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A guide for the paint maker

Book · July 2016

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Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

University of Nigeria


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Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

First Published January 2000

Computer Edge Publishers
Welfare & Industrial Promotions (WIPRO) International
Block D Unit 1, The Eastern Nigeria Industrial Estate, 30 Zik Avenue, Uwani,
P.O. Box 9060, Enugu, Tel: 042-251691

ISBN 978-35223-1-0

Second Edition July 2016

Welfare & Industrial Promotions (WIPRO) International
6 Corridor Layout, Independence Layout, P.O. Box 9060, Enugu, Tel: +234-

Copywright © 2016
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

Conditions for Sale

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission
of the publisher.

To Most Gracious God Almighty, who creates and gives the
To my beloved wife. Amuche, and children: Chimezie, Chinelo,
Chinemelum and Chinedum.


A man would do nothing, if he waited until he could do it so

well that no one could find fault with what he has done
- Cardinal Newman.

Self-help project is the only sustainable solution to the problems of

a developing economy. Good a thing, the successive Nigerian
national budgets, rolling plans and United Nations assisted
programmes often focus on enterprise development as a major
propelling force towards addressing the problem of a poor
In developing countries, published materials are not
available to the students and entrepreneurs. Africans are
particularly poor in handing down their discoveries to others in the
present or successive generations who aspire in the same field.
This book is a modest presentation of simplified facts on paint
making for entrepreneurial success at a low cost.
The supports from my family and colleagues are gratefully

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh (Ph.D., fcsn, ficcon)

July, 2016


The students and industrialists alike in developing countries lack

books on paints making. The few available materials are so
specialized or professional in presentation that they are of little
help. Yet, paints are a class of products that serves important
aesthetic, protective and functional values.
This booklet is the much-needed simplified, do-it-yourself
paint making. After the Introduction, it presents Colour, Paints
Technology, Paint Terminology, Paints Composition/Formulation,
Paint Factory Practice, Paint Qualities and Quality Control, and
Organization of a Paint Factory.
The lecturers and students of Fine/Applied Arts, Textiles,
Coating and Paint Chemistry, etc. will find it useful. The
entrepreneur aspiring in paint making will find adequate help in it.
I conratulate Dr. O.C. Eneh on this great work that has revealed
professional practice (hitherto regarded as sacred trade secrets) to
students and indusrialists to enable enterprise development and
self-elp projects in the dwindling economy of Nigeria. He has also
done noble to revise the first edition after 15 years.
I recommend the book to every student, entrepreneur,
family and institutional libraries.

Prof. P.A. Akah (Ph.D., fnas)

Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology
University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
July 2016


Publishers page. ... ... ... ... ... ... i

Dedication ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ii
Preface and Acknowledgements ... ... ... ... iii
Foreword ... ... ... ... ... ... ... iv
Chapter 1: Introduction ... ... ... ... ... 1
Chapter 2: Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... 3
Chapter 3: Outline of Paint Technology ... ... ... 8
Chapter 4: Terms in Paint Technology ... ... ... 13
Chapter 5: Paint Types, Composition and Formulation ... 22
Chapter 6: Paint Factory Practice ... ... ... ... 45
Chapter 7: Paint Qualities and Quality Control ... ... 51
Chapter 8: Organization of a Paint Factory ... ... 61
Index ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 70

Tables, Figures, Plates and Boxes

Table 1: Selected paints and their pvc ... ... ... 11
Table 2: Typical formulations of paints ... ... ... 28
Table 3: A typical formulation of exterior latex paint ... 30
Table 4: Formuls for primer ... ... ... ... ... 37
Fig. 1: Dispersion of white light ... ... ... ... 3
Fig. 2: Absorption, reflection and transmission of components
of white light by/through an object ... ... ... 4
Fig. 3: Colour wheel ... ... ... ... ... ... 5
Fig 4: Flow chart for paint manufacture using mills ... 47
Fig 5: An outlay of paint factory ... ... ... ... 63
Plate I: Diamond Chart ... ... ... ... ... 68
Plate II: Brushdown sheet ... ... ... ... ... 69
Box 1: Pigments and extenders and their functions ... ... 24
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker


Paint is a very ancient industry. Noah was asked to use pitch
within and without the Ark (Genesis 6:14). The prehistoric
inhabitants of the earth recorded their activities in colours on the
walls of their caves. The crude paints were probably clays
suspended in water. The Egyptians developed a variety of colours
by 1500 B.C., and by 1000 B.C., they discovered varnish, using
natural resins and beeswax for the film-forming ingredient (resin).
Scientific and engineering research, however, revolutionized paint
industry in recent years.


Paints preserve architectural structures from weather attacks.
Uncoated wood and metal deteriorate, especially in presence of
soot, C, and sulphur dioxide, SO2. Thus, SO2 in the atmosphere
reacts with water vapour (both gases, g), to form aqueous (aq) SO2,
which reacts further with water to form sulphurous acid, H2SO3,
from which SO2 reacts with metals, e.g. copper, Cu2+, as illustrated
in chemical expressions below:

(SO2) (g) + H2O (SO2) (aq)

(SO2) (aq) + H2O H2SO3
SO32- + Cu2+ SO3 - + Cu+

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Paints also increase the attractiveness of manufactured products, as
well as the aesthetic appeal of dwellings. Thus, paints serve utility
and art purpose.

In the United States of America, paints annual sales clocked N4

billion (NI.5 trillion) in 1977. There were 1,500 paint companies
with over 60,000 employees. In 1971, industrial paints for the first
time sold more than architectural paints, indicating a shift in trend.
This highlights the importance of paint ventures in a developing
economy, such as Nigeria.

Surface coating is a wider term which includes paint (relatively

opaque solid coatings applied as thin layers, whose films are
usually formed by polymerization of poly-unsaturated oil),
varnishes (clear coatings), enamels (pigmented varnishes), lacquers
(films formed by evaporation only), printing inks, polishes, etc.
However, the entry of plastic resins into surface coating industry
has made the classification relatively meaningless.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

Coloured substances have since ages fascinated man. Even the
earliest peoples had crude means of adding colours to cloth,
ornamental, skin and building.

The light is made up of seven major components distinguishable to

the human eye. These are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo
and violet (ROYGBIV). A mnemonic for the seven components of
light is Richard of York gave battle in Vienna.

As long as all these components are present, the light appears in its
usual white colour (also regarded as colourless). If, on the other
hand, any of the components is absent, the mixture of the
remaining components will form another colour, other than white,
and the substance becomes coloured.

The seven components of white light can be viewed through a

triangular glass prism.
White light
glass prism

Fig. 1: Dispersion of white light I

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
When the white light falls on a substance, the object may absord,
reflect or transmit the light components.

white A T

A Absorbed light components(s)
R reflected light component(s)
T transmitted light component(s)
Fig. 2: Absorption, reflection and transmission of components of
white light by/through an object

The colour of the object is the appearance of the mixture of the

light components it reflects. If the object absorbs none of the light
components, i.e. it reflects all seven components, it appears white.
Conversely, if the object absorbs all the light components, i.e. it
reflects and transmits none of the components, it appears black.
But, if it transmits all the components, i.e. it reflects and absorbs
none of them, it will be colourless (white).

The colour which is reflected (or transmitted) is that which is not

absorbed, and is usually described as complimentary to that which
is absorbed. The figure below illustrates a colour wheel, with
complementary colours arranged diagonally opposite each other.
For examples, yellow-red (orange) is the complementary colour of
blue; red-violet (purple), of green; and yellow, of blue-violet. A
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh
Ene A guide for thee paint maker
red rose absorbs blue
blue-green light; a yellowish-green
green pea absorbs

Fig. 3: Colour wheel,

wheel illustrating ten colours of the visible

Colours diagonally opposed are complementary to each other. Red,

yellow, and blue are known is the primary colours because they
can be mixed to get other colours.

Actually, the human eye is capable of distinguishing some ten
million colours. Of this vast number, many are probably not no
reproducible by the commercial building paints, and the noticeable
differences in other individual cases may be so slight as to have
ittle practical importance.

It is possible to develop a colour system consisting of five

components: white, blue, yellow, red, and black – which by
intermixing will give a reas
reasonably large number of other colours.
colours It
is necessary that the three coloured components
c be as brilliant as
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
possible in order to achieve the brighter shades, and for this reason
this method is not economical, particularly in cases where the
desire final colours are dull shades like browns. Another important
drawback is that areas of the colour solid are not well represented
with this limited number of primaries. For example, mixtures of
blue and red give grayish red-blue shades rather than true violets
and purples. Another problem where matching or harmonization
with the environment is concerned is metamerism, but this is a
problem common to any colour-matching system. A pair of colours
may match each other under one source of illumination, but fail to
do so under another; e.g. light from artificial sources and that from
the sky in daylight. This phenomenon is known as metamerism and
is generally caused by a difference in chemical components
between the two pigment mixtures.

