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ARGUMENTATIVE

WRITING FOR 6-12


SOCIAL STUDIES
Angela Orr aorr@washoeschools.net
&
Katie Anderson kmanderson@washoeschools.net

Make sure
to grab a
playing
card!
Pre-Survey: Before the Session
BEFORE the session, how well did you understand each of the Somewha
Not at all Moderately Mostly Completely
following? t
The application of CCSS for English Language Arts / History /
1 2 3 4 5
Social Studies in my content area
The Instructional Shifts 1 2 3 4 5

BEFORE the session, to what extent did you feel competent in Some
Not at all Moderately Mostly Extremely
each of the following areas? what
Implementing the instructional shifts in your instruction 1 2 3 4 5
Developing lesson plans that are aligned to CCSS 1 2 3 4 5
Teaching students grade-level social studies content using
1 2 3 4 5
complex texts aligned to CCSS.
Implementing Research Based Discussion Strategies for whole
1 2 3 4 5
class discussion
Implementing the Close Reading methodology 1 2 3 4 5
Implementing Document Based Questions 1 2 3 4 5
Implementing explicit teaching of academic vocabulary in
1 2 3 4 5
lesson planning.
Implementing strategies for more effective argumentative
1 2 3 4 5
writing.
Argumentative Writing: A Beginner’s Guide to
Teaching (and NOT just assigning) Writing
Our Ambitious Objectives:
 Understand and apply the definitions of argument: claim,
reasoning, evidence, and counterclaim;
 Learn to write and instruct sentence and paragraph level
arguments from art as well as primary and secondary
sources;
 Engage in the work of learning basic techniques for
writing power sentences for claims, reasoning, and
evidence;
 Employ highlighting and sorting strategies for recognizing
argument in authors’ works;
 Practice ways to isolate and teach quoting and
paraphrasing evidence;
 Work with counterclaim stems.
Tracking Your Plan
Overarching Principle
Students who become reading detectives will learn
to be better writers. Students who make deliberate
writing decisions will become more critical and
aware readers. That is, good readers are generally
better writers, and reverse is also true. Reading and
writing instruction cannot be separated, as rich and
interesting text provides the basis for writing with
evidence.
Empowerment Through Practice

This is not “Essay Writing 101,” because students


have to practice the individual skills before
applying them to larger writing assignment.
How can we reconcile these two ideas?
Write less, more often. Focus on quality.
Language of Writing Standard 1
 Read Writing Standard 1.
 With a partner, please come up with your own
definitions of claim, counterclaim, reasoning, and
evidence.
 These might be refined as we work through some
ideas.
Definitions for Writing Standard 1
 Argument - “Super Claim”: The overarching idea of an argumentative essay
that makes more than one claim.
 In some cases, an argument has a single claim, but in sophisticated writing in
8th-12th grade, multiple claims are made.

 Claim: a simple statement that asserts a main point of an argument (a side)

 Reasoning: 2 parts – a) the “because” part of an argument and the


explanation for why a claim is made; b) the explicit links between the evidence
and the claim; the explanation for why a particular piece of evidence is
important to the claim and to the argument

 Evidence: support for the reasoning in an argument; the “for example” aspect
of an argument; the best evidence is text-based, reasonable, and reliable.
Parts of an Argument (super simple version)

 Overarching Argument (Super Claim)


 I deserve this job.
 Claims
 I am a self-starter.
 I work hard.
 I collaborate well with others.
 I learn knew things quickly.
 Evidence & Reasoning
 Last summer, I worked for my uncle for three months, 35 hours a week,
doing construction. While my friends were sleeping in, I chose to get
up early and earn my keep.
 Although I had never had used power tools before, within only 2
weeks, I was put in charge of a small job that required me to use three
different tools.
 Counterclaim (another side that contradicts your claim)
Another far too simple example
 Claim: Pizza is a healthy alternative to fast
food.

 Evidence: Pizza is made with tomato sauce.

