A. van Wageningen, P.G. Dunn, D.M. Muldowney & P. Vaillancourt
Advances in underground mining equipment and technology may signal a future of autonomous mining 675
M.J. Woof

Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry –
Dessureault, Ganguli, Kecojevic & Dwyer (eds)
© 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 04 1537 449 9


This volume contains the proceedings of the 32nd International Symposium on the Application of Computers
and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry (APCOM). APCOM has returned to the University of Arizona,
where the first symposium was held in 1961. After more than forty years, APCOM has developed a reputation
as the longest running and most influential peer reviewed mining technology forum in the world. In appreciation
of that long and successful history, we are exploring new ways in which APCOM’s traditions, reputation, and
global network of professionals can further serve the mining industry.
The importance of such a conference has never been more relevant. Although the use of computers has
become ubiquitous throughout the mineral industry, the complexity of computer technology has never been
greater. Operations Research can now reach new levels of computational complexity. The new challenge is how
to effectively use the Information Technology (IT) and multiple data sources available in operations. This long-
running symposium series has effectively addressed challenges in the past through high-quality peer reviewed
papers and presentations. In 2005, an additional, new mechanism is being suggested: evolving APCOM from a
global symposium series to additionally a global mineral research facilitation network.
The global mineral industry and research organizations have fundamentally changed in the past 44 years. To
reflect this change, it is proposed that the APCOM organization exist beyond the symposium. The vision, is for
it to be a nexus, where, for example, developers and users of innovative technologies can seek each other out,
or where companies looking for a unique solution can issue a challenge to a global researcher network. Those
seeking funding can connect with institutions or companies that have technical challenges. Another key element
is to facilitate bonds between organizations and professional associations throughout the world as these groups
are also undergoing fundamental change and recognize the need to synergize with peers in other countries. Such
a comprehensive mining technology clearinghouse does not yet exist on an international scale.
The survival and prosperity of a robust mineral industry in this new century is dependent not just on research,
creativity, and innovation, but perhaps to a larger extent, on global cooperation and efficient communication of
new ideas. In the Information Age, a global industry with such a resource will be dynamic, highly effective, and
ready for any economic, cultural, or technical challenge.


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry –
Dessureault, Ganguli, Kecojevic & Dwyer (eds)
© 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 04 1537 449 9


On behalf of the 2005 APCOM organizing committee, I would like to thank all those involved in the creation
and assembly of these proceedings. First, the authors who have contributed their intellect and ideas. The topic
managers who managed the paper reviews, in alphabetical order; Professor Clayton Deutsch, Dr. Paul Dunn,
Mrs. Jami Girard Dwyer, Mr. Richmond Fenn, Dr. Rajive Ganguli, Dr. Robert Hall, Dr. Vladislav Kecojevic, Dr.
Mario Morin, Dr. Mario Rossi, Dr. Andrew Schissler, and Dr. Martin Smith. And those who solicited papers, Mr.
Michael Canty, Mr. Daniel Hack (who has also helped document the emerging vision for APCOM’s evolution),
Dr. Christoph Muller, and Dr. Antonio Nieto. The executive organizing committee, editorial board mentioned
previously, and assistants, namely Mrs. Elsie Nonaka, Mr. S. Dutta, and in particular Ms. Darlene Dessureault.
The commercial, industrial, and professional association sponsors are also instrumental in a successful meeting.
Those who have helped make the 32nd APCOM a success have my sincerest gratitude. The remarkable
continuing success of the APCOM symposia series has been due to the personal commitment of a number of
individuals who have participated in the organization and governance of APCOM. As APCOM approaches its
second half-century, new individuals will inevitably be joining and adding to the legacy, integrity, and energy of
APCOM and they will be welcomed. It has been an honor building on the efforts of those who came before and
helping APCOM reach the next half-century as healthy, energetic, and effective as the first.

Sean D. Dessureault
Department of Mining and Geological Engineering
University of Arizona


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry –
Dessureault, Ganguli, Kecojevic & Dwyer (eds)
© 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 04 1537 449 9

APCOM 2005 Organizing Committee

Dr. Sean D. Dessureault, Chair

Executive Organizing Committee

Rajive Ganguli
Dan Hack
Robert Hall
Vladislav Kecojevic
Richmond Fenn
Jami Girard Dwyer
Mrs. Bristol Voss
Christoph Muller
Antonio Nieto

Organizing Committee
Clayton Deutsch
Michael Canty
Andrew Schissler
Paul Dunn, Professor
Ron Askin
Mario Morin
Mario Rossi
Abdullah Arik
Mikhail Kanevski
Marc Betournay
Martin Smith
Michel Maignan
Joao Felipe Coimbra Leite Costa
Biswajit Samanta


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry –
Dessureault, Ganguli, Kecojevic & Dwyer (eds)
© 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 04 1537 449 9

APCOM International Council Past Chairs

Dr. Thomas J. O’Neil (1973–1977)

Dr. Alfred Weiss (1978–1980)
Dr. Thys Johnson (1981–1983)
Dr. Raja V. Ramani (1984–1986)
Dr. Young C. Kim (1987–1990)
Dr. Danie G. Krige (1991–1993)
Dr. F.L. Wilke (1994–1996)
Dr. C.T. Shaw (1997–1999)
Dr. Kadri Dagdalen (1999–2003)

APCOM International Council Permanent Members

(as of December, 2004)

University of Arizona
Sean D. Dessureault
Colorado School of Mines
Professor K. Dagdelen
Pennsylvania State University
Professor R.V. Ramani
Society of Mining Engineers
Professor Sukumar Bandopadhyay


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry –
Dessureault, Ganguli, Kecojevic & Dwyer (eds)
© 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 04 1537 449 9

APCOM International Council Rotating Members

Professor Don McKee, Chair

Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland

Dr. Robert Hall

Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, and Petroleum, University of British Columbia

Mr. F. Camisani
South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Anglo Val Mining,
South Africa

Professor Dr.-Ing. A. Preusse

Institut fur Markscheidewesen, Bergschadenskunde und Geophysik im Bergbau

Professor A. Šubelj
Institute of Mining, Geotechnology and Environment,

Professor E. Kuzmin
Moscow State Mining University

Professor Wang Yuehan

China University of Mining and Technology


Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK