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DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001475

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Estimation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient in

Ice-Covered Rivers

Ya Zhong 1; Wenxin Huai 2; Yufei Wang 3; and Gang Chen 4

Abstract: Flow structure and dispersion characteristics change significantly in ice-covered channels and rivers, and the longitudinal

dispersion coefficient is an important parameter for water pollution control and environmental protection. Considering the secondary flow

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Wuhan University on 04/06/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

in ice-covered channels and based on the Shiono and Knight method (SKM), the lateral distribution of the depth-averaged velocity in

ice-covered channels is solved in this study by adopting a power series. The result agrees well with the original analytical solution and

experimental data. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient caused by nonuniform distribution of transverse velocity is derived using Fischer’s

triple integral formula, and the longitudinal dispersion coefficient formula in a rectangular experimental ice-covered channel is obtained

by regression analysis, which coincides with the experimental results. The computational formula of longitudinal dispersion coefficient

in natural ice-covered rivers is obtained by logarithm linear regression of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in an experimental

ice-covered channel based on the mapping relationship between the data obtained from experiments and natural rivers. The measured data

and the corresponding dispersion formula in natural ice-covered rivers show a mean error rate of 28.4%, which verifies the correctness and the

rationality of the proposed formula. The proposed formula can be used to estimate pollutant transport in broad and shallow ice-covered

channels and natural ice-covered rivers. The comparison with ice-free rivers shows that the longitudinal dispersion coefficient of ice-covered

rivers is considerably smaller than that of ice-free rivers. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001475. © 2018 American Society of Civil

Engineers.

Author keywords: Ice-covered channel; Natural river; Longitudinal dispersion coefficient; Secondary flow; Power series.

The longitudinal dispersion coefficient is an important indicator

Contaminant spills are common and significant in ice-covered of pollutant discharge and water environmental protection. Taylor

rivers. Elevated levels of some heavy metals (e.g., lead, iron, (1954) analyzed the dispersion of laminar flow in a circular tube

copper, and cadmium) and organochlorines (e.g., PCBs and DDTs) and extended it to the turbulent flow in a circular tube, and he

have been observed in the ice sampled in the Siberian seas, north was the first to propose the concept of longitudinal dispersion

of Svalbard, and Baffin Bay (Pfirman et al. 1995). At present, oil coefficient.

exploration and production are increasing in Arctic regions. Oil The width–depth ratio is usually large in wide and shallow

pollution may be transported to ice margins by prevailing seawater rivers. This characteristic indicates that the longitudinal dispersion

currents. The microbial communities in Arctic sea ice are highly coefficient caused by the nonuniform distribution of transverse

affected by oil contamination (Brakstad et al. 2008). Therefore, velocity is considerably larger than that caused by the nonuniform

the flow characteristics of ice-covered rivers should be studied. distribution of vertical velocity in the same river. According to

However, the research on contaminant transportation and longitu- Schwab and Rehmann (2015), the relative importance of transverse

dinal dispersion in ice-covered rivers is lacking. and vertical variations in velocity is effectively measured by the

Longitudinal dispersion represents the transmission of pollutants ratio of the transverse and vertical mixing times. The results sup-

in the longitudinal direction and is usually caused by nonuniform port the usual practice of considering only transverse variations in

computing dispersion coefficients and suggest that vertical varia-

1

Master’s Degree Candidate, State Key Laboratory of Water Resources

tions can be neglected. Fischer et al. (1979) proposed the longitu-

and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan Univ., Wuhan 430072, dinal dispersion coefficient formula caused by the nonuniform

China. distribution of transverse velocity by applying Taylor’s method

2

Professor, State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Z Z Z

Engineering Science, Wuhan Univ., Wuhan 430072, China (corresponding 1 B y 1 y

DL ¼ − u 0 ðyÞhðyÞ u 0 ðyÞhðyÞdydydy

author). Email: wxhuai@whu.edu.cn

3

A 0 0 Ey ðyÞhðyÞ 0

Master’s Degree Candidate, State Key Laboratory of Water Resources

and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan Univ., Wuhan 430072, ð1Þ

China.

4

Ph.D. Candidate, State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources where A = cross-sectional area; B = river width; u 0 = deviation

and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai Univ., Nanjing 210098, China; of the time-averaged velocity from the depth-averaged velocity;

Engineer, Planning Dept., Yunnan Survey and Design Institute of Water

h = local water depth; Ey = local transverse mixing coefficient;

Conservancy and Hydropower, Kunming 650021, China.

Note. This manuscript was submitted on May 11, 2017; approved on and y = transverse coordinate.