Paint companies offer a line of 10-20 factory-made shades,

including white, in a given type of coating such as interior wall
paint. If none of these is satisfactory to the purchaser,
modifications may be made in several ways. The large paint
companies may publish elaborate colour guides illustrating several
hundreds of colours that may be made either by such formulae as
one gallon of paint plus a specified size tube of tinting concentrate;
or simple ratios of paints themselves such as one quart and one
gallon, one pint and one pint, etc. These guides may be arranged in
such a way that a complementary or harmonious colour can be
placed in juxtaposition for viewing, or in families of shades
graduated from just off-white to a highly saturated colour. In other
words, the latter arrangement is one of constant hue and graduated

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Cannell, D. (1967). Paint. In Kirk-Othmer. Encylopedia of
Chemical Technology. Vol. 14. 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons
Inc., New York.
Cyprian Eneh (1986). Colour and Dye, Sunday Satellite p. 10.
DePUY and Rinehart (1967). Introduction to Organic Chemistry.
John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.
Estok, D.K. (1959). Organic Chemistry, A Short Text. Saunders
Judd, D.B. and Wyszecki, G. (1963). Colour in Business, Science
and Industry. 2ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

Paint is a mixture composed basically of solid colouring matter
(the pigment) and liquid (the vehicle). It is applied as a coating to
various types of surfaces, including dwellings, public buildings,
factories, bridges, ships, and storage tanks. The purpose of coating
may be decorative, as in beautifying of objects and provision of
aesthetics; protective, as in preservation against weather, moisture,
solar radiation, chemicals, and mechanical damage; or functional,
as in communication of an impression. By obliterating the surface
over which it is applied paint serves the purpose of its use. It may
be a water-based paint (emulsion) or an oil-based paint (gloss).

The vehicle consists of the nonvolatile and volatile liquids. The

nonvolatile portion is mostly a resinous or resin-forming
compound called the binder. The types of resin are oils, alkyds,
cellulosics, acrylics, vinyls, phenolics, expoxies, polyurethanes,
silicones, amino resins (ureas and melamines), latex form, styrene-
butadiene, polyvinyl, and acetates. The volatile portion is used to
lower the viscosity of the paint composition to achieve ease of
application and good leveling. At times thinner is added to thin
down the viscosity. This portion consists of hydrocarbon solvents,
water, ketones or esters.

The pigments are insoluble powders of very fine particle size.

They impart colour and opacity to the paint. Colourants may also
be added. Paint also contains extenders which are certain materials
that add little to the opacity of, and impart other desirable
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
properties to, the paint. Depending on the desired colour of the
paint, the pigments, colourants and extender-pigments may be
titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate, clay,
inorganic colours, barium sulphate, mica, zinc oxide, real lead
metallics (principally aluminium), carbon blacks, organic colours,
and white lead.


The manufacture of paint involves mixing, dispersion, thinning,
adjustment and filling. Each of these steps may be accomplished
separately or two/more of them can be accomplished together in
one piece of equipment.

All the pigment is mixed in a tub with the help of rotating blades.
The particles are wetted with vehicle, and the flocculated
aggregates are eliminated. Many dispersers in use today include
steel roller, ball, pebble, sand, high-speed impeller, Moorehouse,
Werner-Pfleiderer, and Cowles dispersers. Actually, there is little
or no breakdown of pigment particles (as the word grinding,
commonly in use in the industry, suggests).

Many modern pigments are extremely fine. Some of the extenders,

which may be coarse, normally have their particle size reduced
before they are introduced into paint. Fractional percentages of
dispersing agents may be added, especially for emulsion paints.

In practice, complete breakdown of particles and aggregates is hard

to achieve and often not essential. The extent of breakdown or
degree of dispersion required varies with the type of paint, and
there is an acceptable degree of dispersion for each type. The
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
degree of dispersion necessary for gloss enamel is much higher
than that required for undercoat or primer. After dispersion, the
balances of the liquids are added.

The formulator dictates the proportions of dry and liquid material

for dispersion. Consideration is given to many factors, among
which are the rheology of the system, the viscosity of the mix, the
reactivity of either pigment or vehicle under dispersing conditions,
the exothermic nature of such reactions, and other factors. The
amount of liquid used depends on the type of equipment, some
(e.g. roller mills) requiring a sticky, heavy paste, while others (e.g.
ball and pepple mills) require a thin mix.

The pigment-volume concentration,

Pigment Volume
Pigment Volume + Binder Volume

Below a certain pigment concentration each particle in the film of

the paint is assumed to be completely surrounded by binder. But
above this concentration point there is no longer sufficient binder
to encase all the particles. Thus, the film contains voids and
becomes porous. This pigment concentration point is called the
critical pigment-volume concentration (CPVC), above which many
paint properties, such as permeability, tensile strength, flexibility,
and gloss, are adversely affected. Too low a PVC tends to produce
such defects as blistering, cracking, and checking, whereas a high
concentration than the CPVC results in paints likely to exhibit

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
premature erosion, excessive moisture transmission, and rusting (in
the case of metal surface).

The CPVC varies according to the nature of both pigments and

vehicles in specific combinations. The following paints have the
given PVC:

Table 1: Selected paints and their pvc

Flat plaints 50-75% Exterior house paints 28-36%
Semigloss paints 35-45% Metal primers 25-40%
Gloss paints 25-35% Wood primers 35-40%

The plants found in an average paint industry may include mixers,
fork-lift, sieving machine and canning machine. A mixer is
principally made up of a blade, a vessel (containing the materials
to be mixed) and the machine which turns the blade. It may make
use of electricity and has a device for regulating the speed. Fork-
lift is a machine for lifting and transferring goods, such as gloss,
finished products, etc. from one position to another. A sieving
machine is made up of wire-mesh for sieving paints. The paint may
flow to the mesh through a tube running from the vessel. The
canning machine comprises of a vessel into which the paint to be
canned flows. The vessel has out-lets from where, when opened
with the fast device, the paint flows into the cans. There is also a
device which compresses the covered cans to ensure that the can is
strongly covered.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Paints are packaged in metallic or plastic containers of different
sizes: l00mI, 250m1, 500ml, I litre, 4 litres, 20 litres, etc. A
number of the containers are, in turn, packed in a carton, for ease
of displacement and handling.

It is important that the cover of the packaged product be air-tight.

Anti-skinning agents are necessary for paints packaged in metallic

Labels may be printed directly on the container and the carton, or

may be printed on papers of appropriate sizes which are pasted as

The safety requirement in paint industries recognizes that paint
sticks to wears and skin and that some of the raw materials for
paint making are not good to inhale. Workers, therefore, often
wear mask to cover their body including the nostrils. They also
wear boots. And, here in Nigeria, the industry needs fire-
extinguisher system as well as a stand-by generator.

Cannell, D. (1967). Paint. In Kirk-Othmer. Enclyclopedia of
Chemical Technology, Vol. 14. 2ed. John Wiley & Sons inc.,
New York.
Eneh, O.C. (1981). SIWES Report for B.Sc. lndustrial Chemistry,
submitted to the Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

Paints are colouring substances. Colour charts are often available
in the industry.


This refers to the ability of the paint to obliterate the surface which
it coats.

This a measure of bubbles contained in a given volume of paint.

This is a measure of flow of the paint.


The substance used to aid dispersion of pigments as well as
promote and stabilize the emulsion in emulsion paints.

This is a coating used when the surface to be painted is highly
porous or can exude a material which will damage subsequent
coats of paint. Examples of porous surfaces are asbestos and other
building boards. The sealers are chosen to satisfy the suction of the
surface and seal off any alkali, such as lime. For the surfaces
mentioned, sealers based on vinyl emulsion are frequently used.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Timber often contains knots which can exude a resinous substance
that will soften and often discolour paint films. To avoid this, the
knots are treated with a sealer called knotting which is a solution of
shellac in methylated spirit.

This is the paint intended as the first coat on a substrate. It is often
designed to perform as both primer and sealer. It functions to (i)
give adequate protection to the substrate and will adhere to
substrate or sealer, (ii) provide a surface to which the undercoat
will adhere well.

Primers are formulated according to the type of substrate to be

coated, and a knowledge of the nature and behaviour of the various
types of surface is indispensable to the paint formulator. In using
primers, the secondary coating should be the type that would not
chemically react with the primary coating thus removing it from
the substrate.


This is the coating following the primer, and its main purpose is
the obliteration and the colouring of the under surface to which it is
applied. Compositions known as fillers and stoppers may be
regarded as parts of the undercoat. They are heavily pigmented
materials serving as means of filling and stopping up pit and dents
and similar irregularities of the contour of the surface, so that the
surface finally prepared for the receipt of the finishing coat
becomes uniform in texture and colour and free from

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
This is the paint that serves as the final coating on the surface,
giving it the colour it bears. It is, however, different from wood-
finish, the application of which is rather preceded by sanding,
sealer and filler which seal the pore on the wood.

This is resin either (a) dissolved in or reacted with, drying oil and
usually further diluted with volatile solvent, or (b) dissolved in
solvent. It is specifically no paint, but serves a protective purpose
of paints. It is applied to the underneath of boats.

This is a quick-drying catalyzed oil paint widely used in marine


This is the material mainly used in marine works, especially in
ships, where the pressure from the water as well as the contents of
the sea water, like salt, and other weather conditions are tense. This
normally results in corrosion which ordinary paints cannot prevent
completely. It is highly pigmented and thick, thus avoids being lost
in the application process (best achieved manually), lasts long and,
most importantly, proves excellently adhesive to the substrate.


This is a water-based paint. The pigment is dispersed in the
aqueous phase both polymer and pigment form distinct dispersed
phases and should coalesce only in the film when the water
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

The term latex denotes a suspension of polymer particles in water.
Emulsion paints consist basically of a combination of pigment and
latex, hence it is called latex paint. Water paints other than latex
include whitewash, casein paint, paint and linseed emulsion paint.

This may be made by mixing unslaked lime with water and
allowing it to stand for a few days before use, or starting with
calcium hydroxide in the first place. The applied coating converts
to calcium carbonate. Certain additives, like glue, have been used
for their cheapness.

