Quality control manual from 1980

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Quality control manual from 1980

© All Rights Reserved

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curve is between 0 and 2 standard deviations. Therefore we can expect to find about

95.44% of the measures in our example to be between -3.04 and 4.36. This is shown

by the following graph. (INSERT NORMAL CURVE WITH 2 SIGMAS SHADED) Finally

we will calculate the values of Xdouble bar +/- 3SD(x') Xdouble bar +

3SD(x') = +0.66 + 3(1.85) = +6.21 Xdouble bar - 3SD(x') = +0.66 - 3(1.85)

= -4.89 Practically all, 99.73% of the measurements will lie between -4.89 and

+6.21 with approximately half of them on either side of the grand average, as shown

in the following graph. (INSERT NORMAL CURVE WITH 3 SIGMAS SHADED) We have

calculated limits within which we expect nearly all of the measurements to be

contained, as long as the process remains the same. Unless the process is affected

by an assignable cause, it can be expected to produce parts between -4.89 and

+6.21. This is the type of information we are looking for. Rather than assume that

our sample measurements reflect the extreme amount of variation which exists in the

process, we can calculate limits which accurately represent the variation. When

limits are calculated on either side of the average of a process which is

consistent, or in control, they are referred to as the natural limits of the

process. COMPARISON OF THE PROCESS WITH SPECIFICATIONS Many different

techniques have been devised to illustrate the manner in which specifications

compare with the process. There are several points of simularity in nearly all

since they are designed to answer the following questions: 1. Are parts being

produced which are above the upper specification? 2. Are parts being

produced which are below the lower specification? 3. How does the

process average compare with the middle of the specification? 4. How

does the process spread compare with the allowable tolerance? The

following illustrates one manner in which these answers may be obtained. The values

are of those of our example. Coded values have been used: however, decoded or

actual values may be more expedient. The results will be the same either way but

others who may not be acquainted with coding may be interested in the information.

SPECIFICATION PROCESS Upper Specification = +5 +6.21 =

UNL(x) , Upper Natural Limit Middle Specification = 0 +0.66 = Xdouble bar,

Process Aver. Lower Specification = -5 -4.89 = LNL(x) , Lower Natural Limit

Total Tolerance = 10 11.10 = UNL(x) - LNL(x) , Process Spread In

analyzing the above table, the values are compared horizontally. For instance, the

upper specification, +5, is compared with UNL(x) = +6.21. This indicates the

process is expected to produce parts which are above the upper specification and

are, therefore, defective. The second row shows the process mean to be slightly

above the desired value. The third row indicates that no defective parts are

expected to be below the lower specification. The fourth row indicates that the

process spread is greater than the allowable tolerance. This tells us that the

process exhibits too much variation and even if the average were adjusted to the

desired level, some parts would still be produced which would be outside

specification. The distribution curve shown below provides a pictoral method

for comparing the process with the specifications. (INSERT NORMAL CURVE SHOWING

TOLERANCE AND PROCESS SPREAD) In the preceding discussion we have discovered

that our process is producing defective material. It would be beneficial to know

just how much is defective. The technique for determining this is comparable to

that of finding the area under the curve. For our example, the area from the

process average, +0.66, to the upper specification limit of +5, is found in the

table where the value for z = (5.00 - 0.66) /1.85 = 2.35, is .4906 or 49.06%.

Therefore, the percent defective is approximately 1% (50.00 - 49.06 = 0.94) . A

responsible authority must now decide what is to be done. AVERAGES VS

INDIVIDUALS Even though all plottings on the control chart are within the

control limits, we should not assume that the process is meeting specifications.