December 18, 2017; published online on April 6, 2018. Discussion period The triple integral of the velocity distribution in the lateral

open until September 6, 2018; separate discussions must be submitted direction should be solved to obtain the longitudinal dispersion co-

for individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Hydraulic En- efficient shown in Eq. (1). Few depth-averaged velocity distributions

gineering, © ASCE, ISSN 0733-9429. in the transverse direction can be integrated three times, thus,

solving the triple integral directly is difficult. Many researchers use The secondary flow coefficient is used to represent the magnitude

other methods to deal with the problem. Chen and Zhu (2005) de- of secondary flow. Ervine et al. (2000) summarized an empirical for-

rived a velocity formula based on the maximum entropy principle mula of secondary flow coefficient using numerous measured data,

and used this method to determine the longitudinal dispersion co- and the findings indicated the secondary flow coefficient K < 0.5%

efficient in open channels with trapezoidal cross sections. Seo and for straight compound flows, and 2% < K < 5% for meandering

Baek (2004) considered the beta distribution equation as the most compound flows at least at the apex cross section. The computational

appropriate model for explaining the complex behavior of the trans- results by Chen et al. (2010) indicated that the value of K is roughly

verse velocity structure of irregular natural streams among many 0.5% in the straight channel with vegetation. Ignoring the secondary

tests. Zeng and Huai (2014) compared the empirical equations com- flow can bring a significant error for analytical solution for com-

monly used with measured data and found that most of the equations pound channel flows with vegetated floodplains and depth-averaged

underestimate longitudinal dispersion coefficients; they established velocity and bed shear stress in compound channels with emergent

a new empirical formula for longitudinal dispersion coefficients and submerged vegetation (Huai et al. 2009b; Liu et al. 2013).

with high accuracy based on regression analysis on measured data. A large volume of measured data shows that laboratory condi-

With free water surface frozen into ice cover in northern cold tions are simple and idealized. By contrast, many uncertain factors

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areas in winter, the appearance of ice cover increases the wetted are present in natural rivers, and longitudinal dispersion coefficients

perimeter and resistance of the cross section, as well as significantly derived under experimental conditions are considerably smaller

changes the flow structure and hydraulic condition. Experimental than those based on natural rivers. Deng et al. (2001) proposed a

and field observations and many research analyses have shown that logarithmic linear relationship between the longitudinal dispersion

velocity profiles of ice-covered channel flows exhibit an indepen- coefficients in experimental flumes and natural rivers, that is, two

dent two-layer vertical structure separated at the plane of maximum longitudinal dispersion coefficients maintain a linear relationship

velocity or zero shear stress (Chen et al. 2015). Chen et al. (2016a) after taking the logarithm. By using this relationship, the longitu-

developed an analytical model to predict the stage discharge rela- dinal dispersion coefficients in an experimental flume can be ex-

tionship for flow in rectangular ice-covered channels by using the tended to natural rivers with a high accuracy.

method of Guo and Julien (2005) and found that the widely used The transverse distribution of depth-averaged velocity in ice-

assumption that the mean velocities in bed and ice subsections are covered channels is derived in this study based on SKM and con-

equal is only theoretically valid for symmetric channels. Teal et al. sidering the secondary flow using the power series. A comparison

(1994) estimated the vertical velocity distribution in ice-covered with experimental data is also in Part of “Velocity in Rectangular

channels on the basis of a two-power law. Yang (2015) studied Ice-Covered Channel.” The formula for the longitudinal dispersion

the transverse velocity distribution in an ice-covered channel and coefficient of ice-covered channels is derived by regression analysis

presented a determination method of comprehensive resistance co- using Fischer’s formula. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient of

efficient caused by the combined effect of ice-cover resistance and ice-covered channels is compared with the experimental longitudi-

riverbed resistance. Wang et al. (2013) analyzed the longitudinal nal dispersion coefficient in Part of “Longitudinal Dispersion in

dispersion produced by vertical shear in ice-covered rivers on the Rectangular Ice-Covered Channel.” A formula for the longitudinal

basis of the logarithmic law of velocity distribution, and the results dispersion coefficient of natural ice-covered rivers is derived

showed that the hydraulic slope, the flow depth, and the ratio of through the logarithmic linear relationship. The formula is verified

Manning roughness coefficients are the main factors that influence by field tracer tests in natural ice-covered rivers in Part of “Lon-

the longitudinal dispersion. Chen et al. (2016b) simplified the triple gitudinal Dispersion in Natural Ice-Covered Rivers.” A comparison

integral in Fischer’s formula and consequently proposed a longi- between the derived equation of the longitudinal dispersion coef-

tudinal dispersion coefficient formula caused by the nonuniform ficient of ice-covered rivers in this work and similar equations

distribution of transverse velocity in ice-covered rivers, which is obtained for ice-free rivers is described in the Discussion section.

consistent with field tracer tests in natural ice-covered rivers.

