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Design Example Report

16W (24W Peak) Multiple Output Supply


Title
using TOP244P
Input: 98 – 135 VAC
Output: 1.8V/0.6A, 3.3V/0.55A, 7V/0.4A,
Specification
17V/0.4A (0.8A Peak), 22V/0.4A (0.8A
Peak)
Application Set Top Box
Author Power Integrations Applications Department
Document
DER-22
Number
Date March 30, 2004
Revision 1.0

Summary and Features


This report describes a design for a multiple output power supply, such as required for
a Set Top Box, featuring the following:
• No heatsinks on the complete power supply
• Low Parts Count - Minimal cost power supply
• 16W Continuous / 24W Peak power capability – Allows for hard disk spin up
• >50ms Hold-Up Time – Extended immunity to mains brown out
• Advanced system level surge protection – Increased field reliability
• >75% Operating efficiency
The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found
at www.powerint.com.

Power Integrations
5245 Hellyer Avenue, San Jose, CA 95138 USA.
Applications Hotline: Tel: +1 408 414 9660 Fax: +1 408 414 9760
www.powerint.com
DER-22 16W (24W Peak) Set Top Box PSU March 30, 2004

Table Of Contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 4
2 Power Supply Specification........................................................................................ 5
3 Schematic .................................................................................................................. 6
4 Circuit Description ...................................................................................................... 7
4.1 Design Architecture............................................................................................. 7
4.2 Input Rectification ............................................................................................... 7
4.3 Primary Side Clamp ............................................................................................ 7
4.4 Output Rectification, Filtering and Feedback ...................................................... 7
5 Bill Of Materials .......................................................................................................... 8
6 Prototype PCB Layout................................................................................................ 9
7 Transformer Specification ........................................................................................ 10
7.1 Electrical Diagram............................................................................................. 10
7.2 Electrical Specifications .................................................................................... 10
7.3 Materials ........................................................................................................... 10
7.4 Transformer Build Diagram ............................................................................... 11
7.5 Winding Instructions.......................................................................................... 11
8 Transformer Spreadsheet ........................................................................................ 12
8.1 16W Continuous Loading.................................................................................. 12
8.2 23W Peak Loading Case .................................................................................. 15
9 Performance Measurements .................................................................................... 18
9.1 Full Power Efficiency......................................................................................... 18
9.2 Efficiency Variation with Load ........................................................................... 18
9.3 Line Regulation ................................................................................................. 19
9.4 Load Regulation................................................................................................ 20
9.5 Key Component Operating Temperatures ........................................................ 21
10 Operating Waveforms........................................................................................... 22
10.1 Steady State Drain-Source Voltage and Drain Current Waveforms.................. 22
10.2 Start-up Drain-Source Voltage and Drain Current Waveforms.......................... 22
10.3 Output Voltage Rise Behavior........................................................................... 23
10.4 Inrush Current ................................................................................................... 25
10.5 Hold-up ............................................................................................................. 25
10.6 Transient Response.......................................................................................... 27
10.7 Peak Power Loading......................................................................................... 27
11 Conducted EMI Measurements ............................................................................ 29
11.1 Results with output grounded to protective earth .............................................. 29
11.2 Results with Output Floating ............................................................................. 30
12 Revision History.................................................................................................... 31

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Important Note:
Although this board is designed to satisfy safety isolation requirements, the engineering
prototype has not been agency approved. Therefore, all testing should be performed
using an isolation transformer to provide the AC input to the prototype board.

Design Reports contain a power supply design specification, schematic, bill of materials,
and transformer documentation. Performance data and typical operation characteristics
are included. Typically only a single prototype has been built.

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1 Introduction

This document describes a design proposal for a 16W multiple output power supply
operating from 110V mains. The supply will deliver 16W continuously with a short
duration 23W peak capability. The peak power capability has been specified to allow for a
short duration peak current of 800mA on either the 17V or 22V rails when the LNB power
circuitry switches between the two voltage levels.

The document includes full schematic, bill of materials and transformer design
information. The report also includes a full set of performance measurements on the
prototype unit shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1 - Prototype Power Supply (Ruler Scale is in mm)

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2 Power Supply Specification

Description Symbol Min Typ Max Units Comment


Input
Voltage VIN 98 135 VAC 2 Wire – no P.E.
Frequency fLINE 56 60 64 Hz

Output
Output Voltage 1 VOUT1 1.7 1.8V 1.95 V ± 5%
Output Ripple Voltage 1 VRIPPLE1 50 mV 20 MHz Bandwidth
Output Current 1 IOUT1 0.6 0.6 A
Output Voltage 2 VOUT2 3.15 3.3V 3.45 V ± 5%
Output Ripple Voltage 2 VRIPPLE2 50 mV 20 MHz Bandwidth
Output Current 2 IOUT2 0.55 0.55 A
Output Voltage 3 VOUT3 6.4 7 7.6 V ± 5%
Output Ripple Voltage 3 VRIPPLE3 200 mV 20 MHz Bandwidth
Output Current 3 IOUT3 0.35 0.4 A
Output Voltage 4 VOUT4 16.25 17 18 V ± 5%
Output Ripple Voltage 4 VRIPPLE4 200 mV 20 MHz Bandwidth
Output Current 4 IOUT4 0.03 0.38 0.4 A (0.8A peak)
Output Voltage 5 VOUT5 21.5 22 23 V ± 5%
Output Ripple Voltage 5 VRIPPLE5 200 mV 20 MHz Bandwidth
Output Current 5 IOUT5 0.001 0.45 0.47 A (0.8A peak)
Total Output Power
Continuous Output Power POUT 16 W
Peak Output Power POUT_PEAK 23 W Duration 20ms
Efficiency η 75 % Measured at full load, 25 oC
Environmental
Conducted EMI Meets CISPR22B / EN55022B
o
Ambient Temperature TAMB 0 45 C Free convection, sea level

Table 1 - Power Supply Specification


Notes:-

1. Power supply must maintain output voltages within defined tolerances when
subject to a mains failure lasting 50ms.
2. The 17V and 22V rails supply LNB circuitry. The load conditions of these two rails
are such that when one is at full power, the other is at effectively zero power and
vice-versa. Maximum continuous power is calculated with 470mA load on 22V.
3. The 800mA peak occurs when the LNB circuitry switches from 17V to 22V. The
peak lasts 20ms.
4. Under low load conditions, the 17V and 22V rail voltages can drift up to an
absolute maximum level of 28V. This level should never be exceeded.

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3 Schematic

Figure 2- Schematic

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4 Circuit Description

This schematic presented above details an isolated flyback power supply using TOP244P
from Power Integrations. This IC integrates the following features to minimize PSU cost:

Frequency jitter which reduces the QP and AV EMI levels by up to 10dB allowing
for cheaper EMI filter components
Soft-Start which prevents transformer saturation during start-up. This increases
long term reliability
Line UV and OV detection to give additional differential surge withstand capability
to increase reliability
Regulation to zero load without pre-load due to very low minimum duty cycle
capability
Line feed forward which improves 100Hz ripple rejection
Hysteretic thermal and short circuit protection to increase long term reliability
DIP08 package which requires additional heatsink to minimize BOM and
manufacturing cost.

4.1 Design Architecture

The approach used here is standard AC stacking to provide the 3.3V, 7V, 17V and 22V
from transformer windings. Due to limited number of secondary side pins on an EF25
core, the 1.8V output was derived by linear drop from the 3.3V rail.

4.2 Input Rectification

AC input power is rectified by a full bridge, consisting of D2, D3, D5 and D6. The rectified
DC is then filtered by the bulk storage capacitor C6.

4.3 Primary Side Clamp

D7, R3, C2 and R1 form the primary side leakage spike clamp. Use of a 1N4007GP
diode (With specified reverse recovery time) allows some of the clamp energy to be
recycled. In addition, this clamp gives smooth clamping action and low resulting EMI

4.4 Output Rectification, Filtering and Feedback

D10 and D8 have been chosen as schottky diodes to give low conduction drop and
superior reverse recovery performance. D4 and D1 are normal ultra-fast diodes. C15,
C10, C8 and C3 have been chosen to meet the required ripple current rating. The heavily
continuous mode of operation used in this design will minimize output capacitor size and
cost due to low RMS currents. Each rail uses an LC post filter to meet the specified
output noise and ripple requirements. Feedback is provided by a TL431 reference circuit
using the 3.3V as the feedback rail.

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5 Bill Of Materials

Reference Quantity Description / Value

C1 1 1nF, Y1 SAFETY
C2 1 1nF, 1kV
C3,C8,C10 3 56uF, 35V
C7,C4 2 47uF, 50V
C5,C14,C18 3 100nF
Capacitors

C6 1 100uF, 200V
C16,C9 2 100uF, 10V
C11 1 4n7
C12 1 1uF, 50V
C13 1 47uF, 16V
C15 1 270uF, 35V
C17 1 100uF, 10V
C19 1 10uF, 16V
D4,D1 2 UG2B
Diodes

D2,D3,D5,D6 4 1N4005
D7 1 1N4007GP
D8,D10 2 SB304
D9,D11 2 1N4148
Protection

R2 1 VDR 200V

F1 1 250V, 1A

L1,L5,L7 3 4.7uH, 1A
Magnetics

L4 1 15mH, 0.5A, CM Choke


L10 1 4.7uH, 2A
T1 1 CUSTOM EF25
R1 1 150k, 1W
R3 1 100R
R4 1 1M
R5 1 3R3
Resistors

R6 1 6R8
R7 1 240R
R8 1 10k
R9 1 6k4, 1%
R10 1 3K3
R11 1 10k, 1%
R12 1 5k6
R13 1 36k
U1 1 PC817
U2 1 TOP244P
IC's

U3 1 LP3961
U4 1 TL431
Total of 54 components

Note: All resistors are 1/8W, 5% unless otherwise specified.

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6 Prototype PCB Layout

A prototype based on the schematic shown in Figure 2 has been constructed with outer
dimensions of 195mm by 50mm. This PSU could be made smaller due to the high level
of integration of TOP244P. All components are through hole devices except the 1.8V
linear regulator (U3) which is surface mounted on the underside of the PCB. No
heatsinks are required for any part of this design.

Figure 3 - PCB Copper Layout (viewed from above), approx 195mm by 50mm

Figure 4 - Component Placement (viewed from above)

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7 Transformer Specification

7.1 Electrical Diagram

10
22V WINDING
3 TURNS
1 0.45mm HEAVY NYLEZE
1/2 PRIMARY
35 TURNS
0.2mm HEAVY NYLEZE 9
17V WINDING
3 6 TURNS
1/2 PRIMARY 0.45mm HEAVY NYLEZE
36 TURNS
0.2mm HEAVY NYLEZE
8
7V WINDING
4 2 TURNS
BIFILAR 0.45mm HEAVY NYLEZE
5
BIAS
9 TURNS 7
BIFILAR 0.2mm HEAVY NYLEZE 3V3 WINDING
2 TURNS
2 QUADRAFILAR 0.45mm HEAVY NYLEZE

Figure 5 –Transformer Electrical Diagram

7.2 Electrical Specifications

Electrical Strength 1 second, 60 Hz, from pins 1-5 to pins 6-10 3000 VAC
Pins 1-4, all other windings open. 1.31mH
Primary Inductance
Measured at 132 kHz, 1 VRMS +15%
Resonant Frequency Pin 1-4, all other windings open 600 kHz (Min.)
Pins 1-4, with pins 6-10 shorted.
Primary Leakage Inductance 30 µH (Max.)
Measured at 132 kHz, 1 VRMS

7.3 Materials

Item Description
2
[1] Core: EF25/13/7, 3C85 or Equivalent, Gapped for AL of 260 nH/T
[2] Bobbin: EF25, Horizontal 10 pins (P/N Ferroxcube CPH-E25/13/7-1S-10P)
[3] Magnet Wire: 0.20mm (#32 AWG)
[4] Magnet Wire: 0.45mm (#25 AWG)
[5] Tape: 3M 1298 Polyester Film, 15 mm wide
[6] Margin tape: 3M # 44 Polyester web. 3.0 mm wide
[7] Varnish

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7.4 Transformer Build Diagram

1
3 ½ PRIMARY
10
9 17V and 20V
Windings
8
7
3.3V and 5V
6
Windings
2
5 BIAS
3
½ PRIMARY
4

Figure 6 – Transformer Build Diagram

7.5 Winding Instructions

Margin Tape Apply 3.0 mm margin at each side of bobbin using item [6].
Start at pin 4. Wind 36 turns of item [3] from right to left in a single layer. Wind
½ PRIMARY
tightly and uniformly across entire width of bobbin. Terminate on pin 3.
Basic Insulation Apply 1 layers of tape item [5]
Margin Tape Apply 3.0 mm margin at each side of bobbin using item [6].
Start at pin 5. Wind 9 bifilar turns of item [3] from right to left in a single layer.
Bias Winding
Finish on pin 2.
Safety Insulation Apply 3 layers of tape item [5]
Margin Tape Apply 3.0 mm margin at each side of bobbin using item [6].
Start at pin 6. Wind 2 quadrafilar turns of item [4] and terminate on pin 7.
3.3V and 5V
Continue with 1 further bifilar turn of item [4]. The wires should be uniformly
Winding
wound spread across the bobbin width. Finish on pin 8.
Basic Insulation Apply 1 layers of tape item [5]
Margin Tape Apply 3.0 mm margin at each side of bobbin using item [6].
17V and 22V Start at pin 8. Wind 6 turns of item [4]. Terminate on pin 9. Continue winding
Winding with 3 further turns of item [4] and terminate on pin 10.
Outer Insulation 3 Layers of tape [8] for insulation.
Core Assembly Assemble and secure core halves. Item [1]
Final Varnish Dip varnish uniformly in item [7]

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8 Transformer Spreadsheet

The results from the PIExpert design software are given below. The first results
correspond to the continuous maximum loading case of 16W whilst the second
results relate to the peak 23W loading case. In both cases, the power is based on the
LNB being powered from the 22V rail which represents the worst case loading condition.

