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K 1.

3806×10-23 Fabrication ①
g.
=
1.602×10-19 c -
photoresist res .
limit RRZKX due to diffraction

K -1=0.026 eV at Sook le
-
1 i photoresist
↳ low 1) Large Aperture
oxidation High Quai

!
lens
-

z
2×106 GaAs
.

"" ✓ ✓
Ni TeV 1.602×10 J ( isotropic ) phase shift mask
-

= -
lithography ftp.I-phofomashwetetch
-

2181582
Donor pass ! :p:p
drgie.IT#aniso+.pie ,
MIDTERM
Acc BGA In Al .in?tntioa+:iy

LE 34 I
.

5
Annealer T i⇐--
Diffuse Doping pos resist resist plasma reactive ion
.
neg .
,

|ModeHin# concentration
Band Effective Mass #

• Ec -
m -

% !
-

Kote
n

F=qE=m*daIt intrinsic
,
n -
n=p= ni n
equilibrium np
-

-
,
p
-

Ei . . .
. . . -

Ea
d Es 12h
( ;=jNcNT
-

- n e ,
O
Ev
'

Ef
n -

type donor p
-

type acceptor
-
Ea -
-
Ea
Doping
-

impurities to change pin


extra e-
*¥e*Ea "

(
I
#oEa -
missing valence
↳ Eu Item Eu
temp dependent -

" " l l
" 1
11
00 O O O O o
orbital
l

dopant site binding


energy IEBI
Fermi f- ( E ) prob that e- is occupied @ E

VDonor|Ndi# charge neutrality ht Na


-

=p
+ Ndt -
f- CE )


Na
hip
'

=/
111 Acceptor
-
I

,/fNozN 2+n ;
a
Dopant n
p
n=NpgNa_ +

NasNd/÷N#
-
p ⇐
f- ( E )
N -

type Nd > Na Nd -

Na nn
Eg

p type
NAjNDt#)+n
-

p :

Densityofstates #
a

Et
] 9cL E)
testates [ trans
) )
grit
=
GCE
-
-

it 243
f (E) = #
Equilibrium dist .

ofe.carrierEY.si/#eE-EHkT
#
-
S Boltzmann's approx z
g
-

n (E) get E) f- ( E ) I
( Ec -

EHIKT E
=
-

n > No e

f- CED
( Ef Emmet o÷
E) ( I
- -

gv(
µ
PCE ) S Nr
-

p
= :
-
e
-
intr -
Eet E
hole .
' " -

E
Nc
-

g-
=
ni e
t.it/kTlgintr .

( Ei EVVKT
Nv §
-

=
e
ni

#
\ n
-

Locations of Ei
,
Ef I
Nc zf2tmn* )
"
Is
#
.

{ Gen
Ei
-
-

Ect + { kTln( FT ) % §
Nr -

- 21 't 'T a-
Ein KT th ( MP%Mn* )
E÷Ev
t
.
1a
no , > pass n; NASSND > Shi

Ef -

Ei =
kTln( F.) =
-
ht Intf ;
)
-
-

kTln( IT ) = -
KT th ( II )

(
Action I Drift Jisrift -
- IIA
Mn Mp
① Drift Ifield :jI¥
external
n
an second

Drift velocity Vd
-
- ME Mn
, Mp mgbgilait.ympeae.gg#iaegq.?p;;gI.D/I' ' P'
-

91311¥
Idriftin
-
- -

9nVdA l ID -
-
Ion '
-

Iap
,

② Bond
Bending
Jdrift , p
=

qpvd d- drift
,n
=
-

qnvd
q V ( )
( Ef t.it/kT ) ME )
P E Ec Moin n;
( Vd
--
-
=
exp
-
-

Jdrift
= -

Jdrift
,p=tqpMpE ,n=tqnMpE
.

