Você está na página 1de 4

Section
Subject CRISTETA R. TAPIA Learning Area PRACTICAL RESEARCH 1
Teacher
Schedule 8:30-9:30/ HUMSS 2 Quarter THIRD

## I. Competency/ies: The Learner describes sampling procedure and sample CS_RS11-IVa-c-2

II. Performance Standard: The learners describe qualitative research designs, sample, and data collection and
analysis procedures
III. Objectives:
1. Discusses the different sampling procedure and sample to be used in a qualitative research.
2. Uses the appropriate sampling procedure and sample in a given research context.
3. Shows cooperation in group tasks
Content: Understanding Data and Ways To Systematically Collect Data
Sample and Sampling Technique
TIME ACTIVITY
ALLOTMENT
Preliminary Activities
2 minutes 1. Greetings
2. Checking of Attendance
3. Checking of classroom’ cleanliness

## 5 minutes Introductory Activity

Group Activity
Students will be grouped into 5. Each group must complete the KWL Chart about sampling. They will

## What I already know What I want to Know What I learned

6 minutes Activity
Let’s Help!

Jose is a student researcher. He’s interested in studying the experiences of teenage fathers. He created a set of guide
questions asking these teenagers their reactions and how they accept fatherhood in a young age. Jose is puzzled as to
who will be his participants of the study. He wants his research to describe the experiences of teenage fathers in Cavite
but it wouldn’t be possible for him to interview all teenage fathers in Cavite because that would take forever. So, he needs
to develop a sample, or group of subjects. This is done through a process called sampling. The goal is to choose a sample
that represents the whole population so that Jose can make inferences about the population from his sample. Now, what
do you think is the appropriate sampling procedure to use?

## -See attached sheets

Analysis
10 minutes Answer the following questions:
1.What are the different sampling procedures in qualitative research and other technical terms
2.How do these sampling techniques differ from one another?
3.Based from the research problem of Jose, what is the appropriate sampling procedure to be
used? Explain why?
4.Why is there a must to critically choose the correct sampling procedure in research?

20 minutes Abstraction

In research, sampling is a word that refers to your method or process of selecting respondents or people to
answer meant to yield data for a research study. The chosen ones constitute the sample through which you
will derive facts and evidence to support the claims or conclusions propounded by your research problem. The
bigger group from where you choose the sample is called population, and sampling frame is the term used to
mean the list of the members of such population from where you will get the sample. (Paris, 2013)

## PowerPoint Presentation for additional information

10 minutes Application
Let us now go back to our groups and let us fill the L part of the KWL Chart. Go to your groups and
write your learnings in the Manila papers provided.

## What I already know What I want to Know What I learned

5 Minutes Assessment
Get your quiz notebook. Write P if the sentence talks about probability sampling otherwise, write NP.
_________1. Participants are selected or sought after based on pre-selected criteria based on the
research question
_________2. Interviewing some persons you meet at school
_________3. Choosing participants based on certain characteristics
_________4. Choosing subjects who experienced a certain phenomenon from a particular group
_________5. Choosing a group of subjects among several groups
_________6. Choosing subjects based on the judgement of the researcher
_________7. Choosing samples by asking friends or participants
_________8. Choosing samples in order to observe a rare disease or a certain phenomenon
_________9. Choosing subjects to identify potential subjects in studies where subjects are hard to locate
_________10. Choosing subjects for pilot testing

2 Minutes Agreement

.

## CRISTETA R. TAPIA RONALD A. PEREÑA ERNESTO M. MOJICA

Subject Teacher Assistant Principal II Principal II
Attachment

## Qualitative Sampling Methods

The three main types of data collected and analyzed in qualitative research include in-depth interviews, direct
observation, and written documents. These are discussed in greater detail in the Qualitative Ready module covering
data types. In order to collect these types of data for a study, a target population, community, or study area must be
identified first. It is not possible for researchers to collect data from everyone in a sample area or community.
Therefore, the researcher must gather data from a sample, or subset, of the population in the study. In quantitative
research, the goal would be to conduct a random sampling that ensured the sample group would be representative of
the entire population, and therefore, the results could be generalized to the entire population. The goal of qualitative
research is to provide in-depth understanding and therefore, targets a specific group, type of individual, event or
process. To accomplish this goal, qualitative research focus on criterion-based sampling techniques to reach their
target group. There are three main types of qualitative sampling: purposeful sampling, quota sampling, and
snowballing sampling. The following descriptions describe the reasons for choosing a particular method.

1. Purposeful Sampling is the most common sampling strategy. In this type of sampling, participants are selected or
sought after based on pre-selected criteria based on the research question. For example, the study may be attempting
to collect data from cancer patients in a particular city or county. The sample size may be predetermined or based on
theoretical saturation, which is the point at which the newly collected no longer provides additional insights.

