Você está na página 1de 40

2

3
As per ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)

A runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land


aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of
aircraft“

Longest runway in the world (Qamdo Airport) = 5,500m


Longest runway in the India (Delhi Airport) = 4,430m

4
• Angle made by the runway
centreline with the Azimuth

• Runways are always numbered from


1 to 36

• For Ex. If runway is number is as


Runway 09, it indicates the
orientation of runway towards east.

• Likewise Runway 18- South, Runway


27- West, etc.

9
• Runways are always oriented in the direction of
prevailing wind
• It is done so as to utilize max force of wind at the
time of landing and take off
• Take off- Lift is produced
• Landing – Drag is produced
• Orientation helps in locating facilities such passenger
terminals, apron, taxiways, hanger, parking facilities,
etc.

10
• Wind conditions vary from hour to hour

• As per FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)


standards, runway should be oriented in such a way
that aircraft can land and/or take-off at least 95%
time without exceeding allowable cross wind
component

• Orientation maximizes the possible use of runway

11
• Transverse component of wind at 90° angle with direction of
aircraft movement is called cross wind component and may
interrupt the safe landing and take-off of the aircrafts.

• Small Aircrafts < 15kmph


• Mixed Traffic < 25 kmph
• Big Aircrafts < 35 Kmph

12
General Terms

• Calm Period

This is the period for which wind remains below 6.4 kmph

• Wind Coverage

The percentage of time in a year during which the cross


wind component remains within the limits

13
FACTORS AFFECTING RUNWAY ORIENTATION

Other factors
• Airspace availability
Direction • Obstructions to navigation
• ATC visibility
Duration • Terrain and soil
• Obstructions
• Wildlife Hazards
Intensity

15
16
• A wind rose is a graphic tool to give a clear view of
how wind speed and direction are typically
distributed at a particular location.

• Orientation of Runway can be done by any one of the


wind rose analysis
• Type 1 – Wind Direction & Duration
• Type 2 – Wind Direction, Duration & Intensity

17
Wind Rose- Type I Template

• The area is divided in


16 parts at an angle of
22.5°

• Average Wind data of


last 5 to 10 years is
considered

18
Type 1- Wind Rose Analysis

Total Duration
Wind Direction Duration of Wind in Percentage
(%)

6.4 to 25 kmph 25 to 40 kmph 40 to 60 kmph


N 7.4 2.7 0.2 10.3
NNE 5.7 2.1 0.3 8.1
NE 2.4 0.9 0.6 3.9
ENE 1.2 0.4 0.2 1.8
E 0.8 0.2 0 1
ESE 0.3 0.1 0 0.4
SE 4.3 2.8 0 7.1
SSE 5.5 3.2 0 8.7
S 9.7 4.6 0 14.3
SSW 6.3 3.2 0.5 10
SW 3.6 1.8 0.3 5.7
WSW 1 0.5 0.1 1.6
W 0.4 0.1 0 0.5
WNW 0.2 0.1 0 0.3
NW 5.3 1.9 0 7.2
NNW 4 1.3 0.3 5.6
Total 86.5

20
Type 1- Wind Rose Analysis

N
NNW 16 NNE
• Orientation of runway is 14
12
NW NE
along the longest line i.e. 10
8
North-South Direction WNW 6 ENE
4
2
• Considering Wind coverage W 0 E
in NNW, N, NNE, SSE, S &
SSW, the total wind WSW ESE
coverage (including calm
period) is around 57% SW SE
SSW SSE
S

21
22
Type 2- Wind Rose Analysis

• Each circle represents


the wind intensity to
some scale

• The values entered in


each segment represent
the percentage time in a
year during which the
wind having a particular
intensity blows from a
respective direction.