DEC niexp [ ( Ei EH/hT ]


'

Poop
-
-

E- Ig
-

=
dad
-
=
JD rift ( qnllntqpllp ) E E

f
, DX E Ei total =
Jdriftpt Jdriftn = = o

¥€
,


-
hole -

"
↳ Eff Es const eguil G= (
qnllntqpdrp ) =
q ( hunt
pmp )

x x X
o
-
-

conductivity , f- resistivity , f- to
[ ]
\ e.

E=-dI#€
m

③ Diffusion .to?banhdPhot#igtGaAsGWEV

-
and
heat #
Ft 't
T
%x= Direct
qDndFx : '¥oI#ia
-

Jn diffusion = where
,

Diffusion constant center


genfepi.TO?en+erneatEqy.nY-opeoq?ie
•→z
.
' -0g
'
Impaction
F' I , #
"
Dn = Mn Dp =
Mp Auger U
si.ge
hole
e-aeinste.ws , time
-

enrewmnonegui
t.nairatn.si#etviiiT=notnp=Potsp,dp..sn/QsunasI-sp i. nEpEi@n.E n
n Ei )/hT Fai Eitktln ( Tn )
em niexplfn
'

quasi
- -
-

Dig
-
-

daff sq
=
=
day =
P
'
-
ni exp ( Ei -

Fn )/kT
No carriers -

Atom losing body -0000000 Ec Ea


# Ea
Missing
" knee .

¥¥ff¥

*÷÷ : acceptor

1015
-

Si Doped w/ B at Na : Find As at Nr 1016


.
pin .

' 5 '
Na 70
/
-

new =
7016 3
p cm
/
=
h Nd
-
=
new i
cm

? 101012
105 Y (
-

np
n - n =
cm

nil
=

104 Y
-
-

=
=
cm
np E
-

p
-

" "
Nd 3×10 Na 6410 Na > ND
type
?
-
p
-

3
n = Nd -

Na = 3×1016 cm
-

-3
p -
-
( 4×1010-12 = 3.33×103 cm

3×1016
I f- ( Ev )
Item
f- ( Ec )
f- ( E)
= -

Proof of Ef at intrinsic =
given
,

l l

= I
=
#
Ev-Ef)kt
-
-

EHIKT ectf Evtrkt


eke
-
-

y +
y t
Ec tf
# I
Ef-Eg
-

Yt eff Erm )= In # eke # rut


) =
-

(
= -
-
(
-

y t eke
-

EHIKT y t eef
-

ENKE h
KIT KIT

tf Ect
=
f

"
! 2
catch ND : 10
n= Np . you p
-

-
Fi #
,
Pkn of f. 602×10 19111016cm 1248cm 't )
-

,
can = -
s .
to
,

1-0%8
'd
p =
1/0 =
" "

Em
= 0.500176 d.
qlnilntptlp ) /

1016 " "


"
Na * Not NA 2×1016 NA ,ND graph 2410
ND lo Na ND ,
-

since
n=pzn ; - lo
:
- : -
use
-

3.95×105 d.
f =
cm

VK )
Nan .
2×1015 Nd - Ixion P
type holes
E


\ Nat Npa

Mp 475
3×1015
Mn boo
I
Pot Na


-

NND

ni
--¥×
'
Diffusion const Dp if Mp
> 410
Si doped B IO ? pausing
SI units

rate 1020 lifetime 70ms


gen Dp
.

. ktznp =t" 410=10.6 .


-

Cozi
At equilibrium Po
-

Na = 1015cal evunits
using
-

o ozfeu
( 410 )
.

10.66cm 't
-
- -

no : npi÷ =
= 105lb , le

"
70 '
4cm
Syd
=

1015 1015 2×1015 -3


moms p
-

pot Ap = t = cm ee ,

105 t 1015=1015 -3
1015cm - 3
n not An = cm ( f ,
Ap
-

= cc ,

7015cm -3 = (2×1015111015) = 2×1030 ( ,


Dn :
Ap : An = ed , hp g
Bonding model electron hole donor acceptor Eband e hole donor acceptor freeze-out-e freeze-out-hole

Energy-dist-carrier intrinsic n p nondegen degen


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