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2019

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

STUDENTS OF THE
MECHATRONIC
ENGINEERING CAREER
24/02/2019
CONTINENTAL UNIVERSITY

ACADEMIC SCHOOL OF MECHATRONIC ENGINEERING

TOPIC

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

SUBJECT

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH I

PROFESSOR

ROSA ANGELICA CASAFRANCA ANAYA

MEMBERS

HUAMAN LAURA, CRHISTIAN

PARIONA ZAPAICO, JOSE

HUANCAYO – PERÚ

2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 4

TECHNICAL VOCABULARY ............................................................................................................. 4

DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................................. 6

BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................... 6

FUNDAMENTALS ....................................................................................................................... 6

DEFINITION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ............................................................................ 6

FUNDAMENTALS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE .................................................................... 7

DEVELOPMENT SOFTWARE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ................................................. 9

APPROACHES TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ......................................................................... 9

WORKSPACES ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ............................................................................ 11

APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ...................................................................... 12

PROBLEMATIC ......................................................................................................................... 14

VOLUME DATA USED ........................................................................................................... 14

ARTIFICIAL MULTI-ORIENTAL INTELLIGENCE: A PENDING TASK ......................................... 15

COMPRESSION OF ITS CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................. 15

SOLUTIONS .............................................................................................................................. 15

ERROR CORRECTION ON PROGRESS ................................................................................... 15

PROGRESSIVE NEURAL NETWORKS..................................................................................... 15

GOLEM PROJECT.................................................................................................................. 15

CRITICAL JUDGEMENT ............................................................................................................. 16

INTELLIGENT WHEELCHAIR FOR PUBLIC PEOPLE ........................................................................ 16

CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................. 17

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................................. 17

ELEMENTARY ........................................................................................................................... 17

COMPLEMENTARY................................................................................................................... 17
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

INTRODUCTION
Since the advent of computers, they have been conducting scientific and technological research
in order to enable them to meet and perform some characteristics of human activities and has
managed to automate many processes achieving efficiency in time and resources invested for
any activity.

Because artificial intelligence had many parents there is no consensus to define that concept,
but we can say that artificial intelligence is responsible for modeling human intelligence in
computer systems. That is, systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence
in human behavior that refers to language comprehension, learning, reasoning, problem solving,
among others. Unfortunately, the problem is that human intelligence is difficult to circumscribe
and define. Indeed, intelligence is a complex behavior that includes consciousness, unconscious
cognitive processes.

The goals of artificial intelligence want to ensure that the processor is adapted to the method of
reasoning and human communication, so you can not only implement the algorithms that it
introduces the man, but set themselves to solve their own, but the possibility this hypothesis
comes to be realized is rejected by many computer experts. In any case, continue to explore
ways and, day by day, progress had been made.

TECHNICAL VOCABULARY
AUTOMATE // Automatizar BRAIN //Cerebro

BEHAVIOR // Comportamiento SYSTEMS // Sistemas


DEALS // Operaciones CHEMISTS // Farmacias

PHILOSOPHER// Filósofo Allow // Permitir

CENTURY //Siglo Focus // Enfoque

UNIMATE //Animar STEPS // Pasos

TERMS // Condiciones WIDE // Amplio


DEVELOPMENT
BACKGROUND
To know the origins of artificial intelligence we must go back to 1943, when the mathematician
Walter Pitts and neurophysiologist Warren McCulloch presented the first research which spoke
of Artificial Intelligence and where did mention concepts of basic human physiology, shape in
which neurons in our brain function and the computational theory of Alan Turing, among others.

In the computational theory of Alan Turing, it is said:

"... it is a set of rational, systematic and functional expertise that focus on the study of
abstraction of the processes occurring in reality in order to play through character codes
and logical instructions, ..., with the ability to be modeled on the limitations of devices
that process information and made calculations ... "

The importance of the work presented by Pitts and McCulloch focuses on who was the first work
of history focused on AI also the analysis of the human brain that made involves understanding
it as if it were a computer system finally proposed building computers similarity of biological
neural networks of the human brain. It is in this way that the greatest contribution of McCulloch
and Pitts development of artificial intelligence was that laid the foundation of artificial neural
networks.

Thirteen years later, back in 1958, an engineer named Josehp Engelberger designed and built
the first industrial robot in history, known as UNIMATE, why he was awarded the title of father
of robotics.

FUNDAMENTALS
DEFINITION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Artificial Intelligence can be defined as the study of mental faculties using computer models.

Then the concept of IA is specified by some scientists as a natural model, integrating cybernetics
and computers.

