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NAME OF PROJECT: COST ANALYSIS OF LETTUCE

PRODUCTION

LOCATION: COWEN HAMILTON SECONDARY


SCHOOL

DURATION: SIX (6) WEEKS

NAME OF STUDENT: RICARDO BURTON

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE..................................................................1

INTRODUCTION.............................................................2

SKETCH & LAYOUT OF PLOT.....................................5

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS......................................6

COMPLETE BUDGET.....................................................7

ACTUAL INCOME & EXPENDITURE..........................8

ANALYSIS.......................................................................10

GENERAL COMMENTS.................................................11

RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................12

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INTRODUCTION
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES

1. Land Clearing – Land will be identified and cleared of all grass and debris.

2. Tillage – The soil will be worked up using pitch forks, hoes and spades. The soil will be
dug up and ploughed to turn it over in preparation for planting.

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Picture showing tillage work

3. Cultivation – The soil has to be further cultivated using forks and rakes to produce a fine
tilth for planting.

Picture showing students cultivating land

4. Transplanting young plants from seedling trays –The young plants have to be
transplanted from the seedling crates to the garden plot.

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Picture showing seedlings to be transplanted
5. Mulching – The soil between the plant rows will be covered with a mulch of cut grass
and compost.

6. Watering – The fine rows on the watering can will be used to water the young plants.
When they were less than three centimeters (3cm) high they were watered every day
because their roots were shallow and near to the surface soil and they would have dried
out if not watered. Watering continued as necessary according to the growth of the
lettuce.

7. Weeding – Weeds will be removed by cutting them with hoes and pulling them out by
hand. These weeds have to be removed from the garden plot because they compete with
the lettuce for foods in the soil and water.

8. Harvesting – The lettuce will be harvested by cutting off the stalk close the ground with
sharp knives. The big, firm ones will be harvested and the smaller ones will be left to get
bigger.

Picture showing harvesting of crop

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SKETCH AND LAYOUT OF PLOT

Picture showing layout of plot for planting

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MATERIALS

 Three (3) crates of lettuce


 Boots
 Watering Cans
 Fertilizers (Nutrex)

EQUIPMENT

 Forks
 Cutlasses
 Rakes
 Shovels
 Spades
 Hoes

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS

DATE ACTIVITY

25/04/2016 & 29/04/2016 Land clearing and preparation

02/05/2016 Tillage/Cultivation

02/05/2016 Transplanting

30/05/2016 Mulching

Every day (02/05/2016-09/05/2016) Watering

09/05/2016 Weeding

02/06/2016, 06/06/2016 & 09/06/2016 Harvesting

02/06/2016, 06/06/2016 & 09/06/2016 Marketing

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COMPLETE BUDGET

PROJECTED INCOME
Outputs used - 384 lettuce plants
Price of outputs - $10 per head
TOTAL PROJECTED INCOME - $3,840.00

PROJECTED EXPENDITURE
Items required:

1. 3 crates of lettuce @ $45.00 per crate

2. 1 bottle of Fastac insecticide (500 ml) @ $35.00

3. 500g of Nutrex 20:20:20 @ $15.00

4. Transport @ $40.00

TOTAL PROJECTED EXPENDITURE - $225.00

SURPLUS/SHORTFALL
Total income – total expenditure = surplus/shortfall
$3,840.00 - $225.00 = $3,615.00
SURPLUS - $3, 615.00

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ACTUAL INCOME AND EXPENDITURE

INCOME/SALE OF PRODUCE

QUANTITIES OF PRICE OF SELLING PRICE TOTAL INCOME


PRODUCE PRODUCE OF PRODUCE

300 heads of lettuce 4 crates of seedlings $6.00 per head $1,800.00


@ $45.00 per crate
Total - $180.00

EXPENDITURE
Quantities of inputs used – 4 crates of seedlings
4 packs of plastic bags
500g of Nutrex fertliser
500ml of Fastac pesticide
Transport