8.1 16W Continuous Loading

Power Supply Input


VACMIN Volts 98 Min Input AC Voltage
VACMAX Volts 135 Max Input AC Voltage
FL Hertz 60 AC Main Frequency
TC mSeconds 1.8V4 Bridge Rectifier Conduction Time
Estimate
Z 0.46 Loss Allocation Factor
N % 86.0 Efficiency Estimate

Power Supply
Outputs
VOx Volts 3.3V0 7.00 22.00 Output Voltage
IOx Amps 1.150 0.400 0.470 Output Current
VB Volts 15.00 Bias Voltage
IB Amps 0.006 Bias Current

Device Variables
Device TOP244P/G Device Name

PO Watts 17.02 Total Output Power


VDRAIN Volts 494 Maximum Drain Voltage Estimate
(Includes Effect of Leakage Inductance)

VDS Volts 2.5 Device On-State Drain to Source Voltage

FS Hertz 132000 Device Switching Frequency


KRPKDP 0.73 Ripple to Peak Current Ratio
KI 1.00 External Current Limit Ratio
ILIMITEXT Amps 0.93 Device Current Limit External Minimum
ILIMITMIN Amps 0.93 Device Current Limit Minimum
ILIMITMAX Amps 1.07 Device Current Limit Maximum
IP Amps 0.48 Peak Primary Current
IRMS Amps 0.23 Primary RMS Current
DMAX 0.53 Maximum Duty Cycle

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Power Supply Components


Selection
CIN uFarads 68.0 Input Filter Capacitor
VMIN Volts 124 Minimum DC Input Voltage
VMAX Volts 191 Maximum DC Input Voltage
VCLO Volts 200 Clamp Zener Voltage
PZ Watts 2.4 Estimated Primary Zener Clamp Loss
VDB Volts 0.7 Bias Winding Diode Forward Voltage
Drop
PIVB Volts 37 Bias Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse
Voltage

Power Supply Output


Parameters
VDx Volts 0.5 0.5 0.7 Output Winding Diode Forward Voltage
Drop
PIVSx Volts 9 18 54 Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse
Voltage
ISPx Amps 3.54 1.23 1.45 Peak Secondary Current
ISRMSx Amps 1.63 0.57 0.67 Secondary RMS Current
IRIPPLEx Amps 1.16 0.40 0.47 Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current

Transformer Construction
Parameters
Core/Bobbin E25/13/7 (EF25) Margi Core and Bobbin Type

Core Manuf. Generic Core Manufacturing


Bobbin Manuf Generic Bobbin Manufacturing

LP uHenries 1313 Primary Inductance


NP 71 Primary Winding Number of Turns
NB 8.26 Bias Winding Number of Turns
OD Actual mm 0.20 Primary Actual Wire Diameter
Primary A/mm^2 7 Primary Winding Current Density
Current
Density
VOR Volts 135.00 Reflected Output Voltage
BW mm 15.30 Bobbin Physical Winding Width
M mm 3.0 Safety Margin Width
L 2.0 Number of Primary Layers
AE cm^2 0.53 Core Effective Cross Section Area
ALG nH/T^2 260 Gapped Core Effective Inductance
BM mTesla 168 Maximum Operating Flux Density
BP mTesla 377 Peak Flux Density
BAC mTesla 61 AC Flux Density for Core Curves
LG mm 0.22 Gap Length

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LL uHenries 26.3 Estimated Transformer Primary Leakage


Inductance
LSEC nHenries 20 Estimated Secondary Trace Inductance

Secondary
Parameters
NSx 2.00 3.95 11.95 Secondary Number of Turns
Rounded Down NSx 3 11 Rounded to Integer Secondary Number
of Turns
Rounded Volts 5.20 20.20 Auxiliary Output Voltage for Rounded to
Down Vox Integer NSx
Rounded Up NSx 4 12 Rounded to Next Integer Secondary
Number of Turns
Rounded Up Volts 7.10 22.10 Auxiliary Output Voltage for Rounded to
Vox Next Integer NSx
ODS Actual mm 0.40 - 0.23 - 0.25 - Secondary Actual Wire Diameter Range
Range 0.64 0.36 0.40 Comment: Wire diameter is greater than
recommended maximum (0.40 mm) and
may overheat.
Tip: Consider a parallel winding
technique (bifilar, trifilar), increase size of
transformer (larger BW), reduce margin
(M).

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8.2 23W Peak Loading Case

The 23W peak loading case is limited only by thermal shutdown. A 10 second peak
power capability will be achievable with duty cycle long enough to allow the system to
thermally recover.
The errors and warnings flagged in the design spreadsheet below indicate that the
24W power level required is not achievable as a continuous power. This is
consistent with the 24W being a peak power requirement. The device current limit and
system magnetics have been designed to operate safely and reliably with the 24W peak
power.

Power Supply Input


VACMIN Volts 98 Min Input AC Voltage
VACMAX Volts 135 Max Input AC Voltage
FL Hertz 60 AC Main Frequency
TC mSeconds 1.84 Bridge Rectifier Conduction Time Estimate
Z 0.42 Loss Allocation Factor
N % 83.0 Efficiency Estimate

Power Supply
Outputs
VOx Volts 3.30 7.00 22.00 Output Voltage
IOx Amps 1.150 0.400 0.800 Output Current
VB Volts 15.00 Bias Voltage
IB Amps 0.006 Bias Current

Device Variables
Device TOP244P/G Device Name

PO Watts 24.29 Total Output Power


Warning! Device may be too small or thermally
limited for continuous power level (PO).
Tip: Consider increasing device size. If P/G or
R-package select larger device (reduce current
limit via X-pin) or choose Y/F-package with
appropriat

VDRAIN Volts 494 Maximum Drain Voltage Estimate (Includes Effect


of Leakage Inductance)
VDS Volts 4.0 Device On-State Drain to Source Voltage
FS Hertz 132000 Device Switching Frequency
KRPKDP 0.53 Ripple to Peak Current Ratio
KI 1.00 External Current Limit Ratio
ILIMITEXT Amps 0.93 Device Current Limit External Minimum
ILIMITMIN Amps 0.93 Device Current Limit Minimum
ILIMITMAX Amps 1.07 Device Current Limit Maximum

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IP Amps 0.63 Peak Primary Current


IRMS Amps 0.35 Primary RMS Current
DMAX 0.54 Maximum Duty Cycle

Power Supply Components


Selection
CIN uFarads 68.0 Input Filter Capacitor
VMIN Volts 117 Minimum DC Input Voltage
VMAX Volts 191 Maximum DC Input Voltage
VCLO Volts 200 Clamp Zener Voltage
PZ Watts 3.6 Estimated Primary Zener Clamp Loss
Warning! Zener Clamp loss exceeds 3W and
may overheat
Tip: Consider alternate clamp circuit; parallel
RC or RCD, split primary (L>1) increase
efficiency (N), reduce reflected voltage (VOR)
and minimize secondary trace in

VDB Volts 0.7 Bias Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop


PIVB Volts 37 Bias Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage

Power Supply Output


Parameters
VDx Volts 0.5 0.5 0.7 Output Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
PIVSx Volts 9 18 54 Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage
ISPx Amps 3.28 1.14 2.29 Peak Secondary Current
ISRMSx Amps 1.66 0.58 1.16 Secondary RMS Current
IRIPPLEx Amps 1.20 0.42 0.84 Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current

Transformer Construction
Parameters
Core/Bobbin E25/13/7 (EF25) Margi Core and Bobbin Type

Core Manuf. Generic Core Manufacturing

Bobbin Manuf Generic Bobbin Manufacturing

LP uHenries 1311 Primary Inductance


NP 71 Primary Winding Number of Turns
NB 8.26 Bias Winding Number of Turns
OD Actual mm 0.20 Primary Actual Wire Diameter

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Primary A/mm^2 11 Primary Winding Current Density


Current Error! Primary current density (A/mm 2) is
Density greater than recommended maximum.
Tip: Increase core size (larger BW), increase
layers (L), decrease primary turns (NS),
increase minimum input voltage (VACMIN),
increase input cap
VOR Volts 135.00 Reflected Output Voltage
BW mm 15.30 Bobbin Physical Winding Width
M mm 3.0 Safety Margin Width
L 2.0 Number of Primary Layers
AE cm^2 0.53 Core Effective Cross Section Area
ALG nH/T^2 260 Gapped Core Effective Inductance
BM mTesla 220 Maximum Operating Flux Density
BP mTesla 376 Peak Flux Density
BAC mTesla 58 AC Flux Density for Core Curves
LG mm 0.22 Gap Length
LL uHenries 19.7 Estimated Transformer Primary Leakage
Inductance
LSEC nHenries 20 Estimated Secondary Trace Inductance

Secondary
Parameters
NSx 2.00 3.95 11.95 Secondary Number of Turns
Rounded Down NSx 3 11 Rounded to Integer Secondary Number of Turns

Rounded Volts 5.20 20.20 Auxiliary Output Voltage for Rounded to Integer
Down Vox NSx
Rounded Up NSx 4 12 Rounded to Next Integer Secondary Number of
Turns
Rounded Volts 7.10 22.10 Auxiliary Output Voltage for Rounded to Next
Up Vox Integer NSx
ODS Actual mm 0.40 - 0.25 - 0.36 - Secondary Actual Wire Diameter Range
Range 0.64 0.40 0.57 Comment: Wire diameter is greater than
recommended maximum (0.40 mm) and may
overheat.
Tip: Consider a parallel winding technique (bifilar,
trifilar), increase size of transformer (larger BW),
reduce margin (M).

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9 Performance Measurements

All measurements were taken using 50Hz mains in a 25˚C lab ambient. Cross regulation
measurements were not taken since the loads stated were almost constant. Where loads
do vary (i.e. changes on the 17V and 22V rails for the LNB), full measurements have
been given.

9.1 Full Power Efficiency

The operating efficiency of the prototype supply was measured as a function of input
voltage for the two LNB loading situations. Figure 7 shows that the worst case efficiency
is well above 75%.

85

80
Efficiency (%)

75
17V LNB LOAD
22V LNB LOAD
70

65

60
90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Input Voltage (Vrms)

Figure 7 - Full Power Efficiency Variation with Line Voltage

9.2 Efficiency Variation with Load

With 110Vac nominal input and LNB loading on the 22V rail, the efficiency of the supply
was measured as a function of output power. The load current on each output rail was
varied from 0 to 100% of its rated value in 10% steps and the overall efficiency recorded
at each point. Figure 8 shows the resulting efficiency profile.

The graph shows that the target 70% efficiency is maintained down to around 3W output
power.

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90
80
70

Efficiency (%)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Output Power (W)

Figure 8 - Efficiency Variation with Output Power at 110Vac Nominal Input

9.3 Line Regulation

Line regulation was measured under the two different loading cases. Figure 9 shows the
results of the first case with full load on the 17V LNB supply and zero on the 22V supply.
Figure 10 shows the results with zero load on the 17V rail and full load on the 22V rail.

In both cases here, the 17V and the 22V are always well under the 28V maximum
allowed.

16
Line Regulation (% of nominal

14
12
10 1V8
8
voltage)

3V3
6 7V
4 17V
2 22V
0
-2
-4
90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Input Voltage (Vrms)

Figure 9 - Line Regulation with LNB Loading on the 17V Rail

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20
Line Regulation (% of nominal

15
1V8
10
voltage)

3V3
7V
5 17V
22V
0

-5
90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Input Voltage (Vrms)

Figure 10 - Line Regulation with LNB Loading on the 22V Rail

9.4 Load Regulation

With LNB loading on the 22V Rail, the rail voltages were measured as a function of
output power for 110Vac input. The load on each rail was increased from 0 to 100%
power in 10% steps and the rail voltage, specified as a percentage of nominal voltage,
were recorded. Figure 11 shows the resulting load regulation profile. The 17V rail does
see some peak charging but is still well below the 28V required maximum.

25

20
Load Regulation (%)

15 1V8
3V3
10 7V
17V
5 22V

0
0 5 10 15 20
-5
Output Power (W)

Figure 11 - Load Regulation at 110Vac input with LNB loading on the 22V rail

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9.5 Key Component Operating Temperatures

With the PCB mounted horizontally, the key component operating temperatures were
measured as a function of input voltage for the two LNB loading cases. Figure 12 shows
the temperatures with the loading on the 17V rail (13W total output power) whilst Figure
13 shows the results with loading on the 22V rail (17W total output power).

70
TOP244P (U2)
60
Temperature (Deg C)

Primary Snubber Resistor (R1)


50 3V3 Rail Diode (D10)
40 3V3 Rail Capacitor (C15)
1V8 Linear Regulator (U3)
30
Ambient
20
10
0
90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Input Voltage (Vrms)

Figure 12 - Key Component Temperatures with 17V LNB loading

70
TOP244P (U2)
60
Temperature (Deg C)

Primary Sunbber Resistor (R1)


50 3V3 Rail Diode (D10)
40 3V3 Rail Capacitor (C15)
30 1V8 Linear Regulator (U3)
Ambient
20
10
0
90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Input Voltage (Vrms)

Figure 13 - Key Component Temperatures with 22V LNB loading

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10 Operating Waveforms

All waveforms were taken with the highest power case of LNB loading on the 22V rail
unless otherwise specified.

10.1 Steady State Drain-Source Voltage and Drain Current Waveforms

Figure 14 – Drain Current (Lower at 0.2A/div) and Drain-Source Voltage (Upper at 100V/div) for full
power operation. Left hand side figure shows operation at 98Vac input whilst the right hand side
shows operation at 135Vac input

10.2 Start-up Drain-Source Voltage and Drain Current Waveforms

Figure 15 – Drain Current (Lower at 0.2A/div) and Drain-Source Voltage (Upper at 100V/div) under
start-up at full power. Left hand side figure shows 98Vac start-up whilst the right hand side shows
operation at 135Vac start-up

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10.3 Output Voltage Rise Behavior

Output voltage rise behavior was measured using resistive loads on the outputs with
110Vac nominal mains input.