This is usually supplied as a powder to be mixed by the user.
Casein is about 10-12% of the composition, together with some
lime to convert it to insoluble calcium caseinate after application.
The balance is pigments plus preservatives.

This is used to a limited extent on masonry. It is supplied as a
powder containing Portland cement and white or alkali-resistant
coloured pigments. It is mixed with water for application.


This may be prepared from linseed oil emulsified by a combination
of lipophilic and hydrophilic emulsifiers. The emulsified linseed
oil is made into paint by formulae similar to those used for latex
paints, except that addition of metallic driers is necessary.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker


This is the oil-based paint. It is shiny in appearance.

The word enamel strictly means a glass-like substance fused on to
metal surfaces. By enamel in the paint industry, however, is
generally understood a high gloss.

Besides the glossy wall paints which may be called enamels (there
is no sharp division), practically all trade sales lines include a large
selection of bright strong colours and black for use on
comparatively small areas such as lawn furniture, cabinet doors,
and similar surfaces. These have a low pigment volume, and are
pigmented with such colourant as toluidene red, phthalocyanine
blue, hansa yellow, and gas black, titanium dioxide and lampblack
for grays. The nonvolatile vehicle is usually alkyd resin, but there
are many other varieties that may be, and are, used. Specifications
on these products call for a high pigment dispersion to produce the
maximum in smoothness and leveling out.


Exterior paints are used to coat exterior surfaces, while interior
paints are used to coat interior surfaces. Both organic solvent and
emulsion types are made classes of paint.

Considering solvent types only, there are a number of reasons why

it is not practicable to use the same material for both exteriors and
interiors. For example, linseed oil-based paints yellow severely
when not exposed to light and outside weather. The slow drying of
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
exterior paints could not be tolerated on inside walls. High-cost,
low-opacity pigments, such as lead, are both unnecessary and
undesirable. More is expected in the way of appearance in the case
or inside paints, especially the high-gloss materials.


Cracking is the break on the paint film that extends from the
surface to the underlying material. It reflects a loss or lack of


These refer to the hardness to scratch or otherwise of the dry
coating. Chalking is a progressive powdering of the film from the
surface inward, caused by continued and destructive oxidation of
oil after the original drying of the paint. Very rapid chalking is
termed erosion.

This is a measure of the presence of the unwanted particles or
flocculated aggregates of particles in the paint.

This refers to the slight fine breaks in the surface of a film visible
to the eye or a 10-power microscope.

This is a defect involving the separation of individual pigment
particles, thus giving a non-uniform colour.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
This is the property of a liquid or gel to lose viscosity under stress
and regain the gel state when the stress is removed.

This is the ability of an applied film to level out evenly and
produce a smooth coat.

Brush marks are left behind immediately after the brushing of
paint. These furrows or striations soon disappear due to the
leveling of the wet film prior to drying. Acceptable leveling
becomes important, since brush marks are considered as signs of
weakness (incipient corrosion or cracking).

If the paint is applied to a vertical surface a downward flow (due to
influence of gravitation) takes place. This is variously referred to
as running, curtaining, or sagging. A certain tolerable degree of
this flow is necessary for satisfactory leveling, but excessive
sagging is inexcusable.

This is usually the effect of the sun which heats and softens the
paint coating and develops vapour pressure under the dried top
layer from the volatile matter trapped by too rapid drying and
skinning over the top surface of the film. The heat-expanded
vapour causes the soft film to blister. The volatile matter in the
film may arise from the resinous constituents of the wood carrying
the coating, from solvent residues or from moisture.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

This is the appearance in a paint of semi-solid, jelly-like masses
resembling raw liver. It is caused by chemical reactions, which
may occur between certain pigments and vehicles.

We can look at the drying of paints in a number of ways. The first
is illustrated by the use of a pigment dissolved in a volatile liquid
(e.g. Alcohol). When applied to a surface, the liquid soon
evaporates and leaves the pigment matter spread over the surface
in a thin, even, hard layer, which serves the desired purpose.

The second is illustrated by the dissolution of the pigment in oil.

The oil does not evaporate, but absorbs oxygen, and due to
oxidation and polymerization, the liquid oil is changed into a solid,
sufficiently hard and tough to protect the surface underneath.

The third is the reaction between separate components of the

vehicle. In this case, product may be supplied in two separate
containers which are mixed just before use, to prevent
solidification of the material in the package.

A combination of these can also apply.

Paints, after sometime, develop some thickening. This is known as

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
This is the tendency to solidify or lose fluidity by stored paint.

This refers to the specular reflectance or the light reflected at the
same angle as the angle of incidence.

Cannell, D. (1967). Paint. In Kirk-Othmer. Enclyclopedia of
Chemical Technology, Vol. 14. 2 ed. John Wiley of Sons Inc.
New York.
Martens, C.R. (1964). Emulsion and Water-Soluble Paints and
Coatings. Reinhold Pu Corp.
Patten, C.T. (1964). Paint Flow and Pigment Dispersion. John
Wiley & Sons Inc. New York.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

Aside from the three basic components of paint - pigment, volatile

vehicle and non-volatile vehicle - there are numerous other
additives used in paint, mostly as an integral part of the formula,
but sometimes for corrective purposes. These include metallic
driers; pigment-dispersing agents; anti-flooding compounds; anti-
settling agents, e.g. metallic stearates or lecitin; anti-skinning
agents for oxidizing-type paints - these may be considered mild
antioxidants while they are in the container, but dissipate by
evaporation when the film is applied; gelling agents for non-drip
agents; mildewcides and fungicides; viscosity stabilizers;
deodorants - these are usually perfumes used in fractional
percentages to mask odours during the drying period; ultraviolet
absorbers - a typical use is in daylight fluorescent paint to delay
fading of the pigment; stabilizers, e.g. materials which absorb Cl or
HCl as possible decomposition products from chlorinated resins, or
similar applications.

The modem paint constituents can be outlined as (Shreve and

Brink, 1977: 381):

Resins (film formers)

Synthetics: alkyds, acrylics, vinyls, cellulosics, rosin esters,
epoxies, urea melamines, urethanes, styrenes, phenolics,
hydrocarbons, polyesters.

Natural: shellac, rosin, etc.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Ketones, aromatics, aliphatics, alcohols, glycol ethers, glycol ether
esters, glvcols. glycol esters, chlorinated products, terpenes, etc.

Drying oils and Fatty Acids

Linseed oil, soyabean oil, fatty acids, tall oil, castor oil, tung oil,
safflower oil, fish/marine oil, coconut oil, oiticica oil.

Pigments and Extenders

Titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate, clay,
inorganic colours, barium sulphate, mica, zinc oxide, zinc dust, red
lead, metallics (principally aluminum), carbon blacks, organic
colours, white lead.

Cobalt, manganese, lead and zinc, naphthanates, resinates,
linoleates, 2-ethyihexoates, tallates.

Octyl, decyl, 2-ethyihexyl and similar esters of phthalic, sebacic,
adipic. azel aic, and similar acids.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
The Pigments and Extenders are further outlined as:
Box1: Pigments and extenders and their functions
Ingredients Function

To protect the film reflecting the

White: titanium dioxide, zinc oxide,
destructive ultraviolet light, to
lithopone, zinc suiphide, antimony
oxide. strengthen the film, and to impart an
Black carbon black, lampblack, aesthetic appeal.
graphite, iron black.
Blue: ultramarine copper Extenders or Inerts or fillers
phthalocyanine, iron blues. China clay, talc, asbestors (short
Red: red lead, iron oxides, cadmium fibres), silica, whiting, metal
reds, toners or lakes. stearates, gypsum, mica, barite, blanc
Metallics: aluminium, zinc dust, flexi China clay, orange, molybdenum
bronze powder.
Yellow: litharge, ocher, lead or zinc
chromate, hansa yellows, ferric
yellows, cadmium lithopone. To reduce the pigment cost and in
Orange: basic lead chromate, many cases increase the covering and
cadmium. weathering power of pigments by
Green: chromium oxide, chrome complementing pigment particle size,
green, hydrated chromium oxide, thus improving consistency, leveling
phthalocyanine green, permansa and settling.
greens (phthalocyanine blue plus zinc
chromate). Pigments should possess the
Brown: burnt sienna, burnt umber,
following properties: opacity and
vandyke brown.
Metal Protective: red lead, blue lead, good covering power, wetability by
zinc. oil, chemical inertness, non-toxicity
or low toxicity, reasonable costs.

Source: Sreve and Brink (1977: 382)

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

The pigment, although usually an inorganic substance, may also be

a pure, insoluble, organic dye known as a toner, or an organic dye
precipitated on an inorganic carrier, such as aluminum hydroxide,
barium sulphate, or clay, thus constituting a lake. Extenders reduce
the cost and often increase durability of paint. Pigments should be
non-toxic or of low toxicity to both the painter and inhabitants.
Different pigments possess differing covering power per unit


Wood is used for the construction of dwellings and other types of
structure. The most important type of protective coating for these
surfaces is what is commonly known as house paint.