The transverse distribution of the depth-averaged velocity must

be obtained to derive the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. Huai Velocity in Rectangular Ice-Covered Channel

et al. (2008, 2009a, c, 2012) proposed the solutions of transverse

velocity in open channel with suspended vegetation, submerged The transverse distribution of depth-averaged velocity must be

and emerged rigid vegetation, submerged flexible vegetation, and solved to obtain the formula of longitudinal dispersion coefficient

in a compound channel with partial vegetation based on the Shiono caused by nonuniform distribution of the transverse velocity. The

and Knight method (SKM) (Shiono and Knight 1991), and the re- velocity distribution equation can be obtained from the momentum

sults agree well with experimental data. Therefore, SKM can be equation of Shiono and Knight (1991)

adopted to solve the transverse velocity distribution in various sit- 1=2

1 1 1=2 ∂ 1 ∂u

uations. Wang and Huai (2016) and Zhang et al. (2017) used the ρgHS0 − ρfu2d 1 þ 2 þ ρλH 2 f ud d

8 s ∂y 8 ∂y

Fourier series and power series, respectively, to solve the transverse

velocity distribution and obtain the triple integral of the longitudi- ∂

¼ fHðρū · v̄Þd g ð2Þ

nal dispersion coefficient. They avoided the complicated computa- ∂y

tional problem by using the derivative and integral properties of the where ρ = density of the water; S0 = longitudinal bed slope; g =

Fourier series and power series. In the current study, the power acceleration due to gravity; H = water depth of the rectangular ice-

series is adopted to solve the distribution of depth-averaged veloc- covered channel; f = comprehensive friction factor; s = channel

ity in ice-covered channels and consequently reduce computational side slope (1∶s = horizontal distance: vertical distance); ud =

difficulty and obey physical mechanism. depth-averaged velocity in ice-covered channel; λ = lateral dimen-

Given the lack of an authoritative formula, secondary flow is sionless eddy viscosity; x, y, and z = streamwise, lateral, and

often ignored in computations. However, secondary flow shows vertical coordinates, respectively; ū and v̄ = mean velocity compo-

significant influence on transverse velocity distribution, and it af- nents that correspond to x and y; and ðÞd = depth-averaged value.

fects the precision of longitudinal dispersion coefficients. Secondary As for the secondary flow term, Ervine et al. (2000) primarily

flow is often defined as a small disturbance on a primary flow. proposed the empirical secondary flow coefficient K by assuming

u ¼ k1 ud , v ¼ k2 ud , thus, ðū · v̄Þd ¼ k1 k2 u2d ¼ Ku2d , where K is system in the center of a channel and half of the cross section is

the product of k1 and k2 . Assuming that K is constant, we obtain considered because of the symmetry of the channel. Assuming

η ¼ ½ð2yÞ=B, η ∈ ½0; 1 and substituting it into Eq. (4), the final

∂Hðū · v̄Þd ∂u2 equation for the transverse velocity distribution is obtained

¼ HK d ð3Þ

∂y ∂y rﬃﬃﬃ

2λH2 f ∂ 2 u2 2HK ∂u2 f 2

Substituting Eq. (3) into Eq. (2) obtains the ordinary differential − − u þ gHS0 ¼ 0 ð6Þ

B2 8 ∂η2 B ∂η 8

equation of the lateral distribution of the depth-averaged velocities

ud in rectangular ice-covered channels Owing to the derivative and integral properties of the power

rﬃﬃﬃ series, we assume u ¼ a0 þ a1 η þ a2 η2 þ a3 η3 þ · · · , and substi-

1 2 f ∂ 2 u2d ∂u2d 1 2

λH − HK − fu þ gHS0 ¼ 0 ð4Þ tute it into Eq. (6). Given that the coefficients before the power

2 8 ∂y2 ∂y 8 d series are equal on both sides of the equation, we obtain

The analytical solution can be expressed as 2ba0 a1 þca20 −gHS0

2a − a21

a2 ¼

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pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Pi−1 Pi−2

where γ 1 ¼ ½1=ðλHÞð8=fÞ1=2 fK þ K 2 þ ½ðλfÞ=4ðf=8Þ1=2 g; ði−1Þb aj ai−1−j þc aj ai−2−j Pi−1

