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1. boot process - in depth.

Poweron-POST-InitSystem-Extended Diagnostic-bootblk-ufsboot-kernel load-kerne


l intialis-init-rcscripts
2. difference Socket - Port. - Sockets are software objects that connect an app
lication to a network protocol or other computer somewhere on the net. You could
have many sockets, including one for FTP, HTTP, telnet, and email. Once a conne
ction is made through the socket, which is not a physical component, the client
can use the services provided by the host. Both UNIX and Microsoft operating sys
tems support the use of these software objects. A socket can be created in one o
f a variety of languages, including c, c++, and java. These should not be confus
ed with hardware sockets, such as processor sockets on motherboards or sockets f
or network cables, such as RJ11 or RJ45.
A hardware location for passing data in and out of a computing device. Personal
computers have various types of ports, including internal ports for connecting d
isk drives, monitors, and keyboards, as well as external ports, for connecting m
odems, printers, mouse devices, and other peripheral devices. In TCP/IP and UDP
networks, port is the name given to an endpoint of a logical connection. Port nu
mbers identify types of ports. For example, both TCP and UDP use port 80 for tra
nsporting HTTP data. A threat may attempt to use a particular TCP/IP port.
3. ufsdump - increment - decremental
An incremental backup stores all files that have changed since the last backup.
The advantage of an incremental backup is that it takes the least time to comple
te. However, during a restore operation, each incremental backup is processed, w
hich could result in a lengthy restore job.
A differential backup contains all files that have changed since the last full b
ackup. The advantage of a differential backup is that it shortens restore time c
ompared to a full backup or an incremental backup. However, if you perform the d
ifferential backup too many times, the size of the differential backup might gro
w to be as large as the baseline full backup.
Full backup is the starting point for all other backups, and contains all the da
ta in the folders and files that are defined to be backed up. Because the full b
ackup stores all files and folders, frequent full backups result in faster and s
impler restore operations. Remember that when you choose other backup types, res
tore jobs are prolonged.
4. df - with option
-k, -l, -F
5. ps - with option - aef
** 6. nis - installation.
7. apache installation.
Installing Apache on Solaris 8
This section describes how to install the Apache webserver.

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache2 --enable-mods-shared=all


make
su root
make install
change/check with httpd.conf
rc3.d script - apache Service Start
web server start1

configure
-----------
The most important setup here is the location prefix where Apache is to be insta
lled later, because Apache has to be configured for this location to work correc
tly.
make
------
Now you can build the various parts which form the Apache package by simply runn
ing the command

install
--------
Now its time to install the package under the configured installation PREFIX (se
e the --prefix option above):

httpd.conf
-----------
Next you need to update /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf as descibed below:-

Check that Modules are Loaded (LoadModule)


Change "Group #-1" to "Group nobody"
Update "ServerAdmin you@example.com" to reflect the Email address associated wit
h your webservers administrator account.
Update "ServerName 10.26.23.4" to point to the computers I/P address.
rc3.d script & apache Service Start
------------
Create /etc/rc3.d/S99apache2 containing:-
#!/bin/sh
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start # startssl

web server start1


-----------------
Start webserver manually and test by pointing browser at:- "http://myhost.com" w
here myhost.com is the name of your server.

8. ls -l
9. OK - prompt - boot device change
setenv boot-device disk3
10. nvalias - nvunalias
** 11. linux
** 12. oracle - db
13. searial port - configur.
Step 1: Log in as root
Step 2: Find your printer driver:
Step 3: Add printer:
Step 4: Assign it as default printer
Step 5: Enable printer:
Step 6: Get it ready to accept jobs:
Step 7: Check status:
Step 8: Print a test document:
# chown lp /dev/term/b
# chmod 600 /dev/term/b 1
# lpadmin -p luna -v /dev/term/b 2
# lpadmin -p luna -T PS 3
# lpadmin -p luna -I postscript 4
# cd /etc/lp/fd
# for filter in *.fd;do
> name=`basename $filter .fd`
> lpfilter -f $name -F $filter
> done 5
# accept luna
destination "luna" now accepting requests
# enable luna 6
printer "luna" now enabled
# lpadmin -p luna -D "Room 1954 ps" 7
# lpstat -p luna 8
printer luna is idle. enabled since Jul 12 11:17 1999. available.
**14. vol. manager.
15. superblock - block
· Boot block Stores information used when booting the system.
· Superblock Stores much of the information about the file system.
· Inode Stores all information about a file except its name.
· Storage or data block Stores data for each file.
16. stickybit
< SUI | SGI | STIK | RWX | RWX | RWX >

