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OF

AN URBAN CAR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................... 4

ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................................. 5

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 6

Modelling .................................................................................................................................................. 8

Mesh........................................................................................................................................................ 12

Results ......................................................................................................................................................... 15

Model 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 16

Cd ............................................................................................................................................................ 16

Streamlines.............................................................................................................................................. 17

Model 2 ................................................................................................................................................... 18

Cd ............................................................................................................................................................ 18

Pressure Distribution............................................................................................................................... 18

Streamlines.............................................................................................................................................. 19

Model 3 ................................................................................................................................................... 20

2

Cd ............................................................................................................................................................ 20

Pressure Distribution............................................................................................................................... 20

Streamlines.............................................................................................................................................. 21

Model 4 ................................................................................................................................................... 22

Cd ............................................................................................................................................................ 22

Pressure Distribution............................................................................................................................... 23

Streamlines.............................................................................................................................................. 24

Observations ........................................................................................................................................... 25

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 29

3

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 0-1 2009 Ford Focus RS .................................................................................................................... 6

Figure 0-1 Sketch setup Solidworks ............................................................................................................. 8

Figure 0-2 Windscreen angle in solidworks of original model ..................................................................... 9

Figure 0-3 Windscreen angle +3 degree the original .................................................................................... 9

Figure 0-4 Windscreen angle +6 degree the original .................................................................................. 10

Figure 0-5 Windscreen angle -6 degree the original ................................................................................... 10

Figure 0-6 Isometric View of car model ..................................................................................................... 10

Figure 0-7 Frontal area of solidworks model .............................................................................................. 11

Figure 0-1 Schematic Description of Flow Pattern in the Forefront of a Car ............................................. 15

Figure 0-2 forward motion of the vehicle pushes the air ............................................................................ 16

Figure 0-3 Cd convergence graph for model 1 ........................................................................................... 16

Figure 0-4 Pressure distribution along the body of car ............................................................................... 17

Figure 0-5 Flow streamlines over car body ................................................................................................ 17

Figure 0-6 Cd convergence graph for model .............................................................................................. 18

Figure 0-7 Pressure distribution along the body of car ............................................................................... 19

Figure 0-8 Flow streamlines along the car body ......................................................................................... 19

Figure 0-9 Cd convergence for model 3 ..................................................................................................... 20

Figure 0-10 Pressure distribution along the body of car ............................................................................. 21

Figure 0-11 Flow streamlines along the body of car................................................................................... 22

Figure 0-12 Cd convergence graph for model 4 ......................................................................................... 22

Figure 0-13 Pressure distribution along the body of car ............................................................................. 23

Figure 0-14 Pressure distribution on the surface of car body ..................................................................... 24

Figure 0-15 Flow streamlines along the body of car................................................................................... 25

Figure 0-16 General Trend of Cd Over the Study....................................................................................... 26

Figure 0-17 Drag force, cd and area of section relationship (Browand, 2002) ........................................... 27

Figure 0-18 Drag force variation over the course of study ......................................................................... 28

4

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of aerodynamics of a car. This study involved

development of concepts of drag and lift with regard to a car at legal driving speed. Using solidwroks car

model with necessary features for this study was developed and using Ansys fluent workbench a fluid

regime was created for this car, lift and drag forces were recorded for current configuration of model with

focus on being windscreen angle different models of same car with change in windscreen angle were

developed and observed in same environment. Results generated were reported to quite satisfactory with

the deviation from original values were reasoned and reported.

5

INTRODUCTION

Fluid dynamics is a vast field and one of its major application has been automobile industry for last few

decades with major focus on calculating drag and lift forces on the body. Use of the generated data for

calculating the drag forces for body shape gives an idea of resistance a vehicle faces moving in air. It also

helps in designing the shape of car in such a way that an optimized amount of resistance is applied to car

body but an aesthetic sense of beauty of shape is also maintained. This task is performed by

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Since flow regimes especially turbulent flow is very hard to

model to a great extent, so use of technology and experimental techniques is forced by strange nature of

turbulent flow.

This report covers one such CFD study. A car model developed using Solidworks is loaded in ANSYS

workbench to observe the forces generated in a flow regime setup in Fluent. Car model used for this study

was Ford Focus RS 2009 with a reported Co-efficient of Drag Cd of 0.355, which is one of UK’s most

selling car for last few years.