This was made up of two ingredients, basic carbonate of lead

(white lead) and either raw or boiled linseed oil. With raw linseed
oil, the drier was added, whereas the boiled oil contains a small
amount of drier in the form of metallic soaps. The raw oil,
however, was unsatisfactory in many ways. Usually, the
professional painters bought “white lead in oil” which consisted of
about 89% basic carbonate of lead and 11% linseed oil by weight
This was thinned with a further quantity of oil for application,
somewhat more oil being used in the first coat for bare wood than
in succeeding coats. Three coats had to be applied to achieve a
uniform white appearance, since the opacity of white lead is low
because of its low refractive index. White lead is subject to severe
discolouration from both sulphide fumes and dirt colouration.
Also, it eventually fails by checking, presenting a bad surface for
repainting. This type of paint was also quite slow in drying and a

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
number of days had to be allowed between coats. Added to this
was the uncertainty of the pigment-binder relationship in the actual
film applied, as many painting contractors varied the amount of
added oil at will. Little wonder straight white lead is virtually
obsolete. Mixed pigment, ready-to use house paints have been in
use for a good many years.

Generally speaking, the pigmentation of exterior wood paints

includes white lead (carbonate or sulphate), titanium dioxide, zinc
oxide, and extender pigments. White lead is used to promote
durability and adherence through the formation of small amounts
of lead soaps with the linseed oil. Titanium dioxide contributes
whiteness, whiteness retention and opacity. Titanium dioxide is not
only more chemically inert but has considerably higher light
reflectance than lead, and therefore remains whiter. Since its
refractive index is 2.7 for the rutile form and 2.55 for the anatase,
as compared with 2.00 for white lead, its opacity or ability to
obliterate the surface is much greater. It follows that an excessive
amount of titanium is inadvisable, in that the user would be
tempted to spread the paint too thin and thereby lose durability.
Titanium dioxide also promotes self-cleaning of the film by
chalking. But a paint which did not chalk at all would accumulate
so much dirt it would become unsightly. The rutile crystal type is
much slower chalking than the anatase, therefore it is the practice
to use a proportion of each in a standard white house paint.
Anatase alone will chalk too rapidly, and rutile alone too slowly.
Zinc oxide contributes hardness to the film and is a mild
mildewcide. Mildew is frequently a problem in certain
geographical or climatic areas. Zinc oxide also helps to control
over-rapid chalking.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

The term extender is used to denote transparent white to colourless

pigments which contribute little to opacity, but because of their
comparatively large particle size and random structure, frequently
acicular, hold the film together and reduce cracking tendencies.
Extender pigments are also used to control the pigment-volume
concentration (PVC). A typical material used is talc (magnesium
silicate). Others include calcium carbonate, silica, clay, and mica.

A variation of the standard-type formula is to use all rutile (non-

chalking) titanium dioxide and no anatase. This is to hold chalking
to the minimum for trim and tinting purposes. By this means the
tendency to form white streaking over adjacent non-white surface
is minimized; also, if the paint is slightly tinted to a buff, ivory,
green, blue, or other pasted shade, the appearance of premature
fading, because of the formation of white titanium dust on the
surface, is avoided.

The binder in organic solvent house paints is still commonly

linseed oil. The liquid portion of earlier ready-mixed products was
almost all raw linseed oil, containing only a minor amount of
mineral spirits as a carrier for metallic driers.

This type of paint was deficient in flow. Consequently, the film

thickness was very non-uniform because of brush-marks. This, of
course, resulted in uneven erosion. It is now the practice to use a
proportion of heat-bodied linseeds oil along with some raw oil.
Since this results in appreciably higher viscosities, a larger
proportion of volatile thinner is added to the formula for ease of
application. The applied film levels out smoothly to uniform
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
thickness. The heat-bodied oil also contributes increased moisture
resistance to the film.

Although formally the same paint was used for both first and
succeeding coats, modem practice is to supply a specially
formulated primer as the first coat. The priming formulation
generally has a higher pigment-volume concentration, a higher
content of lead pigment and extender, and in some products, zinc
in any form is omitted. The effect of the higher pigment volume in
the priming coat is to produce a lower gloss, which helps to
provide better mechanical adhesion of the succeeding coat, and it
also promotes faster drying. It is contended by some authorities
that zinc in a coating, which is in immediate contact with bare
wood, increases the tendency to blister where moisture-
transmission conditions prevail. A pigment-volume concentration
for an exterior house paint primer is usually in the range of 35%,
and for a finish coat, 30%. Typical formulations are:

Table 2: Typical formulations of paints

House Paint Undercoater Ready-Mixed Finish Coat, Exterior
Ingredients % by wt Ingredients % by wt
White lead 32 White lead 19
Rutile titanium dioxide 8 Zinc oxide 16
Extender pigment 23 Titanium dioxide 10
Raw linseed 12 Extender pigment 17
Resin 1 Raw linseed oil 23
Thinner (including drier)12 Heat-bodied linseed oil 7
Heat-bodied linseed oil 12 Thinner (including drier) 8

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Exterior wood paints designed for fume resistance are formulated
with no lead compounds, the prime pigments being zinc oxide,
titanium dioxide, and extenders. These are slightly less durable, but
have the advantage of good colour retention in atmosphere
polluted with hydrogen sulphide, since zinc oxide and zinc
sulphide are both white, and the other pigments present are
unaffected. A test method is to expose a painted panel to a
saturated atmosphere of hydrogen sulphide for a specified number
of hours.


These are synthetic resin emulsion paints suitable for exterior
exposure. The advantages of latex paints over oil paints are fast
drying, absence of odour, ease of cleanup, and excellent colour
retention. Some examples of materials used are dispersion agents
for pigments, protective colloids and thickeners (sodium
polyacrylates, carboxymethylcellulose, colloidal clays, gum arabic,
and others) to thicken the water phase and reduce settling,
defoamers, coalescing agent ,freeze thaw additives (glycols, e.g.
ethylene glycol), mildewcides and preservatives (mercurial, copper
and phenolic compounds), and pH controller (ammonium
hydroxide used for adjustment).

A typical formulation for an exterior latex paint is given below.

Formulation A is mixed and ground on a high-speed stone mill,
and then formulation B is added.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Table 3: A typical formulation of exterior latex paint
Formulation lb gal Formulation B Ib gal
Dispersing agent 15 2.0 Acrylic latex
(40% nonvolatile) 605 68.9
Defoamer 2 0.2 Preservative 9 1.0
Water 50 6.0 Defoamer 2 0.2
Titanium dioxide 250 7.2 Water 8 1.0
Extender pigments 117 5.0
2% aq. Solution 50 6.0
Ethylene glycol 25 2.6

Stainless steel or other corrosion-resistant equipment are used for

handling emulsion paints. Containers also have to be water-
resistant. The latex is added last because of its inability to
withstand the shear effects and heat developed in the dispersion

Priming new wood with an oil-type undercoater before the

application of latex exterior paints is recommended, for greater
resistance to moisture.

Any good quality exterior paint including oil and latex paint, may
be used for masonry, except that the original surface, if not
previously painted, generally requires special treatment, Masonry
surfaces are likely to contain alkaline compounds. The first coat
used on such surfaces is therefore usually an alkaline- resistant
resinous type, pigmented or unpigmented, to act as a sealer.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Most exterior paints are white. The principles for the formulation
of white exterior paint apply to house paints in light colours. The
tinting pigment, which is generally a very small proportion, must
be carefully made. The preferred colouring materials are those
which have good chemical stability, such as iron oxide reds,
browns and yellows, phthalocyanine blue and green, and
lampblack. Many precipitated pigments, such as organic reds and
ferrocyanide blues, have the drawback of rather rapid fading when
diluted with a large proportion of white and exposed to sunlight.
Some of these have excellent permanence when used in
concentrated form in deep colours, and are used for this purpose in
trim paints. The white pigment must be as chalk-resistant as
possible, hence the rutile titanium dioxide is used.


The principal pigments used for interior whites are titanium
dioxide, zinc oxide, and various carbonate and siliceous extenders,
which are used to control pigment volume and gloss. Most
ordinary solvent-type paints for interior use contain some oil and
dry by oxidation. Vehicles may be oleoresinous or a combination
including some free oil, generally heat-bodied. Oils used in interior
compositions include bleached linseed oil, dehydrated castor,
soyabean, and to a lesser extent, tung and oiticia. Soyabean-oil
fatly acids are widely used in the manufacture of oxidizing alkyd
vehicles, these being extensively used for wall paint because of
superior resistance to yellowing, economy, and good availability.
Many resins, e.g. resin ester, pure and rosin-modified phenolic,
maleic epoxy-ester, and others may be used, but the workhorse for
wall paints is the soya-phthalic alkyd material.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
One effect of the resin content is to increase hardness and reduce
drying time. A high pigment content acts in the same way, hence
heavily pigmented flat finishes, as a rule, contain less resin and
more oil than glossy ones, in order to maintain toughness and

High-gloss interior paints contain no relatively coarser extender

pigments and are processed to the maximum degree of smoothness.
About 5-10% of zinc oxide is frequently used with the titanium to
help control yellowing as the film ages. Since zinc oxide is mildly
and chemically active, it tends to inhibit the formation of coloured
compounds in the vehicle. Titanium dioxide is chemically inert and
does not have a retarding effect.

A high-gloss paint film ages has a reading of 80-85 in a

photometric equipment with the reference standard 95. Semigloss
wall paints are formulated with a higher pigment volume, this
usually being adjusted to produce readings of 50-70. Since 3-3.5 lb
of titanium dioxide in a gallon will give adequate opacity in a
white or pale tint, the additional pigment volume is made up by
using extender pigments, which are considerably less costly. A
common material in both semigloss and flit wall pa is a
combination of co-precipitated titanium dioxide and anhydrous
calcium sulphate. As supplied, these materials may contain 30%
titanium thoxide 70% calcium sulphate, or 50% of each Straight
extenders for interior paint magnesium silicates, mica, calcium
carbonate, clays and others. C organic-surface-treated bentonite
clays may be used in minor percentages to impart thixotropy and
reduce settling tendencies. Semigloss paints have good washability

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
and strain resistance, and the subdued sheen is considered more
pleasing to the eye than a high gloss.