γ 2 ¼ ½ð2KÞ=ðλHÞð8=fÞ1=2 − γ 1 ; and ωd ¼ ½ðgHS0 Þ=ðf=8Þ

j¼0

iði−1Þa

j¼0

− j¼1 aj ai−j

ai ¼ ð7Þ

Although Eq. (5) is the exact analytical solution for the trans- 2a0

verse velocity distribution of ice-covered channels, it is difficult to pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

use for the triple integral in the formula for longitudinal dispersion where a ¼ f½ð2λH2 Þ=B2 ðfd =8Þg; b ¼ ½ð2HKÞ=B; and

coefficients. A form of velocity distribution (e.g., power series) that c ¼ ðf=8Þ

is convenient for integration is required. Establishing a coordinate From Eq. (7), we obtain

a

γ ¼ lim i

i→∞ ai−1

P Pi−2

ði−1Þb i−1 aa þc aa Pi−1

j¼0 j i−1−j j¼0 j i−2−j

− a a

Pi−2 iði−1Þa

Pi−3

j¼1 j i−j

¼ lim

i→∞ ði−2Þb aa þc aa Pi−2

j¼0 j i−2−j

ði−1Þði−2Þa

j¼0 j i−3−j

− a a

j¼1 j i−1−j

≤ lim

i→∞ iði − 1Þaðði − 1Þði − 2Þba2 2 2 2

i−2;max þ cði − 2Þai−3;max − ði − 1Þði − 2Þ aai−1;max Þ

< lim ¼1 ð8Þ

i→∞ iði − 1Þði − 2Þb þ iði − 2Þc − iði − 1Þði − 2Þ2 a

The convergence radius of the power series is R ¼ 1=γ ≥ 1, secondary flow coefficient equals 0.0025. Combining a down-

such that the power series has an absolute convergence in con- looking configuration and an up-looking configuration, we employ

vergence region of [−1, 1]. With the boundary conditions

P (1): a three-dimensional (3D) acoustic Doppler velocimeter (micro

η ¼ 0; ∂u=∂y ¼ 0 ⇒ a1 ¼ 0, (2): η ¼ 1; u ¼ 0 ⇒ ∞ a

i¼o i ¼ 0, ADV) manufactured by Son Tek to measure the velocity accurately;

the coefficient value in Eq. (7) can be obtained. The number of the intrinsic error of the equipment is 0.25 cm=s, and its maximal

terms of the power series depends on the required accuracy of the sampling frequency is 50 Hz. Given the sampling time of 120 s,

solution and computational difficulty in practical application; 6–10 6,000 samples are obtained every time. Powdery tracer was used

terms are sufficient in general, whereas more terms are needed in in the velocity measuring, so the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was

rivers with great width–depth ratio. mostly kept at 40 or above, and the correlation (COR) was higher

The analytical solution is compared with the numerical analysis than 80% as shown in Fig. 3.

by conducting experiments in a rectangular glass flume with a The comparison among the original analytical solution, the

length of 20 m and a width of 1 m at the State Key Laboratory of power series analytical solution, and experimental data is conducted

Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science of Wuhan as shown in Fig. 4, and four (i ¼ 3), six (i ¼ 5), and 10 (i ¼ 9)

University. The straight flume features a 15-m-long ice-covered re- terms are adopted, respectively. The velocity distribution with the

gion simulating with cystosepiment and a 15-m-long plastic plate in secondary flow ignored (K ¼ 0) is approximately 30% smaller than

the flume bottom, and a tailgate at the end of the flume was used that with the secondary flow considered (K ¼ 0.0025). I Ignoring

to control the upstream water depth constant as shown in Figs. 1 the secondary flow can result in significant errors in the analytical

and 2. Velocity data were collected over a cross section located solution of depth-averaged velocity and then cause errors in the lon-

9 m from the inlet of the ice-covered channel in a region of fully gitudinal dispersion coefficients of ice-covered rivers. The results

developed flow. Two cases are considered, in which the water also show that the power series-based analytical solution agrees

depths are 0.15 and 0.185 m in a straight ice-covered channel, well with the original analytical solution and experimental data,

the longitudinal bed slope equals 0.001, the dimensionless eddy so the method and values in this work can be used in subsequent

viscosity equals 0.067, the Manning roughness equals 0.01, and the analyses.

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B2 U 2

DL ¼ − I ð11Þ

2εHu

DL −1 U 2 B 2

¼ I ð12Þ

Hu 2ε u H

∫ 10 u 0 0 ∫ η0 ∫ η0 u 0 0 dηdηdη, which can be obtained by the power

series as

Z 1

Z η

Z η

I¼ u00 u 0 0 dηdηdη

0 0 0

1 X

∞ X

∞

ai aj

¼

U2 i¼0 j¼0

ði þ 1Þði þ 2Þði þ j þ 3Þ

1X ∞

ai 1 X∞

aj

− −

U i¼0 ði þ 1Þði þ 2Þði þ 3Þ 2U j¼0 j þ 1

1X ∞

aj 1X∞

aj 1

þ − þ

U j¼0 ðj þ 1Þðj þ 2Þ U j¼0 ðj þ 1Þðj þ 2Þðj þ 3Þ 6

ð13Þ

Fig. 2. Flume with full ice cover.