## 1.1 Advantages of purposive sampling

There are a wide range of qualitative research designs that researchers can draw on. Achieving the goals of such
qualitative research designs requires different types of sampling strategy and sampling technique. One of the major
benefits of purposive sampling is the wide range of sampling techniques that can be used across such qualitative
research designs; purposive sampling techniques that range from homogeneous sampling through to critical case
sampling, expert sampling, and more.

Whilst the various purposive sampling techniques each have different goals, they can provide researchers with the
justification to make generalizations from the sample that is being studied, whether such generalizations are
theoretical, analytic and/or logical in nature.

Qualitative research designs can involve multiple phases, with each phase building on the previous one. In such
instances, different types of sampling technique may be required at each phase. Purposive sampling is useful in these
instances because it provides a wide range of non-probability sampling techniques for the researcher to draw on. For
example, critical case sampling may be used to investigate whether a phenomenon is worth investigating further,
before adopting an expert sampling approach to examine specific issues further.

## 1.2 Disadvantages of purposive sampling

Purposive samples, irrespective of the type of purposive sampling used, can be highly prone to researcher bias. The
idea that a purposive sample has been created based on the judgement of the researcher is not a good defense when
it comes to alleviating possible researcher biases, especially when compared with probability sampling techniques that
are designed to reduce such biases. However, this judgmental, subjective component of purpose sampling is only a
major disadvantage when such judgements are ill-conceived or poorly considered; that is, where judgements have not
been based on clear criteria, whether a theoretical framework, expert elicitation, or some other accepted criteria.

The subjectivity and non-probability based nature of unit selection (i.e., selecting people, cases/organizations, etc.) in
purposive sampling means that it can be difficult to defend the representativeness of the sample. In other words, it
can be difficult to convince the reader that the judgement you used to select units to study was appropriate. For this
reason, it can also be difficult to convince the reader that research using purposive sampling achieved
theoretical/analytic/logical generalization.
2. Quota Sampling is a sampling technique whereby participant quotas are preset prior to sampling. Typically, the
researcher is attempting to gather data from a certain number of participants that meet certain characteristics that
may include things such as age, sex, class, marital status, HIV status, etc.

## Example of Quota Samples

In a study wherein the researcher likes to compare the academic performance of the different high school class levels,
its relationship with gender and socioeconomic status, the researcher first identifies the subgroups. Usually, the
subgroups are the characteristics or variables of the study. The researcher divides the entire population into class
levels, intersected with gender and socioeconomic status. Then, he takes note of the proportions of these subgroups
in When to Use Quota Samples

The main reason why researchers choose quota samples is that it allows the researchers to sample a subgroup that is
of great interest to the study. If a study aims to investigate a trait or a characteristic of a certain subgroup, this type of
sampling is the ideal technique.

Quota sampling also allows the researchers to observe relationships between subgroups. In some studies, traits of a
certain subgroup interact with other traits of another subgroup. In such cases, it is also necessary for the researcher
to use this type of sampling technique.

It may appear that this type of sampling technique is totally representative of the population. In some cases it is not.
Keep in mind that only the selected traits of the population were taken into account in forming the subgroups.

In the process of sampling these subgroups, other traits in the sample may be overrepresented. In a study that
considers gender, socioeconomic status and religion as the basis of the subgroups, the final sample may have skewed
representation of age, race, educational attainment, marital status and a lot more.

3. Snowball Sampling is also known as chain referral sampling. In this method, the participants refer the researcher to
others who may be able to potentially contribute or participate in the study. This method often helps researchers find
and recruit participants that may otherwise be hard to reach. This is also known as Chain Referral Sampling

Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling technique that is used by researchers to identify potential subjects
in studies where subjects are hard to locate.

Researchers use this sampling method if the sample for the study is very rare or is limited to a very small subgroup of
the population. This type of sampling technique works like chain referral. After observing the initial subject, the
researcher asks for assistance from the subject to help identify people with a similar trait of interest.

The process of snowball sampling is much like asking your subjects to nominate another person with the same trait as
your next subject. The researcher then observes the nominated subjects and continues in the same way until the
obtaining sufficient number of subjects.

For example, if obtaining subjects for a study that wants to observe a rare disease, the researcher may opt to use
snowball sampling since it will be difficult to obtain subjects. It is also possible that the patients with the same disease
have a support group; being able to observe one of the members as your initial subject will then lead you to more
subjects for the study.

4. Convenience sampling - sample is selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the
researcher. The subjects are selected just because they are easiest to recruit for the study and the
researcher did not consider selecting subjects that are representative of the entire population.

One of the most common examples is using student volunteers as subjects for the research. Another is
using subjects that are from a clinic, or class or an institution that is easily accessible to the researcher. A
more concrete example is choosing five people from a class or choosing first five names from the list of
patients. This is more applicable in pilot testing.