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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

One of the most surprising aspects of this field is the difficulty that researchers have to precise its
definition. The first question that they may probably ask is: what is considered to be ‘artificial’ in the
context of ‘artificial intelligence’? Without any doubt, it should be associated to ‘its origins and mode
of creation in arising as a product of human contrivance and ingenuity rather than as a result of natural
(especially biological or evolutionary) influence. Things that are artificially intelligent, in other
words, differ from those that are naturally intelligent as artifacts that possess special properties
ordinarily possessed by non-artifacts’ (p.3).

These artifact that we have been mentioned before are commonly thought of as being
machines. But if we consider that machines are just things with the capacity to perform work, then,
since we (human beings) also can perform work, we can be considered machines as well. What is
what let us differ from what we understand as machines? Most people would say: that we are
intelligent. The second question is: how can we distinguish between animate and inanimate
machines? ‘Human beings, after all, may result from human contrivance and ingenuity, but they are
clearly biological in their origin. The issue thus becoems whether or not inanimate machines, as
opposed to human beins, are capable of possessing a certain special property that human beings are
supposed to display- if not always, at least on certain special occasions’ (Fetzer, 1990,p.3).

Even assuming that human beings are supposed to be ‘intelligent’, the problem
remains of isolating those specific characteristics of human existence that are considered ‘intelligent’.
‘Since human beings exhibit anger, jealousy and rage, it might be asked if inanimate machines would
be intelligent if they could exhibit those feelings. If human beings are the best exemplars of the
property in question, yet are widely observed to exhibit anger, jealousy, and rage, then by what
standard, yardstick, or criterion can we tell that these are not some of the features characteristic of
intelligence’ (Fetzer,1990, p.4).
Bearing all these in mind, a suitable definition of Artificial Intelligence could be ‘a branch of
computer science, a discipline to study of machine intelligence, that is to use artificial methods and
techniques, developing intelligent machines or intelligent systems to emulate, extension and
expansion of human intelligence, realize intelligent behavior’ (p.5).

Artificial Intelligence can be divided into two types of symbolic intelligence: symbolic and
computational. ‘It is in the basis of physical symbol system to study the knowledge representation,
acquisition, reasoning process’. It is something common to use our knowledge to solve our problems
(intelligence), so ‘people often put the current stage of artificial intelligence known as knowledge
engineering. Knowledge Engineering studies are focused on the knowledge information processing
methods and technologies, and promote the development of artificial intelligence’ (p.5).

It can be unbelievable to think that Aristotle started the way till scientists get to develop
the concept of Artificial Intelligence. This esteemed philosopher founded Logic. Later on,
Mathematical logic has been spread out several branches. But… why are talking about Logic and
Aristotle? ‘Logic is a primary tool in the study of computer science as well as in the study of artificial
intelligence. It is widely used in many domains, such as the semasiology, the logic programming
language, theory of software specification and validation, theory of data base, theory of knowledge
base, intelligent system, and the study of robot. Objective of the computer science is essentially
coincident with the goal of logic’ (p.30).

Above all this, the main objective, of this branch which was chosen to make our
research about, ‘is to simulate with the computer the function and behaviour of the human brain, and
bring the computer to be an extension of the brain. Here the simulation of the function and beaviour
of the human brain is in fact to simulate the thinking process of people.’ (p.30). In fact, logic is a
discipline focused on human thinking.

Nowadays, we do not have a time machine, self-driving cars or full home automation but smart
investors have been focused on five specific aspects of technology that will be so useful for us.

1- Delete dull tasks: All of us have to do boring tasks or homework which are not too important
but necessary enough to need a quick answer. This is being solving with some new applications such
as Cortana, Siri or Google Assistant which perform basic tasks, conversing with the users in their
mother tongue. Moreover, other companies are focused on the development of more advanced
conversational interfaces in which the use of machine learning is essential to understand and meet
customer needs.