6

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

This study was carried out for CFD analysis of a common car. The main objective was to develop an

understanding of aerodynamic loads on vehicles. The major aims for this report were as follow

To develop and study aerodynamic forces and their effect for developed models

To study effect of windscreen angle on fuel consumption

To compare results of all models

Objectives

To produce satisfactory results(as close to actual as possible)

To develop understanding of drag and its effects

STUDY SETUP

This section of report will cover the various steps involving the study setup and process.

CAR SELECTION

Selecting a car depends on following factors,

Data availability for car model

Availability of data required for development of car model

Based on these factors Ford Focus RS series of cars was a perfect match as it has been UK’s second most

selling car for last five years and blueprints of the car required to develop the model were available easily.

Furthermore, recorded values of drag, lift, car height, width and length was available as well.

7

MODELLING

Solidworks is one of the emerging CAD software’s with a very interactive and self-explanatory interface

giving user full control and power for modelling tasks. We used side image of our model inside sketch

tools to give us a fine background for tracing the curve as it is using spline tool. Since this outline shape

of car body was enough to set up the study so contours produced in other directions were ignored which

would not affect the results to a significant degree. Using one to one correspondence to blueprint image

the model was developed as reflected by the image and was extruded to the length given in blueprint.

A fine fillet was introduced on edges to smoothen them as they are in actual model. To get the model size

same as the actual we used the scale tool available in solidworks and got the required car model.

Furthermore, to produce variation in windscreen angle, it was modelled as straight line from this view

reflection of car model. Simple cylinders were introduced in place of actual wheels. Simple relation of

tangent propagation between windscreen and body spline was applied to maintain the shape of car as the

angle of windscreen was changed from original to keep the shape as close to original as possible.

8

Figure 0-2 Windscreen angle in solidworks of original model

9

Figure 0-4 Windscreen angle +6 degree the original

10

FRONTAL AREA

Frontal area of any car is of great importance. The drag coefficient is a number that aerodynamicists use

to model all of the complex dependencies of shape, inclination, and flow conditions on car body drag.

This equation is simply a rearrangement of the drag equation where we solve for the drag coefficient in

terms of the other variables. The drag coefficient Cd is equal to the drag D divided by the quantity:

density r times half the velocity V squared times the reference area A.

Cd = D / (A x 0.5 x r x V2)

Frontal area of actual model of Ford Focus RS 2009 is 2.35m2 (Topspeed.com, 2019) whereas the car

model developed in solidworks using blueprints had a frontal area of about 2.19m2, which is quite close to

actual.

11

WORKBENCH SETUP

ANSYS workbench was used to analyze the car model. Fluid Flow (fluent) was used and geometry was

loaded from solidworks file for all four study setups.

MESH

ANSYS FLUENT can use meshes comprised of triangular or quadrilateral cells (or a combination of the

two) in 2D, and tetrahedral, hexahedral, polyhedral, pyramid, or wedge cells (or a combination of these)

in 3D. The choice of which mesh type to use will depend on your application. When choosing mesh type,

consider the following issues:

setup time

computational expense

SETUP TIME

Many flow problems in engineering involve complex geometries, so we have to use a combination of

hexa and polyhedral cell type while modelling these geometries. Since the car model was simplified by

removing the contours not required, so curvature size function was used for meshing which is very

adaptive as it determines the size of cell depending on curvature a face or geometry has which removes

the need of applying mesh controls on edges and surfaces and the mesh solver itself applies the required

transition of cell size.

COMPUTATIONAL EXPENSE

When geometries are complex or the range of length scales of the flow is large, a triangular/tetrahedral

mesh can be created with far fewer cells than the equivalent mesh consisting of quadrilateral/hexahedral

elements. This is because a triangular/tetrahedral mesh allows clustering of cells in selected regions of the

flow domain. Structured quadrilateral/hexahedral meshes will generally force cells to be placed in regions

where they are not needed. Unstructured quadrilateral/hexahedral meshes offer many of the advantages of

triangular/tetrahedral meshes for moderately-complex geometries. A characteristic of

quadrilateral/hexahedral elements that might make them more economical in some situations is that they

permit a much larger aspect ratio than triangular/tetrahedral cells. A large aspect ratio in a

triangular/tetrahedral cell will invariably affect the skewness of the cell, which is undesirable as it may

impede accuracy and convergence. Therefore, for a relatively simple geometry in which the flow

conforms well to the shape of the geometry, such as a long thin duct, use a mesh of high-aspect-ratio

12

quadrilateral/hexahedral cells. The mesh is likely to have far fewer cells than if you use

triangular/tetrahedral cells (ANSYS, 2019).