t - T
17. setgid
chmod 2000 + permission
18. setuid
chmod 4000 + permission
19. chmod
20. sar - system activity report.
00:00:01 %usr %sys %wio %idle
21. top - System load
PID USERNAME THR PRI NICE SIZE RES STATE TIME CPU COMMAND
last pid: 1920; load averages: 0.91, 0.94, 0.93 17:47:51
118 processes: 115 sleeping, 1 running, 1 zombie, 1 on cpu
CPU states: 74.1% idle, 8.5% user, 15.0% kernel, 2.4% iowait, 0.0% swap
Memory: 128M real, 3020K free, 117M swap in use, 265M swap free
22. vmstat - show memory swap status
procs memory page disk faults cpu
r b w swap free re mf pi po fr de sr s1 s3 s7 s9 in sy cs us sy id
23. iostat - show disk status.
tty sd1 sd3 sd7 sd9 cpu
tin tout kps tps serv kps tps serv kps tps serv kps tps serv us sy wt id
0 14 154 19 3 295 39 6 162 17 11 153 19 5 16 28 12 44
24. netstat - show network status.
Local Address Remote Address Swind Send-Q Rwind Recv-Q State
-------------------- -------------------- ----- ------ ----- ------ -------
25. how to say what is your default router name? /etc/defaultrouter
26. ftp - single - multiple directory - leechftp.
27. tcpdump -
Tcpdump is a powerful tool that allows us to sniff network packets and make some
statistical analysis out of those dumps. One major drawback to tcpdump is the s
ize of the flat file containing the text output. But tcpdump allows us to precis
ely see all the traffic and enables us to create statistical monitoring scripts.
In our case, looking at an ethernet segment, tcpdump operates by putting the net
work card into promiscuous mode in order to capture all the packets going throug
h the wire. Tcpdump runs using BSD Packet Filter (BPF) which is the method of co
llecting data from this network interface running into promiscuous mode. BPF rec
eives copies from the driver of sent packets and received packets. Before travel
ing through the kernel all the way up to the user process the user can set a fil
ter so only interesting packets go through the Kernel. SUN OS uses Network Inter
face Tap (NIT) which only allows to capture packets received from the interface
but no packets sent by the host. Still the SUN OS tcpdump does the trick but it
performs its own filtering at the userprocess level which means that more data g
oes through the kernel.
28. setfacl - acl.
setfacl -s user::rw-,group::r--,other:---,mask:rw-,user:bill:rw- txt1.doc
29. omni backup.
Introduction
The Omni-NFS Tape Backup greatly simplifies the process by providing several uti
lities that allow you to back up your PC files to the UNIX host's tape, hard, or
floppy drives.
Tape Backup provides a user friendly wizard with a simple point and click mechan
ism to select files, directories and drives for archiving or restoral. Users can
select to backup to a suitable UNIX device or to store the TAR file on disk. Th
e program can take multiple files and directories and consolidate them into a si
ngle file for archiving.
Features
Wizard based backup and restore procedure
Select whole drives/directories or individual files
Provides an easy process to backup files to a UNIX tape drive or UNIX TAR file
Provides simple access to restore files from UNIX tape or UNIX tar file
Uses REXEC/RSH to connect to UNIX host
Uses standard TAR command
Full file logging option

30. ntbackup.
31. IIS. - virtual directory.
32. Technical achievement.
33. link co-ordination.
34. zombia mode. deadly process - Deadly process doesn't have parent process -
automatically flush-out by the system.
35. kill pid -
36. Sendmail-From To Address Change. - ForwardPath in sendmail.cf
37. Client - NFS Server running or not? - windows-pcnfs not running on server
unix client - mount
38. IDC - local ftp/telnet services start & nfs mounting
38. Diff. ufsdump - cpio? ufsdump time consumption-incremental backup-multi vo
lume cpio-time consumption more-full backup only-extraction problem.
39. Passwrd disable..? passwd -l
40. Telnet session restrict? /etc/default/login,
41. ftp session restrict? /etc/ftpusers.
41. solaris default block count? 1024 byte
42. how to change block count? hdd partition/format
43. full dump continus 3 tapes- 2 tape problem - ufsrestore ? not possible
44. /etc/hostname - inet/hostname - link soft/hard? soft link
45. what is diff nis & nis+

Differences Between NIS and NIS+


NIS+ differs from NIS in several ways. It has many new features and the terminol
ogy for similar concepts is different. The following table gives an overview of
the major differences between NIS and NIS+. The sections that follow the table d
escribe key differences more fully.