Figure 16 - 3.3V (Upper at 1V/div) and 1.8V (Lower at 0.5V/div) start-up voltage behavior

Figure 17 - 3.3V (Upper at 1V/div) and 7V (Lower at 2V/div) start-up voltage behavior

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Figure 18 - 3.3V (Upper at 1V/div) and 17V (Lower at 5V/div) start-up voltage behavior

Figure 19 - 3.3V (Upper at 1V/div) and 17V (Lower at 5V/div) start-up voltage behavior

The start-up profiles for the 17V and 22V LNB rails were measured with each rail loaded
in turn but not simultaneously.

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10.4 Inrush Current

Inrush current was measured with the supply being connected to mains with full power
load on the supply outputs. Figure 20 shows the resulting inrush current is around 12A
worst case with maximum mains input of 135V.

Figure 20 - Worst case inrush current measurement (Upper is mains voltage at 200V/div and lower
is current drawn by supply at 5A/div)

10.5 Hold-up

Hold-up was measured with worst case loading on the supply and 110Vax nominal
mains. The hold-up was measured under two conditions, the first being mains failure at
the zero voltage cross point of the cycle and the second being the peak of the mains
cycle.

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Figure 21 – Hold-up time measurement for removal of mains at zero crossing point. Upper is mains
voltage at 100V/div and lower is 3.3V rail voltage. Hold-up is measured at just over 50ms.

Figure 22 – Hold-up time measurement for removal of mains at peak voltage point. Upper is mains
voltage at 100V/div and lower is 3.3V rail voltage. Hold-up is measured at just over 60ms.

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10.6 Transient Response

The transient response to load changes at 110Vac input on the 3.3V was measured to
give an indication of power supply stability. The power supply was loaded to its full power
condition and the load on the 3.3V rail varied from 50% to 100% current. The resulting
voltage deviated was measured and is shown in Figure 23 below.

Figure 23 – Load transient response at 110Vac input. Lower is current on 3.3V rail at 0.2A/div and
upper is AC coupled 3.3V rail voltage at 50mV/div.

The transient response of the 3.3V rail to load changes indicates a well damped control
loop and a stable power supply. For production, PSU stability should be measured under
extremes of ambient temperature to ensure full stability.

10.7 Peak Power Loading

When the LNB load transitions from the 17V to the 22V rail, a peak current of up to
800mA may be drawn for a short duration. To check this behavior, the supply was run at
full power with the current on the 22V changed from 400mA to 800mA. The 800mA
loading was maintained for 100ms bursts at a repletion rate of 3Hz. The power supply
can deliver these pulse for a much longer time, dependant on the operating temperature.

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Figure 24 – Peak power loading on the 22V LNB rail. Lower is 22V rail current at 0.2A/div and upper I
AC coupled 22V rail voltage at 200mv/div.

During the peak power loading test, all other rails were observed to be operating well
within specified voltage levels.

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11 Conducted EMI Measurements

The conducted EMI measurements shown in this section are pre-compliance and should
be used as an indication of performance.

11.1 Results with output grounded to protective earth

These EMI scans represent the case when the output of the PSU is grounded back to
Earth via a functional ground, often found with SCART lead connections.

Figure 25 – Conducted EMI measured in Live wire

Figure 26 – Conducted EMI measured in Neutral wire

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11.2 Results with Output Floating

Here, a simple two wire connection to the LISN was used.

Figure 27 – Conducted EMI measured in Live wire

Figure 28 – Conducted EMI measured in Neutral wire

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12 Revision History

Date Author Revision Description & changes Reviewed


March 30, 2004 IM 1.0 Initial Release VC / AM

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For the latest updates, visit our Web site: www.powerint.com

Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or
manufacturability. Power Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit
described herein, nor does it convey any license under its patent rights or the rights of others.

The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at
www.powerint.com.

The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, and EcoSmart are registered trademarks of Power
Integrations, Inc. PI Expert and DPA-Switch are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc.
© Copyright 2003, Power Integrations, Inc.

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Design Example Report

Title 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power


Supply using TOP244P
Specification Input: 85-265 VAC
Output: 5V/0.1A, 12V/0.2A, 24V/0.5A
Application Refrigerator
Author Power Integrations Applications Department
Document
DER-28
Number
Date March 30, 2004
Revision 1.0

Summary and Features

• Low cost (low component count with single sided printed circuit board)
• Meets EN/UL 1000-4-5 CLASS 4 (4 kV), using line overvoltage protection feature
• Designed to IEC60950 safety standard requirements
• Compact Design (L = 113 mm, W = 39 mm, H = 25 mm)
• High efficiency (≥73% at 85 VAC)
• Line undervoltage shutdown prevents turn-off output glitches
• Line overvoltage shutdown provides extended line swell protection
• Hysteretic thermal shutdown provides automatic supply recovery after fault removal

The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found
at www.powerint.com.

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

Table Of Contents

1 Introduction.................................................................................................................3
2 Power Supply Specification ........................................................................................4
3 Schematic...................................................................................................................5
4 Circuit Description ......................................................................................................6
5 PCB Layout ................................................................................................................9
6 Bill Of Materials ........................................................................................................10
7 Transformer Specification.........................................................................................11
7.1 Electrical Specifications ........................................................................................11
7.2 Materials ...............................................................................................................11
7.3 Transformer Build Diagram ...................................................................................12
7.4 Transformer Construction .....................................................................................12
7.5 Design Notes ........................................................................................................13
8 Transformer Spreadsheets .......................................................................................15
9 Performance Data ....................................................................................................16
9.1 Efficiency...............................................................................................................16
9.2 Regulation.............................................................................................................17
9.2.1 Load...............................................................................................................17
9.2.2 Line ................................................................................................................17
9.2.3 Cross-Regulation Table .................................................................................18
10 Waveform Scope Plot...............................................................................................19
11 Revision History........................................................................................................20

Important Notes:
Although this board is designed to satisfy safety isolation requirements, the engineering
prototype has not been agency approved. Therefore, all testing should be performed
using an isolation transformer to provide the AC input to the prototype board.

Design Reports contain a power supply design specification, schematic, bill of materials,
and transformer documentation. Performance data and typical operation characteristics
are included. Typically only a single prototype has been built.

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

1 Introduction

This document is an engineering report describing a low cost, isolated converter for a
appliance application.

Included is the power supply specification, schematic, Bill of materials, transformer


documentation, printed circuit layout, and performance data.

+24V
RTN

+12V
RTN

+5V
RTN

Figure 1 –Populated Circuit Board (L x W x H: 113 mm x 39 mm x 25mm).

2 AC
Input

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

Power Supply Specification

Description Symbol Min Typ Max Units Comment


Input
Voltage VIN 85 265 VAC 50/60 Hz
Output
Output Voltage 1 VOUT1 4.75 5 5.25 V ±5% Total
Output Ripple Voltage 1 VRIPPLE1 75 mV Peak to Peak, 20 MHz BW
Output Current 1 IOUT1 0.05 0.1 A
Output Voltage 2 VOUT2 11.04 12 12.96 VDC ±8% Total
Output Ripple Voltage 2 VRIPPLE2 75 mV Peak to Peak, 20 MHz BW
Output Current 2 IOUT2 0.05 0.2 A
Output Voltage 3 VOUT3 21.1 24 26.9 VDC ±12% Total
Output Ripple Voltage 3 VRIPPLE3 150 mV Peak to Peak, 20 MHz BW
Output Current 3 IOUT3 0.05 0.5 A
Total Output Power
Continuous Output Power POUT 15 W Full Load
η
o
Efficiency 73 % Full Load, 25 C, VIN(MIN)
o
Ambient Temperature TAMB_EXT 0 25 50 C External Ambient Range

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

3 Schematic

D7
T1 EI25
1N4007 X 4 MUR220 J2-1
L1 R1 10 24V @
J1-1 F1 C15 D2 0.5 A
C4 20mH/0.4A 150k/ 1/2W 1
Line
3.15A,250VAC C4 R13
C2 +
D1 D8 470uF 12k
D4 1nF/1kV L2
Neutral + B380 50V 3.3uH J2-3
J1-3 0.1UF D3 C1 R9 2
9
12V @
250VAC 33 uF 100 ohm 0.2A
X-SAFETY 400V R8 C5
D5 10 ohm + + C8
820uF
1N4007 100uF
C13 D9 16 V
L3 16V
2.2nF SB540 3.3uH J2-5
54 6
5V @
R2 5
4
0.1A
C6 + +
1M 820 uF
J2-2
7
16V C9
J2-4
R3 C11 100uF
D6 J2-6
1M 0.1 uF R6 10V
1N4148 75

1
U3
4

U2
R7 R10 R11
LTV817A 1k 100k 1% 15k 1%
M
D

TOPSwitch-GX

2
3

U1 C
Control
TOP244P
+ C3 3 C10
47 uF 0.1uF
1
S

10 V +
R4 C14 U3
2 R12
1uF LM431BCZ 1% 10.0K 1%
6.8 Ohms 50V

Figure 2 – Circuit Schematic.

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

4 Circuit Description

This circuit is a low-cost multi-output Flyback switching power supply designed for
appliance applications using the TOP244P integrated circuit.

The circuit schematic details a 15 W, 3 output (5 VDC, 12 VDC and 24 VDC) power
supply that operates from an 85 VAC to 265 VAC input. The high efficiency (>73%)
allows the power supply to operate within specifications at elevated ambient temperature.

The AC input is rectified and filtered by D1 to D4 and C1 to create a high voltage DC bus
that is connected to transformer T1. The other side of T1 is driven by the high-voltage
MOSFET of TOP244P1 (U1). Fuse F1 protects against primary-side components
failures, while U1 protects against secondary components failures, and
overloaded/shorted outputs.

The combined value of the line sensing resistors R2 and R3, connected to the MULTI-
FUNCTION (M) pin of U1, sets the undervoltage and overvoltage thresholds and
provides a line feed forward function.

On increasing line voltage, the power supply is inhibited until the undervoltage (UV)
threshold is reached (~100 VDC). On reducing line voltage, the UV function turns off the
power supply when the line input voltage is below the UV threshold and the output goes
out of regulation. This allows the power supply to continue operating at input voltages
significantly below the UV threshold until output regulation is lost, but eliminates output
glitches by preventing restart until the input voltage goes back above the UV threshold.

The overvoltage function turns off the power supply if the input voltage exceeds
approximately 450 V. In the off state, the power supply can withstand severe line
transients or extended line swell conditions without damage. The supply resumes
operation when the input voltage falls below the overvoltage threshold.

The line feed forward function independently modulates the duty cycle of U1 to reject the
AC line frequency ripple component of the input voltage, reducing the line frequency
ripple at the output of the supply. The output ripple specifications can be met without
increased control loop gain since line feed forward operates independent of the main
control loop. This simplifies the design of the power supply control loop.

A low cost RCD (R1, C2, R9 and D5) snubber circuit limits the turn-off voltage spike
(caused by the leakage inductance) to a safe level on the DRAIN pin of U1. Resistor R9
is required in series with the slow recovery diode (D5) to reduce the diode reverse
recovery spike and damp the subsequent oscillations which might allow the drain to ring
below source at low line.
1
The “P” and “G” packages allow either line sensing or external current limit programming through the M
pin. “Y” and “R” packages allow both functions via the L and X pins. Reducing the current limit in this
design would allow a smaller transformer to be used, if desired.

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

The bias winding is rectified and filtered by D6 and C11 to power U1. Capacitor C3 is
used to decouple the CONTROL pin, determine the auto-restart frequency and together
with R4, forms part of the control loop compensation.

The secondary winding is rectified and filtered by D7, R5, C4 (24 V) D8, C5 (12 V) and
D9, C7, C8 (5 V), with additional switching frequency ripple and high frequency spike
noise filtering provided by L2, C8 (12 V) and L3, C9 (5 V) to give the DC outputs.

The choice of Schottky diodes for the 5 V and 12 V outputs was driven by both voltage
regulation and efficiency considerations.

The snubber (C13 and R8) reduces the 10 MHz to 30 MHz conducted EMI due
secondary leakage inductance. The current through the pre-load resistor R13 adds to the
spec minimum load to keep the 24 V output in regulation. The 3.3 V and 5 V output
voltages are determined by the voltage set at the adjust pin of U3 (shunt regulator) by the
voltage divider formed by R10, R11 and R12. The current through R12 sets the output
voltages, while the current contribution of R10 and R11 sets the regulation band for 12 V
and 5 V outputs, respectively. Other output voltages are possible by adjusting the
transformer turns ratios, choosing the output diodes forward voltage drops and voltage
divider settings. Optocoupler U2 applies the feedback signal from U3 to the CONTROL
pin of U1. Resistor R6 is used to set the overall gain of the supply control loop, while R7
provides bias current for U3. Capacitor C10 provides frequency compensation for U3
stabilizing the power supply control loop. Capacitor C14 is used to close the feedback
loop (bypassing U3) through optocoupler U2 during start-up, before U3 takes over the
control loop. The ability to close the feedback loop in conjunction with the built-in soft-
start feature of TOPSwitch-GX completely controls the start-up drain current profile,
preventing transformer saturation and output overshoot.

The 5 V and 12 V secondary layout switching loops are minimized and, along with closely
coupled transformer secondary windings, achieve low secondary leakage inductance and
in turn, good cross-regulation. Optimizing the number of primary turns minimizes
leakage. This also reduces the number of primary layers and improves primary to
secondary coupling.

The power supply meets IEC60950/UL1950 safety requirements. Primary-to-secondary


isolation is assured by using parts/materials (opto/transformer insulation) with the correct
level of isolation and creepage distances (opto slot/transformer bobbin).