So, keep a relatively uniform mesh throughout the body and make the transition smooth in geometric

discontinuities and keep a lower number of cell we use curvature function from solver to define the mesh.

FLOW REGIME

To get an idea of flow regime Reynold was calculated using the legal driving speed in UK which is

70mph (31.29m/s) with width of car (1.5m for Ford Focus RS 2009 (Topspeed.com, 2019)) used as L in

the given formula and kinematic viscosity of air was used to be 0.15x10-4 m2/s.

𝑈𝐿

𝑅𝑒 =

𝑉

Where,

𝑅𝑒 = 3.12 × 106

The calculated value of Re clearly shows that the flow regime is turbulent, which means flow has to be

modelled as turbulent in solver.

MODEL EQUATIONS

A century has passed since Reynolds’ pivoting work and yet fluid turbulence is still one of the greatest

stumbling block for scientific and technological developments. From stars to rivulets, turbulence is almost

impossible to predict. However even if turbulence is not understood in the sense of macroscopic modeling

it seems that computers simulations of fluids will allow engineers to evaluate their design. Whereas the

K-epsilon method has been used for a long time to model turbulence regimes given our assumptions that

The incompressible Reynolds averaged Naiver-Stokes equations for the mean flow U and mean pressure

P are

13

where R ij= -<uiuj> is the Reynolds tensor.

The kinetic energy of the turbulence k and the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy are defined

by

1 ν

𝑘= 2

< |u′|2 >, 𝜖 = 2 < |∇u′ + ∇u′T |2 >

With these set of equations the solver produced results with given U=31.29m/s and P as atmospheric

pressure.

14

RESULTS

As observed from the above studies as windscreen inclination is lowered the Cd value decreases which is

because lowering the windscreen reduces the frontal area of the car which in turn results in decrease in

drag. Furthermore a lowered windscreen reduces the separation region in front region of car body which

reduces the formation of voids and side flow of car which reduces drag on car body. It can seen in both

The figures that separation occurs on frontal area of car which produces turbulence and increases drag, by

reducing windscreen angle these separation regions can be removed.

15

Figure 0-2 forward motion of the vehicle pushes the air

MODEL 1

Model 1 is the original car model with windscreen angle of 64.4o clockwise from vertical.

CD

Ford Focus RS has a crag co-efficient value of 0.38 which shows it has a decent enough aerodynamically.

Model 1 which was a close depiction of original car has produced a Cd value of 0.386 as optimal results.

Which is quite close to the original value of 0.38.

16

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS

As shown in the below figure it is obvious that formation of a small red spot (high pressure region) at the

start of windscreen means there occurs separation and there is also separation at the end of the car giving

as an actual idea of the real phenomena and by reducing screen angle these separations can be removed.

STREAMLINES

In the figure given below it is observed that streamlines follow almost the same path as shown in the

idealization of flow about the car in earlier sections of this report. Blue colored streamlines in the

17

Vicinity of body surface indicates the no slip wall condition. This streamlines in the figure depicts a swirl

in the wage region at the back of car as expected.

MODEL 2

Model 2 had a 3 degree windscreen angle reduction from the original.

CD

With the lowering of windscreen cd value was expected to be lowered which actually was the case as

shown in figure.

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

There is a clear reduction in size of red spot at the start of windscreen indicating confidence of results as it

was expected to happen since the streamlines are following the bonnet part of front of model to a greater

extent because the change in geometry from flat plate to inclined windscreen is less sudden resulting in a

smaller separation region. Furthermore the separation at end of car is also reduced.

18

Figure 0-7 Pressure distribution along the body of car

STREAMLINES

The flow streamlines as shown in the figure has followed the body shape at the front for a longer area as

the change in geometry is not as much as it was in the original case. Wage region observed in this

19

Case is smaller than previous one. Blue colored streamlines (zero velocity along the wall) are seen to be

dominating regions near the surface of body till the very end of roof of car which is why smaller wage

region and hence lower value of drag co-efficient.