Differences Between NIS and NIS+ NIS NIS+


Machine name and user's name can be the same
Machine name and user names must be unique. Furthermore, you cannot have a dot (
.) in your machine or user name.
Domains are flat--no hierarchy.
Domains are hierarchical--data stored in different levels in the namespace.
Names and commands are case sensitive.
Names and commands are not case sensitive.
Data is stored in two-column maps.
Data is stored in multicolumn tables.
Uses no authentication.
Uses DES authentication.
An NIS record has a maximum size of 1024 bytes. This limitation applies to all N
IS map files. For example, a list of users in a group can contain a maximum of 1
024 characters in single-byte character set file format.
Has no limit.
Provides single choice of network information source.
Client chooses information source: NIS, NIS+, DNS, or local /etc files.
Updates are delayed for batch propagation.
Incremental updates are propagated immediately.

46. Dns configur.? already having


47. solaris 8 - 9 difference (enhanced item)?
9)Solaris Secure Shell Software -- -- --
IPSec with Internet Key Exchange (IKE) -- -- --
Extensible Password Encryption -- -- --
Random Number Generator -- -- --
Secure LDAP -- -- --
Extended File Attributes -- -- --
Flexible Installation -- -- --
Smart Card Support
Solaris 9 Resource Manager Software -- -- --
Solaris Volume Manager Software -- -- --
Solaris Patch Manager Software -- -- --
Network Control Panel -- -- --
Solaris Web Start Wizards Software
48. 2-3 processor - cpu load? top - prstat - uname -X
49. Sendmail hash table? **
50. How will you find no of processor in the Server? - top - uname -X - prstat
51. How will you set the Bootable password for solaris Server?
eeprom security-mode=none - to disable/clear password
OR, to change the password do:
eeprom security-password=< > - to setup the new passwd

52. What are the files used to configure DNS SERVER? /etc/nsswitch.conf - /etc
/resolve.conf, /etc/hosts, /etc/hosts.equi
53. What is the difference between TOP and PRSTAT? top- system full load, prst
at - process status.
54. What are the fields available in /etc/inittab?

<ID>:<RL>:<action>:<process>
55. Explain RAID and what are raid's used and what is the purpose of
each raid?
Short for Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks, a category of d
isk drives that employ two or more drives in combination for fault tolerance and
performance. RAID disk drives are used frequently on servers but aren't general
ly necessary for personal computers.
There are number of different RAID levels. The three most common are 0, 3, and 5
:
Level 0: Provides data striping (spreading out blocks of each file across multip
le disks) but no redundancy. This improves performance but does not deliver faul
t tolerance.
Level 1: Provides disk mirroring.
Level 3: Same as Level 0, but also reserves one dedicated disk for error correct
ion data. It provides good performance and some level of fault tolerance.
Level 5: Provides data striping at the byte level and also stripe error correcti
on information. This results in excellent performance and good fault tolerance.

56. What are the commands used for configuring RAID in Solaris?
then ran the metadb command:
(make sure that you've installed DiskSuite and that
/usr/opt/SUNWmd/sbin is in your path)
# metadb -f -a -c1 /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s7
# metadb -a -c1 /dev/dsk/c1t1d0s7
# metadb -a -c1 /dev/dsk/c1...d0s7
(one for each of the eight disks on which I allocated a slice 7)
then I ran a test version of the command to make the RAID system:
# metainit -n d1 -r /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s0 /dev/dsk... -i 2k
(one /dev/dsk entry for each of the disks on which I allocated
a slice 0 for use in the RAID system)
After seeing that the value returned to standard output by this
command was not an error message, I ran the real command:
# metainit d1 -r /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s0 /dev/dsk... -i 2k
Following this invocation of metainit, I followed the progress
of the RAID build using:
# metastat
Once the build was complete, I had an entry,
/dev/md/dsk/d1
which was recognized as a RAID system.
57. Which file is used for samba configuration and specify the location?
smb.conf /usr/local/samba/lib/smb.conf
59. Explain the Steps for configure the NFS Server?
60. Specify the file and location for Apache configuration.
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start #
httpd.conf - general setting.
srm.conf - resource setting.
access.conf - security setting.

61) What is 64 bit & 32 bit kernel. *

62) How do u identify what is the no. of bit processor your server using. *
63) About Clustering *
64) What is smart-relay in sendmail *
65) What is the no. of pins you use to connect your console
70) What is autofs and cachetfs

71) What is the use of tcp-wrappers - to restrict/monitor tcp connections/trans


actions

72) What is install-boot *


73) Configuration of NIS *

74) What are the daemons using for NIS in server side - ypbind - ypcat - ypinit
- ypserv
75) What is the work of sprayd
The service provided by rpc.sprayd is not useful as a net-
working benchmark as it uses unreliable connectionless tran-
sports, (udp for example). It can report a large number of
packets dropped when the drops were caused by the program
sending packets faster than they can be buffered locally
(before the packets get to the network medium).