 Reasoning: Tomato sauce has many vitamins


and minerals as well as antioxidants, so eating
pizza with tomato sauce can be a healthy
alternative.
Why Descriptive Thesis Statements
are NOT Arguable Claims
Following are examples of descriptive thesis statements students write in high
school. Each is drawn from the top-scoring AP English Language and
Composition papers posted on the College Board website:
 “To be a writer, one must have an elite understanding of diction, syntax and
tone. These literary devices are utilized by writers, including Eudora Welty,
as a method for expressing the message that they wish to convey to
readers.”
 “In the excerpt from One Writer’s Beginnings, Eudora Welty conveys a
positive tone toward her childhood experience. She accomplishes this
through the use of descriptive diction, impressionable images, and unusual
syntax.”

These are NOT argumentative claims because the writers’ strategy is to create
a thesis statement that is DESCRIPTIVE. The writer is describing some aspect of
the main text, and that’s all their doing. It’s like saying, “Shakespeare’s Romeo
and Juliet is a play about two star crossed lovers and two warring families.”

Adapted from UW Writing Program


Why Descriptive Thesis Statements
are NOT Arguable Claims
Descriptive Informative Thesis:
 “To be a writer, one must have an elite understanding of diction,
syntax and tone. These literary devices are utilized by writers,
including Eudora Welty, as a method for expressing the message
that they wish to convey to readers.”

Argumentative Claim:
 “It was Eudora Welty’s steady exploration of the superficially
tranquil middle-class world -- a society of men, women and children
attempting to navigate complicated lives in the awful world of racial
mayhem left behind by the Civil War -- that made her the most
usable example of excellence for succeeding generations of
Southern writers.”
We are not necessarily advocating the use a traditional five paragraph essay.
This example is to demonstrate the relationship between traditional language (thesis) and CCSS language (claim).

The Traditional Five Paragraph Essay*


Essay with Thesis Essay with Argument

Paragraph 1: Paragraph 1:
Introduction and thesis with Introduction and argument (super
three reasons. claim) with three claims.
Paragraph 2: Paragraph 2:
First reason morphs into topic First claim restated followed by
sentence followed by supporting evidence and detailed
supporting evidence. reasoning (in HS includes
Paragraphs 3 & 4: counterclaims for each claim)
Paragraphs 3 & 4:
Same as paragraph 2 with
second and third reasons Same as paragraph 2 with second and
third claims, reasoning, and evidence
Paragraph 5:
Paragraph 5:
Conclusion with a restatement
of thesis (different words) Conclusion with a restatement of
and… argument (different words) and an
analysis countering the counterclaim(s)
THE ROLE OF
REASONING IN
ARGUMENT
Evidence & Reasoning
• Evidence is ALWAYS evidence for something! Reasoning
gives us that answer!

• Example Statistic: 74% of high school students read at a


minimum of an 8th grade level.

In a recent study of U.S. students’


reading, the U.S. was given a B
American schools are failing! According
average. 74% of high school students
to a new national study, 26%, or, in
reads at or above an 8th grade level,
other words, 1 in every 4 high school
the level necessary to read most
students, cannot read at a 9th grade
newspapers and popular fiction texts.
level. If 1 in 4 people in the country
The study factored in the nearly 10% of
had a disease, we would call it an
students who have learning disabilities
epidemic of mass proportions!
or are learning a second language to
come to the average grade of “B.”
Adapted from UNC at Chapel Hill College of Arts and Sciences Writing Center

Reasoning Matters
 After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say
why and how this evidence supports your argument. What
turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the
connection it has with a larger claim or argument: evidence is
always evidence for or against something, and you have to
make that link clear with reasoning.

 We should not assume that our readers already know what


we are talking about. The audience can’t read our minds:
although they may be familiar with many of the ideas we
are discussing, they don’t know what we are trying to do with
those ideas unless we indicate it through reasoning.
Questions to Develop Reasoning

 So what? Why should anyone care about this evidence?


 What does this information imply?
 I’ve just described what something is like or how I see it, but why is
it like that?
 Why is this information important to understanding why I made my
claim?
 How is this idea related to my claim? What connections exist
between them?
 Can I give an example to illustrate the application of this evidence?
 What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a
problem this way? (for evidence of a counterclaim)
Adapted from Indiana University Writing Center

Reasoning Matters (Example)


Weak use of evidence Stronger use of reasoned evidence

Today, we are too self-centered. Today, Americans are too self-centered.