Flat oil or alkyd paints have a glossmeter reading of 0-10. The

median range of gloss, 10-50, is very difficult to control from the
standpoint of film uniformity, and is not much used. Slight
variations in the thickness of film applied, or irregularities in the
surface, are apt to cause non-uniformities of sheen which are very
objectionable. It is probable that very little oil flat is now used for
domestic purposes, its place having been taken by latex emulsion.
Considerable; quantities of oil flat are still used, however, for
industrial purposes, where this type may be preferred over water
paint for one reason or another.

Wail primer and sealer is used on new masonry and plaster walls,
or old ones in porous condition, before the application of a finish
coat. It is formulated to have a pigment volume and gloss in the
medium range, in order to give a nonporous surface for uniformity
of the finish to be applied over them, but still low enough in sheen
to give good mechanical adhesion of the top coat.

Many interior alkyd or oil paints (organic-solvent-type) are offered

today wider the designation of “ordourless.” This property is
achieved by using, as the volatile portion, petroleum solvent
containing little or no saturated or cyclic components. Mineral
spirits, the standard fraction supplied by refineries as a general
purpose paint thinner, ordinarily contains a certain amount of these
compounds. These increase the solvent power or ability to hold
resin in solution, but also increase the odour. Odourless thinners,
from which these compounds have been removed, have lower
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
solvent power. It follows that the vehicles used in these paints have
to be carefully controlled so that they are not too highly
polymerized, to avoid precipitation or thickening in the container.
The lower odour achieved by such paints is confined to the drying
period during evaporation of the solvent, as there is still odour
attributable to the oxidation and reaction products of the binder.

The, decorative material par excellence in present use is latex

paint, which is marketed under various trade names. Its advantages
are ease of use by nonprofessional, easy cleaning, low odour, fast
drying, and economy (compared to wallpaper). It is used not only
‘for dwellings and institutions, but also for factory installations
where operations do not produce chemicals and moisture- laden

The three main types of latexes (synthetic resin dispersion) are

polymers based on esters of acrylic acid, poly (vinyl acetate), and

The general principles applying to exterior latex paints also apply

to the interiors. White pigmentation consists mainly of titanium
dioxide and extenders, basic compounds such as zinc oxide and
lead salts not being suitable. PVA is widely used. Styrene-
butadiene is used mostly for interior paints; acrylic ester, like PVA,
may be used in either application, but its greatest use is probably in
exterior formulae.

The most outstanding difference between inside and outside latex

paints is in pigment-volume concentration. A typical pigment
volume for exterior purposes is 30%, the relatively high
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
concentration of binder to provide film integrity against
weathering. Pigment volume of an interior formulation is likely to
be in the range of 55-70%, but an excessively high pigment content
has an adverse effect on stain resistance. To obtain improved
washability and adhesion, a small amount of drying oil or alkyd
resin is sometimes incorporated, up to 15% of the binder content.

To achieve other colours for the paints than white, hansa yellows,
chromium oxide, phthalocyanine greens and blues, and various
iron oxide and hydroxide pigments may be used. Most extender
pigments are suitable except those that have an appreciable degree
of water solubility, such as calcium sulphate. Clays are used in
water paints because of their thixotropic properties and dry hiding

The popular interior latex paints on the market have a low to flat
sheen. It is possible to formulate semigloss and gloss materials, but
there are several difficulties that have not been fully overcome.
One is that it is difficult to incorporate sufficient pigment to give
opacity and still have some gloss. Another is that the resins used in
the flat varieties do not develop much hardness, and the relatively
high pigment content is relied on for this property.


Most coating types, including exterior and interior oil, alkyd, and
emulsion types, are used for large industrial plants. There are also
many others designed for industrial use, excluding those used for
products finishing particularly in the field of metal protection.
Painting is one of the more important means of combating
corrosion. Paint films on steel give a mechanical barrier against
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
moisture, and are much less affected by electrolytic action than
metal. Practically every paint will protect against rust for a limited
time. For durability, corrosion-inhibitive primers are used, the
property of inhibition being mostly a function of the pigment.

Some pigments inhibit corrosion, some are neutral in this respect,

and some tend to stimulate it. The pigments that are effective
corrosion inhibitors include a number of metallic chromates and
red lead, Pb and to a lesser extent zinc oxide and metallic zinc

The number of existing formulae for structural-steel primers is

immense. Red lead in a linseed-oil vehicle is well known. A
typical ready-mixed red lead- linseed-oil paint is composed of 77%
red lead, 15% raw and bodied linseed oils, and 8% thinner and
drier. A gallon of this composition contains almost 20 lb of
pigment and weighs about 24 lb.

Mixed pigment primers for general-purpose structural-steel

priming perform as well, or sometimes better than, pure red lead,
and do not have the disadvantages of excessive handling weight,
slow drying, and high cost. Navy steel-ship maintenance primer is
of this type. The formula is as follows:

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Table 4: Formuls for primer
Ingredient lb/100gal
Red lead 380
Zinc yellow 70
Mica 65
Iron oxide red 10
Magnesium silicate 160
Aluminium stearate 6
Nonvolatile vehicle 292
Volatile 348

The vehicle is oil-alkyd resin. For general-purpose primers contain

free raw linseed oil as part of the binder.

There are many types of primer vehicle formulations, ranging from
those containing more or less drying oil to oil-free synthetics. The
further the vehicle departs from a type containing polar groups
(e.g. drying oils), the more stringent is the need for removal of
oxide corrosion products which interfere with adhesion. In using
some of the advanced type of synthetic formulations, sandblasting
is mandatory Specifications for several degrees of blasting are

Finishing coats over the primers so far discussed are usually of the
long- oil alkyd-type, and are supplied in a variety of colours
including white. White is a preferred colour for storage tanks
subject to evaporation losses, because of its high reflectance of
solar radiation.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Epoxy resins may be converted to coatings with good resistance to
m acid and alkaline environments, by esterification of the epoxide
and hydroxyl groups with dehydrated castor-oil fatty acids.
Linseed or soyabean-oil acids may also be used There ate no
particular complications in using them; when used on exterior
surfaces they chalk more rapidly than alkyd paints.

Chlorinated rubber, paints are widely used for conditions of

extreme moisture, such as daily decontamination of surfaces by
washing and even continuous immersion. These are also used for
swimming pools. The resin itself contains about 70% chlorine and
needs to be stabilized with additives to inhibit the release of small
amounts of hydrochloric acid. As it is brittle in itself, it is usually
heavily plasticized. Films of these materials are not heat-resistant
above 65.6°C and are affected by contact with vegetable and
animal oils. Films dry to recoat in about ½ hr. Spray application is
necessary. Solvents have to be the aromatic type, e.g. xylene.

Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resin-based coatings are

more flexible than chlorinated rubber, and have excellent exterior
durability. They are insoluble in hydrocarbons and it is therefore
necessary to use oxygenated solvents like ketones and volatile
esters in their formulation Adhesion of vinyl resins to the substrate
is somewhat of a problem, so far the priming coat a grade
containing 1-2% hydroxyl or other polar groups is used to improve
this property. Even so, the steel must be sandblasted to remove rust
and to provide a slightly roughened surface. Another primer that
may be used is based on vinyl butyral resin, which is soluble in
ethanol or 2-propanol.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

Oil-free epoxy formulations are used for industrial maintenance

and have been recently introduced into the retail market for use on
certain areas in dwellings. Curing of the epoxy resins to hard,
resistant films may be brought about by reacting them with amines,
polyamines, or polyamides to produce cross-linking. Polyamides
are probably most frequently used. As this reaction would take
place in the can, if pre-mixed, the product is furnished in two
compartments, one containing the epoxy component, and the other
the polyamide. These are mixed just before use, the type and
amount of each part being adjusted to give eventual curing and
also to provide several hours of potlife (i.e, retention of fluidity) at
normal temperatures after mixing. The pigment may be ground in
either the dissolved epoxy resin component or the amide solution.
Here again it is necessary to use ketone and ester solvents. The
fully cured film, however, attains complete insolubility in most
solvents, in contrast to straight resin solutions such as chlorinated
rubber and vinyl. It also resists decomposition and fusing at
temperatures up to 149°C and has a very high degree of chemical
resistance. For application on steel, preparation of the surface by
blasting is considered best in order to give maximum adhesion.
Metal primers for epoxy-ester, chlorinated rubber, vinyl, and
epoxy-amide coatings are fonnulated with the same type resin used
in the finish coats and contain rust-inhibitive pigments.

Other synthetic or natural coatings used for chemical resistance,

some of which may be air-dried at one-coat thickness, include the
natural asphalt, coal-tar asphalt, polystyrene, styrene-butadiene;
methacrylates, silicones, urethane, neoprene, and many more.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Zinc-rich maintenance coatings consist of a high concentration of
metallic zinc dust dispersed in a binder. The formulation principle
is that the dried film, in order to give cathodic protection to steel,
should contain zinc in such volume that the particles are in
electrical contact. This means that 90-95% by weight of the
nonvolatile portion is zinc. The binder may be organic-resin types
such as are used in conventionally pigmented paints, including, for
example, chlorinated rubber, polystyrene, epoxy amide and others,
or it may consist of aqueous silicate solution. In the latter case
some zinc silicate is formed. Also at the interface there is probably
some iron silicate. These paints are extremely durable under
conditions of exposure to moisture and brine, and cases of no
failure after more than 20 years of such service have been cited. To
achieve the conditions of electrochemical contact required, steel
surfaces should be blasted before application of these coatings,
especially the aqueous silicate type.