Analysis of the control limits only tell us that the process is varying in a

consistent manner. Comparison the process with the specification requires the

prediction of the individuals. REMEMBER, control limits are based on averages while

specifications are based on individual values. CHARTS FOR AVERAGES AND

INDIVIDUALS The following chart has been constructed to include plottings of

both individuals and averages in the upper portion while the ranges are plotted on

the bottom portion. The averages are shown as circles and the individuals as

points. The data is that of our example. A look at the chart reveals that the

individuals vary more than the averages This should not be surprising because the

averages are based on the "middle" value of five individual values. Each average is

an estimate of the grand average for a constant cause system, so we should expect

them to be more tightly clustered about the grand average than the individual

values would be. The chart also reveals the relation which the Xbar and R

charts, together, have to the individuals chart. For any one sample, the Xbar and R

for that sample reveal the characteristics of all five individuals. For instance,

the first five individuals were +2, -1, 0, +2, +2. The Xbar was +1.0 and the R was

3. Notice how adequately the Xbar and R values reflect the individuals. The Xbar &

R Chart is less cluttered than the chart for individuals. The same information

exists on both, but the Xbar & R Chart provides easier detection of shifts and

trends. The Xbar & R Chart is a more sensitive chart. DISTRIBUTIONS OF AVERAGES

AND INDIVIDUALS If many samples of the same size were drawn form a constant

cause system, the averages calculated from the samples would be a closer

approximation to a normal curve than would the individual values. The distribution

of averages holds a distinct relationship to the distribution of individuals. This

relationship is dependent upon the sample size. Both distributions, averages

and individuals, have a common center. This center is the true mean of the universe

from which the parts are drawn. This is the grand average. The two

distributions differ in the amount of variation which they exhibit. The averages

vary less than the individuals. In more precise language, the standard deviation of

the averages, SD(Xbar) , is less than the standard deviation of the individuals,

SD(x) . The amount less is dependent upon the sample size. This relationship is

given in the following formula. SD(Xbar) =SD(x) / n where: SD(Xbar) = the

standard deviation, or more correctly the standard error, of

the averages. SD(x) = the standard deviation of the individuals.

n = the sample size. This relationship is depicted in the following diagram.

(INSERT NORMAL CURVE FOR AVERAGES WITH NORMAL CURVE FOR INDIVIDUALS

SUPERIMPOSED) As the sample size increases the distribution of averages becomes

narrower and narrower until it becomes co-incident with the grand average. As we

increase the sample size each sample average becomes a more valid estimate of the

grand average, and the averages would be expected to be more closely clustered. We

have more faith in a sample of fifty than a sample of five. The following

diagram is prepared from our example. (INSERT CURVE FOR AVERAGES AND

INDIVIDUALS OF EXAMPLE) The control limits for averages are located three

standard deviations of the averages, 3SD(Xbar) , on either side of the grand

average. Let's check some calculations. SD(x') = 1.85 (from previous

calculations) Therefore, SD(Xbar) = SD(x') / n = 1.85/ 5 = 1.85/2.236 = 0.827

3SD(Xbar) = (3) (0.827) = 2.481 A(2) Rbar = (0.577) (4.3) = 2.481

Both techniques provide the same answer. It is apparent that the use of the A(2)

Rbar calcualtion is the simpler; however, to aid in interpretation of the control

limits it is best to think of them as 3SD(Xbar) limits. The control limits for

averages are three standard deviations of the average from the grand average, or

center line. The natural limits for individuals are three standard deviations of

individuals from the grand average, or center line. IN CONTROL COMPARED TO

WITHIN SPECIFICATIONS When a control chart is placed on an operation, there are

two questions which are to be answered. Is the process operating in consistent

manner? Is the product meeting specifications? If the process is operating in a

consistent manner, the control chart should show a state of control. The plottings

on both the Xbar and R charts should be within their control limits and randomly

dispersed about the center lines. When this is true, we say there is no indication

of assignable causes and that the process is "in control". It must be emphasized

that this observation must be based on the Xbar & R Chart. If the process is

meeting specifications, the natural limits for the individuals must coincide with

the specifications or fall within them. If we are confident that the data is

actually distributed as the normal curve and the natural limits coincide with the

specifications, we can predict that any part will be within the specifications. Our

predictions will be correct 99.73% of the time. If the

natural limits fall within the specifications, our predictions will be correct

more than 99.73% of the time.

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