Most families no longer sit down to Even our families don't matter as much
eat together, preferring instead to anymore as they once did. Other
eat on the go while rushing to the people and activities take precedence.
next appointment (Gleick 148). In fact, the evidence shows that most
Everything is about what we want. American families no longer eat
together, preferring instead to eat on
the go while rushing to the next
appointment (Gleick 148). Sit-down
meals are a time to share and connect
Why is this a weak with others; however, that connection has
become less valued, as families begin to
use of evidence? prize individual activities over shared
Discuss with the time, promoting self-centeredness over
people next to you. group identity.
Claim: Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight
pollution.

Evidence 1: Driving a private car is a typical citizen's most


air polluting activity.

Evidence 2: Each vehicle produced is going to stay on the


road for roughly 12 to 15 years.

Evidence 3: Hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine with a


battery-powered electric motor.
Which piece of evidence best
supports the claim?

Adapted from Purdue Writing Center


Claim: Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.

Evidence 1: Driving a private car is a typical citizen's most air polluting activity.
Reasoning 1: Because cars are the largest source of private, as opposed to industry
produced, air pollution switching to hybrid cars should have an impact on fighting
pollution.

Evidence 2: Each vehicle produced is going to stay on the road for roughly 12 to
15 years.
Reasoning 2: Cars generally have a long lifespan, meaning that a decision to
switch to a hybrid car will make a long-term impact on pollution levels.

Evidence 3: Hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine with a battery-powered electric


motor.
Reasoning 3: This combination of technologies means that less carbon pollution is
produced.

Adapted from Purdue Writing Center


Reflect
 How might you introduce the elements of argument?
If you already do this, what works well? What could
be tweaked?
 What examples might you use to help your students
understand these elements?
 How could you reinforce using reasoning throughout
all classroom activities?
 Take notes on your “Plan” sheet.
Using Art & Political Cartoons to
Jumpstart Argumentative Writing
Art & Argument
 Art sources can provide a great visual entrée to writing
and substantiating claims.

 Appeals to visual learners

 Forces students to think as writers without the


intimidation of complex text

 Great way to practice as using art can take less time


than reading a traditional text
The Problem We all Live With
Norman Rockwell, 1963 oil on canvas
Make a list of all of the details (evidence) you see.
You do not yet need to know where the evidence leads…just that
it is there. Do not jump to inferences.
What can you assert/claim about this
painting? Why is this a valid claim?
With a partner, discuss
what type of claim
you can make for
which there is evidence
in the picture and for
which you can reason.

In 30 words or less,
write your claim and
include reasoning and
two pieces of
evidence. Remember,
the reasoning explains
why the evidence
supports your claim.
The reasoning can
come from within or
outside of the text.
How could we find out if our claims and reasoning are true?
American Progress
John Gast, 1872
What claim can you substantiate with at least three
pieces of evidence from the text? Use reasoning to
explain how the evidence supports the claim.

Step 1: Make a
list of all
evidence.

Step 2: Write a
claim based upon
that evidence.

Step 3: Use
reasoning to make
sure that your
evidence clearly
supports the claim.
Theodor
Seuss Geisel
May 22,
1941
Theodor
Seuss Geisel
May 22,
1941

With a partner, discuss what type of claim you can make for which
there is evidence in the picture and for which you can reason.
In 30 words or less, write your claim and include reasoning and
evidence.
Reflection
 How might you introduce claims, reasoning, and
evidence in your classes?

 Do you use art that would lend itself to a similar


lesson?

 Take notes on your planning page.