The power supply passed IEC/UL 1000-4-5, Class 4 line surge test (Class 3 only is
required). All three outputs had monitor LEDs that showed no output disruption during
the 90 high voltage surge pulses of Class 3. During Class 4 testing the outputs were
disrupted for one second (LEDs blinked indicating the operation of the overvoltage
shutdown feature) when applying the 2 kV, 2 Ω differential pulse and the 4 kV, 2 Ω
differential pulses (L1/GND, L2/GND) and were unaffected during the 4 kV, 12 Ω
common-mode pulses (L1, L2/GND).

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

The switching frequency jitter of TOP244 (U1) allows the unit to meet worldwide
conducted EMI standards using a low cost, common-mode inductor (L1) in combination
with a small value capacitor (C15). Careful transformer construction and PCB layout
eliminate the need for a Y-rated capacitor between primary and secondary. Removal of
the Y cap is necessary in voice applications to eliminate line frequency audio hum
(“ground loops”). The common-mode inductance of L1 and the transformer construction
attenuate common-mode conducted emission currents caused by the switching
waveform on the DRAIN of U1, charging and discharging various stray capacitances.
The differential inductance of L1 together with C15 attenuate differential-mode emission
currents caused by the fundamental and harmonics of the primary current waveform.

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

5 PCB Layout

Figure 3 – Printed Circuit Layout. Actual Size Board (L = 113 mm, W = 39 mm, H = 25 mm).

Layout shown in Figure 3 is for an unmodified EP18 demo board; the secondary circuit
has been modified for this prototype.

For the drain-to-source voltage waveforms, connect the high voltage probe tip to TP2 and
the probe ground to test point TP1.

For switching current waveforms, add a wire loop in the provided holes and cut open the
copper trace. Use a Tektronix A6302 current probe and AM503 current probe amplifier
(with TM501 power module) or equivalent.

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

6 Bill Of Materials

Bill Of Materials
Item Qty. Ref. Description Part number Manufacturer
1 1 C1 33 µF, 400 V,105 °C KMX400VB33 UCC
2 1 C2 1 nF, 1 kV, 6.5 mm, Philips Centra
LS = 6.4mm
3 1 C3 47 µF, 10 V KME10VB47RMX11LL UCC
4 1 C4 470 µF, 50 V
5 2 C5-C6 820 µF 16 V / EEU-FC1C821 / Panasonic
1000 µF, 16 V LXZ216VB102M10X20LL UCC
6 1 C8 100 µF, 16 V
7 1 C9 100 µF, 10 V
8 2 C10,11 0.1 µF, 50 V K104M15Z5UF5TH5 BC
9 1 C13 2200 pF, 100 V, multilayer cer. C315C222K1R5CA Kemet
10 1 C14 1 µF, 50 V, ceramic Any
11 1 C15 0.1 µF 250 VAC, X1 F1772-410-2000 Vishay
12 5 D1-D5 1 A, 1000 V 1N4007 General Semi.
13 1 D6 0.15 A, 75 V, 4 ns 1N4148 General Semi.
14 1 D7 2 A, 200 V, 50 ns MUR220 On Semi.
15 1 D8 3 A, 80 V, Schottky B380 General Semi.
16 1 D9 5 A, 40 V, Schottky SB540 General Semi.
17 1 F1 250 VAC, 3.15 A 19372K Wickman
18 1 J1 HEADER 3 26-48-1031 Molex
19 1 J2 HEADER 6 26-48-1061 Molex
20 1 L1 20 mH, 0.4 A SS11V-05230 Tokin
21 2 L2, L3 3.3 µH, 2.66 A 822MY-3R3M Toko
22 1 R1 150 kΩ, 1/2 W Any
23 2 R2, R3 1 MΩ, 1/4 W Any
24 1 R4 6.8 Ω, 1/4 W Any
25 1 R8 10 Ω, 1/4 W Any
26 1 R6 75 Ω, 1/4 W Any
27 1 R7 1 kΩ, 1/4 W Any
28 1 R9 100 Ω, 1/4 W Any
29 1 R10 100 kΩ ±1%, 1/4 W Any
30 1 R11 15 kΩ ±1%, 1/4 W Any
31 1 R12 10.0 kΩ ±1%, 1/4 W Any
32 1 R13 12 kΩ, 1/4 W Any
33 1 T1 EI25 XFMR (custom) SIL6008 Rev D HiCal
34 1 U1 TOPSwitch-GX TOP244P Power Integrations
35 1 U2 Optocoupler LTV817A Liteon
36 1 U3 Shunt Regulator, 2.5 V 1% LM431BCZ National Semiconductor

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

7 Transformer Specification

7T #26 AWG T.I.


61T #29 AWG

4T #26 AWG X3 T.I.

3T #26 AWG X 3 T.I.


7T #29AWG X 3

Figure 4 - Transformer Electrical Diagram.

7.1 Electrical Specifications


Electrical Strength 1 minute, 60 Hz, from Pins 1-5 to Pins 6-10 3000 VAC
Pins 1-2, all windings open, 130 kHz
Primary Inductance 397 µH +/-10%
measurement frequency
0.5 MHz
Resonant Frequency Pins 1-2, all windings open
minimum
Pins 1-2, Pins 6-10 shorted, 130 kHz
Primary Leakage Inductance 8 µH maximum
measurement frequency

7.2 Materials
Item Description
[1] Core: EI25, Nippon Ceramic FEI-25, NC-2H material or equivalent, gapped for AL of 105 nH/T2.
Note: Core longer than standard EI25.
[2] Bobbin: YW-360-02B by YIH-HWA Enterprise, 10 PIN, with secondary-side pedestal.
Pin 3 removed.
[3] Magnet Wire: #29 AWG Heavy Nyleze
[4] Triple Insulated Wire (TIW): #26 AWG
[5] Tape: 3M 1298 Polyester Film (white) 10.58 mm wide by 2.2 mm thick
[6] Varnish

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7.3 Transformer Build Diagram

+24V

+12V

+5V

Figure 5 – Transformer Build Diagram.

7.4 Transformer Construction

Start at Pin 1. Wind 15 turns of item [3], bifilar parallel, from left to right, over entire
Shield
length of the bobbin. Finish on Pin 3.
Tape Insulation 1 Layer of tape [5] for insulation
Start at Pin 2. Wind 30 turns of item [3] from left to right over entire length of the
Double Primary
bobbin. Apply 2 layers of tape, item [5], for spacing. Wind remaining 31 turns in the
Layer
next layer from right to left, over entire length of the bobbin. Finish on Pin 1.
Tape Insulation 1 Layer of tape [5] for insulation.
Start at Pin 5. Wind 9 turns parallel trifilar of item [3] from left to right, uniformly over
Bias Winding
entire width of bobbin. Finish on Pin 4.
Tape Insulation 6 Layers of tape [5] for spacing.
Start at Pin 6. Wind 3 turns parallel trifilar of item [4] from left to right, uniformly over
5 V Winding
entire width of bobbin. Finish on Pin 7. Secure turns with 1 layer of tape.
Start at Pin 9. Wind 4 turn of item [4] from left to right over entire width of bobbin.
12 V Winding
Finish on Pin 6. Secure turns with 1 layer of tape.
Start at Pin 10. Wind 7 of item [4] from left to right uniformly, over entire width of
24 V Winding
bobbin. Finish on Pin 9.
Tape Insulation 3 Layers of tape [5] for insulation.
Assemble core with the “I” side on top. Secure core. Dip varnish the transformer
Final Assembly
[6].

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

7.5 Design Notes

Power Integrations Device TOP244P


Frequency of Operation 132 kHz
Mode Continuous/Discontinuous
Peak Primary Current 0.79 A
Reflected Voltage 113 V
Maximum DC Input 375 V
Minimum DC Input 80 V

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Figure 6 - EI25 Bobbin Drawing.

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8 Transformer Spreadsheets
Power Supply Input
VACMIN Volts 85 Min Input AC Voltage
VACMAX Volts 265 Max Input AC Voltage
FL Hertz 50 AC Main Frequency
TC mSeconds 2.69 Bridge Rectifier Conduction Time Estimate
Z 0.49 Loss Allocation Factor
N % 83.0 Efficiency Estimate

Power Supply Outputs


VOx Volts 5.00 12.00 24.00 Output Voltage
IOx Amps 0.100 0.200 0.500 Output Current
VB Volts 15.00 Bias Voltage
IB Amps 0.006 Bias Current

Device Variables
Device TOP243Y/F Device Name
PO Watts 14.99 Total Output Power
VDRAIN Volts 631 Maximum Drain Voltage Estimate (Includes Effect of Leakage Inductance)
VDS Volts 6.6 Device On-State Drain to Source Voltage
FS Hertz 132000 Device Switching Frequency
KRPKDP 1.17 Ripple to Peak Current Ratio
KI 1.00 External Current Limit Ratio
ILIMITEXT Amps 0.84 Device Current Limit External Minimum
ILIMITMIN Amps 0.84 Device Current Limit Minimum
ILIMITMAX Amps 0.96 Device Current Limit Maximum
IP Amps 0.79 Peak Primary Current
IRMS Amps 0.34 Primary RMS Current
DMAX 0.57 Maximum Duty Cycle

Power Supply Components Selection


CIN uFarads 33.0 Input Filter Capacitor
VMIN Volts 80 Minimum DC Input Voltage
VMAX Volts 375 Maximum DC Input Voltage
VCLO Volts 170 Clamp Zener Voltage
PZ Watts 2.5 Estimated Primary Zener Clamp Loss
VDB Volts 0.7 Bias Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
PIVB Volts 67 Bias Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage

Power Supply Output Parameters


VDx Volts 0.5 0.7 1.0 Output Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
PIVSx Volts 23 54 107 Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage
ISPx Amps 0.50 1.00 2.49 Peak Secondary Current
ISRMSx Amps 0.18 0.35 0.88 Secondary RMS Current
IRIPPLEx Amps 0.14 0.29 0.72 Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current

Transformer Construction Parameters


Core/Bobbin EI25 Core and Bobbin Type
Core Manuf. Generic Core Manufacturing
Bobbin Manuf Generic Bobbin Manufacturing
LP uHenries 397 Primary Inductance
NP 61 Primary Winding Number of Turns
NB 8.56 Bias Winding Number of Turns
OD Actual mm 0.25 Primary Actual Wire Diameter
Primary Current Density A/mm^2 7 Primary Winding Current Density
VOR Volts 112.48 Reflected Output Voltage
BW mm 9.80 Bobbin Physical Winding Width
M mm 0.0 Safety Margin Width
L 2.0 Number of Primary Layers
AE cm^2 0.41 Core Effective Cross Section Area
ALG nH/T^2 105 Gapped Core Effective Inductance
BM mTesla 125 Maximum Operating Flux Density
BP mTesla 152 Peak Flux Density
BAC mTesla 63 AC Flux Density for Core Curves
LG mm 0.46 Gap Length
LL uHenries 7.9 Estimated Transformer Primary Leakage Inductance
LSEC nHenries 30 Estimated Secondary Trace Inductance

Secondary Parameters
NSx 3.00 6.93 13.64 Secondary Number of Turns
Rounded Down NSx 6 13 Rounded to Integer Secondary Number of Turns
Rounded Down Vox Volts 10.30 22.83 Auxiliary Output Voltage for Rounded to Integer NSx
Rounded Up NSx 7 14 Rounded to Next Integer Secondary Number of Turns
Rounded Up Vox Volts 12.13 24.67 Auxiliary Output Voltage for Rounded to Next Integer NSx

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

9 Performance Data
All measurements performed at room temperature.

9.1 Efficiency

Conversion Efficiency at Full Load

100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
Efficiency (%)

60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
0 100 200 300
Input Voltage (VAC) 60Hz

Figure 7 - Efficiency vs. Input Voltage at Full Load.

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9.2 Regulation

9.2.1 Load
+5V Load Regulation +12V Load Regulation
+12V @ 0.2A, +24V @ 0.5A +5V @ 0.1A, +24V @ 0.5A

103.00% 106.00%
Vout/VNOM X 100%

Vout/VNOM X 100%
102.50% 104.00%
102.00% 102.00%
100.00%
101.50%
98.00%
101.00% 96.00%
100.50% 94.00%
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Load Current (ADC) Load Current (ADC)

+24V Load Regulation


+5V @ 0.1A, +12V @ 0.2A

102.00%
Vout/VNOM X 100%

100.00%
98.00%
96.00%
94.00%
92.00%
90.00%
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Load Current (ADC)

Figure 8 - Load Regulation at 85 VAC.

9.2.2 Line

Line Regulation at Full Load


+5V @ 0.1A +12V @ 0.2A +24V @ 0.5A
102.00%
Vout/VNOM X 100%

101.00%
100.00%
99.00%
98.00%
97.00%
96.00%
95.00%
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Input AC Voltage (VAC) @ 60Hz

Figure 9 - Line Regulation at Full Load.

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9.2.3 Cross-Regulation Table

Output Winding Output Winding


+5VDC +12VDC +24VDC +5VDC +12VDC +24VDC
Load Current Load Current
Input Voltage 0 0 0 Input Voltage 0.1A 0.05A 0.05A
85VAC 5.05 11.78 23.69 85VAC 5.01 12.12 24.33
120VAC 5.05 11.78 23.68 120VAC 5.01 12.13 24.33
265VAC 5.05 11.77 23.68 265VAC 5.00 12.16 24.40

Output Winding Output Winding


+5VDC +12VDC +24VDC +5VDC +12VDC +24VDC

Load Current Load Current


Input Voltage 0.05A 0.05A 0.5A Input Voltage 0.1A 0.05A 0.5A
85VAC 5.07 11.63 22.01 85VAC 5.05 11.83 22.60
120VAC 5.07 11.65 22.01 120VAC 5.05 11.85 22.61
265VAC 5.06 11.71 22.02 265VAC 5.04 11.90 22.60

Output Winding Output Winding


+5VDC +12VDC +24VDC +5VDC +12VDC +24VDC

Load Current Load Current


Input Voltage 0.05A 0.2A 0.05A Input Voltage 0.1A 0.2A 0.05A
85VAC 5.04 11.90 24.17 85VAC 5.02 12.00 25.07
120VAC 5.04 11.91 24.17 120VAC 5.03 11.99 24.40
265VAC 5.04 11.92 24.23 265VAC 5.03 11.98 24.40

Output Winding Output Winding


+5VDC +12VDC +24VDC +5VDC +12VDC +24VDC

Load Current Load Current


Input Voltage 0.05A 0.2A 0.5A Input Voltage 0.1A 0.2A 0.5A
85VAC 5.09 11.46 22.65 85VAC 5.06 11.69 23.10
120VAC 5.09 11.48 22.67 120VAC 5.06 11.69 23.09
265VAC 5.09 11.54 22.72 265VAC 5.05 11.74 23.12

Universal Input Tolerance


min tol max tol
+5VDC 0.00% 1.80%
+12VDC -4.50% 1.33%
+24VDC -8.29% 4.46%

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10 Waveform Scope Plot

200mA/div

100V/div

Drain-Source

Figure 10 - Drain Current and Drain-to-source


Voltage at Full Load (VIN = 120 VAC, 60 Hz).