Longitudinal Dispersion in Rectangular Ice-Covered longitudinal dispersion coefficient can be easily obtained. How-

Channel ever, the dimensionless triple integral presents a complex formula

and is different for every river. Thus, a power law is developed to

Given that the transverse velocity distributionPin an ice-covered represent the dimensionless triple integral via the computation of

channel represented by the power series is u ¼ ∞ i¼0 ai η , the aver-

i

the values of I for representative ranges of input variables. For sim-

aged velocity in an ice-covered channel is U ¼ ð1=2Þ∫ 1−1 udη ¼

P

plicity, the relationship between the value of the dimensionless tri-

∞

i¼0 ½ai =ði þ 1Þ. After coordinate transformation, the longitudinal

ple integral and the width–depth ratio B=H is assumed as

dispersion coefficient is obtained with u 0 ¼ u − U I ¼ αðB=HÞβ (Deng et al. 2001), where α and β are the regression

3 Z Z ηZ η coefficients, accordingly

2 B 1

DL ¼ − u0 u 0 dηdηdη ð9Þ

BEy 2 0 0 0 −α U 2 B 2þβ

DL ¼ Hu ð14Þ

Assuming a dimensionless velocity u 0 0 ¼ ðu − UÞ=U, the 2ε u H

longitudinal dispersion coefficient changes into

Z Z Z For the convenience of regression analysis, Eq. (14) is trans-

2 B 3 2 1 00 η η 00

DL ¼ − U u u dηdηdη ð10Þ formed, and the logarithm of both sides of the equation is consid-

BEy 2 0 0 0 ered, consequently

With transverse mixing coefficient Ey ¼ εRu , ε ¼ 0.15

R ≈ H=2 in an ice-covered 2εDL u 2 B

(Fischer et al. 1979), hydraulic radius

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log ¼ logð−αÞ þ ð2 þ βÞ log ð15Þ

channel, and friction velocity u ¼ gRS0, we obtain Hu U H

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Fig. 4. Transverse velocity distribution in rectangular ice-covered channels: (a) H ¼ 0.15 m; and (b) H ¼ 0.185 m.

By calculating the longitudinal dispersion coefficients in ice- depth is assumed to be 1 m, and the flume widths are from 10 to

covered channels for different width–depth ratios B=H whereas 100 m. The Manning roughness is 0.01, the bed slope is 0.001, and

the same other parameters (e.g., the bed slope, Manning roughness, the gravitational acceleration is 9.8 m=s2 . The calculated results are

and water depth), the values of α and β can be obtained. The water shown in Fig. 5.

where C = Rhodamine concentration; t1 ¼ x1 =u; t2 ¼ x2 =u; and τ

is an integration variable. In each case, we repeated the experiment

procedure five times to avoid contingencies.

The results of the experimental data and calculated values are

shown in Table 1. Overall, the measured data are smaller than the

calculated data. In comparison with the calculated value using

Eq. (16), the measured data showed a maximal error of −15%

and an averaged error of −9% for Case 1 and a maximal error

of −14% and an averaged error of −2% for Case 2. This outcome

indicates that the formula can be used to estimate longitudinal

dispersion coefficients under idealized conditions in rectangular

ice-covered channels.

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Rivers

influencing factor. Thus, the computational longitudinal dispersion

Fig. 5. Regression curve of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. coefficients based on the experimental data are much smaller than

those in natural rivers. The differences between observed and pre-

dicted dispersion coefficients are mainly attributed to the effects of

dead zones, bends, islands, and other irregular features that are not

Following Eq. (15), the regression curve is obtained in Fig. 5, in explicitly involved in experiments, and that the secondary flow is

which the correlation coefficient is 0.99, logð−αÞ ¼ −2.46, and highly complicated in natural rivers. These complexities of the geo-

2 þ β ¼ 1.92. The values of α and β are obtained, as well as the graphical and flow features significantly influence the definitions

longitudinal dispersion coefficient in an ice-covered channel and varieties of hydraulic elements, such as water depth and veloc-