According to Alan Mathison Turing


Considered the father of Artificial Intelligence and key players in the world of computing, Turing
showed that any system for their machines necessary to perform increasingly complicated
algorithms there is a Turing machine can do everything by herself. Hypothetical such a machine
called 'universal Turing machine', and its theoretical existence shows that the concept of Turing
machine is an endless versatility by allowing any increase in the complexity of the algorithm can
be accepted by a longer list of specifications.

According to Herbert A. Simon


Simon proposed the hypothesis of the physical symbol to represent and model human thought.
On this line the development of Artificial Intelligence in the first stage was followed.

According to Warren Mcculloch


Thanks to the publications "A Logical Calculus of the ideas immanent in Nervous Activity and
How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms" were established as
the theoretical basis for understanding neural networks, computing, cybernetics and artificial
intelligence. Their approaches, proven computerized neural modeling at MIT, reconstructed
brain activity and served to open a whole space of hypotheses about the creation of intelligent
machines.

According Schalkoff (1990)


Artificial intelligence is a field of study that focuses on the explanation and emulation of
intelligent behavior in terms of computational processes. In other words, artificial intelligence is
a set of steps and techniques which are scheduled in order to provide skills to machines very
similar to those possessed by humans.

According Kurzweil (1990)


Artificial intelligence defines how the art of creating machines capable of performing functions
performed by persons require intelligence. Based on the definition of Kurzweil we could detail
that artificial intelligence is based on building systems and machines that can somehow or other
activities meet is assigned.

According Location and Stubblefied (1993)


Define artificial intelligence as the branch of computer science that deals with the automation
of intelligent behavior. Stated otherwise, it focuses on creating automated with a very similar to
human intelligence, in order to optimize time, effort and work machines.

According to Hayes
AI is the implementation of intelligent reasoning using proprietary computing techniques. This
definition establishes a link between the machine intelligence and human activity.

FUNDAMENTALS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


Disciplines which are based artificial intelligence, which are:
Philosophy
In this discipline it shows how philosophers facilitated to imagine artificial intelligence, to think
that the mind works like a machine from the encoded into an internal language, in addition to
assume that thought served to select the action to carry out knowledge.

Maths
According to Russell and Norvig, philosophers delineated the most important ideas of AI, since
to become a science a mathematical formulation in three areas of logic, the complexity and the
likelihood is needed.

Economy
Most people believe the economy is just money, but also study how people make decisions that
lead them to realize expected benefits. Therefore, one could argue that economic goods are not
enough for the person to achieve his ends, such as happiness and fulfillment necessary but.

This discipline is based on the theories of decision making, game theory and operations research.

Neurosciences
Seeks to know and understand how the brain can process all the information.

Psychology

Try to understand how people think and act.

Computational engineering
This branch is responsible for the software and hardware. intelligence and an artifact: that
artificial intelligence can become a reality two things are needed.

Control theory and cybernetics


It is based on the construction of autonomous systems ie systems that maximize an objective
function over time.

Linguistics
Not only knowledge representation in the form of grammar of the language. One of the
highlights in this discipline was in 1957, BF Skinner published the work presented an extensive
and detailed view from the behaviorist approach to language learning and was written by the
leading experts in this field.
DEVELOPMENT SOFTWARE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Khoros system
It provides a visual programming environment provides a variety of tools for manipulating data,
signal processing, image processing, numerical analysis, 3D geometric data, display data and 2D
3D etc.

Eliza system
It is a computer program designed at MIT between 1964 and 1966 by Joseph Weizenbaum. Eliza
was one of the first programs to process natural language and trying to maintain a coherent text
conversation with the user.

ELIZA works by searching for keywords in written by the user and responds with a phrase model
registered in its database phrase.

Dendral system
It was the first expert system to be used for real purposes, regardless of computational research,
and for about 10 years, the system had some success among chemists and biologists, since it
facilitated greatly the inference of molecular structures, domain in which Dendral he was
specialized.

Initially written in Lisp, because its implementation is not explicitly separated knowledge
inference engine. However, it soon became one of the role models for many programmers’
expert systems of the time.

APPROACHES TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


Systems that act like humans
Human Behavior: The focus of the Turing Test

She proposed by Alan Turing in 1950 was designed to provide an operational definition factory
intelligence rather than providing a long list and perhaps controversial qualities necessary to
obtain intelligence artificially suggested a test based on the inability to differentiate between
undisputed intelligent entities human beings. The computer beats the human action evaluator
test is unable to distinguish whether the answer to a series of questions posed are of a person
or not. Today we can say that programming a computer to pass the test which requires
considerable work. The computer should have the following capabilities:

 Natural Language Processing: To communicate successfully


 Knowledge Representation: To store what he knows and feels
 Automatic Reasoning: To use the stored information
 Auto Learning to adapt.