To avoid failure by peeling of zinc-coated steel, an oleoresinous
paint containing portland cement as part of the pigment is
commonly used for relatively small areas on houses. For large
areas in industry zinc dust paint is preferred, which calls for 80%
pigment containing 80% zinc dust and 20% zinc oxide, and 20%
vehicles containing 90% linseed oil and 10% drier and thinner, by
weight. Here the dried film contains about 65% zinc dust as against
more than 90% in the inc rich types which are intended for plain
steel. A variation of this formula using a phenolic or oil vehicle has
been used for coating the interior of potable- water tanks.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
The vinyl butyral-phosphoric acid metal conditioned as discussed
above is also satisfactory for zinc-coated steel. This may be
followed by either oil, oil-resin vehicle, or synthetic finishes. Latex
emulsion, including the vinyl, acrylic, and styrene varieties, has
given promising results on zinc.

Phosphating the zinc surface, if properly done, provides good

adhesion of paints without the necessity of special primers. This is
best done at the steel mill, as hand phosphating in the field is not
under good control.

High pigment volume, the use of fast-drying vehicles such as low-
oil-content resin combinations or oil-free synthetic resins, and low-
boiling solvents such as petroleum Tractions with distillation
ranges from 100 to 150°C are the three factors responsible for the
fast-drying characteristics of the road-stripping paints. Resin
solutions like platicized chlorinated rubber or styrene-butadiene
may be used. Some aromatic hydrocarbon solvent has to be
included in these vehicles to maintain solubility.

There are two areas of the ship that need special formulations: the
bottom and the boot-topping area. The bottom is subject to fouling
by the accumulation of the hull which is intermittently immersed
and exposed to air, known as the “wind and water line,” and
represents an extreme degree of exposure to the elements.

Antifouling paints for ship bottoms are formulated with copper and
mercury compounds as poisons for marine growth, using binders
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
which are not too permanent so that gradual breakdown of the film
and release of poison can take place. Tributyltin compounds are
used as the toxic material. A typical formulation calls for zinc
oxide, ferric oxide, magnesium silicate, cuprous oxide, mercuric
oxide, rosin, pine oil, coal tar, and solvent. Because of self-erosion,
it is desirable to repaint steel bottoms once a year, or oftener if the
operation is in tropical water.



used for safety purposes and attention-attracting devices. The
colouring matters are hard resins containing a small percentage of
fluorescent dye in solution. This composition is ground to fine
particle size to form pigments. The dyes have the property of
converting short wave visible radiation into longer wavelengths,
the reflected light being concentrated in a rather narrow band in the
yellow, orange, or red portion of the spectrum, the resulting
colours thus being extremely brilliant. Vehicles may be
conventional alkyd, or, as in a type which is used for greater
visibility of aircraft, hydrocarbon-soluble acrylic resin.

FIRE-RETARDATION PAINTS: These contain compounds

which intumesce when the temperature is raised beyond a certain
point. Urea and acid phosphate esters, pentaerythriol, and others
are types of materials uced.

AEROSOL COLOURS: These are alkyd compositions. The two

components are paint thinned out to low viscosity so that it will
atomize and a gaseous propellant which is liquid under pressure.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
The most usual propellant is dichiorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2)
which has a boiling point of -30°C. Other halogenated
hydrocarbons may be used as modifiers.

The measured amount of paint is filled into the cans, which is then
sealed, and the propellant is forced in through the valve under
pressure at a low temperature. The fluorinated hydrocarbons have a
very low solvent power, so that in order to prevent precipitation of
the paint ingredients, strong solvents are used.

INSECTICIDAL PAINT: This paint is meant for protection of

substrate against insects. It has various colours in both enamel and
emulsion. During drying of the insecticidal paint, movement of
particles takes place throughout the paint film. These particles are
carried to the surface by the normal evaporation of the solvents in
the coating and cyrstalize to form the insect repelling layer.

Bigos, J. (1955). Good Painting Practice, Vol. 1, and Systems
Specifications, Vol. 2, of Steel Structures Painting Manual,
Steel Structures Paint Council, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1.
Cannel, D. (1965). Titanium, Zinc, and Oil Exterior Paint Fume
Resistant, Ready Mixed, White.
Cannel, D. (1967). Paint. In Kirk-Othmer. Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology, Vol.14, 2ed, John Wiley & Sons Inc.,
New York.
Heaton, N. (1956). Outlines of Paint Technológy. Charles Griffin
& Co. Ltd., London.
Mattiello, J. (1941). Protective and Decorative Coatings. John
Wiley & Sons Inc. U.S.A.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Martens, C.R. (1964). Emulsion and Water-soluble Paints and
Coatings. Reinhold Pub. Corp., New York
Munger, C.G. (1963). Zinc Dust Coatings in the Process Industries,
Mater Protect, 2 (3).
Singer, E. (1966). Fundamentals of Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Technology. The American Paint Journal Company, U.S.A.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker


Function of Paint Mills
The basic operation in paint manufacture is the breakdown of
pigment aggregates followed by wetting and dispersion of the
individual particles. This is accomplished by applying a rubbing
force or shear sometimes accompanied by pressure to the mixture
of pigment and paint medium. Shearing forces are exerted between
the aggregates and the paint mill surfaces and are predominant in
the milling of high consistency pastes.

General Principles of Paint Mills

The old pigment dispersion consists of milling a pigment and
modern mixture at high consistency, that is, high pigment content.
A preliminary mixing (prenuxing) of the pigment and medium was
carried out in a heavy duty horizontal or vertical mixer or possibly
in an edge runner mill. The paste was then fed to a triple roll mill
for dispersion, after which it was ‘thinned down. Whether further
refining was necessary depended on the type of paint being
produced. ‘Oil paints giving high build films were not refined
further, but simply strained before filling.

Modern mills which use the principle of dispersion at high

consistency are the high torque disperser and the high speed
disperser. Pigment and medium are charged directly into these
mills and with some easily dispersible pigments in the high speed
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
disperser, further refining is unnecessary. The high speed
disperser, however, are generally used in manufacture of emulsion
paints where the additives are first added to thicken, followed by
addition of the pigments, they binder (polyvinylacrylate, PVA) and
finally the solvent (thinner i.e. water).

The process of paint manufacture is always batch-wise, that is, the

raw-materials being fed into a plant at a known time only to be
removed as the final product at a specific time.

Types of Mill
Pre-mixers: Mixers for pastes - these are often called pug mixers
and can be horizontal or vertical. A modern form of the latter is the
high torque disperser.

High Speed Millers: They are of several designs but the common
ones are the Silverson and Greaves types which consist of high
speed propeller rotating with a fixed circular cage. The wall of the
cage can be a wire-mesh screen or a ring pierced with holes
through which the pigment/medium mixtures are expelled at high
velocity. l shear is produced and with some pigments these
machines can give a high degree of dispersion.

Dispersion Mills: Dispersing mill can be divided broadly into two


(a) mills which require premixed pastes or slurries and

(b) mills into which the raw-materials, that is pigment and
medium, can be directly charged.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh
Ene A guide for thee paint maker
The sequence could be illustrated as follows:

Fig 4: Flow chhart for paint manufacture using mills

Direct Charge Dispersion Mills

The Ball Mill (For Oil Paint): This is the most favoured paint
production unit for many years, mainly because they can produce a
wide range of paints containing very volatile solvents, such as
cellulose lacquers and quick drying synthetic enamels.

When using porcelain balls, the charge of balls should occupy

about 45% of the total volume of the mill, but the charge for steel
balls is somewhat less. The speed o the mill is a critical factor.
When a mill is running the balls are carr
ied up on one side and
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
‘cascade’ under gravity. The mill speed should be high enough to
give the maximum degree of cascading, but not sufficiently high to
carry the balls round b centrifugal force.

Other factors of importance in ball milling are the size of the

charge of mill base at its consistency. The dispersion of pigment
takes place mainly as a result of shear or rubbing of the balls and,
to a lesser extent, by impact. The mill base charge, manufacture
using Mills in theory, should be just sufficient to fill the voids
between the balls, but in practice about 10% extra is used. The
volume of the voids depends on the size of the balls employed and
is generally of the order of 20%.

The raw-materials, that is pigment and medium, are charged

directly into the ball mill and, since the object is to disperse the
maximum amount of pigment in each operation, the composition
of the mill base is of great importance. Too low a consistency can
result in excessive wear on the mill lining, while an unduly high
consistency will impair the cascading action of the mills and lead
to prolonged milling times.

The mixture (paint) in the ball mill is tested for thorough

dispersion using the Hegman gauge, which if passed, is thinned
down with appropriate solvents and mixed in the machine for some
minutes. The paint is then run out for laboratory tests.

Most paints after processing contain small amounts of foreign
matter and, in air- drying types, small quantities of skin. They are,
therefore strained or filtered immediately before filling. A number
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
of straining materials are used, such as muslin, nylon gauge of fine
wire sieves of 80-120-mesh.

Paints are sold by volume or weight utilizing the specific gravity of
the paint. Filling by weight is the normal practice.

Paints can be applied to a surface by a variety of methods and
devices, such as:

Padding: This involves the fluff-free of cloth with which coatings

of shellac solution are applied to furniture and decorative wood
work which is characteristic of French polish.