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11 Revision History

Date Author Revision Description & changes Reviewed


March 30, 2004 RSP 1.0 Initial release VC / AM

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Notes

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DER-28 15 W, Multiple Output, Isolated Power Supply March 30, 2004

For the latest updates, visit our Web site: www.powerint.com

Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or
manufacturability. Power Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit
described herein, nor does it convey any license under its patent rights or the rights of others.

The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at
www.powerint.com.

The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, and EcoSmart are registered trademarks of Power
Integrations, Inc. PI Expert and DPA-Switch are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc.
© Copyright 2003, Power Integrations, Inc.

WORLD HEADQUARTERS EUROPE & AFRICA SINGAPORE TAIWAN


NORTH AMERICA - WEST Power Integrations (Europe) Ltd. Power Integrations, Singapore Power Integrations
Power Integrations, Inc. Centennial Court 51 Goldhill Plaza #16-05 International Holdings, Inc.
5245 Hellyer Avenue Easthampstead Road Republic of Singapore, 17F-3, No. 510
San Jose, CA 95138 USA. Bracknell 308900 Chung Hsiao E. Rd.,
Main: +1-408-414-9200 Berkshire RG12 1YQ, Phone: +65-6358-2160 Sec. 5,
Customer Service: United Kingdom Fax: +65-6358-2015 Taipei, Taiwan 110, R.O.C.
Phone: +1-408-414-9665 Phone: +44-1344-462-300 e-mail: Phone: +886-2-2727-1221
Fax: +1-408-414-9765 Fax: +44-1344-311-732 singaporesales@powerint.com Fax: +886-2-2727-1223
e-mail: e-mail: e-mail:
usasales@powerint.com eurosales@powerint.com taiwansales@powerint.com

CHINA KOREA JAPAN INDIA (Technical Support)


Power Integrations Power Integrations Power Integrations, K.K. Innovatech
International Holdings, Inc. International Holdings, Inc. Keihin-Tatemono 1st Bldg. #1, 8th Main Road
Rm# 1705, Bao Hua Bldg. Rm# 402, Handuk Building, 12-20 Shin-Yokohama Vasanthnagar
1016 Hua Qiang Bei Lu 649-4 Yeoksam-Dong, 2-Chome, Bangalore, India 560052
Shenzhen Guangdong, Kangnam-Gu, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Phone: +91-80-226-6023
518031 Seoul, Korea Kanagawa 222-0033, Japan Fax: +91-80-228-9727
Phone: +86-755-8367- Phone: +82-2-568-7520 Phone: +81-45-471-1021 e-mail:
5143 Fax: +82-2-568-7474 Fax: +81-45-471-3717 indiasales@powerint.com
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e-mail:
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Design Example Report
Title 17.4 W Power Supply using TOP244P
Input: 160 – 275 VAC
Specification
Output: 3.3V/1.0A, 5.1V/1.0A, 9.0V/1.0A
Application Set Top Box
Author Power Integrations Applications Department
Document
DER-99
Number
Date September 12, 2005
Revision 1.0

Summary and Features

This report describes a prototype design for a Set Top Box using a
TOPSwitch-GX TOP244P, featuring:
• Self-recovering AC Line Overvoltage shutdown to prevent damage during high
voltage swells
• Meets 388 VAC swell
• Meets 6 kV surge
• Low EMI
• Small common mode choke
• Small Y-cap
• A low cost secondary ‘power good’ detection circuit

The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at
www.powerint.com.

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DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

Table Of Contents
1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 4
2 Power Supply Specification ........................................................................................ 5
3 Schematic................................................................................................................... 6
4 Circuit Description ...................................................................................................... 8
4.1 EMI Filtering ........................................................................................................ 8
4.2 TOPSwitch Primary ............................................................................................. 8
4.3 Power Good signal.............................................................................................. 8
5 PCB Layout ................................................................................................................ 9
6 Bill Of Materials ........................................................................................................ 10
7 Transformer Specification......................................................................................... 12
7.1 Electrical Diagram ............................................................................................. 12
7.2 Electrical Specifications..................................................................................... 12
7.3 Materials............................................................................................................ 12
7.4 Transformer Build Diagram ............................................................................... 13
7.5 Transformer Construction.................................................................................. 14
8 Transformer Spreadsheets....................................................................................... 15
9 Performance Data .................................................................................................... 18
9.1 Efficiency........................................................................................................... 18
9.2 Regulation ......................................................................................................... 18
9.2.1 Cross Regulation........................................................................................ 18
9.3 Thermal Performance........................................................................................ 18
9.4 Surge test.......................................................................................................... 19
9.4.1 Surge Test Setup ....................................................................................... 19
9.4.2 Surge Test Results..................................................................................... 19
9.5 AC Line Over Voltage (388 VAC swell) ............................................................. 20
9.6 Hold-Up Time and Power Good ........................................................................ 21
10 Waveforms............................................................................................................ 23
10.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation .................................................. 23
10.2 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile........................................................ 23
10.3 Output Ripple Measurements............................................................................ 24
10.3.1 Ripple Measurement Technique ................................................................ 24
10.3.2 Measurement Results ................................................................................ 25
11 Control Loop Measurements................................................................................. 26
11.1 160 VAC Maximum Load .................................................................................. 26
11.2 230 VAC Maximum Load .................................................................................. 26
12 Conducted EMI ..................................................................................................... 27
13 Revision History.................................................................................................... 28

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DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

Important Notes:
Although this board is designed to satisfy safety isolation requirements, the engineering
prototype has not been agency approved. Therefore, all testing should be performed
using an isolated source to provide power to the prototype board.

Design Reports contain a power supply design specification, schematic, bill of materials,
and transformer documentation. Performance data and typical operation characteristics
are included. Typically only a single prototype has been built.

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DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

1 Introduction

This document is an engineering report describing a Set-top power supply utilizing a


TOP244P.

The document contains the power supply specification, schematic, bill of materials,
transformer documentation, printed circuit layout, and performance data.

Figure 1 – Populated Circuit Board Photograph

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DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

2 Power Supply Specification

Description Symbol Min Typ Max Units Comment


Input
Voltage VIN 160 230 275 VAC 2 Wire – no P.E.
Frequency fLINE 47 50/60 63 Hz

Output
Output Voltage 1 VOUT1 3.135 3.30 3.465 V
Output Ripple Voltage 1 VRIPPLE1 50 mV 20 MHz bandwidth
Output Current 1 IOUT1 0.30 1.00 A
Output Voltage 2 VOUT1 4.85 5.10 5.35 V
Output Ripple Voltage 2 VRIPPLE1 50 mV 20 MHz bandwidth
Output Current 2 IOUT1 0.020 1.00 A
Output Voltage 3 VOUT1 8.40 9.00 9.60 V
Output Ripple Voltage 3 VRIPPLE1 50 mV 20 MHz bandwidth
Output Current 3 IOUT1 0.25 1.00 A
Total Output Power
Continuous Output Power POUT 17.4 W
Efficiency
Full Load η 70 % 230VAC, 25 oC

Environmental
Conducted EMI Meets CISPR22B / EN55022B
Designed to meet IEC950, UL1950
Safety Class II

100 kHz ring wave, 200 A short


Surge 6 kV circuit current, differential and
common mode
o
Ambient Temperature TAMB 65 C Free convection, sea level

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DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

3 Schematic

Figure 2 – Schematic. Primary Side

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C25 R20 L1 C4 J1
FROM C23 1
1 nF51 3.3 uH
TN 100 V 9V/1A
DER-99

D13
SB360 10 V

220 uF

Page 7 of 29
C26 100 V R21 C18 L2 1
J2
1 nF 51 1000 uF
T1 10 V 3.3 uH C21
8 D10 5V/1A
SB340 C19
7 1000 uF

220 uF
C27 R22 10 V
10 V
2 6 L3 J3
1 nF 51 1
3

100 V
5 D11 3.3 uH 3.3V/1A
4
C20 R3 R4
SB330 160 C22 20 k
0.125 W
EE L22 1%

BAV20
D14 10 V 10 V 1
J5
R19
10 220 uF

1000 uF
0.125 W
RTN
C24 U4A R6 R5
1 uF 1k
6.34 k

PC817A 1%
50 V C11
1

R7 1.0 uF
1k 50 V
C29 0.125 W
U3
R14
Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply

1k TL431 R8
35 V

Figure 3 – Schematic Secondary Side


0.125 W 10 k
47 uF

1%
CHASSIS GROUND

VR1
5 .1 V
R18
10 k R27
0.125 W R28

1N5231B
75 k 22 k R29
0.125 W 4.7 k
D19 0.1 25 W
0 .125 W

1N4148 Q2 1

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Power Integrations
2N3904
Q1 C30 R30 2N3904
D18 Q3 PGF
22 uF 56 k
1N4148 10 V 2N3904
September 12, 2005

0.125 W
DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

4 Circuit Description

4.1 EMI Filtering


L6 and C15 form the main EMI filter. C23 and C14 reduce radiated EMI, and the RC
networks across the output diodes also reduce high frequency conducted and radiated
EMI.

4.2 TOPSwitch Primary


The TOPSwitch has a built-in bulk voltage OVLO (over-voltage lockout) protection. It
senses the bulk voltage through R24 and R25. If the bulk voltage exceeds the set
threshold, it will shutdown until the voltage falls back to safe levels. This will prevent
failure due to Drain over-voltage during an AC voltage swell.

4.3 Power Good signal


Q1, Q2, Q3 and associated circuitry form the power-good signal. D14 charges C24
during the on-time of the TOP244P, and form a “forward mode” output. C24 has a
negative voltage that is proportional to the bulk capacitor when the TP244P is running.
VR1 and Q1 sense when the bulk cap is below a certain threshold. When AC power is
removed, the bulk voltage drops and Q1 turns on, rapidly discharging C30, turning off Q2
and turning Q3 on, and the power-good signal output goes low. This bulk voltage
threshold, and zener VR1 voltage is chosen so that this happens >5mS before the
outputs drop out of regulation when at full load. R27 and C30 form a delay so that at
power-up, the power-good signal is delayed >500 mS before it comes up.

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DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

5 PCB Layout

Figure 4 – Printed Circuit Layout

9Vout
5.1Vout
RET
3.3Vout
PG

Figure 5 – Silk Screen

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DER-99 Set Top Box 17.4 W Power Supply September 12, 2005

6 Bill Of Materials
Item Quantity Value Description Part Reference
Number
1 1 1 nF 1 nF, 1 kV, Disc Ceramic C1
2 3 220 uF 220 uF, 10 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (6.3 x 11) C4 C21 C22
3 1 1.0 uF 1.0 uF, 50 V, Ceramic, X7R C11
4 1 100 nF 100 nF, 50 V, Ceramic, X7R C12
5 1 22 uF 22 uF, 400 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, 901 mOhm, (16 x 20) C13
6 1 10 pF 10 pF, 1 kV, Disc Ceramic C14
7 1 100 nF 100 nF, 275 VAC, Film, X2 C15
8 1 47 uF 47 uF, 10 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (5 x 11) C16
9 1 4.7 uF 4.7 uF, 50 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (5 x 11) C17
10 3 1000 uF 1000 uF, 10 V, Electrolytic, Very Low ESR, 38 mOhm, (10 C18 C19 C20
x 16)
11 1 47 pF 47 pF, Ceramic, Y1 C23
12 1 1 uF 1 uF, 50 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (5 x 11) C24
13 3 1 nF 1 nF, 100 V, Ceramic, COG C25 C26 C27
14 1 47 uF 47 uF, 35 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (5 x 11) C29
15 1 22 uF 22 uF, 10 V, Electrolytic, Gen. Purpose, (5 x 11) C30
16 1 1N4007GP 1000 V, 1 A, Rectifier, Glass Passivated, 2 us, DO-41 D3
17 4 1N4007 1000 V, 1 A, Rectifier, DO-41 D4 D5 D7 D8
18 2 BAV20 200 V, 200 mA, Fast Switching, 50 ns, DO-35 D9 D14
19 1 SB340 40 V, 3 A, Schottky, DO-201AD D10
20 1 SB330 30 V, 3 A, Schottky, DO-201AD D11
21 1 SB360 60 V, 3 A, Schottky, DO-201AD D13
22 2 1N4148 75 V, 300 mA, Fast Switching, DO-35 D18 D19
23 1 3.15 A 3.15 A, 250V,Fast, TR5 F1
24 3 3.3 uH 3.3 uH, 2.66 A L1 L2 L3
25 1 5 mH 5 mH, 0.3 A, Common Mode Choke L6
26 3 2N3904 NPN, Small Signal BJT, 40 V, 0.2 A, TO-92 Q1 Q2 Q3
27 1 150 k 150 k, 5%, 1/2 W, Carbon Film R1
28 1 100 100 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film R2
29 1 160 160 R, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R3
30 1 20 k 20 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film R4
31 1 6.34 k 6.34 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film R5
32 3 1k 1 k, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R6 R7 R14
33 1 10 k 10 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film R8
34 1 6.8 6.8 R, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R10
35 1 10 k 10 k, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R18
36 1 10 10 R, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R19
37 3 51 51 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film R20 R21 R22
38 1 330 330 R, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R23
39 1 910 k 910 k, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film R24
40 1 910 k 910 k, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film R25
41 1 75 k 75 k, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R27
42 1 22 k 22 k, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R28
43 1 4.7 k 4.7 k, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R29

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44 1 56 k 56 k, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film R30


45 1 400 Vac MOV, 400V, 80J, 10 mm, RADIAL RV1
46 1 EEL22 Custom Transformer LP=800uH T1
47 1 TL431 2.495 V Shunt Regulator IC, 2%, 0 to 70C, TO-92 U3
48 1 PC817A Opto coupler, 35 V, CTR 80-160%, 4-DIP U4
49 1 TOP244P TOPSwitch-GX, TOP244P, DIP-8B U5
50 1 1N5231B 5.1 V, 5%, 500 mW, DO-35 VR1

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7 Transformer Specification

7.1 Electrical Diagram


3

8
WD#1 WD#4
4
Bias +9V
7
WD#5
NC
+5V
NC
WD#3 5
Balance Winding WD#6
1 +3.3V
1 6
WD#2
Primary
2
Figure 6 – Transformer Electrical Diagram

7.2 Electrical Specifications


60 second, 60 Hz, from Pins 1,2,3,4 to Pins 5,6,7,
Electrical Strength 3000 VAC
8
Pins 1 to 2, all other windings open, measured at
Primary Inductance 800 µH, -/+10%
132 kHz
Resonant Frequency Pins 1 to 2, all other windings open, measured at 1233 kHz (Min.)
Pins 1-2, with Pins 5,6,7,8 shorted, measured at
Primary Leakage Inductance 35 µH (Max.)
132 kHz.