Turing test
Turing test deliberately avoided direct physical interaction between the evaluator and the
computer as to measure intelligence is unnecessary to physically simulate a person.
However, the so-called global test signal Turin include video that allows the evaluator to
assess the ability of perception evaluated and gives you the opportunity to assess and pass
physical objects (using a window). To overcome the global test of Turin the computer must
be equipped with:

 Computer Vision: Pursue objects


 Robotics: Manipulating objects.

In these six disciplines it summarized most of covering topics of artificial intelligence

Systems that think like humans


Think like a human: The cognitive model approach

To say that a program thinks like a human, it is necessary to have a mechanism for determining
how humans think. It to say, penetrate the workings of human minds. There are two ways to do
this: through introspection and through psychological experiments. Once you have obtained a
sufficiently precise theory about how the mind works, this theory can be expressed in the form
of a computer program. The data input and output program and reaction times are like those of
human, there is evidence that some of the mechanisms of the program can be compared with
those using humans.

Newell and Simon in the year 1961 what interested them was to keep track of the steps
of the reasoning process and compare them with those followed by humans who they
were faced with the same problems.

In the interdisciplinary field of cognitive science converge computational experimental


psychology techniques trying to develop precise and verifiable on the functioning of the human
mind AI theories and models.

Systems thinking rationally


Rational thinking: The focus of thought

Scholars of logic developed in the nineteenth century, a precise notation for defining judgments
on all kinds of elements of the world and specify relationships between them. In 1965 there
were programs which, in principle, solved any solvable problem described logical notation called
logistic tradition within the field of official intelligence is smart systems deconstruct from these
programs.

This approach has two obstacles: It is not easy to transform informal knowledge and expressage
formal terms that require logical notation. Secondly, there is a big difference between being
able to solve a problem in principle and do so in practice even problems with just a dozen data
can exhaust the computational resources of any computer unless you have with any directive
on the steps of reasoning there to carry out first.

Systems that act rationally


Act rationally: The rational agent approach

A rational agent is one that acts intended to achieve the best outcome or, when there is
uncertainty, the best expected outcome. By studying artificial intelligence from the perspective
of rational agent design it offers at least 2 advantages:

 The first is more general than the approach provided the laws of thought.
 The second is more akin to the way in which scientific progress has occurred based
approaches in human thought behavior.

An important element to consider the following: sooner rather than later will see how to get a
perfect rationality is not possible in complex environments. Computational demand this implies
is too large.

WORKSPACES ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


The areas of applications of artificial intelligence can be divided into two, according to the study
content or according to the tools and techniques used. Are set out below

Subfields based on content


Humans, animals and intelligent robots have wide variety of capacities, all of them very complex
and difficult to explain or model.

 Perception: Vision, hearing and tactile perception, most recently, the taste and smell
 Natural Language Processing: Production and interpretation of languages spoken
written.
 Learning and development: Symbolic learning and the use of neural networks.
 Planning: Grade a complex problem to create an optimal solution.
 Variety of reasoning: formal, informal, logic, reasoning robots etc.
 Techniques and mechanisms memory
 Multiagent systems: Study of different types of communication, cooperation, conflict,
recognition of the plans.
 Robotics: designed for the purpose of producing new types of machines.

Subfields based on the application


Because AI applications are many and varied some of the fields are grouped around relevant to
each class of technical problems.

 In medicine: Medical imaging, diagnostic expert systems to help doctors control ICUs
drug design and prosthetics.
 In robotics: motor control, learning, planning, communication and cooperative
behavior.
 In aspects of engineering intelligent control systems, manufacturing, support the design,
production, maintenance and configuration tools in software engineering.
 Interfaces and support systems: Interest in building machines easier to use.
 In education: intelligent tutoring systems, student management, applications, practical
exercises, autodial.
 In mathematics: Design tools to help with different kinds math deaths.
 In the entertainment industry: Control systems, either in interaction through text or
interactive generation in virtual worlds.
 In biology: Analysis of DNA molecules legacy structure, pattern of biological processes
evolution.
 In law: expert advisory systems.
 In architecture: urban design, traffic management.
 Trade: Using software agents to provide different classes, search, analyze or interpret
information, make decisions, negotiate with other agents, etc.
 In space: Remote Control of special vehicles and autonomous robots.
 IA in military activities: The area where has spent most of the funds and where it is not
easy to learn the details.

APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


Artificial Intelligence combines various fields, such as robotics, expert systems and others, which
have the same objective, which is to try to create machines that can think for themselves,
resulting so far there are several studies and applications, within which are neural networks,
process control or genetic algorithms.

The applications of artificial intelligence today are many ever increasing thanks to technology
advances progressively, but we can try to classify them in:

Robotics
Today it is defined as reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials,
tools or parts of previously scheduled basis so it can fulfill its various tasks.
For centuries humans have built machines that mimic human body parts, for example, the
ancient Egyptians mechanical arms joined to the statues of their gods.

Robots are devices composed of sensors that receive input data and can be connected to the
computer. This, upon receiving the input information, instructs the robot to perform a certain
action. It may be that the robots themselves available microprocessor receiving input from
sensors and microprocessors that these robots ordered the execution of the actions for which it
is designed. In the latter case, the robot itself is in turn a computer.

Control Systems
A control system is defined as a set of components that can regulate their behavior or another
system in order to achieve a predetermined operation, so that the failure probability is reduced,
and the desired results are obtained. Today control processes are symptoms of the industrial
process we are living.

Artificial intelligence itself is a broad field, encompassing logic, optimization, probability,


perception, reasoning, decision making and learning. The aim is to integrate intelligent agents
in control systems. Objective of intelligent control systems:

 Robust
 Adaptable
 Autonomous
 Capable of learning from experience and human intervention

Pattern Recognition
Pattern recognition is the recognition of unique characteristics that identify an object from
others of the same class.

Neural networks are mathematical models based on the behavior of our system neurons
behave.

Automated planning
Automatic planning is a discipline of artificial intelligence aimed at producing plans typically for
executing a robot or other agent. Planning programs incorporating these algorithms are called
planners. A typical scheduler considers three entries:

 A description of the initial state of the world


 A description of the objective to be achieved
 A set of possible actions
The idea is to get the system finds itself an ordered sequence of actions to achieve goals in a
final state from the initial situation and resources. Common features:

 State or situation: Instant Description.


 Action or Operator transformation from one state to another.
 Initial state: initial situation.
 Objective or goal: Description of conditions that must be given to consider terminating
the process.
 Plan: Sequence operators that allow passing the initial state to a state in which the
objectives are met
 Heuristics: Knowledge that allows efficiently obtain the plan.

Video games
It refers to techniques used in computers and video games to produce the illusion of intelligence
in the behavior of non-player characters (NPCs). It is an electronic agent who can think, evaluate,
act on certain principles of optimization and consistency to meet a goal or purpose.

The early AI systems (early 50's) were applied to table games: Checkers (Arthur Samuel) and
chess (Claude Shannon).

In the 70’s games against enemies 1 player moving through stored patterns. Pac-Man (1980)
incorporated search algorithms mazes Dragon Warrior (1990) was the first RPG. Allowed to vary
routines enemy AI during battles and so many games served as a base.

PROBLEMATIC
There is still long way to go with Artificial Intelligence, however, there are three major
problems facing artificial intelligence:

VOLUME DATA USED


It is well known the need to use data from the Artificial Intelligence, to learn about their
environment, but regularly does not consider the amount of data involved. Artificial Intelligence
not only requires more data than the human brain to understand concepts and features, they
need thousands of times the data required by a human.

Neil Lawrence, IA worker for Amazon, said:

"... it appears that the successful results of deep learning Artificial Intelligence are cases
in which machines have access to a huge amount of data"

A sensitive area in which we need to strengthen data collection for Artificial Intelligence would
be health, where the digitized data can be scarce and could give false negatives or positives that
could trigger fatal errors.
ARTIFICIAL MULTI-ORIENTAL INTELLIGENCE: A PENDING TASK
Human intelligence is integral, you can perform many tasks, and that is precisely a failure of
Artificial Intelligence developed so far as it is applied to an area of knowledge or activity. So far
it has not been possible to create artificial intelligence systems that can learn new tasks, because
once you acquire a new workout, forget the previous runs, so you do not have an intelligent
memory.

COMPRESSION OF ITS CONCLUSIONS


It is still pending to determine exactly how the Artificial Intelligence draws some conclusions,
because for now it is only possible to determine the performance of neural networks together,
but not the reasons to which an artificial brain reaches certain known conclusion or result.