Highlighting Claims, Reasoning, &
Evidence in Text
How can reading argumentative texts help
students explicitly understand the elements of
argument?
Claims, Evidence, Reasoning
 Claims: What are the main ideas that
support the author’s overall argument
(super claim)?
 Evidence: Concrete facts supporting
the author’s claims.
 Reasoning: So What? The author’s
independent interpretation of the
textual evidence. The facts don’t
speak for themselves!
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”

 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate by a
vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about whether to
ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to ensure
equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100 years, the
Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only applied to men. The
court refused to strike down laws that discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men, excluding
pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding women from
working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn more than men to
receive social security benefits, and excluding women from the military
academies. This discrimination must end.
 But, the ERA will also benefit men. For example, many criminal sentences
are more severe for men, domestic violence laws are rarely enforced
against women, men can be drafted into military service but women
cannot, and child custody decisions are biased toward women. It is time
for this discrimination to end, too.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”
 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate
by a vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about
whether to ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to
ensure equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100
years, the Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only
applied to men. The court refused to strike down laws that
discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men,
excluding pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding
women from working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn
more than men to receive social security benefits, and excluding
women from the military academies. This discrimination must
end.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”
 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate
by a vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about
whether to ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to
ensure equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100
years, the Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only
applied to men. The court refused to strike down laws that
discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men,
excluding pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding
women from working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn
more than men to receive social security benefits, and excluding
women from the military academies. This discrimination must
end.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”
 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate
by a vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about
whether to ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to
ensure equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100
years, the Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only
applied to men. The court refused to strike down laws that
discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men,
excluding pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding
women from working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn
more than men to receive social security benefits, and excluding
women from the military academies. This discrimination must
end.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”
 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate
by a vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about
whether to ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to
ensure equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100
years, the Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only
applied to men. The court refused to strike down laws that
discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men,
excluding pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding
women from working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn
more than men to receive social security benefits, and excluding
women from the military academies. This discrimination must
end.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”
 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate
by a vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about
whether to ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to
ensure equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100
years, the Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only
applied to men. The court refused to strike down laws that
discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men,
excluding pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding
women from working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn
more than men to receive social security benefits, and excluding
women from the military academies. This discrimination must
end.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”

 But, the ERA will also benefit men. For example, many
criminal sentences are more severe for men, domestic
violence laws are rarely enforced against women, men
can be drafted into military service but women cannot,
and child custody decisions are biased toward women.
It is time for this discrimination to end, too.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”

 But, the ERA will also benefit men. For example, many
criminal sentences are more severe for men, domestic
violence laws are rarely enforced against women, men
can be drafted into military service but women cannot,
and child custody decisions are biased toward women.
It is time for this discrimination to end, too.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”

 But, the ERA will also benefit men. For example, many
criminal sentences are more severe for men, domestic
violence laws are rarely enforced against women, men
can be drafted into military service but women cannot,
and child custody decisions are biased toward women.
It is time for this discrimination to end, too.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”

 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate by a
vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about whether to
ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to ensure
equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100 years, the
Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only applied to men. The
court refused to strike down laws that discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men, excluding
pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding women from
working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn more than men to
receive social security benefits, and excluding women from the military
academies. This discrimination must end.
 But, the ERA will also benefit men. For example, many criminal sentences
are more severe for men, domestic violence laws are rarely enforced
against women, men can be drafted into military service but women
cannot, and child custody decisions are biased toward women. It is time
for this discrimination to end, too.
Ratify the ERA: By “George Steinmetz”

 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and the Senate by a
vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is any debate about whether to
ratify it.
 The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 and was supposed to ensure
equality to “all persons.” Unfortunately, for the next 100 years, the
Supreme Court concluded that the Amendment only applied to men. The
court refused to strike down laws that discriminated against women.
 Today, there are laws setting higher minimum wages for men, excluding
pregnant women from disability benefits, forbidding women from
working in specific jobs, requiring women to earn more than men to
receive social security benefits, and excluding women from the military
academies. This discrimination must end.
 But, the ERA will also benefit men. For example, many criminal sentences
are more severe for men, domestic violence laws are rarely enforced
against women, men can be drafted into military service but women
cannot, and child custody decisions are biased toward women. It is time
for this discrimination to end, too.
Practicing the Skill
 In groups of 2 or 3, choose two or three
paragraphs from the remaining text.
1. Read the text
2. Work together to find and highlight the claim(s),
evidence, and reasoning in the passage.
Reflection
 What was this process like for you/your group?
 How could you implement this strategy in your
classroom?
 What to do with a weak argument?
 Improve it! Ask students to write their own sentences
improving the reasoning of a given argument.
Improving Weak Reasoning
 The ERA passed the House by a vote of 354-23 and
the Senate by a vote of 84-8! I am surprised there is
any debate about whether to ratify it.
 Rewrite the reasoning in a way that strengthens its
connection to the evidence.