7.3 Materials
Item Description
2
[1] Core: PC40EEL22, TDK or equivalent Gapped for AL of 222 nH/T
[2] Bobbin: EEL22 Vertical 8 pin
[3] Magnet Wire: 29AWG
[4] Magnet Wire: 34AWG
[5] Magnet Wire: 27AWG
[6] Copper Foil: 0.1mm*8.5mm
[7] Tape: 3M 44 Polyester Film, 5.5 mils thick, 6 mm wide
[8] Tape: 3M 44 Polyester Film, 5.5 mils thick, 3 mm wide
[9] Tape: 3M 1298 Polyester Film, 2.0 mils thick, 9 mm wide
[10] Tape: 3M 1298 Polyester Film, 2.0 mils thick, 18mm wide
[11] Varnish

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7.4 Transformer Build Diagram

PINS Side

PIN 6
PIN 5 3.3V Winding

PIN 5 These windings


5V Winding should be in a
PIN 7
PIN 7 single layed

PIN 8 9V Winding

PIN 1 Balance Winding

PIN 1
Primary Winding
PIN 2

PIN 4
Bias Winding
PIN 3

6mm Margin 9 Turns 9 Turns 3mm Margin

Figure 7 – Transformer Build Diagram

Copper Foil Wrapped in Tape

Starting lead to be connected to pin 1

Figure 8 – Copper foil preparation for winding #3

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7.5 Transformer Construction


Bobbin Orientation Place bobbin, item [2] with the pin side oriented to the left hand side
Wind margin tape, item [7] on the pin side of the bobbin. Also wind margin
Safety Margin tape, item [8] on the top side of the bobbin. Match the height of the tape
with the height of the primary side windings.
Start at Pin3. Wind 9 turns of item [3] from left to right. Bring the wire lead
out and connect it to pin 4. Then bring the wire lead back to the winding
Bias Winding area to continue winding 9 more turns from left to right on the same layer.
The layer should be uniformly covering the whole winding area. Cut the
finish lead at the end of the winding.
Tape 1 layer of item [9] for basic insulation.
Start at pin 2, wind 20 turns of item [4] from left to right. Distribute the 20
turns uniformly scattered on the whole winding area. Add two layers of
Primary
tape, item [9]. Wind 40 more turns on a second layer from right to left.
Wind tightly and uniformly across whole layer. Finish on pin 1
Basic Insulation 1 layer of item [9] for basic insulation.
Start on pin 1 using item [6] as shown in figure 7. Start at pin 1. Wind 2
Balance Winding
turns in reverse winding direction. Finish lead is not connected.
Insulation Use 3 layers of item [10] for basic insulation
Wind margin tape, item [7] on the pin side of the bobbin. Also wind margin
Safety Margin tape, item [8] on the top side of the bobbin. Match the height of the tape
with the height of the secondary side windings.
Wind secondary winding in Normal winding direction. The three
windings should be wound in a single layer scattered along the winding
area.
9V Winding. Two trifilar turns of item [5] from left to right. Start at pin 8,
9V, 5V and 3V3
finish at pin 7
Winding
5V Winding. One trifilar turn of item [5] from left to right. Start at pin 7,
finish at pin 5
3.3 V Winding. Two trifilar turns of item [5] from left to right. Start at pin 5,
finish at pin 6
Insulation Apply 3 layer item [10]
Assemble and secure core halves [1] with bobbin [2] Varnish impregnate
Final Assembly
item [11]

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8 Transformer Spreadsheets
ACDC_TOPSwitchGX_032 INPUT INFO INFO OUTP OUTP UNIT TOP_GX_FX_032204.xls: TOPSwitch-GX/FX
204; Rev.1.9; Copyright UT UT Continuous/Discontinuous Flyback Transformer Design
Power Integrations Inc. Spreadsheet
2004
ENTER APPLICATION VARIABLES Customer
VACMIN 160 Volts Minimum AC Input Voltage
VACMAX 275 Volts Maximum AC Input Voltage
fL 50 Hertz AC Mains Frequency
VO 5 Volts Output Voltage
PO 17.4 Watts Output Power
n 0.72 Efficiency Estimate
Z 0.5 Loss Allocation Factor
VB 15 Volts Bias Voltage
tC 3 mSeco Bridge Rectifier Conduction Time Estimate
nds
CIN 22 uFarad Input Filter Capacitor
s

ENTER TOPSWITCH-GX VARIABLES


TOP-GX TOP24 Univer 115 Doubled/230V
3 sal
Chosen Device TOP24 TOP24 Power Power 30W 45W
3 3 Out Out
KI 1 External Ilimit reduction factor (KI=1.0 for default ILIMIT, KI
<1.0 for lower ILIMIT)
ILIMITMIN 0.837 0.837 Amps Use 1% resistor in setting external ILIMIT
ILIMITMAX 0.963 0.963 Amps Use 1% resistor in setting external ILIMIT
Frequency (F)=132kHz, F Full (F) frequency option - 132kHz
(H)=66kHz
fS 13200 13200 Hertz TOPSwitch-GX Switching Frequency: Choose between 132
0 0 kHz and 66 kHz
fSmin 12400 12400 Hertz TOPSwitch-GX Minimum Switching Frequency
0 0
fSmax 14000 14000 Hertz TOPSwitch-GX Maximum Switching Frequency
0 0
VOR 110 Volts Reflected Output Voltage
VDS 10 Volts TOPSwitch on-state Drain to Source Voltage
VD 0.5 Volts Output Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
VDB 0.7 Volts Bias Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
KP 0.9632 Ripple to Peak Current Ratio (0.4 < KRP < 1.0 : 1.0<
6036 KDP<6.0)

ENTER TRANSFORMER CORE/CONSTRUCTION VARIABLES


Core Type EEL22
Core EEL22 EEL22 P/N: PC40EE22/29/6-Z
Bobbin EEL22 EEL22_BOBBI P/N: *
_BOB N
BIN
AE 0.358 0.358 cm^2 Core Effective Cross Sectional Area
LE 6.32 6.32 cm Core Effective Path Length
AL 1400 1400 nH/T^2 Ungapped Core Effective Inductance
BW 18 18 mm Bobbin Physical Winding Width
M 4.5 mm Safety Margin Width (Half the Primary to Secondary
Creepage Distance)
L 1.5 Number of Primary Layers
NS 3 Number of Secondary Turns

DC INPUT VOLTAGE
PARAMETERS
VMIN 189 189 Volts Minimum DC Input Voltage
VMAX 389 389 Volts Maximum DC Input Voltage

CURRENT WAVEFORM SHAPE

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PARAMETERS
DMAX 0.38 0.38 Maximum Duty Cycle
IAVG 0.13 0.13 Amps Average Primary Current
IP 0.65 0.65 Amps Peak Primary Current
IR 0.62 0.62 Amps Primary Ripple Current
IRMS 0.23 0.23 Amps Primary RMS Current

TRANSFORMER PRIMARY DESIGN PARAMETERS


LP 800 800 uHenri Primary Inductance
es
NP 60 60 Primary Winding Number of Turns
NB 9 9 Bias Winding Number of Turns
ALG 222 222 nH/T^2 Gapped Core Effective Inductance
BM 2412 2412 Gauss Maximum Flux Density at PO, VMIN (BM<3000)
BP 3587 3587 Gauss Peak Flux Density (BP<4200)
BAC 1162 1162 Gauss AC Flux Density for Core Loss Curves (0.5 X Peak to Peak)
ur 1967 1967 Relative Permeability of Ungapped Core
LG 0.17 0.17 mm Gap Length (Lg > 0.1 mm)
BWE 13.5 13.5 mm Effective Bobbin Width
OD 0.23 0.23 mm Maximum Primary Wire Diameter including insulation
INS 0.04 0.04 mm Estimated Total Insulation Thickness (= 2 * film thickness)
DIA 0.18 0.18 mm Bare conductor diameter
AWG 34 34 AWG Primary Wire Gauge (Rounded to next smaller standard
AWG value)
CM 40 40 Cmils Bare conductor effective area in circular mils
CMA Warnin Warnin 172 172 Cmils/ !!!!!!!!!! INCREASE CMA>200 (increase L(primary
g g Amp layers),decrease NS,larger Core)

TRANSFORMER SECONDARY DESIGN PARAMETERS (SINGLE OUTPUT / SINGLE OUTPUT EQUIVALENT)


Lumped parameters
ISP 12.96 12.96 Amps Peak Secondary Current
ISRMS 6.00 6.00 Amps Secondary RMS Current
IO 3.48 3.48 Amps Power Supply Output Current
IRIPPLE 4.89 4.89 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current

CMS 1200 1200 Cmils Secondary Bare Conductor minimum circular mils
AWGS 19 19 AWG Secondary Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger standard
AWG value)
DIAS 0.91 0.91 mm Secondary Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS 3.00 3.00 mm Secondary Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated
Wire
INSS 1.04 1.04 mm Maximum Secondary Insulation Wall Thickness

VOLTAGE STRESS
PARAMETERS
VDRAIN 640 640 Volts Maximum Drain Voltage Estimate (Includes Effect of
Leakage Inductance)
PIVS 24 24 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage
PIVB 71 71 Volts Bias Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage

TRANSFORMER SECONDARY DESIGN PARAMETERS (MULTIPLE OUTPUTS)


1st output
VO1 5.1 Volts Output Voltage
IO1 1.000 Amps Output DC Current
PO1 5.10 5.10 Watts Output Power
VD1 0.5 Volts Output Diode Forward Voltage Drop
NS1 3.05 3.05 Output Winding Number of Turns
ISRMS1 1.724 1.724 Amps Output Winding RMS Current
IRIPPLE1 1.40 1.40 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
PIVS1 25 25 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage

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CMS1 345 345 Cmils Output Winding Bare Conductor minimum circular mils
AWGS1 24 24 AWG Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger standard AWG
value)
DIAS1 0.51 0.51 mm Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS1 2.95 2.95 mm Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated Wire

2nd output
VO2 3.3 Volts Output Voltage
IO2 1.000 Amps Output DC Current
PO2 3.30 3.30 Watts Output Power
VD2 0.5 Volts Output Diode Forward Voltage Drop
NS2 2.07 2.07 Output Winding Number of Turns
ISRMS2 1.724 1.724 Amps Output Winding RMS Current
IRIPPLE2 1.40 1.40 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
PIVS2 17 17 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage

CMS2 345 345 Cmils Output Winding Bare Conductor minimum circular mils
AWGS2 24 24 AWG Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger standard AWG
value)
DIAS2 0.51 0.51 mm Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS2 4.34 4.34 mm Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated Wire

3rd output
VO3 9.0 Volts Output Voltage
IO3 1.000 Amps Output DC Current
PO3 9.00 9.00 Watts Output Power
VD3 0.5 Volts Output Diode Forward Voltage Drop
NS3 5.18 5.18 Output Winding Number of Turns
ISRMS3 1.724 1.724 Amps Output Winding RMS Current
IRIPPLE3 1.40 1.40 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
PIVS3 43 43 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage

CMS3 345 345 Cmils Output Winding Bare Conductor minimum circular mils
AWGS3 24 24 AWG Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger standard AWG
value)
DIAS3 0.51 0.51 mm Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS3 1.74 1.74 mm Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated Wire

Total power 17.4 17.4 Watts Total Power for Multi-output section

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9 Performance Data
All measurements performed at room temperature, 60 Hz input frequency.

9.1 Efficiency
VIN (AC) Input Power (W) Total PO (W) Output Efficiency (%)
160 21.7 17.11 78.85
230 21.8 17.11 78.49
Figure 9 – Efficiency Data. Each Output is loaded at 1.0Amp. Room Temperature, 60 Hz.