2 1.92 ity, thereby causing multiple errors (Deng et al. 2001). Wang and

U B

DL ¼ 0.011 Hu ð16Þ Huai (2016) proposed a new revised method by establishing a log-

u H arithmic relationship between the formula derived from the experi-

ments and the actual solution in natural rivers

The longitudinal dispersion coefficient formula is verified by

conducting an experiment in the State Key Laboratory of Water D1 D

Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science in Wuhan Univer- ln ¼ ϕ ln 2 þ ϕ0 ð18Þ

Hu Hu

sity. In the experiment, the channel bed slope is 0.001, the Manning

roughness is 0.01, the flume width is 1 m, the water depths are where D1 = measured longitudinal dispersion coefficient in natural

0.15 and 0.185 m, and the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m=s2 . rivers; D2 = derived longitudinal dispersion coefficient; and ϕ and

Rhodamine was used as a tracer, and a solution of Rhodamine ϕ0 = undetermined coefficients.

was prepared in advance. The solution was poured uniformly and The undetermined coefficients can be obtained using numerous

rapidly along the entire channel width at the cross section 7 m away measured data of natural rivers and the corresponding calculated

from the inlet of the ice-covered channel. The concentrations of values, and the longitudinal dispersion coefficient formula in natu-

Rhodamine were measured at two cross sections, that is, 3 and ral rivers can be obtained from the relationship between the mea-

6 m downstream from the pouring point with fluorescence detectors sured and calculated values. Wang and Huai (2016) obtained the

(YSI Rhodamine Probe) as shown in Fig. 1. In addition, the two relationship between the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in a

fluorescence detectors were connected to one computer and started natural open channel and the calculated values derived by experi-

measuring simultaneously when the input of Rhodamine solution ments through collecting a large amount of measured data

was finished. After the measurement, the temporal concentration

DR D

curves of the two sections were used to calculate the longitudinal ln ¼ 0.58 ln 2 þ 4.32 ð19Þ

dispersion coefficient using the routing procedure, which uses the Hu Hu

temporal concentration curve at an upstream site (x1 ) to predict and

match the one at the downstream site (x2 ) (Fischer 1968; Fischer where DR = longitudinal dispersion coefficient formula in natural

et al. 1979; Guymer 2002; Huai et al. 2017) rivers.

Considering the lack of research on ice-covered rivers, espe-

Z ∞

Cðx1 ; tÞ ðx − x1 − uðt − τ ÞÞ2 cially the longitudinal dispersion coefficient of ice-covered rivers,

Cðx2 ; tÞ ¼ ﬃ exp − 2

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ udτ obtaining the relationship between the measured and calculated val-

−∞ 4πDL ðt2 − t1 Þ 4DL ðt2 − t1 Þ

ues in ice-covered rivers is difficult. So, Eq. (19) is applied to obtain

ð17Þ the longitudinal dispersion coefficient formula in ice-covered rivers

B H U S0 u Eq. (16) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Average

Cases (m) (m) (m=s) (‰) (m=s) (m2 =s) (difference %) (difference %) (difference %) (difference %) (difference %) (difference %)

1 1 0.15 0.16 1 0.027 0.065 0.063 (−3) 0.055 (−15) 0.064 (−2) 0.058 (−11) 0.055 (−15) 0.059 (−9)

2 1 0.185 0.18 1 0.030 0.058 0.056 (−3) 0.062 (7) 0.050 (−14) 0.064 (−10) 0.055 (5) 0.057 (−2)

Table 2. Comparison of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in ice-covered rivers

DL (m2 =s) Difference (%) DL (m2 =s) Difference (%)

Cases B (m) H (m) U (m=s) S0 (‰) u (cm=s) Tests (m2 =s) (Chen) (Chen) [Eq. (20)] [Eq. (20)]

1 105 0.65 0.48 1.26 6.33 982 2,283 132 723 26

2 128 0.94 0.35 0.82 6.15 736 1,286 75 601 18

3 60 0.9 0.24 0.81 5.98 163 143 12 168 3

4 116 1.44 0.31 0.79 7.47 829 445 46 431 48

5 142 1 0.32 0.93 6.75 1,136 1,132 1 595 47

1.16 1.12 Table 3. Calculating results of ice-covered river and ice-free river

U B

DL ¼ 5.62 Hu ð20Þ

u H Q (m3 =s) B (m) H o (m) H i (m) Uo (m=s) U i (m=s)

21 100 0.41 0.54 0.50 0.38

Numerous sets of field tracer dye tests in many reaches of ice-

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Wuhan University on 04/06/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

covered rivers were conducted by the Alberta Research Council 30 100 0.51 0.68 0.58 0.44

from 1989 to 1993. In these tests, river width ranged from 60 to 35 100 0.57 0.75 0.62 0.47