23
24
25
 Transparent Rectangular
template of length greater
than diameter of Wind
rose and width equal to
twice the maximum cross
wind component

26
• Template is placed above wind
rose such that centreline
coincides with centre of wind
rose

• Template is fixed in position


and the sum of duration shown
in cells superimposed is
calculated

• This sum represents wind


coverage (including calm
period)

• Template is then rotated in


various directions and direction
which gives max wind
coverage or more than 95%, is
fixed for runway orientation

27
29
Basic Runway Length is the one calculated under following
conditions:
1. No wind
2. Aircraft loaded to its full Capacity.
3. Airport at MSL
4. Zero Effective Gradient
5. Standard Temperature of 15°C

• A runway length of 1800m is sufficient for any aircraft


having weight below 90,000kg

30
Aircraft Airport Safety
Characteristics Environment Requirements

• Power and • Temperature • Normal Landing


propulsion of • Surface wind • Normal Take-off
aircraft • Altitude • Stopping in
• Type of aircraft • Effective Emergency
• Gross Take off Gradient
and landing
weights

31
Basic Runway Length

• The manner in which aircraft takes off or land also


affect the basic length

• Case 1 – Normal landing

32
• Case 2 – Normal Take off
• Requires a clearway which an area beyond the
runway and is in alignment with centreline of
runway.

• Width of Clearway = Min 150 m

33
34
• Case 3 – Engine failure case
• Engine failure case may require clearway or stopway, both.

• Stopway is described as an area beyond the runway and


centrally located in alignment with centre line of runway

• Stopway is used for decelerating the aircraft and bring it stop


during aborted take-off.

35
36
Corrections to Basic Runway Length

To get the actual length of runway, following


corrections should be applied to basic runway length.

Correction due to elevation

Correction for temperature

Correction for Gradient

37
38
At elevation, Air Density reduces

Reduction in lift produced for wings

Therefore, more ground speed required for lift-off

So longer runway required to gain the speed

• For similar reasons, length is increased for temperature


• As the gradient becomes steep, more energy is consumed and
longer runway is required to achieve desired ground speed
39
Correction for elevation

• As per ICAO recommendation, Length of the runway should


be increased by 7% for each 300m rise in elevation

7 𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐿𝑐1 =𝐿+ × ×𝐿
100 300

Where 𝐿𝑐1 = Corrected runway length


𝐿 = Basic runway length

40
• Length of the runway is increased by 1% for every 1°C degree
rise in airport reference temperature (ART) above the
standard atmospheric temp. at that elevation

𝑇𝑚 − 𝑇𝑎
𝐴𝑅𝑇 = 𝑇𝑎 +
3
• 𝑇𝑎 = monthly mean of the average daily temperature for the
hottest month of the year
• 𝑇𝑚 = monthly mean of the maximum daily temperature for
the same month of the year

41
• As elevation increases, temperature decreases
• Standard temperature at elevation
(X)= 15 -0.0065(Elevation)

• Rise in Temperature (∆T)= ART – X

• Corrected Runway Length (𝐿𝑐2 )


𝟏
𝑳𝒄𝟐 = 𝑳𝒄𝟏 + × ∆𝑻 × 𝑳𝑪𝟏
𝟏𝟎𝟎

• Check 𝐿𝐶2 < 1.35𝐿

42
Correction Due to gradient

• Increase Runway length by 20% for every 1 % rise in


gradient.

• For undulated runway,


𝑫𝒊𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒃𝒆𝒕𝒘𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒎𝒂𝒙. 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝑹. 𝑳. 𝑷𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒔 𝒐𝒏 𝑹𝒖𝒏𝒘𝒂𝒚
• 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝑮𝒓𝒂𝒅𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒕 =
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑹𝒖𝒏𝒘𝒂𝒚 𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉

𝟐𝟎 × 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒅𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒕
𝑳𝑪𝟑 = 𝑳𝑪𝟐 𝟏+
𝟏𝟎𝟎
Where 𝐿𝐶3 = Actual Runway length after gradient correction

43
Actual Runway Length

• Basic Runway length = 𝐿


• Correction for elevation
7 𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐿𝑐1 =𝐿+ × ×𝐿
100 300

• Correction for temperature


1
𝐿𝑐2 = 𝐿𝑐1 + × ∆𝑇 × 𝐿𝐶1
100

• Correction for gradient


20 × 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝐿𝐶3 = 𝐿𝐶2 1+
100

44
Take Off Weight Elevation Temperature Runway Length
360000 Kg MSL 15°C 2000 m
360000 Kg 1828 m 3.1°C 2750 m
420000 Kg 610 m 26°C 3250 m

Landing Weight Elevation Runway Condition Runway Length


305000 Kg MSL Dry 1950m
305000 Kg 1828 m Wet 2250 m
305000 Kg 3048 m Wet 2900 m

46
Queries??? Questions??? Doubts???

47
48