2-Focus diffuse problems: The amount of available data is almost impossible to be synthesized
by human beings capacity, that is the ideal task for machine learning and AI. As an example, the
application Elucify can be mentioned. It helps sales teams updating their contacts automatically. The
information will be shared in public and private data sources by clicking a button.
3-Distribute data: Security companies like Vectra Networks or RiskSense are making the most
of AI in order to avoid cyber-attacks automating data processes. These kind of organizations are vital
as problems of cybersecurity are increasing more and more nowadays.

4. Solve dynamic data: At the moment, some companies are using Artificial Intelligence in
order to solve the dynamic problems of human behaviour. GitPrime, which tries to figure out wich
are the most fruitful work patterns for software engineers utilizing code data, is a pioneer in this
aspect. It would have unbelievable to imagine that engineers would have been able to find the human
influence in all those lines of code but for the intervention of AI.

5. Prevent dangerous issues: Nowadays, we are combining 3D printing, AI-powered robors


and at last but not least, human oversight. Rethink Robotics are working on interacting robots driven
by Artificial Intelligence in order to improve efficiency in companies and reduce cost but creating a
better and safer workplace. Elements of manufacturing jobs in warehouses could be pretty dangerous
for example. In these cases, humans have been supplanted by machines.

The roles of artificial intelligence in education:


In some aspects, technology and, in this specific case, Artificial Intelligence (AI) have
revolutionized the traditional educational system established in the last decades. New generations are
adopting the blended learning model in their high schools. How do they incorporate AI in their
learning?

First of all, it should be wondered what are some advantages of this modern educational
system which has technology and computer science as protagonists of the same one. In 2016, Roll
and Wylie stated that ‘while a human tutor often works one-on-one, for a specific duration and in
constrained spaces, interactive learning environments can be collaborative, omnipresent, and
portable. Simply speaking, ILE have unique affordances that human tutors do not, and the next
generation of systems should leverage those affordances to support learning anytime, anywhere, by
anyone’ (p.595)

Secondly, it should be discussed the different applications that a machine learning has to
student modelling. On the one hand, ‘it could simply answer the questions posed by the learner,
without considering their appropriateness or what might be learned from their answers. This is the
approach of conventional database systems such as QUEST or DBASEII, which are already being
used in the classroom’ (Freeman & Tagg, 1985). On the other hand, ‘we have tutoring systems which
in some sense know the concepts to be learned and endeavor to guide the learner explicitly towards
those concepts. For example, CLIMATE is a simple drill program which can answer a small set of
questions about climate types but is limited by not being able to sue this knowledge in any other way.
Other systems like GUIDON are better able to explain their own knowledge, but their focus on expert
knowledge makes it difficult for them to understand a learner’s activities’ (Lawler, 1987, p.269).

In conclusion, the universality of information and technology will mean a quick and radical
change in education, ‘with a corresponding need for technology-based learning to allow humans to
keep up. Learning will be deeply embedded in the electronically enhanced cultures of the day and
will merge with work and life’ (McCalla,2000, p.193). Moreover, Artificial Intelligence will
influence and contribute not only to education but other fields such as anthropology, sociology or
psychology among others. ‘These disciplines, in turn, should be able to feed back ideas, techniques
and information to Artificial Intelligence. ‘Knowledge willtthus flow from research community to
research community getting interpreted and augmented as it flows’ (McCalla, 2000, p.193)

Artificial intelligence has become part of our lives in many areas if we think of cars and driver
assistance systems. Many people are coming in contact with artificial intelligence. Artificial
Intelligence is influencing us when we are visiting the internet and when we see things such as the
hints that other people who were interested in this particular topic. One of the best examples for
artificial intelligence is Siri.

