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Geothermal energy is thermal energy that contained in the rock and fluids beneath Earth’s crust.
It can be found from shallow ground to several miles below the surface, and even farther down
to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. One of geothermal energy in East Java is Blawan-
Ijen. Research about geothermal energy in Blawan-Ijen using the self potential method, that design
with porous pot electrode because geothermal reservoir is filled with hot water containing sulfide
minerals and conductive. Measurement of the potential value using the self potential method with
leapfrog procedures. Data processing program that used in research is Microsoft Excel and Surfer
12 to make isopotential contour map. Isopotential contour map observed to get fluid flow patterns
and then sliced it at 5 points to find the depth of hot springs resource. Measurement at sliced point
using ball method interpretation to find Vmin, Vmax, Xmin, Xmax which generates the height
value or depth (h) of Kalisengon hot springs resource. Data results from this research is potential
value, fluid flow patterns and height value (h). The distribution of the potential value to be spread
from -13 mV up to 17 mV. Fluid flow patterns at Kalisengon hot springs spread from high potential
to low potential and centralized towards the resource of hot springs then form a pool. The depth
from Kalisengon hot springs resource is 3,37 m to 5,7 m that find in sliced point 1 and 5. The
conclusion from this research is Blawan-Ijen have geothermal system that proved with many
surface manifestation and indicated with many hot springs.

Keywords : hot springs, geothermal, the self potential method.

Geothermal energy is the energy stored in the form of heat below the earth’s surface, its
potential is limitless in human terms and its energy is comparable to the sun. Geothermal forms is
heat and hot water (Utami, 1999). Heat that produced from the earth will create a resource of hot
springs that is the result of geothermal process by water heating beneath earth due to the
establishment of earth’s crust. Heat and temperature is derived from the heat of the earth and
depend with the depth of geothermal resource. Resource of hot springs it can be generated from
volcanic activity in a volcano mount (Challoner, 2000).
According to data from the ministry of energy and mineral resources (ESDM, 2017),
Blawan-Ijen geothermal system is controlled by the local Kendeng old caldera structures
(volcanic) and regional fault structure (tectonic) leading to the North-South and followed by
Western-Eastern volcanic cones and Western-Southeast fault. Blawan-Ijen geothermal system has
an estimated reservoir peak at a depth of 1200 – 1400 m below the surface see figure 1.1 while
reservoir rocks are included in the proximal-medial facies and composed of pyroclastic rocks
(domain tuff) and reservoir temperature lava is 250 – 300 oC.
Figure 1.1 Blawan-Ijen geothermal system (ESDM, 2017)
The self potential called a spontaneous potential on the surface of the earth caused by
mechanical processes or by electrochemical processes and controlled by groundwater (Hedrajaya
and Arif, 1988). The self potential is a passive method because the measurement is done without
electric current injecting through the ground surface. Technically the working principle of the self
potential method is to measure the natural static voltage through two electrodes that are plugged
into the earth’s surface, which is connected with digital millivoltmeter. This milivoltmeter must
have a large input of impedance to ignore the electric currents from the earth during measurement
(Corry et.al, 1983).


Research about interpretation of surface beneath is located in Blawan hot springs, sub district
Ijen, Bondowoso regency. Blawan-Ijen have 21 point of hot springs pool and just picked 1 point
at Kalisengon hot springs that elevated place 939 masl. Measuring at Kalisengon hot springs
divided 8 line with 80 meters length each line. See figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2. Research design

The self potential method is using in this research with leapfrog procedures. Technically the
working principle of leapfrog procedures can see in figure 1.3.

Figure 1.3 The working principles of leapfrog procedures.


The potential values obtained from measurements spread from low potential -13 mV up to high
potential 17 mV. Potential values of -1 mV up to 13 mV show anomalies in the Kalisengon hot
springs. The anomalous area has a flow pattern that spreads almost all over the research location
and centered towards the resource of the hot springs then forms a pool of hot water. Nilai
potensial yang didapatkan dari pengukuran menyebar dari potensial rendah -13 mV hingga
potensial tinggi 17 mV. Nilai potensial -1 mV sampai -13 mV menunjukkan anomali pada
daerah airpanas Kalisengon. Daerah anomali memiliki pola aliran airpanas yang menyebar
hampir di seluruh lokasi penelitian dan terpusat menuju sumber mata airpanas dan membentuk
kolam airpanas.

