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ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH

A SEMINAR REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR IN TECHNOLOGY
In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Submitted By
Dyanand Das
Regd. No: 1501304070

Under the Guidance of


Prof. Sabyasachi Singh

GANDHI INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
BHUBANESWAR (ODISHA)-752054
2018-19
Certificate
This is to certify that Dyanand Das of 7th Semester, Mechanical
Engineering bearing Regd. No. 1501304070 has satisfactory completed the
seminar report on “ELECTROMAGNATIC CLUTCH” in the partial
fulfilment of the Bachelor of Technology Degree in Mechanical Engineering

under Biju Pattanaik University of Technology,


Rourkela, Odisha.
I recommended this piece of work for acceptance as the seminar report in
the academic curriculum.

Prof. Sabyasachi Singh


HOD, Dept. of ME
Acknowledgement
I convey my sincere gratitude to my supervisor and guide Prof. Sabyasachi
Shingh, GITAM, Bhubaneswar for his kind guidance, constant supervision, valuable
suggestions, co-operations and affectionate encouragement which enabled me to
complete this seminar report in time. His stimulating words, constant encouragement
and dedication for work highly motivated me to do better and gave me the chance to
improve myself in the field of study.

I am also thankful to I am also thankful to Dr. Arun Ku. Parida ,


Department of ME, GITAM, Bhubaneswar for her timely advice, inspiration and
help. I am grateful to all the members of GITAM, Bhubaneswar for their kind
suggestions and help for the seminar work.

Last but not the least, I express my deep sense of gratitude to all my friends
who stood behind me to undertake this venture.

Again, I am thankful to their valuable suggestions and with whom I shared


many ideas through the problem

Place: Dyanand Das


Date: Regd. No: 1501304070
Branch: MECH
Sem: 7th Sem
IMPLEMENTATION OF clutch

ABSTRACT
A clutch is a device used to make contact from the transmission. When it
engages, then power is transferred from engine to gear box and when it
disengage, power flow is stop, hence it is called free running of engine. There is
an innovation done in automobile industry, called electromagnetic clutch, which
is recently used by Renault Car Company, which uses the basic principle of
electrical energy as well as magnetic forces.

This project revels the manufacturing of electromagnetic clutch. In place of


Engine, shaft is directly attached to variance (variable motor) and clutch disc as
well as pressure plate is used, in between them friction material called
“Asbestos” used to grip between the pressure plate and clutch plate. This project
shows, experimental analysis of Electromagnetic clutch, and at last at which
speed clutch engage as well as disengage is measured and when clutch
disengage, at that time speed of flywheel is also measured.
Contents

Sl. No. Particulars Page No.

1 introduction
2 purpose
3 principle of operation
4 requirement of a clutch
5 parts of the clutch
6 type of friction material
7 type of clutch
8 use of electromagnetic clutch
9 basic operation of electromagnetic clutch
10 engagement time
11 References
1. Introduction:-

Miki Pulley electromagnetic clutches and brakes belong to the type of


dry/single plate/coil static system in the frictional-type electromagnetic clutches .
The "Electromagnetic clutches " is a generic term used to refer to the
functions such as transmission and interruption or deceleration and stoppage of
torque by electro-magnetic action. They are classified mainly by three in
accordance with the intended.

2. Purpose:-

The function of the clutch is to temporarily disconnect the engine from the gear box
unit. When the gear has to be changed from the first to the second ,it should be done
after disconnecting the engine from the gear box. If this is not done ,the gear teeth
might break. The clutch is thus helpful when starting, shifting gears and idling .

3. Principle of operation:-

The clutch works on the principles of friction. When two friction surfaces are brought
in contact with each other and pressed they are united due to the friction between
them. If now one is resolved, the other will also revolve. The friction between the two
surfaces depends upon the area of the surfaces, pressure applied upon them and
co-efficient of friction of the surface materials. The two surfaces can be separated
and brought into contact when required. The driving member is kept rotating. When
the driven member is brought in contact with the driving member, it also starts
rotating. When the driven member is separated from the driving member it does not
revolve. This is the principle on which a clutch operates.

4. Requirement of a clutch:

1. Torque transmission: - The clutch should be able to transmit maximum


torque of the engine.
2. Gradual engagement:- The clutch should engage gradually to avoid sudden
jerks.
3. Heat dissipation: - The clutch should be able to dissipate large amount of
heat which is generated during the clutch operation due to friction.
4. Dynamic balancing:- The clutch should be dynamically balanced. This is
particularly required in the case of high speed engine clutches.
5. Vibrating damping: - The clutch should have suitable mechanism to damp
vibrations and to eliminate noise produced during the power transmission.
6. Size:- The clutch should be as small as possible in size so that it will occupy
minimum space.
7. Free pedal play: - The clutch should have free pedal play in order to reduce
effective clamping load on the carbon thrust bearing and wear on it.
8. Easy in operation: - The clutch should be easy to operate requiring as little
exertion as possible on the part of the driver.
9. Lightness:- The driven member of the clutch should be made as light as
possible so that it will not continue to rotate for any length of time after the
clutch has been disengaged.
5. parts of the clutch:-
The main parts of clutch are divided into three groups:
1. Driving members…..
 The driving members consist of a flywheel mounted on the
engine crankshaft.