 Share out.

 Take notes on your planner.


Sorting through an Argument
Putting the pieces of an argument together.

Note: This argument comes from www.procon.org


Argument: Putting the Pieces Together

 Argument: Violent video games do, in fact, contribute to


youth violence.
 Given Claims:
1. Violent video games desensitize players to real-life
violence.
2. Playing violent video games increases violent behaviors and
scripts (or repetitive procedures in reactions to events).
3. Playing violent video games leads to a lower level of
empathy for others.
 Counter-Claim:
1. Violent juvenile crime in the United States has been declining
as violent video game popularity has increased.
Putting the Pieces Together
 Argument (Super Claim), Claims, Reasoning, Evidence,
Counterclaim
 Envelope Activity: “Violence in Video Games”
 Information pulled from www.procon.org
 In your Number Groups (all 2s, all Jacks etc.):
1. Discuss the argument, claims, and counterclaims provided.
2. Separate the pieces of evidence from the pieces of
reasoning.
3. Find the two pieces of evidence and the two pieces of
reasoning for each claim and the counterclaim.
 All are related ideas , so you will have to be thoughtful and
engage with your peers in a discussion.
Argument/Super Claim:
Violent video games do, in fact, contribute to youth violence.

CLAIM #1
Violent video games desensitize • Evidence & Reasoning
players to real-life violence. • Evidence & Reasoning

CLAIM #2
Playing violent video games • Evidence & Reasoning
increases violent behavior and
scripts (repetitive procedures in • Evidence & Reasoning
reaction to events)

CLAIM #3
Playing violent video games leads • Evidence & Reasoning
to a lower level of empathy for
others • Evidence & Reasoning

COUNTER CLAIM
Violent juvenile crime in the United • Evidence
States has been declining as violent • Counter-Reasoning (the reasoning that explains why
video game popularity has this evidence and claim are invalid)
increased.
How might you create a sorting
activity for students?
Would this work well with a certain type of text or
topic?

Take notes on your planner.


Power Sentences
Clear, concise, specific…

in other words, awesome!


Now that we understand the
elements of argument…
Why is it important to focus practice at the
sentence level?
Power Sentences
Power Sentences are clear, concise, and specific.

 Clarity: there is no question about the meaning of your


words; you clearly address the question, topic, claim, etc.
 Concision: all “unnecessary” words and phrases are
removed; long sentences are fine as long as written with
concision.
 Specificity: when appropriate, all words and ideas are
definable (or have a clear antecedent) – e.g. not “thing,”
“they,” “some people,” “in history,” “over time,” etc.
Power Sentences

 Every sentence has a job.


 A sentence’s job should be clear.
 In this case, it’s making a small argument with a
clear claim, relevant evidence, and reasoning that
ties it all together.
 If a sentence isn’t doing its job, it needs
to be fired or retrained.
 When you fire a sentence, you also have to rehire another. If firing
seems like too harsh a punishment, just retrain the sentence to better
do its job.
Writing Power Sentences from Sources

When you are writing from sources, you need to


include evidence from the source.

Quoting
Paraphrasing
Noting

What are some ways to attribute your ideas in a


specific yet concise fashion? Discuss with your group.
1. Read through this letter
silently.
2. Follow along as I read it
aloud.
3. With a group of 4,
make a list of all of the
details (evidence) you
notice on this letter.
4. At the board (or poster
paper) write a claim
power sentence about
this document.
A. Claim with evidence
and reasoning.
B. Clear
C. Concise
D. Specific
Chock Full o’ Power Sentences!
 Travel in a clock-wise fashion with your group to the next power
sentence. Determine: Is this power sentence doing its job so well that
is should receive a promotion and award? Or could it be a bit
better?

 Using this criteria, edit the power sentence.


 Does it make and substantiate a claim?
 Is the sentence’s job clear?
 If you read the sentence aloud to a person who had not yet read this
text, would it be clear to them?
 Are there any words or phrases that could be edited to make the
sentence more concise?
 Are there enough specifics for this to be used in a piece of academic
writing? (Are there any words or phrases that are too vague?)