SOLUTIONS
In order to address the shortcomings and problems of AI, some agents solution proposed
measures, some of them are:

ERROR CORRECTION ON PROGRESS


New algorithms help robots to correct errors on the fly and learn from each other allowing the
IA collect error reports and correct them immediately without affecting existing skills,
accumulating corrections that could be used for future releases or updates. This could
essentially give robots the ability to correct errors instantly, ie "learn" from their mistakes
without damaging the already acquired knowledge and, ultimately, disseminate new knowledge
among them.

PROGRESSIVE NEURAL NETWORKS


The proposal creates separate deep learning systems but can be transmitted by joining certain
bits of information. For now, no more than a promising method in a beta phase, which has been
implemented in some robotic arms cyborg type and has managed to accelerate the learning
process even weeks to one day.

GOLEM PROJECT
For nearly two decades the team has developed several models of service robots able to hold a
simple conversation and follow simple movement within a context or a known territory. If the
protocols are running normally, Golem can complete their tasks. In case where any protocol and
cannot run, can then invoke Golem a protocol whose sole function is to turn to put into context
and thus resume their task. Or you can make a diagnosis of the situation, develop an alternative
plan and execute it to reinserted into context.
CRITICAL JUDGEMENT
For us artificial intelligence or systems that act like humans, will change the way of life that
people have in different areas, including habits and customs, beliefs and the way in which the
company operates, however, when talking about artificial intelligence people tend to relate to
the world of robotics, being more specific robots with human, able to relate ways. But thanks to
this work, we have found that it is not, that artificial intelligence is not new, but brings decades
of study and will continue evolving which will strip us of traditional methods that are shaping a
new age.

INTELLIGENT WHEELCHAIR FOR PUBLIC PEOPLE


The novelty of the invention is that the chair will be controlled with eye movements of the
person with motor disabilities to use it. An important research work was developed at the
National University of the Center of Peru (UNCP). It is intelligent ergonomic chair wheels
augmented reality for quadriplegic people.

The aim of the research, led by Dr. Baltazar Brecio Lazo, is to improve the living conditions of
people with motor disabilities so they can move using only eye movement.

This devised by students of the UNCP system uses neuroscience to direct eye movements to a
device that commands the prototype wheelchair. The device also recognizes traffic signs, such
as traffic lights and pedestrian zebras.

Noted the researcher Brecio Baltazar:

"This project has been working to improve the movement of people who cannot move
due to various diseases or accidents and demonstrates the quality of research in science
and technology that takes place in our university"

Enrique Mucha Meza, degree in Mechanical Engineering recognized the important work
developed through this research bioelectric signals that are the cornerstone for the mobility of
this wheelchair.

This initiative involves teachers and students from the faculties of Mechanical Engineering,
Systems Engineering and Electrical and Electronic Engineering, and Medicine. The project began
in March 2017 and will end in March this year (2019), so now the researchers must apply
additional work to improve the design of the wheelchair to make it more comfortable.
CONCLUSIONS
 Since its inception the IA had several drawbacks so for some time development stopped, but
and later best inventions developed with the sole purpose of knowing how the human brain
works and to replicate it on a machine.
 AI has benefited from several disciplines which have contributed ideas, viewpoints and
techniques for development since these have one goal in common everyday IA advance.
 In conclusion, it is important to emphasize that the IA is not intended to replace humans,
but seeks to improve their capacity (knowledge, make decisions, learn, reason) that will
create a machine capable of doing things and improve them.
 With the growth of technology AI has advanced greatly, yet no resemblance to the
intelligence of a human being, because so far, they are only emulations of certain processes,
but there are many machines that perform different processes that can do more efficiency
than any human being.
 As has been observed one of the biggest criticisms of the IA features is completely imitate a
human being but overlooked because no human being can solve all existing problems.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ELEMENTARY
 Lahoz, R. 2004. Bioinformatics: Simulation, artificial life and artificial intelligence. 1ed.
Ediciones Días Santos S.A. Madrid Spain.
 Craig, Jonh. 2006. Robotics. Pearson Education. Madrid, Spain.
 Russell, S and Norvig, P. 2004. Artificial Intelligence a modern approach. 2ed. Pearson
Education. Madrid, Spain.
 Garcia, A. 2012. Artificial intelligence: fundamentals, practice and applications. Madrid,
Spain.

COMPLEMENTARY
 Fonseca, E. 2011. Artificial Intelligence. (Online).
 Casali, A. 2008. What is Artificial Intelligence? (Online).
 Hernández, G. 2011. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTERS. (Online).