408 m, and the average depth was between 0.6 and 4.5 m. Average 41 100 0.62 0.82 0.66 0.50

velocities varied within the range of 0.3–1.0 m=s. Beltaos (1998) 48 100 0.68 0.90 0.70 0.53

reported these tests and proposed a method to estimate the longi-

tudinal dispersion coefficient. Consequently, several typical test

reaches are chosen for the validation of the longitudinal dispersion The averaged velocities in ice-covered rivers fall within

coefficients in ice-covered rivers in Eq. (20) in this study. Further- 0.35–0.53 m=s, which coincides with the result of Beltaos (1998).

more, Chen’s (2016b) results of longitudinal dispersion coefficient With the same flow rate, the averaged velocity in the ice-covered

in an ice-covered river, which is further developed by the simpli- river is approximately 25% smaller than that in the ice-free river. As

fication of Fischer’s triple integral equation, is introduced as shown a result of the decreased velocity, the water depth in the ice-covered

in Table 2. river shows an increase of about 30% in comparison with that in an

Table 2 shows that compared with the formula of Chen et al. open-water river when the bed and ice boundary show the same

(2016b), Eq. (20) is satisfactory in three cases, about the same in roughness. Ice cover induces additional resistance and reduces the

one case, and much worse in one case. Generally, Chen’s result is hydraulic radius by approximately one-half when the flow depth

larger than the measured data, whereas the result of Eq. (20) is

remains constant. The averaged velocity with ice cover is smaller

smaller than the latter. Chen’s solution results in an error within

than that without ice cover.

132% with the tracer test values in ice-covered rivers, whereas

Three different longitudinal dispersion coefficients with differ-

the proposed solution in this paper obtains an error within 48%.

ent flow rates were obtained and compared (Fig. 6). With the

Moreover, the mean error rate in the current study (28.4%) is con-

increase of flow rate in the same river, both the longitudinal dis-

siderably smaller than that in the work of Chen (53.2%). The pro-

persion coefficients in the ice-covered river and ice-free river

posed solution agrees well with the measured data of tracer tests,

(Deng et al. 2001) gradually increased, while Fischer’s dispersion

and the proposed longitudinal dispersion coefficient formula can

be applied to the estimation of longitudinal dispersion coefficients coefficient decreased slightly. Generally, the longitudinal disper-

of natural ice-covered rivers. Measured data for the longitudinal sion coefficients of ice-covered rivers are considerably smaller than

dispersion coefficients of ice-covered rivers are lacking. The lon- those of ice-free rivers; the presence of ice cover reduces the lon-

gitudinal dispersion coefficient formula presented in this work re- gitudinal dispersion capacity of rivers.

quires further validation by available field data in future research.

Discussion

corresponding comparison was conducted between the longitudinal

dispersion coefficients of ice-free rivers (Fischer 1967; Deng et al.

2001) and ice-covered rivers [Eq. (20)]. In the results of Beltaos

(1998) shown in Table 2, the width–depth ratio is approximately

60–160, and the averaged velocity in ice-covered rivers is about

0.2–0.5 m=s. During the comparison process, the bed slope was

kept at 0.001, the bed roughness and ice roughness were both

kept at 0.035, and the river width was kept at 100 m. The averaged

velocities in the formulas are difficult to obtain directly. Thus,

Chezy’s formula was adopted to calculate the averaged velocities

approximately. Varying flow rates resulted in different velocities

and different water depths in ice-covered and ice-free rivers. The

calculation results are shown in Table 3. In this table, Q is the flow

rate; B is the river width; Ho and H i represent the water depths in

open-water rivers and ice-covered rivers, respectively; and U o and

Fig. 6. Comparison of longitudinal dispersion coefficients in ice-

U i represent the averaged velocities in open-water rivers and ice-

covered river and ice-free river.

covered rivers, respectively.

Conclusion Chen, G., M. Zhou, S. Gu, and W. Huai. 2016a. “Analytical model

for stage-discharge prediction in rectangular ice-covered channels.”

In natural rivers, the width–depth ratio is usually large. The longi- J. Hydraul. Eng. 142 (7): 06016006. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)

tudinal dispersion coefficient caused by the nonuniform transverse HY.1943-7900.0001141.

velocity distribution is much greater than that caused by the non- Chen, Y., Z. Wang, D. Zhu, and Z. Liu. 2016b. “Longitudinal dispersion

uniform vertical velocity distribution, and the precise transverse coefficient in ice-covered rivers.” J. Hydraul. Res. 54 (5): 558–566.

velocity distribution is needed to obtain the longitudinal dispersion https://doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2016.1175519.