Siri is one of the most popular personal assistants and one of the best examples of speech recognition
software. It is an Apple program offered by its various equipment, such as iPhone, iPad or Mac
computers. The program is automatically linked to all your information (messages, calendar, music,
reminders, mail, contacts, notes, etc.) and uses machine learning technology to learn and become
more "intelligent"; In this way, he is able to understand you better when you ask him questions or
requests. Although the application is not infallible, some of its actions are very useful and surprising
(and some funny if you have put to play the questions).
Naone (2009) explains:

“Siri traces its origins to a military-funded artificial-intelligence project called CALO, for
"cognitive assistant that learns and organizes," that is based at the research institute SRI
International. The project's leaders--including Cheyer--combined traditionally isolated
approaches to artificial intelligence to try to create a personal-assistant program that improves
by interacting with its user.”

“Siri was designed as humanistic artificial intelligence, to augment people with a conversational
interface that made it possible for them to use mobile computing, regardless of who they were and
their abilities. Now for most of us, the impact of this technology is to make things a little bit easier to
use.” (TED, 2017)

Also, they exposed an example of how Siri can be humanistic. The impact of the artificial intelligence
in these systems is a life changer. Daniel, a very social guy, is blind and quadriplegic, which makes
It hard to use those devices that we all take for granted. Daniel met a woman online using Siri to
manage his own social life- his email, text and phone- without depending on his caregivers. Daniel is
a man whose relationship with artificial intelligence helps him have relationships with genuine
beings.

Another example of artificial intelligence would be Tesla. One of the technological leaders of the
automotive industry. Tesla not only makes cars with impeccable and attractive design, but also smart
cars with predictive capabilities. Not for nothing is that the brand has received multiple awards. One
of the most outstanding features of their cars is their ability to handle themselves on autopilot -without
the need for a human behind the wheel- plus a variety of technological innovations that make them
extremely attractive to fans of the latest technologies and cars. But that's not all, the automotive
company's system is able to update its models continuously through "the cloud"; thus, cars become
increasingly intelligent.

The main focus of this is that the car actually learns how to drive, pretty much a breakthrough in the
automotive industry. The car can do almost anything, so we’re able to do lane-keeping on freeways
to automatic cruise control, active emergency braking, self-park, so we’ll be automatic parallel
parking automatically going to a garage, we’ll get home and actually be able to step out of the car
and have it parked itself in the garage. All these characteristics that a human could do inserted in a
car.

The AI is the reason why Facebook presents attractive and relevant content in the news section (News
Feed), according to your preferences. It does so by analyzing your behavior and participation within
the social network, and interpreting your interactions ("likes", "shares", comments, etc.) as interests,
showing you more content similar to the one you already liked. Considering the number of users that
are part of the Facebook community, the application has an exorbitant amount of data at your disposal,
to analyze them and offer you more suggestive content. Its algorithms are constantly updated to be
more accurate and improve the experience offered to its users.

Facebook is developing some advances AI. It is scanning post for signs of depression and suicide.
The company’s AI can spot signals in posts and videos that a person is thinking of harming himself.
It then alerts a human moderator who can decide whether to contact authorities. It also can describe
images to the visually impaired. Facebook is able to recognize objects in photos and create a written
description of what the image contains. It then reads the description out loud for the user. Facebook
also is able to negotiate.

The company trained its chatbots to negotiate against humans. The bots even developed bargaining
tactics like bluffing. Offering assistance is another ability in Facebook AI. Facebook’s deep text
system can understand our messages and quickly offer us relevant tools. If we chat with a friend about
needing a ride, for example it will put a link for ride-sharing services. Finally, it also can censure
objectionable material. The company’s AI scans videos and photos for nudity and violence. It flags
content that might not comply with the company’s policies so a moderator can decide whether to take
it down.