Spraying Paint can be applied to a surface by means of a sprayer or

spray-gun. The method is, however, not economical in terms of the
consumption of paint, particularly with guns operated by air-
pressure since the spray does not deposit only on the object being
coated but also spreads itself beyond and around, necessitating the
pr ion of special plant to trap the overspray and also prevent it
from contaminating the factory atmosphere.

Airless Spraying: Mainly used in ship building and maintenance

of vessels, railway and heavy road vehicles. The paint is sprayed
by pumping it at very high pressure to force it through a minute
orifice in the tip of the spray-gun.

Others: Other applications include dipping, Alot spray technique,

roller coating, electro-deposition (electro-painting), etc.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

Eneh, O.C. (1981). SIWES Report for B.Sc. lndustrial Chemistry,
submitted to the Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

Quality control in an industry ensures good qualities for the raw

material as well as satisfactory and consistent qualities for the
finished product.

Some of the paint qualities watched out for include:

A good paint has colour. The colour is brought about during
production by (a) using the pigment of the same or similar colour
to that of the paint which is intended for production (b) addition of
colourants with the same or similar colour to that of the required
paint in order to supplement the efforts of the pigment in
producing the wanted colour. Colourants are not always necessary,
especially for white paints.

In evaluating the colour, the paint may be run down the brush-
down sheet and the colour compared with the universal colour in
the colour chart (for initial production) or the old product (for a
repeat production). Spectrophotometers and colorimeters are now
used and this eliminates the human error in visual comparison with
a standard or control.

More colourant may be needed. A white paint may be prepared and

added if the colour is deeper than required.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Paints should be able to give a new look to the substrate by way of
a good degree of obliteration. This is a function of the pigment
used as part of the base materials.

Titanium dioxide has a high refractive index and accounts for the
greater part of the hiding property of the paints. To reduce cost, yet
extend and supplement the hiding action of the dioxide, calcium
carbonate may be added together with Atagel 50, etc. These, in
addition to acting as extenders or extender- pigments, help to
improve the thickness of the paint.

The opacity is assessed m the industry by applying the paint on a

smooth background of alternating white and black often referred to
as diamond chart. A view is then taken to see if the paint has
obliterated equally well the alternating black and white lines. The
brush-down sheet can also be used.

Titanium dioxide or extender-pigments in combination with

colourant may be needed to improve the opacity.

This is an indication of the bubble-content of a certain volume of
the paint. No buyer would like to pay for bubbles in the name of

The relative density (specific gravity) per gallon of the paint is

measured to control the foam (bubble) contained in the paint. The
greater the bubbles the smaller the density. Recalling that

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
density =

it is easy to measure this variable of paints in a number of ways.

More defoamers or bubble breakers which act through surface
tension, may be needed. They include tri-n-butyl phosphate, n-
octyl alcohol, and other higher alcohols

Paints are viscous substances. The viscosity is built up by the
addition of tylose or methyl celulose (for emulsion) and alkyd (for
alkyd paints). This does not affect the colour of the paint. On the
other hand, viscosity can be thinned down by the addition of such
solvents as mineral spirit (for alkyd paints) and water (for
emulsion). Other solvents include ethyl benzene, etc. Viscosity
control is by alkyd solvent-ratio. A viscometer is used for
measuring viscosity of the paint at 25°C.


This is an unwanted break in the paint film that extends from the
surface to the underlying material. It reflects a loss or lack of

A good paint should be adhesive. In oil paint alkyd takes care of

this quality, while in the emulsion paint the polyvenylacetate
copolymer (PVAC) does the job. They can be added as appropriate
during quality control.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
This denotes a very fine type of surface cracking.


A good paint is adherend and hard, not abrasive and chalking.
These qualities are tested by use of finger nails or mechanical
testers. Alkyd may be added to oil paint and PVAC to emulsion in
order to improve the quality.

A good paint contains only well ground materials. The agitators or
palers or mixers do the “grinding” work. The grinding work here is
just the dispersion of already ground/milled materials. Dispersing
agents for pigments may be added. These are tetrasodium
pyrophosphate, soya lecithin, and others. Also, during canning, the
palm is also sieved to improve the fineness quality.
Fineness can be simply assessed by spreading the paint on a
smooth background. For oil Paint the precision guage is used,
while brush-down sheet is used for emulsion. Grind guage is used
for both oil and emulsion paints. Appropriate measures are then
taken to arrest a deviation from good quality.

A good paint should not exhibit flooding (floating or flotation),
which results in the separation of individual pigment particles into
streaks or layers of the liquid paint and non-uniform colour of
dried film. This is due to unbalanced wetting and is common in
green, grey and brown shades. It is aggravated by over thinning,
and the remedy is change of pigment or introduction of more
effective wetting agents.
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
This defect can also be combated by the addition of anti-floading
agents or of coalescing agents which coalesce the discrete particles
of resin during evaporation of water in emulsion paint. Such
materials as hexylene glycol and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether
acetate are used. Most coalescing agents in use volatilize quite
slowly, but ultimately evaporate from the film.


Paints should not be difficult to brush: it should be brushible,
thixotropic and exhibit shear-thinning. This property is tested by
brushing the paint on a surface. To improve this quality,
polyamides, Atagel, etc. may be added. If the paint is too thick,
water and PVAC are added (emulsion) or mineral spirit for gloss
paint. Poor brushbility may be due to excess calcium carbonate.

A good paint should flow in a way as to cover the marks of the
painting brush. This is leveling. Wetting agents improve this

Although many materials of different nature are used for making
paints, the paint should possess uniform quality. This is achieved
by the addition of binders, such as the PVAC (for emulsion) and
alkyd resins (for gloss paint). The binders articulate these materials
as an aid to the mixing. The binders also bind the paint to the

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Coats should not blister. Insufficient attention to the cleanliness of
the surface on to which the paint is applied is often a cause of
blistering. Blistering can also be caused by the reaction products,
such as carbon dioxide evolved during the curing of a polyurethane
paint, which is occasionally due to the use of resin with a high acid
value. Blistering can also be due to entrapped solvent being
released from within a paint film after the surface has set at the
initial stages of curing in a storing oven. The last cause is also
called solvent propping. The blisters that sometimes appear on
exterior painted work, on wood in particular, are usually the effect
of the sun which heats and softens the paint coating and develops
vapour pressure under the dried top layer from the volatile matter
trapped by too rapid drying and skinning over of the top surface of
the film. The heat-expanded vapour causes the soft film to blister.
The volatile matter in the film may arise from the resinous
constituent of the wood carrying the coating, from solvent
residues, or from moisture. The sealing of resinous knots in wood
by coatings of shellac or manila resin is helpful towards
eliminating one cause of blistering. Paints on a metal substrate are
not so liable to blister, particularly if the metal surface is properly
cleaned and primed.


This is the breaking away of the complete paint coating, including
primer, undercoat and finish from small or large areas of the
surface to which the system has been applied. It may be the result
of chemical action or physical change at the interface between
priming coat and the surface beneath. Studies of the conditions that
effect adhesive forces between solid surfaces form an important
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
part of the work of the paint research laboratories in their
endeavour to analyse the causes of flaking. It can frequently be
attributed to porous surface containing moisture in the pores.
Increased penetration of moisture explains the greater
susceptibility to blistering and flaking shown by paint coatings on
soft, open grained woods than by those on the hard, close grained
varieties. Moisture entering wood at weakly protected points may
seek to escape through areas covered by paint; if the paint coating
is impermeable to moisture the water pressure underneath will
push the coating away from its support, and blistering will appear,
followed eventually by flaking. Correctly formulated primers can
minimize these defects. Plaster walls insufficiently dried out
provide surfaces on which paint is likely to blister and flake.
Similar trouble may arise in paint on wood into which moisture has
penetrated through joints, and grain, etc. And the importance of
preventing ingress of moisture at these weak points is obvious.

On ferrous metals and light alloys not perfectly protected by
primers of the appropriate type corrosion is likely to occur. The
corrosion products such as the white rust of light alloys distend the
film above them and can eventually lead to the cracking of the
film. Through the cracks, water and any dissolved salts can- reach
the bare metal, allowing corrosion to colour.

Paints should not take too long a period to dry. To ensure this,
metallic driers may be added to the paint.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
The drying of paint is a chemical change of oxidation and
polymerization hastened by pretreatment of the oil and by adding
diers, or catalysts, predominantly heavy-metalic soaps, which are
oxygen earners, usually soluble in oil. These driers need be used
only in small amounts (1 to 2% by weight).

Oil paints need no driers.

A good paint should not skin. To ensure this, anti-skin agents
(ASA) are added to the paint. They include oxime and ketoxime,
eg. methyl ethyl ketoxime, phenolic ketoxime, etc.

Good paints should not freeze. The anti-freezing agents added to
the emulsion paint include high-boiling solids, such as ethylene
glycol and benzyl alcohol.

These solids prevent the polymerization of the materials in the


Paints should neither rust nor induce rusting on their containers or

Sodium benzoate is the anti-rusting material added to emulsion

paints. Gloss paints need no anti-rusting agents, since oil does not

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
The gloss paints are shinny or glassy and not dull. The alkyd resins
added to the paint are responsible for this quality, as well as acting
as a binder.

The paint is run down the brush-down sheet and the gloss
compared as in colour. To eliminate visual errors, gloss is now
measured with photometers, the reference being a theoretically
perfect minor, to which is assigned an arbitraiy value of 1000 so
that gloss figures are parts per thousand. The practical standard is a
polished black glass plate having a value of 95.


The paint should not be too thick as to hamper the brushibility and
leveling properties.