 You must make at least three changes to improve the sentence. (Do
not erase…make corrections around.)
Reflect
 After several revisions, how do these sentences
differ?

 How could you justify spending this much time


writing a single sentence?

 How might you be able to use Power Sentences in


your instruction? (Add ideas to your plan.)
Another Way to Use Power Sentences:
Vocabulary Power Sentences
 For each vocabulary word, write three power
sentences which include appropriate context clues.
 Sentence 1: Statement Sentence
 Sentence 2: Question Sentence

 Sentence 3: Exclamation Sentence

What four ideas do students


have to understand to complete
this work?
Vocabulary Power Sentences
Define for your students: Examples for CORONER
 appropriate context Statement: The coroner
clues (at least 2, often 3) investigated the dead body
 Statement Sentence
and determined the cause of
death.
 Question Sentence
Question: What evidence did
 Exclamation Sentence the coroner use to confirm this
death as a suicide?
Exclamation: “Holy
etymology,” exclaimed the
Make sure to include
coroner during the autopsy, as
direct instruction on the
types of sentences.
she found hundreds of blowfly
larvae.
Chock Full o’ Vocabulary
 Complete three power
sentences for the terms
“civil rights” and Power Sentences are:
“equal opportunity” Clear
from the letter from Concise
Jackie Robinson to the Specific
President.
Vocabulary Power
 Statement Sentence
Sentences include:
 Question Sentence At least two context clues
 Exclamation Sentence
ENJOY YOUR LUNCH!
Please mind the time.
WHAT WE DO WANT TO DO:
Quoting & Paraphrasing Correctly
Summarizing & Paraphrasing

Summary Paraphrase
 Main ideas with a few  Putting a small section
details of a longer of text (paragraph or
section of text in your less) into your own
own words words
 Think of: chapter  Important type of
summary textual evidence
Paraphrasing Practice
• Please silently read the three paragraphs excerpted from
“The Geography of Chinese Power” article.
How to Paraphrase with Confidence
• Think about the essence of the passage that you care about
sharing. Say it aloud in your own words.

• Change the structure of the sentence(s) that you are


paraphrasing from – start and end in a different way.

• Then, change the actual words to ensure that your thought is


your own.

• Check – do you have any groupings of two or more words


that match the original that could be changed and keep the
meaning the same?
Practice # 1:
China today is consolidating its land
Ranking borders and beginning to turn outward.
Paraphrases China's foreign policy ambitions are as
A. Unlike U.S. foreign policy of the
past which was highly ideological,
aggressive as those of the United
China’s relationships with other States a century ago, but for
nations today are strategic and
based in gaining important natural completely different reasons. China
resources.
B. China today is starting to have an does not take a missionary approach
aggressive foreign policy like that
of the U.S. 100 years ago, except
to world affairs, seeking to spread an
that it does not have a missionary ideology or a system of government.
approach but rather is propelled
by a need for resources. Moral progress in international affairs
China’s foreign policy ambitions
C.
are mean, like the U.S. was a is an American goal, not a Chinese
century ago. China’s actions in
other countries are about energy,
one; China's actions abroad are
metals, and strategic minerals to
support its huge population
propelled by its need to secure energy,
which is one-fifth of the world’s metals, and strategic minerals in order
total population.
D. China, a country with to support the rising living standards of
approximately 20% of the world’s
population, is demonstrating a
its immense population, which
forceful foreign policy aimed not
at spreading its beliefs or systems
amounts to about one-fifth of the
but rather at gaining access to world's total.
energy and other natural
resources.
Paraphrasing with Confidence
1. Think about the essence of “Having no choice in the matter, Beijing
the passage.
2. Change the structure of the
cares little about the type of regime with
sentence(s) that you are which it is engaged; it requires stability,
paraphrasing from – start not virtue as the West conceives of it.
and end in a different way.
And because some of these regimes --
3. Then, change the actual
words to ensure that your such as those in Iran, Myanmar (also
thought is your own. known as Burma), and Sudan -- are
4. Check – do you have any benighted and authoritarian, China's
groupings of two or more
words that match the
worldwide scouring for resources brings
original that could be it into conflict with the missionary-
changed and keep the oriented United States, as well as with
meaning the same?
countries such as India and Russia,
5. Have you credited the
author? Provided context of against whose own spheres of influence
the original text? China is bumping up.”
Quoting Evidence
Don’t fall into the trap of contextomy…surgically
removing a quote from its context.
Contextomy of Darwin: Origin of Species
“To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to
different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of
spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems,
I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.”