coefficient. Obtaining the triple integral of discrete velocity is dif- Chen, Y., and D. Zhu. 2005. “Study on longitudinal dispersion coefficient

ficult given the existing distribution of the velocity in ice-covered in open channel trapezoidal cross-section.” Adv. Water Sci. 16 (4):

511–517.

channel. In this study, based on Shiono’s method in solving the

Deng, Z., V. P. Singh, and L. Bengtsson. 2001. “Longitudinal dispersion

depth-averaged velocity and considering the secondary flow, the

coefficient in straight rivers.” J. Hydraul. Eng. 127 (11): 919–927.

transverse velocity distribution and the longitudinal dispersion co-

https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2001)127:11(919).

efficient in an ice-covered channel are derived using the power Ervine, D. A., K. Babaeyan-Koopaei, and R. H. J. Sellin. 2000. “Two-

series, and they are in good agreement with the corresponding ex- dimensional solution for straight and meandering overbank flows.”

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Wuhan University on 04/06/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

perimental data. The analytical averaged velocity with secondary J. Hydraul. Eng. 126 (9): 653–669. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)

flow ignored (K ¼ 0) is approximately 25% smaller than that with 0733-9429(2000)126:9(653).

secondary flow considered (K ¼ 0.0025), as shown in the current Fischer, H. B. 1967. “The mechanics of dispersion in natural streams.”

work. The flow is complex and changeable in natural ice-covered J. Hydraul. Div. 93 (6): 187–216.

rivers, and hydraulic elements, including water depth, bed slope, Fischer, H. B. 1968. “Dispersion predictions in natural streams.” J. Sanitary

and secondary flow, are affected by numerous uncertain factors. Eng. Div. 94 (SA5): 927–944.

The longitudinal dispersion coefficients in idealized laboratory ex- Fischer, H. B., E. J. List, R. C. Y. Koh, J. Imberger, and N. H. Brooks.

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nevertheless, they follow the same longitudinal dispersion rule. Academic.

Considering the lack of research on the longitudinal dispersion Guo, J., and P. Y. Julien. 2005. “Shear stress in smooth rectangular open-

coefficient of ice-covered rivers, the longitudinal dispersion coef- channel flows.” J. Hydraul. Eng. 131 (1): 30–37. https://doi.org/10

ficient formula in an ice-covered river is derived using the relation- .1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2005)131:1(30).

ship between the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in natural open Guymer, I. 2002. A national database of travel time, dispersion and meth-

channels and that derived by experiments. Furthermore, the pro- odologies for the protection of river abstractions. R & D Technical Rep.

P346. Sheffield, UK: Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering, Univ. of

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Sheffield.

The proposed longitudinal dispersion coefficient formula in ice-

Huai, W., Z. Chen, J. Han, L. Zhang, and Y. Zeng. 2009a. “Mathematical

covered rivers presents a good accuracy and can therefore be used model for the flow with submerged and emerged rigid vegetation.”

for further research on the characteristics of pollutant transport in J. Hydrodyn. 21 (5): 722–729. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(08)

ice-covered rivers. The averaged velocity in ice-covered rivers is 60205-X.

approximately 25% smaller than that in open-water rivers. The Huai, W., M. Gao, Y. Zeng, and D. Li. 2009b. “Two-dimensional analytical

water depth in ice-covered rivers shows an increase of about 30% solution for compound channel flows with vegetated floodplains.” Appl.

in comparison with that in open-water rivers when the bed and Math. Mech. 30 (9): 1121–1130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10483-009

ice boundary show the same roughness in the same river. The lon- -0906-z.

gitudinal dispersion coefficients of ice-covered rivers are consider- Huai, W., J. Han, Y. Zeng, X. An, and Z. Qian. 2009c. “Velocity distribu-

ably smaller than those of open-water rivers because the presence tion of flow with submerged flexible vegetation based on mixing-length

of ice cover reduces the longitudinal dispersion capacity of rivers. approach.” Appl. Math. Mech. 30 (3): 343–351. https://doi.org/10.1007

/s10483-009-0308-1.

Huai, W., Y. Hu, Y. Zeng, and J. Han. 2012. “Velocity distribution for open

Acknowledgments channel flows with suspended vegetation.” Adv. Water Resour. 49 (8):

56–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.07.001.

This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Huai, W., H. Shi, S. Song, and S. Ni. 2017. “A simplified method for es-

Foundation of China (Nos. 51439007, 11172218, and 11372232). timating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in ecological channels

Special thanks to the chief editor, associate editor, and anonymous with vegetation.” Ecol. Indic., in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind

reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions on this .2017.05.015.

Huai, W., Z. Xu, Z. Yang, and Y. Zeng. 2008. “Two dimensional analytical

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