(Figure 2-flywheel couple with clutch)

2. Driven members….
 The driven member consists of the disc or plate, called the
clutch plate.

(Figure 3-Pressure plate and Clutch plate)


3. Operating members…..
 The operating members consist of a foot pedal, linkage, release
or throw out bearing, release levers and springs.

(Figure 4:-Pedal, Bearing and spring)

(Figure 5:- Layout of whole clutch assembly)


.

 ASSEMBLY OF CLUTCH:
 EXPLODED VIEW OF CLUTCH ASSEMBLY:
6. Types of friction material:-
The friction materials of the clutch plate are generally of three types :
1. Mill board type.
2. Moulded type.
3. Woven type.
Mill board type friction materials mainly include asbestos sheets treated
with different type of impregnates.
Moulded type friction materials are made from a matrix of asbestos fiber
and starch or any other suitable binding materials.
Woven type facing materials are made by impregnating a cloth with certain
binders or by wearing threads of brass or copper wires covered with long fiber
asbestos and cotton.
The woven type friction materials are further classified into types-
laminated type and solid woven type.
 The most common friction materials are as follows :
1. Leather…….. Co-efficient of friction 0.27.

(Figure 6-Lather friction material)

1. Cork. ………Co-efficient of friction 0.32.

(Figure 7-Cork friction material)


1. Fabric……….Co-efficient of friction 0.40.

(Figure 8-Fabric friction material)

Asbestos……..Co-efficient of friction 0.20.

(Figure 9-Asbestos friction material)

Reybestos and Ferodo….. Co-efficient of friction 0.20


 Properties of good friction lining :-
1. Good wearing properties.
2. High co- efficient of friction.
3. High resistance to heat.
4. Good binder in it.
5. Cheap and easy to manufacture.

7. Types of clutches:-

Different types of clutches are as follows:


1. Friction clutch :
(a) Single plate clutch.
(b) Multiplate clutch:
(1) Wet clutch.
(2) Dry clutch.
(c) Cone clutch.
(1) External clutch.
(2) Internal clutch.
2. Centrifugal clutch.
3. Semi-centrifugal clutch.
4. Diaphragm clutch.
(a) Tapered finger type.
(b) Crown spring type.
5. Positive clutch.
(a) Dog and Spline clutch.
6. Hydraulic clutch.
7. Electro-magnetic clutch.
8. Vacuum clutch.
9. Over running clutch or free-wheel unit.

6. SIGLE PLATE CLUTCH:


(Figure 11-Single Plate Clutch)

7. MULTIPLATE CLUTCH:
(Figure 12-Multi Plate Clutch)

8. CONE CLUTCH:-

(Figure 13-Cone Clutch)


9. CENTRIFUGAL CLUTCH:

(Figure-14-Centrifugal Clutch)
10.SEMI-CENTRIFUGAL CLUTCH:

(Figure-15- Semi Centrifugal Clutch)

11.DIAPHRAGM CLUTCH:

(Figure-16-Diaphragm Clutch)

12.DOG AND SPLINE CLUTCH:


(Figure-17-Dog and Spline Clutch)

13.ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH:

(Figure-18-Electro Magnetic Clutch)

14.VACCUME CLUTCH:
(Figure-19-Vaccume Clutch)

15.HYDRAULIC CLUTCH:

(Figure-20-Hydralic Clutch)
7. Use Electromagnetic Clutch

 Function of clutch is to engage or disengage the engine from the transmission


system. Hence it is inserted between the flywheel as well as gear box. It is consists of
main important parts like clutch plate, pressure plate, friction disc, operating lever
etc. In clutch engage as well as disengage are very important, because due to which
clutch is used. But when clutch is applied at that time, some clearance is there in the
clutch pedal called clutch pedal play and due to which, proper disengage of clutch is
not achieve and clutch will slip or dragged.

 There is a need to use some system incorporated in clutch system, to prevent above
situation. Hence, if we shift gear and at that time clutch will disengage hence the it is
very simple for driver and force require to engage as well as disengage the clutch is
also neglected, hence a new type of clutch used in automobile vehicles called
“Renault Car” called electromagnetic clutch.

 In this clutch system, when gear shift lever is applied at that time, due to MMF
clutch will disengage and when release lever, clutch will engage.