MODEL 3

Model 3 was produced with 6 degree lowering of original windscreen angle.

CD

Co-efficient of drag was expected to be further lowered in this case because of very small to none

separation at the front of car. Further the wage region at the back was expected to be smaller as well,

which is obvious from the figure below.

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

As expected in this case as windscreen angle was so that it almost followed the bonnet which produced no

separation in the front region of car body producing very low side flow disturbances. Further the wage

region at the back is reduced as sensed by the pressure distribution.

20

Figure 0-10 Pressure distribution along the body of car

STREAMLINES

Flow streamlines as shown in the figure are almost following the shape of body. Blue colored streamlines

domination fades as going away from surface of car indicating development of ideal boundary layer to

some extent. Moreover, flow streamlines followed the body of car, most part of roof and to some extent

the back of car which indicated the body of car in becoming closer to ideal flow shape at the upper part of

body. Wage region at the back of car is further reduced as obvious from flow streamlines.

21

Figure 0-11 Flow streamlines along the body of car

MODEL 4

Model 4 was produced to see the results of doing the opposite i.e. increasing the inclination of windscreen

by 6 degrees to the original.

CD

As expected the cd value of model was drastically increased from previous cases. The observed value was

0.48 which is quite large may be because the geometric propagation was not properly maintained after the

windscreen in the model and also the fact the there would be large region of separation.

22

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

As expected and shown in the figure below there exist a large red spot as the start of windscreen

producing a large region of separation and disturbances in side flows. Furthermore, there exist a small

degree of separation again at the end of the wind screen which affects the flow badly from roof towards

the end of car increasing the high pressure regions over surface of car and producing a large wage region

at the back of car resulting in increase in drag co-efficient. The red spot is reflected in the second figure

by the red colored region at the windscreen beginning.

23

Figure 0-14 Pressure distribution on the surface of car body

STREAMLINES

As shown in the figure that blue colored streamlines (zero velocity) suddenly disappeared over the body

of car and separation regions both at the front and back of car magnified due to blunt change in geometry

at the front of car. The high pressure wage region produced at the back of car is observed having

backward flows which contributes largely towards such a high value of drag co-efficient.

24

Figure 0-15 Flow streamlines along the body of car

OBSERVATIONS

The general trend of cd value over the course of this study is of decreasing but there is no relationship to a

certain degree of decrement in cd value with reduction in windscreen inclination. The figure shows how

the value of cd varies over four car models.

25

0.500

0.480

0.460

0.440

Cd 0.420

0.400

0.380

0.360

0.340

0.320

0.300

56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72

Wind screen angle

Most of the power supplied by engine goes to overcoming the resistive factors against the car such as

friction. The contribution of drag toward this is low at low speeds but power required to overcome the

aerodynamic drag is the greatest contributor over high speeds. So at high speed most of the power is

dissipated towards drag, which in results effects the fuel consumption.

As observed in this study that most part of drag is contributed by pressure differences along the body of

car for flow of air.

26

Figure 0-17 Drag force, cd and area of section relationship (Browand, 2002)

Having the value of cd from studies, drag force was calculated for each model using the formula

described in frontal area section of this report.

SCREEN(degree) AREA(m2) FORCE(N)

58.4 0.480 2.24 2579.09

64.4 0.386 2.19 2027.72

67.4 0.356 2.16 1844.51

70.4 0.342 2.15 1763.77

27

DRAG FORCE

2700.00

2500.00

Drag Force (N)

2300.00

2100.00

1900.00

1700.00

1500.00

56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72

Windscreen angle (degree)

P = FtV/ηt

Where,

P = Power required

V = Speed of car

Assuming speed, thermal efficiency of car constant and total resistance equal to drag resistance

28

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANSYS. (2019, January 20). AFS. Retrieved from ANSYS:

http://www.afs.enea.it/project/neptunius/docs/fluent/html/ug/node164.htm

Topspeed.com. (2019, January 20). FORD FOCUS RS 2009. Retrieved from Topspeed.com:

https://www.topspeed.com/cars/ford/2009-ford-focus-rs-ar67969.html

29

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