9.2 Regulation

9.2.1 Cross Regulation


VIN (AC) ____OUT LOAD (ADC)______ ___MEASURED OUTPUT VOLTAGE (DC)
3.3 V 5V 9V 3.3 V 5V 9V
(3.135--3.465) (4.85--5.35) (8.40--9.60)
160VAC 0.300 0.020 0.250 3.23 5.21 8.70
0.300 0.020 1.000 3.23 5.20 8.40
0.300 1.000 0.250 3.29 5.00 8.93
0.300 1.000 1.000 3.28 5.02 8.58
1.000 0.020 0.250 3.16 5.42 9.07
1.000 0.020 1.000 3.19 5.32 8.59
1.000 1.000 0.250 3.25 5.12 9.21
1.000 1.000 1.000 3.26 5.11 8.74

230VAC 3.135--3.465 4.85--5.35 8.40--9.60


0.300 0.020 0.250 3.23 5.21 8.69
0.300 0.020 1.000 3.23 5.20 8.39
0.300 1.000 0.250 3.29 5.00 8.93
0.300 1.000 1.000 3.28 5.01 8.58
1.000 0.020 0.250 3.15 5.43 9.08
1.000 0.020 1.000 3.19 5.32 8.58
1.000 1.000 0.250 3.25 5.12 9.20
1.000 1.000 1.000 3.26 5.11 8.74
Figure 10 – Cross Load Regulation, Room Temperature

9.3 Thermal Performance


The power supply was tested under the following conditions.
Vin (AC) Load Ambient Temperature (oC )
160 Full Load o
75
275 Full Load o
75
Figure 11 – Thermal Test Conditions
The supply operated for several hours at 75oC without going into thermal shut down.
This implies very good margin against the max 65oC specification

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9.4 Surge test

9.4.1 Surge Test Setup


The unit was tested against spec IEEE-587. The figure below shows the waveform for the
high voltage surge.

Figure 12 – Ring Waveform

Test Conditions
Vpeak Test Voltage 6KV
Test Current 200A
Polarity +/-
Phase 0,90,180,270
Test Mode Differential Mode (L-N) and Common Mode (L1,N---GND).
Interval Between Tests 1 minute.

9.4.2 Surge Test Results.


The unit passes 6 KV in Both Differential and Common Mode

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9.5 AC Line Over Voltage (388 VAC swell)

Figure 13 – AC Line Over-voltage. Top Trace is the input bulk capacitor Voltage (100 V / Div). Bottom
trace is the DRAIN Voltage (200 V / Div).

The AC Line voltage was slowly increased to 388 VAC. When this voltage reached 313
VAC (443 Vdc on bulk cap, top trace of above figure), the TOPSwitch shuts down and the
supply stops running. When the AC Line is lowered to nominal voltage, the supply starts
to run again. Just before the point of shutdown, the Drain voltage of the TOP244P
reaches a maximum of 620 V, which is far below the max rating of 700 V.

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9.6 Hold-Up Time and Power Good

Figure 14 – Hold-Up time. At Full Output Load. Top Trace is the AC Line Voltage, Middle trace 5V output,
Bottom Trace is the HV DC bus. AC voltage is 160 Vac.
Note: The AC line was interrupted for about 28ms. The power supply maintained output
regulation for the whole time the AC line was off.

AC Off

Power good

3V output

Figure 15 – 10mS/div. Holdup and power good. 160Vac, full load.


Notes:
• 3V output drops out >20 mS after AC turns off. (Spec is >16.7 mS)
• Power good goes down 10 mS before 3V (Spec is > 5mS)
• 160Vac is the worst case. Higher voltages show even greater holdup time.

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Figure 16 – Power up sequence of Powergood signal. 200 mS/div

Note: Power good comes up 600 mS after 3 V comes into regulation (Spec is >500 mS)

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10 Waveforms
10.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation

Figure 17 – 160 VAC, Full Load Figure 18 – 275 VAC, Full Load
Upper: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div Upper: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div
Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V, 2 µs / div Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V / div

10.2 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile

Figure 19 – 160 VAC Input and Maximum Load. Figure 20 – 275 VAC Input and Maximum Load.
Upper: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div. Upper: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div.
Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V & 2 us / div. Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V & 2 us / div.

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10.3 Output Ripple Measurements

10.3.1 Ripple Measurement Technique


For DC output ripple measurements, a modified oscilloscope test probe must be utilized
in order to reduce spurious signals due to pickup

The 5125BA probe adapter is affixed with two capacitors tied in parallel across the probe
tip. The capacitors include one (1) 0.1 µF/50 V ceramic type and one (1) 1.0 µF/50 V
aluminum electrolytic. The aluminum electrolytic type capacitor is polarized, so
proper polarity across DC outputs must be maintained (see below).

Probe Ground

Probe Tip

Figure 21 – Oscilloscope Probe Prepared for Ripple Measurement. (End Cap and Ground Lead Removed)

Figure 22 – Oscilloscope Probe with Probe Master 5125BA BNC Adapter. (Modified with wires for probe
ground for ripple measurement, and two parallel decoupling capacitors added)

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10.3.2 Measurement Results

Figure 23 – 9 Voutput Ripple, 160 VAC, Full Load. Figure 24 – 5 Voutput Ripple, 160 VAC, Full Load.
10 ms, 50 mV / div 10 ms, 50 mV / div

Figure 25 – 3.3 Voutput Ripple, 160 VAC, Full


Load.
10 ms, 50 mV /div

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11 Control Loop Measurements


These results show phase margin > 60o

11.1 160 VAC Maximum Load

Figure 26 – Gain-Phase Plot, 160 VAC, Maximum Steady State Load


Vertical Scale: Gain = 10 dB/div, Phase = 30 °/div.
Crossover Frequency = 2.557 kHz Phase Margin = 89°

11.2 230 VAC Maximum Load

Figure 27 – Gain-Phase Plot, 230 VAC, Maximum Steady State Load


Vertical Scale: Gain = 10 dB/div, Phase = 30 °/div.
Crossover Frequency = 1.953 Hz, Phase Margin = 95°

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12 Conducted EMI

Figure 28 – Conducted EMI, Maximum Steady State Load, 230 VAC, 60 Hz, and EN55022 B Limits.
Supply is at full load. OUTPUT RETURN connecter to Chassis Ground

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13 Revision History
Date Author Revision Description & changes Reviewed
September 12, 2005 VC 1.0 First Release VC / AM

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For the latest updates, visit our Web site: www.powerint.com

Power Integrations may make changes to its products at any time. Power Integrations has no liability arising from your
use of any information, device or circuit described herein nor does it convey any license under its patent rights or the
rights of others. POWER INTEGRATIONS MAKES NO WARRANTIES HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS
ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

PATENT INFORMATION
The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at
www.powerint.com.

The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, and EcoSmart are registered trademarks of Power
Integrations. PI Expert and DPA-Switch are trademarks of Power Integrations.
© Copyright 2004, Power Integrations.

Power Integrations Worldwide Sales Support Locations


WORLD HEADQUARTERS GERMANY JAPAN TAIWAN
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Design Example Report
15W Flyback Power Supply using
Title
TOP244P
Input: 90 – 265 VAC 50/60Hz
Specification
Output: +24 VDC @ 625mA
Application Refrigerator
Author Power Integrations Applications Department
Document
DER-106
Number
Date May 19, 2006
Revision 1.1

Summary and Features

• Low part count, Low-cost Isolated Flyback Power Supply


• E-SHIELD® Transformer Construction for reduced common-mode EMI (small 220pF
Y1 capacitor and small 10mH Common-mode choke)
• 132kHz Switching Frequency with jitter to reduce conducted EMI
• Auto-restart function for automatic and self-resetting open-loop, overload and short-
circuit protection
• Built-in Hysteretic thermal shutdown at 135C
• Enhanced 8-pin DIP package with increased creepage from Drain to low-voltage
control pins
• EcoSmart® for extremely low standby power consumption <800 mW at 230 VAC

The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at
www.powerint.com.

Power Integrations
Atlanta Sales Office
4335 South Lee Street - G, Buford, GA 305188 USA.
Tel: +1 678 714 6011 Fax: +1 678 714 6012
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DER-106 15 W Universal Input Power Supply May 19, 2006

Table Of Contents
1 Introduction .................................................................................................................3
2 Power Supply Specification ........................................................................................4
3 Schematic ...................................................................................................................5
4 Circuit Description.......................................................................................................6
4.1 Input EMI Filtering................................................................................................6
4.2 TOPSwitch Primary .............................................................................................6
4.3 Output Rectification .............................................................................................6
4.4 Output Feedback .................................................................................................7
5 PCB Layout.................................................................................................................8
6 Bill Of Materials...........................................................................................................9
7 Transformer Specification .........................................................................................10
8 Transformer Spreadsheets .......................................................................................14
9 Performance Data.....................................................................................................17
9.1 Efficiency ...........................................................................................................17
9.2 No-load Input Power ..........................................................................................17
9.3 Regulation .........................................................................................................18
9.3.1 Load ...........................................................................................................18
9.3.2 Line.............................................................................................................18
10 Waveforms ............................................................................................................19
10.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation...................................................19
10.2 Output Voltage Start-up Profile ..........................................................................19
10.3 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile ........................................................20
10.4 Load Transient Response (75% to 100% Load Step)........................................21
10.5 Output Ripple Measurements ............................................................................22
10.5.1 Ripple Measurement Technique.................................................................22
10.5.2 Measurement Results.................................................................................23
11 Control Loop Measurements .................................................................................24
11.1 90 VAC Maximum Load.....................................................................................24
11.2 265 VAC Maximum Load...................................................................................25
12 Conducted EMI .....................................................................................................26
13 Revision History ....................................................................................................27

Important Notes:
Although this board is designed to satisfy safety isolation requirements, the engineering
prototype has not been agency approved. Therefore, all testing should be performed
using an isolated source to provide power to the prototype board.

Design Reports contain a power supply design specification, schematic, bill of materials,
and transformer documentation. Performance data and typical operation characteristics
are included. Typically only a single prototype has been built.

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DER-106 15 W Universal Input Power Supply May 19, 2006

1 Introduction
This document is an engineering report describing the design of an AC-DC power supply
with universal input providing a regulated +24 VDC at 625 mA. The design, rated for 15
W is implemented using a TOP244P device from the TOPSwitch-GX IC family and an
EEL19 core in a Flyback topology. This power supply is intended to be used in a
refrigerator appliance where the maximum ambient temperature can reach 70C.

The document contains the power supply specification, schematic, bill-of-materials,


transformer documentation, printed circuit layout, and performance data.

Figure 1 – Populated Circuit Board Photograph

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2 Power Supply Specification

Description Symbol Min Typ Max Units Comment


Input
Voltage VIN 90 265 VAC 2 Wire – no P.E.
Frequency fLINE 47 50/60 64 Hz
No-load Input Power (230 VAC) 0.8 W
Output
Output Voltage 1 VOUT1 24 V ± 5%
Output Ripple Voltage 1 VRIPPLE1 100 mV 20 MHz bandwidth
Output Current 1 IOUT1 0.625 A
Total Output Power
Continuous Output Power POUT 15 W
Peak Output Power POUT_PEAK 20 W
η
o
Efficiency 82 % Measured at POUT (15 W), 25 C

Environmental
Conducted EMI Meets CISPR22B / EN55022B
Designed to meet IEC950, UL1950
Safety Class II
1.2/50 µs surge, IEC 1000-4-5,
Series Impedance:
Surge 4 kV Differential Mode: 2 Ω
Common Mode: 12 Ω
100 kHz ring wave, 500 A short
Surge 3 kV circuit current, differential and
common mode
o
Ambient Temperature TAMB 0 70 C Free convection, sea level

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3 Schematic

Figure 2 – Schematic

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4 Circuit Description
The schematic in Figure 2 shows an off-line Flyback converter using the TOP244P. The
circuit is designed for 90 VAC to 265 VAC input and provides a single output; +24 V @
625 mA.

4.1 Input EMI Filtering


Conducted EMI filtering is provided by C8, C11, C18 and T4. The switching frequency
jitter feature of the TOPSwitch-GX family allows the use of a small, low cost common
mode choke for T4 and reduces the value of C8 and C11 needed to meet EN55022 /
CISPR22 Class B with good margin. A safety rated Y capacitor bridges the isolation
barrier from the rectified DC rail to output return. This returns common mode EMI
currents generated by the primary and secondary switching-waveforms, reducing
conducted EMI. EMI results are presented in a later section of this document. Returning
the Y capacitor to the DC rail ensures high currents present during line transients are
routed away from U1.

4.2 TOPSwitch Primary


To keep the peak DRAIN voltage acceptably below the BVDSS (700 V) of U5, diode D10,
R7, VR2, C20, and R6 form a primary clamp. This network clamps the voltage spike seen
on the DRAIN due to primary and secondary reflected leakage inductance. Capacitor
C20 together with R6 form the main clamp with VR2 providing a hard limit for the
maximum voltage seen across the primary. Resistor R7 ensures that VR2 only conducts
at the end of the leakage inductance spike event, limiting dissipation. Diode D10 is
deliberately selected as a slow recovery type, but must be a glass-passivated type to
guarantee the reverse recovery time as defined by the manufacturer. Standard 1N4007
diodes should not be used as their potential for very long reverse recovery times can
cause excessive drain ringing. The slow recovery time, compared to fast or ultra-fast
diodes, allows recovery of some of the clamp energy, improving efficiency.

The discrete full bridge rectifier bridge comprised of D11-D14 and C18 provide a high
voltage DC BUS for the primary circuitry. The DC rail is applied to the primary winding of
T5. The other side of the transformer primary is driven by the integrated MOSFET in U5.
R5 sets the U5 current limit to approximately 70% of its nominal value. This limits the
output power delivered during fault conditions. C3 has 3 functions. It provides the energy
required by U5 during startup, sets the auto-restart frequency during fault conditions, and
also acts to roll off the gain of U5 as a function of frequency. R2 adds a zero to stabilize
the power supply control loop. Diode D9 and C17 provide rectified and filtered bias power
for U5 and U7.

4.3 Output Rectification


The output of T5 is rectified and filtered by D8 and C7. Inductor L2 and C21 provide
additional high frequency filtering. Resistor R1 and C1 provide snubbing for D8. Choosing
the proper snubber values is important for low zero-load power consumption and for high
frequency EMI suppression. The snubber components were chosen so that the turn-on

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voltage spike at the D8 anode is slightly under-damped. Increasing C1 and reducing R1


will improve damping and high frequency EMI, at the cost of higher zero-load power
consumption.