Price of produce – 4 crates of seedling@ $45.00 per crate

4 packs of plastic bags @ $40.00 per pack

500g of Nutrex fertiliser @ $35.00

500ml of Fastac pesticide @ $35.00

Transport - $40

Cost of inputs –
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Total expenditure - $45.00 x 4 = $180.00
$40.00 x 4 = $160.00
$35.00
$35.00
$40.00
_______
$450.00
_______

SURPLUS
Total income – Total expenditure = surplus
$1,800.00 – $450.00 = $1,350.00

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ANALYSIS
Comparison of Projected and Actual

- Income

In assessing the cost analysis, the projected income was Three Thousand, Eight Hundred and
Forty Dollars ($3,840.00). This projected income was calculated on three hundred and eighty-
four (384) lettuce plants at Ten Dollars ($10.00) per head. On the other hand, the actual income
was One Thousand Eight Hundred Dollars ($1, 800.00). The actual quantities of produce were
three hundred (300) heads of lettuce which were sold at Six Dollars ($6.00) per head. The crop
was scarce at the time the projected income was done so the cost of lettuce plants was projected
at a higher cost. At the time of the actual purchase the crop was plentiful and therefore the cost
price was less for lettuce head so therefore the actual income amounted to less than the projected
income.

- Expenditure

The projected expenditure was Two Hundred and Twenty-Five Dollars ($225.00) while the
actual income was Four Hundred and Fifty Dollars ($450.00). The actual expenditure was more
because while we projected to purchase three crates of lettuce, we actually bought four crates at
Forty-Five Dollars ($45.00) per crate. Additionally, the purchase of plastic bags was not
projected and therefore not included in projected expenditure. We purchased four packs of
plastic bags at Forty Dollars ($40.00) which increased the total actual expenditure.

- Surplus/Shortfall

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General Comments
This Agricultural Science project on the cultivation, harvesting and marketing of lettuce was a
very enlightening and informative one for me. I was able to gain practical knowledge during the
entire process since we did the actual activities step by step and finally engaging in the marketing
aspect of the project. The marketing process allowed me to get an insight in the profit, loss and
general business side of the project.

When we identified the plot and started the actual tillage and cultivation of the land, we
recognized the volume of work we had to complete this project. We worked extremely hard with
the tools we had which weren’t always in the best condition, but we knew we had to complete
the task. I observed corn in my hands on many days and this was proof of the tireless work we
did to ensure a successful project.

We handled the crops with care during transplanting. For the watering process, we realized that
taking care of young plants was similar to taking care of children. We had to water the young
plants daily and ensure that they were free of weeds. With the height of the dry season in
progress, we were faced with very hot days, using cans of water to ensure crops stay alive. This
was a very tiring process for us.

Finally, the time came for harvesting and then followed the marketing aspect. The knives we
were given were not in the very best condition which made it difficult for quick harvesting. We
harvested three hundred heads of lettuce which we sold at six dollars per head. We marketed the
produce at the school to staff at the school and we were indeed pleased to make a profit after all
the hard work.

Conclusion
This project can be described as a successful one since there was a surplus in the overall cost
analysis of this project. There was profitability in the project which can be supported by the
evidence in the surplus which shows the following:
Total income – total expenditure = surplus/shortfall

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$3,840.00 - $225.00 = $3,615.00
SURPLUS - $3, 615.00
Recommendations
The following recommendations are put forward for future projects of this nature: -

 More focus should be placed on ensuring better quality tools and equipment are used in
the various stages of the project.

 Other methods can be used to provide shade for crops. A shed can be built using coconut
branches or other creative methods can be used to prevent plants from drying up.

 Different approaches to the marketing strategies should be considered to increase


profitability. For example, ensure better advertising is done and use techniques in sales
such as buy two heads of lettuce and get another free.

 Overhead automatic sprinklers can be used to ensure sufficient water for crops. This will
also assist students by lessening the physical work they have to do by using watering
cans.

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