The quote in context is…

To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to
different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of
spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems,
I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree. Yet reason tells me, that if numerous
gradations from a perfect and complex eye to one very imperfect and simple, each grade
being useful to its possessor, can be shown to exist; if further, the eye does vary ever so
slightly, and the variations be inherited, which is certainly the case; and if any variation or
modification in the organ be ever useful to an animal under changing conditions of life,
then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural
selection, though insuperable by our imagination, can hardly be considered real.
Contextomy of Adams
 John Adams has often been quoted as having said: “This
would be the best of all possible worlds if there were no
religion in it.”

 Here are the words in their actual context. The meaning


changes entirely.
 “Twenty times, in the course of my late reading, have I been
on the point of breaking out, ‘this would be the best of all
possible worlds, if there were no religion in it!!!!’ But in this
exclamation, I should have been as fanatical as Bryant or
Cleverly. Without religion, this world would be something
not fit to be mentioned in public company—I mean hell.”
QUOTING CORRECTLY

Quote…
 if you can’t say it any better and the author’s words are particularly
brilliant, witty, edgy, distinctive, a good illustration of a point you’re
making.
 if the source is very authoritative and has particular expertise.
 if you are taking a position that relies on the reader’s understanding
exactly what another writer says about the topic.
 Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and
always cite your sources.
 Avoid “plop quotations.” Introduce, discuss, or follow-
up on every quote. Quotes don’t normally work well
in their own sentence.
Hints for Using Quotes
 Sometimes, you should quote short fragments, rather than whole
sentences. Consider this interview transcript from Jane Doe about
her reaction to John F. Kennedy’s assassination.
 She commented: “I couldn’t believe it. It was just unreal and so
sad. It was just unbelievable. I had never experienced such
denial. I don’t know why I felt so strongly. Perhaps it was
because JFK was more to me than a president. He represented
the hopes of young people everywhere.”

 The first three sentences of the quote are fairly redundant. You
might want to quote the most important aspect of her interview,
“the meatiest” part.
 Jane Doe grappled with grief and disbelief. She had viewed
JFK, not just as a national figurehead, but as someone who
“represented the hopes of young people everywhere.”
Quoting With Confidence
Answer the following questions:
Who said this?

In what context?

What does it mean?

How can we use this to support the claim? (What is


our reasoning for using this quote?)

Then, create a passage that successfully integrates the


quote (and contextualizes it and introduces it).
Helpful Words for Quote Attribution
Any of these words can be placed in the past tense as well.

add remark exclaim


announce reply state
comment respond estimate
write point out predict
argue suggest propose
declare criticize proclaim
note complain opine
observe think note
Snazzier Words for
Purposeful Attribution
Finding the “meatiest” part of the quote

“And because some of these  What part of this text


regimes -- such as those in provides us with the most
Iran, Myanmar (also known quotable material?
as Burma), and Sudan -- are
benighted and authoritarian,
China's worldwide scouring  How can we cut this down
for resources brings it into so as not to have a
conflict with the missionary- lengthy quote?
oriented United States, as  What can we include from
well as with countries such as the text as background/
context?
India and Russia, against
whose own spheres of
influence China is bumping
up.”
Claim: China poses a security threat to
the U.S.
 Underline all of the areas of this section of text that could be used as evidence for this claim.
 Choose the evidence that is most quotable:
 you can’t say it any better
 the author’s words are particularly brilliant, witty, edgy, distinctive,
 it’s a good illustration of a point you’re making
 the source is very authoritative and has particular expertise
 your position relies on the reader’s understanding exactly what another writer says about the
topic
 Then, decide: what is the “meatiest” aspect of this evidence? What makes this “meaty?”
 Could ellipses help you merge together two great parts of that are close together in the text
without taking out important context?
 Cut down the quotable section to include the “meaty” part but include no more than eight words.
 Decide how you will introduce your quote (context and attribution). What word will you use for
purposeful attribution?
 How will you employ reasoning to link this evidence to the claim? Will that reasoning come before
or after the quote?
 In the space below, write your short paragraph using the claim from above and your chosen quote
and reasoning.
Reflection
 When and how might you allow students to practice
paraphrasing and quoting?

