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Lim Eng Wah +» Low Swee Neo + Lim Yean Ching Eng Nguan Hong + Umi Kalthom binti Ahmad A tall building can be demolished with explosives within seconds. The explosion that occurs is a very fast reaction. On the other hand, the decaying of food is a very slow reaction. By understanding the rate of reaction, we can control the speed of chemical reactions in industries such as the preservation of food and the manufacture of medicine and agricultural products. Oi aa ee * Why do smaller pieces of food cook faster than larger pieces? * Why do coal mines and flour mills face a high risk of explosion? ‘After you have studied * Why do food cook faster in a pressure cooker? this chapter, you should be able to: oe hs ES © analyse rate of pegieiohes The rate of chemical reaction, Rani aad Depends on various conditions, Scie cane oF ‘Temperature, surface area, catalyst and concentration, : can Let us carry out experiments to show the dependence. -@ synthesize ideas on a collision theory. © practise scientific Terms dees Key Terms enhance quality of © Rate of reaction @ Collision theory @ Activation energy life. © Observable change @ Effective collision @ Energy profile diagram Chapter 1 Fale of Reaction G A, Rate of Reaction earning Outcomes You should be able to: * state what rate of reaction identify observable changes to reactants or produets for determining rate of reaction. determine the average rate of reaction. determine the rate of yn at any given time from a graph. Photograph 1.1 Controlling the rate of reaction is important in industrial processes. + solve numerical , pinkie taaiing Knowledge about the rate of reaction is important to research ies ice eacon: chemists and is applied in chemical-based industries. For example, + solve numerical it allows industrial processes to operate at chosen optimum conditions problems involving rate so that large amounts of products are produced in a short period of reaction at any given —_of time. time. What is rate of reaction? Day. ‘Year ¥ — - 7 Fireworks display occurs The process of photosynthesis The process of rusting The formation of stalagmites, in just a few seconds. takes a few hours. takes many days or weeks, and stalactites takes many Photograph 1.2 Different chemical reactions occur at different rates