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ee _ TEXT BOOK OF le sD a First Published-2005 ISBN 81-7141-976-3 © Author Published by DISCOVERY PUBLISHING HOUSE 4831/24, Ansari Road, Prahlad Street, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002 (India) Phone: 23279245 © Fax: 91-11-23253475 E-mail:dphtemp@indiatimes.com Printed at: Arora Offset Press Laxmi Nagar, Delhi 110.092, Contents Pages Preface 1. ‘Systems of Co-ordinates 1 Introduction, Rectangular Cartesian Co-ordinates, Co-ordinates of a Point in Space, Other Methods of Defining the Position of Any Point P in Space, Spherical Polar Co-ordinates, Section of the Join of Two Points, Centroid of a Tridngle, Centroid of a Tetrahedron. 2. Direction Cosiries and Projection 21 Direction Cosines of a Line, Direction Ratios, Projection of a Point on a Line, Projection of a Segment of a Line on Another Line, Projection of a Broken Line on a Given Line, Direction Cosines of the Line Joining the Points, Projection of a Line Joining the Points P (x, Yu z,) and Q (X,, Yn z,) on Another Line Whose Direction Cosines are /, M and N The Angle Between Two Lines. 3. The Straight Lines 62 Representation of Line, Symmetrical Form of the Equations of a Line, To Find the Perpendicular Distrance of a Point P (%,, ¥)» Z,) Form a Given Line When its Equations are Given in the Symmetric Form, To Find the Equations of the Perpendicular Line Form the Point P (x,, y,, z,) to a Given Line Whose Equations are Given (A) in General Form and {B) in Symmetric Form, Projection of a Line on a Given Plane, Coplanar Lines, To Find the Point of Intersection of the Lines (1) and (II), Both the Lines in General Form, To Obtain the Equations of a Straight Intersecting Two Given Lines, To Find the Perpendicular Distrance of a Point Form a Line and the Co-ordinates of the Foot of the Perpendicular,