76) Can u see the output of ok prompt in run level 2 or 3 - yes


78) Concepts of Apache
80) About patches and packages.
81) How to check the server conf. - prtconf
82) Location of prtconf - /usr/sbin
83) Location of kernel files /usr/kernel - /kernel /platform/
85) How to add a routing to a host - route add default hostname
86) Network monitoring tools - netstat, ping, nslookup, arp, tracert, sar,
88) port no of sshd, smtp, ftp, telnet, pop3, etc.,
sshd - 22 ftp - 21, telnet 23, smtp - 25, pop3 - 110, webserver-80, finger - 79
89) ufsdump 0-9 why not 0-22?
90) how to change 10 mbps to 100 mbbs - ndd

ndd -set /dev/hme instance 1


0: probe-all install-console banner
1: apply transfer-speed=10 (full path name of a
qfe device)

92) How to configure interface in solaris


ifconfig
ifconfig -a will show you which interfaces are currently installed and active. R
emember, just because you added the physical network interface card does NOT mea
n it is active. If you do an ifconfig before you have configured the device, the
interface will not show up. Once configured however, the typical output of the
ifconfig -a command would look like this:
lo0: flags=849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 8232
inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000
hme0: flags=863<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 192.168.1.132 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255
ether 8:0:20:9c:6b:2d
Here we see two interfaces, lo0 and hme0. lo0 is the standard loopback interface
found on all systems. hme0 is a 10/100 Mbps interface. All hme interfaces are 1
0/100 Mbps, all le interfaces are 10 Mbps, all qe interface are quad 10 Mbps, an
d qfe interfaces are quad 10/100 Mbps. There are three lines of information abo
ut the interface. The first line is about the TCP/IP stack. For the interface hm
e0, we see the system is up, running both broadcast and multicast, with a mtu (m
aximum transfer unit) of 1500 bytes, standard for an Ethernet LAN. Notrailers is
a flag no longer used, but kept for backwards compatibility reasons.
The second line is about the IP addressing. Here we see the IP address, netmask
in hexadecimal format, and the broadcast address. The third line is the MAC addr
ess. Unlike most interfaces, Sun Microsystems?s interfaces derive the MAC addres
sing from the NVRAM, not the interface itself. Thus, all the interfaces on a sin
gle SPARC system will have the same MAC address. This does not cause a problem i
n routing, since most NICs are always on a different network. Note, you must be
root to see the MAC address with the ifconfig command, any other user will only
see the first two lines of information.
The first step in bringing up an interface is "plumbing" the interface. By plumb
ing, we are implementing the TCP/IP stack. We will use the above interface, hme0
, as an example. Lets say we had just physically added this network interface ca
rd and rebooted, now what? First, we plumb the device with the plumb command.
ifconfig hme0 plumb
This sets up the streams needed for TCP/IP to use the device. However, the stack
has not been configured as you can see below.
hme0: flags=842<BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 0.0.0.0 netmask 0
ether 8:0:20:9c:6b:2d
The next step is to configure the TCP/IP stack. We configure the stack by addin
g the IP address, netmask, and then telling the device it is up. All this can be
down in one command, as seen below.
homer #ifconfig hme0 192.168.1.132 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
This single command configures the entire device. Notice the up command, which i
nitializes the interface. The interface can be in one of two states, up or down.
When an interface is down, the system does not attempt to transmit messages thr
ough that interface. A down interface will still show with the ifconfig command,
however it will not have the word "up" on the first line.