The paint is brushed on a vertical smooth surface and this property

evaluated. Sulphonated glyceride (S.G. I) and napthanates of
Magnesium (Mg), Lead (Pb) and Cobalt (Co) may be needed as


Paints, should be resistant to bacterial and flingal attacks. This is
ensured by the addition of mildewcides and preservatives, such as
mercurial, copper, and phenolic compounds.

The appearance in paint of semi-solid, jelly-like masses resembling
raw liver is called livering. It is caused by chemical reactions
which may occur between certain pigments and vehicles e.g. zinc
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
oxide and acidic vehicle or between atmospheric oxygen and
oxidizable and polymerizable oils in the vehicles. A paint that has
set to a livery mass that will not disperse on stirring even with
added solvent is entirely useless.

Latex compositions are aqueous and the pH must be carefully
controlled, to prevent de-emulsification. Generally, ammonium
hydroxide is used for adjustment, but the exact pH specification
varies according to the nature of the resin and other ingredients in
the formula.

Paints must not have objectionable odours. Deodorants may,
therefore, be necessarily added to the paint.

Other tests may be required depending on the end use of the paint
and the material involved. The actual tests undertaken depend on
the formulation.

Cyprian O. Eneh (1986). Introduction to Paint Technology. Sunday
Satellite, 20 October, p. 10.
Taylor, C.J.A. and Marks, S. (1965). The Testing of Paints. Paint
Technology Manuals, Part Five. Chapman & Hall, London.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker

The paint factory can be divided into the following departments or

sections for effective operations:

Production: This section is in charge of production, and is usually

headed by an Industrial Chemist, a Polymer Chemist, a Chemical
Engineer, a Paint Chemist or a Paint Technologist. He should have
an assistant of similar qualification with lower number of years of
experience. Working with them are production staff whose
strength will depend on the scope of production. The staff are
headed by a supervisor. It is sub-divided into milling, mixing,
tinting and canning sub-sections.

Quality Control Laboratory: This section is headed by the

Quality Control Manager of similar qualifications as above who
will also have an assistant. The section analyses all in-coming raw-
materials before use and all out going products before sales, to
ensure conformity to set standards. This section must be strict and
not easily given to compromise with suppliers or production staff
Administration: This section, headed by the General Manager, is
responsible for the overall administration of the factory. He works
with other administrative staff, example, Secretary, Receptionist,
Messengers, etc.

Stores and Marketing: This department plays the role of

procuring the raw-materials and other needs of the factory, stores
them and issues them out on approval of requisitions. In the same
vein, it takes delivery, from Production Department of all products
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
and makes sales arrangements to trade them off for cash at the
earliest possible time. For effective sales of the products, sales
strategies: advert, promotions, displacement, etc. are necessary.
Store-keepers and marketers staff this section which must have a

Accounts: This section handles all the financial matters in the

factory: sale proceeds, purchases, salaries, and other
income/expenditure. It also calculates the’ annual depreciation of
the industrial plant/machinery. An Accountant heads the section
Security: This section is in charge of the security of the
establishment It is made up of day and night guards headed by
Chief Security Officer. It controls in coming visitors and searches
all out-going vehicles.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh
Ene A guide for thee paint maker

Fig. 5:: An outlay of paint factory

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
1. While paint makers decry the proliferation of paint
industries in the eastent Nigeria, a university professor of
development economics says we need more. Rationalize.
(Chapter 1).
2. Distinguish between Surface Coating and Paint industries.
(Chapter 1)
3. What do you know about Colour, and how does Colour
apply to Paint. What is metamerism? (Chapter 2)
4. Outline the basic (i) functions and composition of paint
(ii) Paint formulation
(iii) Paint factory equipment (Chapter 3)
5. What do you understand by opacity, thixotropism, sagging,
drying and livering? (Chapter 4).
6. Distinguish between (i) density and viscosity
(ii) finish and primer
(iii) latex and intergard
(iv) enamel and emulsion (v) exterior and interior
(vi) chalking and leveling (Chapter 4).
7.(a) State the functions of pigments

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
(b) Name any 30 pigments and their colours (Chapter 5)
8. Outline any three specialty paints (Chapter 5)
9. Write on operations and practice of paint production and
application (Chapter 6).
10. How do you control the qualities of a paint product?
(Chapter 7)
11. Suggest a workplan or profile and an organizational layout
for N5m paint factory. (Chapter 8)
12(a) What are the components of the white light that are visible
to human eye?
(b) What s the colour of a “light-repelling object that reflects
all light components that fail on it?
(c) A “light-greedy” object absorbs all light components
incident on it, what is its colour?
(d) What is the colour of a “light-stable” object which neither
reflects nor absorbs but permits the passage of all light
components through it? (Chapter 2)
13. Okenwa, a paint-dealer, has five colours: white, blue,
yellow, red and black in his stock. But his customer wants
brown paint. How could he attempt to meet his customer’s
demand? What are his constraints? (Chapter 2)
4. What is pigment-volume concentration and its significance
in paint formulation? (Chapter 3)
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
15. What do you understand by the term paint Outline its
composition. (Chapter 3)
16. What technology would you apply in painting a house of
timber and asbestos materials? (Chapter 4)
17. Considering solvent only, why can’t a painter interchange
an exterior paint with an interior? (Chapter 4).
18. Explain the drying mechanism(s) of a paint coating.
(Chapter 4)
19. Compare and contrast titanium dioxide, white lead and zinc
oxide as pigments for exterior white paints (Chapter 5).
20 What do you understand by rutile and anatase (Chapter 5)?
21 (a) What is an extender?
(b) Name four extenders known to you (Chapter 5).
22. What is a primer? Why would you advocate its adoption in
paint technology? Contrast its formulation with that of an
exterior finish coat (Chapter 5).
23. What is the significance of resin in interior paint? (Chapter
24. Discuss briefly how you can obtain other colours than
white for paints (Chapter 5).
25(a) Name any 24 qualities to watch out for in paints.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
(b) Concisely state how you can control any 20 of them
(Chapter 7).

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh
Ene A guide for thee paint maker

Plate I: Diamond Chart


Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh
Ene A guide for thee paint maker

Plate II: Brushdown

Brus sheet

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
Colour - charts ... ... ... ... 13
- complementary ... ... ... 5
- harmonious ... ... ... 6
- of paint ... ... ... ... 5
- wheel ... ... ... ... 5
Light - absorption, reflection, transmission 4
- dispersion ... ... ... ... 3
- seven components of ... ... 3
Metamerism ... ... ... ... ... 6
Paint - abrasion ... ... ... ... 18
- additive ... ... ... ... 22
- adherence ... ... ... ... 18
- adhesion ... ... ... ... 18
- ancient industry ... ... ... 1
- anatase ... ... ... ... 26
- application ... ... ... ... 49
- as part of surface coating industry 2
- blistering ... ... ... ... 19
- casein ... ... ... ... 16
- cement ... ... ... ... 16
- chalking ... ... ... ... 18
- checking ... ... ... ... 18
- chemical resistant ... ... ... 38
- colour ... ... ... ... 8, 13
- critical pigment-volume concentration (CPVC) 10
- cracking ... ... ... ... 18
- defoamer ... ... ... ... 30
- drier ... ... ... ... 23
- drying ... ... ... ... 20
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
- drying oil ... ... ... ... 23
- economic importance ... ... 1-2
- emulsion ... ... ... ... 8, 15, 17
- enamel ... ... ... ... 17
- extender ... ... ... ... 8, 23
- exterior ... ... ... ... 17, 25
- fatty acid ... ... ... ... 23
- filler ... ... ... ... 14
- fineness ... ... ... ... 18
- finish ... ... ... ... 15
- floading ... ... ... ... 18
- flooding ... ... ... ... 18
- flow ... ... ... ... 19
- freezing ... ... ... ... 21
- function ... ... ... ... 1-2, 8
- galvanized ... ... ... ... 40
- gloss ... ... ... ... 8, 15, 17,
- glossmeter ... ... ... ... 33
- hardness ... ... ... ... 18
- hiding power ... ... ... 49
- intergard ... ... ... ... 15
- interior ... ... ... ... 17
- latex ... ... ... ... 16, 29
- leveling ... ... ... ... 19
- linseed ... ... ... ... 16
- livering ... ... ... ... 20, 54
- manufactruring equipment ... 9
- machinery ... ... ... ... 11
- marine ... ... ... ... 41
Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh A guide for the paint maker
- mildewcide ... ... ... 26
- opacity ... ... ... ... 8, 13
- pigment ... ... ... ... 8, 23
- pighment volume concentration, pvc 10
- plasticizer ... ... ... ... 23
- polyvinylacetate, pva ... ... 34
- preservative ... ... ... 30
- primer ... ... ... ... 14
- resin ... ... ... ... 22
- rusting ... ... ... ... 58
- rutile ... ... ... ... 26
- sagging ... ... ... ... 19
- sealer ... ... ... ... 13
- skinning ... ... ... ... 20
- solvent ... ... ... ... 23
- specialties ... ... ... ... 42
- splash zone compound ... ... 15
- stopper ... ... ... ... 14
- structural-steel ... ... ... 37
- thinner ... ... ... ... 28
- thixothropy ... ... ... 19
- traffic ... ... ... ... 41
- undercoat ... ... ... ... 14, 28
- varnish ... ... ... ... 15
- vehicle ... ... ... ... 8
- viscosity ... ... ... ... 13
- washability ... ... ... 35
- wetting agent, surfactant ... ... 13
- whitewash ... ... ... ... 16

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