Artificial intelligence in growing up every day. Since the las century up today it has increased by
leaps and bounds. Computers have been invented among other things, internet, autopilot, mobile
phones, robots, etc. What gives us to think, that there would be a more modern future than it is today.
“The centuries’ long quest to develop machines and software with human-like intelligence inches
closer to reality. Scientists develop intelligent machines that can simulate reasoning, develop
knowledge, and allow computers to set and achieve goals, moving closer to mimicking the human
thought process. These intelligent systems improve accuracy of predictions, accelerate problem
solving and automate administrative tasks bringing in an era of automation.” (Government 2020,
2019)

According to Government 2020 (2019), Artificial Intelligence in the future would have:

 Cognitive analytics, where machines learn from experience and build associations, help
develop technology systems that evolve hypothesis, draw conclusions and codify instincts and
experience.
 Parallel information processing, aided through chips custom designed for AI applications,
help parallel processing of vast amounts of data.
 Smarter gets redefined with the advances in sensor, cloud and machine learning technology,
and pushes the boundary of smarter homes, cars, infrastructure and just about everything.
 Deep learning approaches allow processing of raw data including images, speech and natural
language; thus, providing deeper insights.
 Face-reading machines decipher micro facial expressions to build meaningful information
on the emotional state of the user, improving human-computer interaction in areas of e-
learning and e-therapy.
 Intelligent automation combines automation with artificial intelligence that allows
knowledge workers, from physicians to investment analysts to plant supervisors, to process,
understand and use ballooning volumes of information.

Many people associate AI with robotics, but the application and use of AI is increasingly widespread.
The world is constantly changing, and within the world we find that technology also changes. In the
short term - for the next 5-15 years - it is likely that AI and robotics will transform jobs, making a
large number of jobs made by human beings redundant. Robots do not have a salary, they do not get
tired and they do not demand better working conditions. This means that, in the future, it is likely that
millions of robots occupy the position of the workers in the factories. What provokes a great rejection
by society. In fact, today we can already find cash registers for self-service in some supermarkets.

We have already talked about self-drivings cars, and as every technology, it is also going to change.

“Though the vehicles are currently required to have a driver present at the wheel for safety.
Despite these exciting developments, the technology isn’t perfect yet, and it will take a while
for public acceptance to bring automated cars into widespread use. Google began testing a
self-driving car in 2012, and since then, the U.S. Department of Transportation has released
definitions of different levels of automation, with Google’s car classified as the first level
down from full automation. Other transportation methods are closer to full automation, such
as buses and trains.” (Ayers, 2013)

Ayers (2013) proposes a future with cyborg technology:

“One of the main limitations of being human is simply our own bodies—and brains. Researcher
Shimon Whiteson thinks that in the future, we will be able to augment ourselves with computers and
enhance many of our own natural abilities. Though many of these possible cyborg enhancements
would be added for convenience, others might serve a more practical purpose. Yoky Matsuka of Nest
believes that AI will become useful for people with amputated limbs, as the brain will be able to
communicate with a robotic limb to give the patient more control. This kind of cyborg technology
would significantly reduce the limitations that amputees deal with on a daily basis.”
Technology is advancing in a super exponential way, and it should not surprise us so much. Because
technology is doing nothing more than following the demands of the consumer and the user. We as
independent users, are increasingly demanding and more demanding: we want everything, we want
it already, fast, proactive and relevant; and technology because it is also adapting to those needs and
providing new opportunities. And it is true that users, we individually, are going to have to try to
understand that technology very well and in which cases it benefits us, in which cases it is relevant.

Sometimes it is hard to imagine the future because every day we think that nothing new can arise or
invent. But something is certain, there is always something new to invent. The mobile phone, for
example, is going to be something totally different, computers will be totally different, that is, the
physical aspect will be totally different because they will never stop improving it. They will always
want something better, both companies and consumers. But in the end, technology will be
omnipresent but, at the same time, it will not be visible, it will not be explicit. We are simply going
to have the benefit that it will provide, without it being something that is on your face, without it
being visible, without you having to touch anything; but it will be something that goes around you.