figure 1.4 illustration of hot water flow from corrected isopotential contour map.
The pattern of hot water flow at the Kalisengon hot springs seen from the corrected isopotential
contour map that it flows from high potential value -1 mV (point X: 40; Y: 6) to low potential -
13 mV (point X: 46; Y:8) and accumulated at point (X: 40-60; Y: 0-8) see figure 1.4. From
figure 1.4 shown that the hot springs come out from surface beneath and forms a hot springs
pool. The existence of hot springs in Kalisengon is an indication of the possibility geothermal
system that is part of Blawan-Ijen geothermal system. Quantitative interpretation is used to
determine the parameters of the object to obtain the depth of Kalisengon hotsprings. Pola aliran
airpanas pada mata airpanas Kalisengon dilihat dari peta kontur isopotensial terkoreksi yakni
mengalir dari nilai potensial tinggi -1 mV (dititik X: 40; Y: 6) hingga potensial rendah -13 mV
(dititik X: 46; Y: 8) yang terakumulasi pada titik (X: 40-60; Y: 0-8) (Gambar 4.2) dan
ditunjukkan dengan keluarnya sumber mata airpanas dari bawah permukaan serta membentuk
kolam airpanas. Keberadaan mata airpanas (hotsprings) di daerah airpanas Kalisengon
merupakan indikasi kemungkinan adanya suatu sistem geotermal yang merupakan bagian dari
sistem panasbumi Blawan-Ijen. Interpretasi secara kuantitatif dipakai untuk menentukan
parameter dari benda sehingga didapatkan kedalaman.
The depth value obtained from slice point 1 to slice point 5 was made a comparison table.
Comparisons in (Table 1.1) describe the location of slice point at predetermined locations and
depth point, then the table can clearly providing especially about the depth in areas that have
been slashed in distant areas from Kalisengon hotsprings and although it cut out from Kalisengon
hotsprings area. Nilai kedalaman yang didapatkan dari sayatan 1 sampai 5 dibuat tabel
perbandingan. Perbandingan yang ada pada (Tabel 4.1) memuat tentang lokasi sayatan pada
lokasi yang telah ditentukan dan titik kedalaman, serta mampu memberikan kedalaman secara
khusus di daerah yang telah disayat baik di daerah yang jauh dengan mata airpanas Kalisengon
maupun dengan daerah yang memotong mata airpanas Kalisengon.
Tabel 4.1 depth comparison from slice point at isopotential contour map Perbandingan kedalaman dari sayatan
pada peta kontur isopotensial
No Slice Location Point (X & Depth Depth Point
Y m)
1 Slice 1 X = 46,3 m ; 3,37 m X = 46,3 m ;
Y = 0,1 m – 14 m Y = 2,22 m
2 Slice 2 X = 27 m – 33,2 m ; 1,34 m X = 31 m ;
Y = 1,8 m Y = 1,8 m
3 Slice 3 X = 77,8 m ; 2,05 m X = 77,8 m ;
Y = 0,1 m – 6,3 m Y = 3,6 m
4 Slice 4 X = 78,4 m ; 1,5 m X = 78,4 m ;
Y = 6,3 m – 13,8 m Y = 7,3 m
5 Slice 5 X = 30,5 m – 52,5 m ; 5,7 m X = 42,8 m ;
Y = 6,2 m Y = 6,2 m

Five slice point obtained from measurement calculated by the ball method and there is variation
of depth. Slice point 1 and 5 have a depth up 3,37 to 5,7 m beneath the surface of the soil as
proved with surface manifestation that is hotsprings. While the slice point 2, 3, 4 have a depth
1,34 m, 2,05 m, 1,5 m at a distant location from the hotsprings. Dari kelima sayatan yang
dihitung dengan metode bola terdapat variasi kedalaman. Sayatan ke 1 dan 5 mempunyai
kedalaman 3,37 dan 5,7 m di bawah permukaan tanah yang dibuktikan dengan manifestasi
permukaan berupa mata airpanas. Sedangkan sayatan ke 2, 3, dan 4 mempunyai kedalaman 1,34
m, 2,05 m, dan 1,5 m pada lokasi yang jauh dari mata airpanas.
The fluid flow pattern of Kalisengon hotsprings spread from a high potential to low potential and
it centered toward the resource of hotsprings then form a pool. Depth of Kalisengon hotsprings is
3,37 m to 5,7 m. Blawan-Ijen has a geothermal system as proved with numerous surface
manifestation called hotsprings.. Pola aliran fluida mata airpanas Kalisengon menyebar dari
potensial tinggi hingga potensial rendah dan terpusat menuju sumber airpanas dan membentuk
kolam airpanas. Kedalaman dari sumber mata airpanas Kalisengon berada di kedalaman 3,37 m
sampai 5,7 m. Blawan – Ijen mempunyai sistem panasbumi dengan dibuktikannya banyak
manisfestasi permukaan yang ditunjukkan oleh banyaknya mata airpanas.