Virtual Interfaces
Before moving on to the configuration files, I would first like to cover virtual
interfaces. A virtual interface is one or more logical interfaces assigned to a
n already existing interface. Solaris can have up to 255 virtual interfaces assi
gned to a single interface.
Once again, lets take the interface hme0 as an example. We have already covered
how to configure this device. However, lets say the device is on a VLAN (virtual
LAN) with several networks sharing the same wire. We can configure the device h
me0 to answer to another IP address, say 172.20.15.4. To do so, the command woul
d be the same as used for hme0, except the virtual interface is called hme0:*, w
here * is the number you assign to the virtual interface. For example, virtual i
nterface one would be hme0:1. The command to configure it looks as follows.
ifconfig hme0:1 172.20.15.4 netmask 255.255.0.0 up
Once you have configured the virtual interface, you can compare hme0 and hme0:1
with the ifconfig command.
hme0: flags=843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 192.168.1.132 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255
ether 8:0:20:9c:6b:2d
hme0:1: flags=842<BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 172.20.15.4 netmask ffff0000 broadcast 172.20.255.255
Here you see the two devices, both of which are on the same physical device. Not
ice how the virtual interface hme0:1 has no MAC address, as this is the same dev
ice as hme0. We can repeat this process all the way up to hme0:255. The operatin
g system and most applications will treat these virtual devices as totally indep
endent devices.
Note, Matthew A. Domurat has identified a "bug" with Solaris 2.6. When working w
ith virtual interfaces, Solaris 2.6 will randomly select one of the interfaces a
s its source address for every packet sent. These are the patches to fix this:
105786-05: SunOS 5.6: /kernel/drv/ip patch
105787-04: SunOS 5.6_x86: /kernel/drv/ip patch
Configuration Files
Now you know how to configure your network interface cards. Unfortunately, any m
odifications, additions, or deletions you make with ifconfig are only temporary,
you will lose these configurations when you reboot. I will now discuss what fil
es you have to configure to make these changes permanent.
The place to start is the file /etc/hostname.*, where * is the name of the inter
face. In the case of hme0, the file name is /etc/hostname.hme0. The virtual inte
rface hme0:1 would have the file name /etc/hostname.hme0:1. This file has a sing
le entry, the name of the interface. This name is used in the /etc/hosts file to
resolve name to IP address.
The file /etc/hostname.* is critical, this is what causes the device to be plumb
ed. During the boot process, the /etc/rcS.d/rootusr.sh file reads all the /etc/h
ostname.* files and plumbs the devices. Once plumbed, the devices are configured
by reading the /etc/hosts and the /etc/netmasks file. By reading these two file
s, the device is configured for the proper IP and netmask, and brought to an up
state. Lets take the device hme0 as an example. During the boot process, /etc/r
cS.d/rootusr.sh looks for any /etc/hostname.* files. It finds /etc/hostname.hme0
, which contains the following entry.
homer
/etc/rcS.d/rootusr.sh looks in /etc/hosts and resolves the name homer with an IP
address of 192.168.1.132. The device hme0 is now assigned this IP address. The
script then looks at /etc/netmasks to find the netmask for that IP address. With
this information, the startup script brings up interface hme0 with an IP addres
s of 192.168.1.132 and a netmask of 255.255.255.0. It may seem redundant having
the script review the netmask of a class C address. However, do not forget that,
starting with 2.6, Solaris supports both classless routing and VLSM (Variable L
ength Subnet Masks), both of which I will discuss in my next article.
As you have seen in this example, there are three files that must be modified fo
r every interface. The first is /etc/hostname.*, this is the file you create to
designate the interface?s name. The second file is /etc/hosts, here you resolve
the IP to the interface name. Last is /etc/netmasks, this is where you define th
e netmask of the IP address.

Troubleshooting
Once you have mastered the tricks to modifying your interfaces, troubleshooting
should be easier. Several things I always look for when troubleshooting an inter
face. First, when working with an unfamiliar machine, often you do not know how
many physical interfaces are on the machine. A quick way to tell is use dmesg, t
his will give you information on the physical hardware. Look for le0, qfe0, hme0
, or qe0. These are the names assigned to the physical devices.
If an interface is not responding to the network, check to be sure it is the cor
rect IP address and netmask. The ifconfig command is a quick and temporary way t
o change IP and netmask information for troubleshooting purposes. Mtu (maximum
transfer unit) is another possibility. Some systems may have problems communicat
ing due to fragmented packets. Changing the mtu size may solve that problem. You
?ll notice that you did not have to set the mtu size in the examples above, thes
e are set to defaults automatically, such as 1500 for Ethernet interfaces.
If that fails, try bringing the face down, then reinitializing it with the up co
mmand. If nothing else works, unplumb the device, then plumb it again. Basically
, this reinstalls the TCP/IP stack.

99) uptime
uptime - show how long the system has been up

11:28pm up 1 day(s), 18 min(s), 4 users, load average: 0.61, 0.52, 0.50


100 (arp - rarp ) - ?
101 Inode number - file name ?
102. priter server configuration.
103. nis-nfs installation.
104. without restart - how to add device (reconfigure)
105. dump (types)
106. filesystem structure?
107. oracle install in which filesystem /opt?
108. superblock
109. diff - installation (OS) inte/custom/jumstar
110. nfs?
111. dns?
112. root0 = group 14?
113. booting from
114. runlevel 0,6,s