8. Basic operation of electromagnetic clutch:-


 The clutch has four main parts: field, rotor, armature, and hub (output) (Figure-22).
When voltage is applied the stationary magnetic field generates the lines of flux that
pass into the rotor. (The rotor is normally connected to the part that is always moving
in the machine.) The flux (magnetic attraction) pulls the armature in contact with the
rotor (the armature is connected to the component that requires the acceleration), as
the armature and the output start to accelerate. Slipping between the rotor face and the
armature face continues until the input and output speed is the same (100% lockup).
The actual time for this is quite short, between 1/200th of a second and 1 second.

 Disengagement is very simple. Once the field starts to degrade, flux falls rapidly and
the armature separates. One or more springs hold the armature away from the rotor at
a predetermined air gap.
 Voltage/current - and the magnetic field

 (Figure-21) (Figure-22)

 If a piece of copper wire was wound, around the nail and then connected to a battery,
it would create an electro magnet. The magnetic field that is generated in the wire,
from the current, is known as the “right hand thumb rule”. (FIGURE-21) The strength
of the magnetic field can be changed by changing both wire size and the amount of
wire (turns). EM clutches are similar; they use a copper wire coil (sometimes
aluminum) to create a magnetic field.

 The fields of EM clutch can be made to operate at almost any DC voltage, and the
torque produced by the clutch or brake will be the same, as long as the correct
operating voltage and current is used with the correct clutch. If a 90 V clutch, a 48 V
clutch and a 24 V clutch, all being powered with their respective voltages and current,
all would produce the same amount of torque. However, if a 90 V clutch had 48 V
applied to it, this would get about half of the correct torque output of that clutch. This
is because voltage/current is almost linear to torque in DC electromagnetic clutches.

 A constant power supply is ideal if accurate or maximum torque is required from a


clutch. If a non regulated power supply is used, the magnetic flux will degrade, as the
resistance of the coil goes up. Basically, the hotter the coil gets the lower the torque
will

 be, by about an average of 8% for every 20°C. If the temperature is fairly constant,
but there may not be enough service factor in your design for minor temperature
fluctuation. Over-sizing, the clutch would compensate for minor flux. This will allow
the use a rectified power supply which is far less expensive than a constant current
supply.

 Based on V = I × R, as resistance increases available current falls. An increase in


resistance, often results from rising temperature as the coil heats up, according to: Rf
= Ri × [1 + αCu × (Tf - Ti)] Where Rf = final resistance, Ri = initial resistance, αCu =
copper wire’s temperature coefficient of resistance, 0.0039 °C-1, Tf = final
temperature, and Ti = initial temperature.

9. Engagement Time:-
 There are actually two engagement times to consider in an electromagnetic clutch.
The first one is the time it takes for a coil to develop a magnetic field, strong enough
to pull in an armature. Within this, there are two factors to consider. The first one is
the amount of ampere turns in a coil, which will determine the strength of a magnetic
field. The second one is air gap, which is the space between the armature and the
rotor. Magnetic lines of flux diminish quickly in the air. The further away the
attractive piece is from the coil, the longer it will take for that piece to actually
develop enough magnetic force to be attracted and pull in to overcome the air gap. For
very high cycle applications, floating armatures can be used that rest lightly against
the rotor. In this case, the air gap is zero; but, more importantly the response time is
very consistent since there is no air gap to overcome. Air gap is an important
consideration especially with a fixed armature design because as the unit wears over
many cycles of engagement the armature and the rotor will create a larger air gap
which will change the engagement time of the clutch. In high cycle applications,
where registration is important, even the difference of 10-15 milliseconds can make a
difference, in registration of a machine. Even in a normal cycle application, this is
important because a new machine that has accurate timing can eventually see a “drift”
in its accuracy as the machine gets older.

 The second factor in figuring out response time of a clutch is actually much more
important than the magnet wire or the air gap. It involves calculating the amount of
inertia that the clutch needs to accelerate. This is referred to as “time to speed”. In
reality, this is what the end-user is most concerned with. Once it is known how much
inertia is present for the clutch to start then the torque can be calculated and the
appropriate size of clutch can be chosen.

 Most CAD systems can automatically calculate component inertia, but the key to
sizing a clutch is calculating how much inertial is reflected back to the clutch or
brake. To do this, engineers use the formula: T = (WK2 × ΔN) / (308 × t) Where T =
required torque in lb-ft, WK2 = total inertia in lb-ft2, ΔN = change in the rotational
speed in rpm, and t = time during which the acceleration or deceleration must take
place.

 There are also online sites that can help confirm how much torque is required to
accelerate a given amount of inertia over a specific time. Remember to make sure that
the torque chosen, for the clutch, should be after the clutch has been burnished.
10. REFERENCES:-

 Elements Of Electromagnetic Fields by s.p. seth


 A textbook of Automobile engineering by Er. R.K.
Rajput
 http://www.emclab.umr.edu/
 http://reality.sgi.com/csp/scvemc/emcdef.html
 http://www.mechanicalproject.com
 http://www.seminaronly.com
 http://www.howftuffworks.com/gears.htm
 Clutch and break design and selection –william c. orthwein