 How well did you understand the article excerpt


after this practice?

 Take notes on your planner.


Counterclaim
Imagine a court case in session. Both the defense team and prosecution must be privy to
the information and evidence of the other so that they are not "blind sided" in the middle of
the court proceeding. The lawyers consider their opponent’s point of view and predict what
they will argue. By doing this, the lawyer can write a super strong opening or closing
statement that refutes the potential objections to their argument or case.

Basic Way to Introduce a Counterclaim:


1. Introduce the people who disagree.
2. Explain how this belief can be refuted.
• Although scientists claim that...
• Even though many citizens believe...

Here are specific examples:


Even though the media portrays sharks as vicious creatures, humans are actually more
dangerous to sharks than sharks are to humans.

Although some parents believe that their child is not a victim of bullying, student surveys
reveal a different story--specifically that many kids do not report incidents that have occurred
in a school day.
Counterclaim
You must make it clear that you do not agree
with the counterclaim!

Do not allow your audience to think you are


simply contradicting yourself. For this
reason, you should always find textual
evidence that disproves or contradicts the
counterclaim or the evidence in support of
the counterclaim.
Counterclaim and Rebuttal
“On the other hand, this person believes ______...”

“One may argue _________; however, _____...”

“This group/person feel that_________; however,_____...”

“Conversely, this person has established ______________.


Although the point is valid, it fails to take into
account________”

“This group/person rejects the idea of ____________. But


this opposing viewpoint is weak because ____________”
WHAT MAKES THE
COUNTERCLAIM HARD FOR
STUDENTS?
Make a list of possible obstacles to using effective
counterclaims.
DBQs & Counterclaims
• DBQs offer multiple perspectives of a topic.

• The counterclaim is evident either in the question itself or


in the document bundle.
• With your table, come up with an example of each of the above.
Quality over Quantity
• Using the article on the ERA, please compose a Power
Paragraph that includes:
• A claim
• Three pieces of evidence to support the claim
• Reasoning linking the evidence to the claim and making your
thinking explicit to the reader
• A refuted (rebutted) counterclaim

• A Power Paragraph includes only Power Sentences


• Clarity
• Concision
• Specificity
Writing Assessment
• Choose your two non-negotiables for writing (e.g. no
texting language, capitalization and end punctuation).

• Only assess what you have explicitly taught.

• Assess no more than four attributes of effective writing for


which you provided criteria to students ahead of time.

• At your table, discuss what attributes you would choose to


assess in the Power Paragraphs just written. Why?
Feedback
• Be clear in your assessment of the four or fewer attributes
you have chosen to assess.

• One thing you did really well was…

• One area that I would like you to work on is…

• You can turn in your rewrite of this by ______. Make sure


it is stapled to the original and takes into account the
feedback I gave.
How can teaching argumentative writing
help us shift our instruction?
Evaluations
Now, AFTER the session, to what extent do you feel competent Somewh Extremel
Not at all Moderately Mostly
in each of the following areas? at y
Implementing the instructional shifts in your instruction 1 2 3 4 5
Developing lesson plans that are aligned to CCSS 1 2 3 4 5
Teaching students grade-level social studies content using
1 2 3 4 5
complex texts aligned to CCSS.
Implementing Research Based Discussion Strategies for whole
1 2 3 4 5
class discussion
Implementing the Close Reading methodology 1 2 3 4 5
Implementing Document Based Questions 1 2 3 4 5
Implementing explicit teaching of academic vocabulary in
1 2 3 4 5
lesson planning.
Implementing strategies for more effective argumentative
1 2 3 4 5
writing.