After all, technology is created by human beings, so far, we are the ones who control technology.
What scares society is that we can be controlled by it. However, we do not realize that we are already
subjected to artificial intelligent technology. People can no longer live without Siri, without cars with
automatic pilot, without google, without spotify ... After all, we are subjected to artificial intelligence
without realizing it.

Artificial intelligence is easily one of the most prevalent themes in all of science fiction. The idea that
a machine could exhibit the same level of intelligence and sentience as a human being has captivated
writers and audiences alike for decades. In recent years a few outspoken intellectuals, such as Elon
Musk, Sam Harris, Stephen Hawking, Nick Bostrom to name a few, have voiced genuine concerns
for the rise of artificial intelligence as brilliant minds across the globe are competing to retrace the
hundreds of millions of years of evolution that resulted in the human brain. And while many experts
have no doubts about machines’ ability to achieve human-level intelligence at some point in the
future, just as many believe it to be an impossibility. And perhaps it is. Perhaps we are
incomprehensibly complex in such a way that we cannot do what nature has done to us. In fact, even
though evolution had a hell of a head start machines have already surpassed us in some limited
domains. (AI of things, 2018)

The world’s goal is to build intelligent machines to help people in their daily lives, and what
makes us intelligence is our ability to learn and this what we are trying to reproduce in machines. To
some extent, we get inspiration from biology. What we can do with current technology is build
networks of simulated neurons on those order of magnitude of the brain of a mouse, so the way we
train our machine.

‘A new conceptual framework for AI will not view intelligence as a kind of abstract puzzle
solving applied by an individual to arbitrarily defined problems presented by an alien environment.
It is true that certain isolated episodes of intelligent behaviour can be given an interpretation as puzzle
solving, maximizing of utility, and so forth. However, these episodes gain their meaning not as the
result of reasoning processes that solve various problems, but by being contextually bound within
practices carried out by communities’ (Clocksin, 2003, p.1745).

To conclude, if there is something that can make this planet an authentic paradise and an authentic
garden for those who inhabit it, it is artificial intelligence. But artificial intelligence can also turn this
world into hell. Much more than it is today. Artificial intelligence is the greatest discovery and
achievement that the human being has reached in its entire history. It even goes far beyond the great
inventions such as flight, conquest of space, atomic energy and other much cleaner energy. The AI
is the last frontier. They have managed to make a vehicle have self-driving, Google also works with
this type of technologies making improvements every day. Artificial intelligence reaches surprising
and complex points, reaching great progress and great solutions. Try to make our life better. At the
same time, it has enormous disadvantages, not because of it in itself. But for the control exercised
over the human being. We are beings under the control of a technological advance that is in the hands
of a state that watches over us.
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-Fetzer, J. H. (1990). What is Artificial Intelligence?. In Artificial Intelligence: Its Scope and Limits
(pp. 3-27). Springer, Dordrecht.
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Intelligence and applications, 157, 17.
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1). Intellect Books.
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artificial intelligence in education research agenda in 2010. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in
Education, 11(2), 177-196.
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Roll, I., & Wylie, R. (2016). Evolution and revolution in artificial intelligence in education. International Journal
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ISO 690

-Shi, Z. (2011). Advanced artificial intelligence (Vol. 1). World Scientific.


-Siri image: Retrieved from https://sophos.files.wordpress.com/2017/07/siri-1200.jpg?w=640
(26/01/2019)
-Facebook picture: Retrieved from https://becominghuman.ai/fair-facebook-artificial-intelligence-
research-85f13420f52f (27/01/2019)
-Tesla picture: Retrieved from https://medium.com/self-driving-cars/tesla-enhanced-autopilot-overview-
l2-self-driving-hw2-54f09fed11f1 (27/01/2019)
Ayers, R. (2013). The future of Artificial Intelligence: 6 ways it will impact everyday life. Retrieved from
https://bigdata-madesimple.com/the-future-of-artificial-intelligence-6-ways-it-will-impact-everyday-life/