4.4 Output Feedback


Resistors R15 and R16 divide down the supply output voltage and apply it to the
reference pin of error amplifier U6. Shunt regulator U6 drives Optocoupler U7 through
resistor R17 to provide feedback information to the U1 CONTROL pin. The Optocoupler
output also provides power to U5 during normal operating conditions.

Components R2, R17, R14, C3 and C16 all play a role in compensating the power supply
control loop. Capacitor C3 rolls off the gain of U1 at relatively low frequency. Resistor
R2 provides a zero to cancel the phase shift of C3. Resistor R17 sets the gain of the
direct signal path from the supply output through U7 and U6. Components C16 and R14
roll off the gain of the error amplifier (U6).

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5 PCB Layout

Figure 3 – Printed Circuit Layout

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6 Bill of Materials

Item QTY Ref Des Value Mfg Part Number Description


1 1 C1 470pF/200V 470pF, 200 V, Ceramic, NPO
47uF, 25 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, 500mOhm, (5 x
2 2 C3 C17 47uF LXZ25VB47RME11LL 11.5)
330uF, 35 V, Electrolytic, Very Low ESR, 38mOhm,
3 1 C7 330uF KZE35VB331MJ16LL (10 x 16)
4 1 C8 47nF ECQ-U2A473ML 47nF, 275 VAC, Film, X2
5 1 C11 220pF 220pF, Ceramic, Y1
6 1 C16 100nF ECU-S1H104KBB 100nF, 50 V, Ceramic, X7R
7 2 C18 C19 22uF EEU-EB2G220 22uF, 400 V, Electrolytic, High Ripple, (12.5 x 25)
8 1 C20 10nF ECK-D3A103KBP 10nF, 1 kV, Disc Ceramic
100uF, 35 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, 180mOhm, (6.3 x
9 1 C21 100uF LXZ35VB101M515LL 15)
10 1 D8 MUR420 MUR420 200 V, 4 A, Ultrafast Recovery, 25 ns
11 1 D9 1N4148 1N4148 75 V, 300mA, Fast Switching, DO-35
D10 D11 D12
12 5 D13 D14 1N4007GP 1N4007GP 1000 V, 1 A, Rectifier, Glass Passivated, 2 us, DO-41
13 1 F2 2A 3-721-200-041 2 A, 250V, Slow, TR5
16 1 L2 3.3uH 822LY-3R3M 3.3uH, 2.66 A
17 1 R1 47R CFR-25JB-47R 47R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film
18 1 R2 6.8 CFR-25JB-6R8 6.8 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film
19 1 R5 10.5 k MFR-25FBF-10K5 10.5 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film
20 1 R6 68 CFR-25JB-68R 68 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film
21 1 R7 1k CFR-25JB-1K0 1 k, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film
22 1 R14 10 k CFR-25JB-10K 10 k, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film
23 1 R15 40.2 k MFR-25FBF-40K2 40.2 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film
24 1 R16 4.75 k MFR-25FBF-4K75 4.75 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film
25 1 R17 470 CFR-25JB-470R 470 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film
26 1 RV2 275Vac V275LA4 275 V, 23 J, 7 mm, RADIAL
27 1 T4 10mH SC-01-E100G 10mH, 1A, Common Mode Choke
28 1 T5 EEL19 YW-379-02B Bobbin, EEL19, Vertical, In built margins, 10 pins
29 1 U5 TOP244P TOP244P TOPSwitch-GX, TOP244P, DIP-8B
30 1 U6 TL431 TL431CLP 2.495 V Shunt Regulator IC, 2%, 0 to 70C, TO-92
31 2 U7 PC817D ISP817D, PC817X4 Opto coupler, 35 V, CTR 300-600%, 4-DIP
32 1 VR2 P6KE130A P6KE170A 170 V, 5 W, 5%, TVS, DO204AC (DO-15)

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7 Transformer Specification
Transformer Construction

Electrical Diagram

Winding Order

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Core Information Bobbin Information


Core Type EEL19 Bobbin Reference Generic, 5 pri. + 5
Core Material NC-2H or sec.
Equivalent Bobbin Orientation Vertical
Gap length, mm 0.109 Number of Primary 5
Gapped Effective Inductance, 203 pins
nH/t^2 Number of Secondary 5
Primary Inductance, uH 884 pins
Margin on Left, mm 3.0
Margin on Right, mm 3.0

Primary Winding BIAS Winding


Parameter Section 1 Parameter Value
Number of Turns 66 Number of Turns 8.0
Wire Size, AWG 28 Wire Size, AWG 25
Filar 1 Filar 1
Layers 2 Layers 0.30
Start Pin(s) 3 Start Pin(s) 5
Termination Pin(s) 1 Termination Pin(s) 4

Shield Information
Parameter Primary Cancellation
Number of Turns 14 25
Wire Size, AWG 26 31
Filar 2 2
Layers 1 1
Start Pin(s) NC 1
Termination Pin(s) 1 NC

Secondary Winding
Parameter Output 1 (main)
Spec Voltage, V 24.00
Spec Current, A 0.65
Actual Voltage, V 24.00
Number of Turns 15
Wire Size, AWG 26 T.I.W.
Filar 1

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DER-106 15 W Universal Input Power Supply May 19, 2006

Filar 1
Layers 0.50
Start Pin(s) 9,10
Termination Pin(s) 6,7

Winding Instruction
Use 3.0 mm margin on the left side. Use 3.0 mm margin on the right side.
Cancellation Shield Winding
Start on pin(s) 1 using item [6] at the start leads and wind 25 turns (x 2 filar) of item [8]. in exactly 1
layer. Leave this end of cancellation shield winding not connected. Bend the end 90 deg and cut the
wire in the middle of the bobbin.
Add 1 layer of tape, item [4], to secure the winding in place.
Primary Winding
Start on pin(s) 3 using item [6] at the start leads and wind 66 turns of item [8] in 2.00 layer(s) from
left to right. Add 1 layer of tape, item [5], in between each primary winding layer. At the end of 1st
layer, continue to wind the next layer from right to left. On the final layer, spread the winding evenly
across entire bobbin. Finish winding on pin(s) 1 using item [6] at the finish leads.
Add 1 layer of tape, item [4], for insulation.
Bias Winding
Start on pin(s) 5 using item [6] at the start leads and wind 8.0 turns (x 1 filar) of item [9]. Spread the
winding evenly across entire bobbin. Finish on pin(s) 4 using item [6] at the finish leads.
Add 1 layer of tape, item [4], for insulation.
Primary Balanced Shield Winding
Start on any (temp) pin on the secondary side and wind 14 turns (x 2 filar) of item [10]. Spread the
winding evenly across entire bobbin. Finish this winding on pin(s) 1 using item [6] at the finish leads.
Cut out wire connected to temp pin on secondary side. Leave this end of primary shield winding not
connected. Bend the end 90 deg and cut the wire in the middle of the bobbin.
Add 3 layers of tape, item [4], for insulation.
Secondary Winding
Start on pin(s) 9,10 using item [6] at the start leads and wind 15 turns (x 1 filar) of item [10]. Spread
the winding evenly across entire bobbin. Finish on pin(s) 6, 7 using item [6] at the start leads.
Add 2 layers of tape, item [4], for insulation.
Core Assembly
Assemble and secure core halves. Item [1].
Varnish
Dip varnish uniformly in item [7]. Do not vacuum impregnate.

Materials

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Item Description
[1] Core: EEL19, NC-2H or Equivalent, gapped for ALG of 203 nH/t^2
[2] Bobbin: Generic, 5 pri. + 5 sec.
[3] Tape: Polyester web 3.0 mm wide
[4] Barrier Tape: Polyester film 19.70 mm wide
[5] Separation Tape: Polyester film 13.7 mm wide
[6] Teflon Tubing # 22
[7] Varnish
[8] Magnet Wire: 31 AWG, Solderable Double Coated
[9] Magnet Wire: 25 AWG, Solderable Double Coated
[10] Magnet Wire: 26 AWG, Triple Insulated Wire

Electrical Test Specifications


Parameter Condition Spec
Electrical Strength, 60 Hz 1 minute, from pins 1 - 2 to pins 6 - 10. 3000
VAC
Primary Inductance, Measured between Pin 1 to Pin 2, with all other Windings 884 uH +/-
uH open. 10%
Primary Leakage, uH Measured between Pin 1 to Pin 2, with all other Windings 44 uH (max)
shorted.

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8 Transformer Spreadsheets

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DER-106 15 W Universal Input Power Supply May 19, 2006

9 Performance Data
All measurements performed at room temperature, 60 Hz input frequency.

9.1 Efficiency

Figure 4 – Efficiency vs. Input Voltage, Room Temperature, 60 Hz.

9.2 No-load Input Power

Figure 5 – Zero Load Input Power vs. Input Line Voltage, Room Temperature, 60 Hz.

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9.3 Regulation

9.3.1 Load

Figure 6 – Load Regulation, Room Temperature

9.3.2 Line

Figure 7 – Line Regulation, Room Temperature, Full Load

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10 Waveforms
10.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation

Figure 8 – 90 VAC, Full Load. Figure 9 – 265 VAC, Full Load


Upper: IDRAIN, 0.2 A / div Upper: IDRAIN, 0.2 A / div
Lower: VDRAIN, 100 V, 2 µs / div Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V / div

10.2 Output Voltage Start-up Profile

Figure 10 – Start-up Profile, 120 VAC Figure 11 – Start-up Profile, 240 VAC
2 V, 20 ms / div. 2 V, 20 ms / div.

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10.3 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile

Figure 12 – 90 VAC Input and Maximum Load. Figure 13 – 265 VAC Input and Maximum Load.
Upper: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div. Upper: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div.
Lower: VDRAIN, 100 V & 1 ms / div. Lower: VDRAIN, 200 V & 1 ms / div.

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10.4 Load Transient Response (75% to 100% Load Step)


In the figures shown below, signal averaging was used to better enable viewing the load
transient response. The oscilloscope was triggered using the load current step as a
trigger source. Since the output switching and line frequency occur essentially at random
with respect to the load transient, contributions to the output ripple from these sources
will average out, leaving the contribution only from the load step response.

Figure 14 – Transient Response, 120 VAC, 75-100- Figure 15 – Transient Response, 240 VAC, 75-100-
75% Load Step. 75% Load Step
Top: Load Current, 0.5 A/div. Upper: Load Current, 0.5 A/ div.
Bottom: Output Voltage Bottom: Output Voltage
100 mV, 5msec / div. 100 mV, 5 ms / div.

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10.5 Output Ripple Measurements

10.5.1 Ripple Measurement Technique


For DC output ripple measurements, a modified oscilloscope test probe must be utilized
in order to reduce spurious signals due to pickup. Details of the probe modification are
provided in Figure 16 and Figure 17.

The 5125BA probe adapter is affixed with two capacitors tied in parallel across the probe
tip. The capacitors include one (1) 0.1 µF/50 V ceramic type and one (1) 1.0 µF/50 V
aluminum electrolytic. The aluminum electrolytic type capacitor is polarized, so
proper polarity across DC outputs must be maintained (see below).

Probe Ground

Probe Tip

Figure 16 – Oscilloscope Probe Prepared for Ripple Measurement. (End Cap and Ground Lead Removed)

Figure 17 – Oscilloscope Probe with Probe Master 5125BA BNC Adapter. (Modified with wires for probe
ground for ripple measurement, and two parallel decoupling capacitors added)

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10.5.2 Measurement Results

Figure 18 – +24 V Ripple, 90 VAC, Full Load. Figure 19 – +24 V Ripple, 265 VAC, Full Load.
2 ms, 20 mV / div 2 ms, 20 mV / div

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11 Control Loop Measurements


11.1 90 VAC Maximum Load

Figure 20 – Gain-Phase Plot, 90 VAC, Maximum Steady State Load


Vertical Scale: Gain = 8 dB/div, Phase = 40 °/div.
Crossover Frequency = 1.42 kHz Phase Margin = 52.7°

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11.2 265 VAC Maximum Load

Figure 21 – Gain-Phase Plot, 265 VAC, Maximum Steady State Load


Vertical Scale: Gain = 8 dB/div, Phase = 40 °/div.
Crossover Frequency = 695Hz, Phase Margin = 65.4°

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DER-106 15 W Universal Input Power Supply May 19, 2006

12 Conducted EMI
A conducted EMI scan of the prototype was taken to determine the effectiveness of the
input filter and transformer ESHIELD® construction. The following plots show the peak
performance of the converter against quasi-peak (QP) and average (AVG) limits of
EN55022 Class B. Both scans were taken at 120 VAC / 60Hz input with maximum load
applied to the outputs. Since the peak scans are below the average limits, it is expected
that the QP and Average scans would have greater than 5db of margin below the limits.

Figure 22 – Conducted EMI (Neutral), Maximum Load, 120 VAC, 60 Hz, and EN55022 B Limits

Figure 23 – Conducted EMI (Line), Maximum Load, 120 VAC, 60 Hz, and EN55022 B Limits

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DER-106 15 W Universal Input Power Supply May 19, 2006

13 Revision History

Date Author Revision Description & changes Reviewed


10-26-05 RSP 1.0 Initial Release KM/JC/VC
05-19-06 RSP 1.1 Corrected Schematic

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For the latest updates, visit our website: www.powerint.com

Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability. Power
Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS
MAKES NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-
INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

PATENT INFORMATION
The products and applications illustrated herein (including transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be covered
by one or more U.S. and foreign patents, or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power Integrations.
A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at www.powerint.com. Power Integrations grants its customers a license
under certain patent rights as set forth at http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm.

The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, EcoSmart, PI Expert and PI FACTS are trademarks
of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of their respective companies. ©Copyright 2005 Power Integrations, Inc.

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DER-106 15 W Universal Input Power Supply May 19, 2006

Power Integrations
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