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Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica

MEC 2307: Estabilidade Hidrodinâmica

Aula 1: Introduction and basic principles


• Qualitative examples of hydrodynamic instabilities;
• Surface tension driven flows, viscous and buoyant
instabilities, double diffusive convection.

Prof. Rafael Menezes de Oliveira


CRONOGRAMA TENTATIVO
Aulas às terças-feiras das 8h às 11h na sala de aula da secretaria;
Contato: rmo@puc-rio.br; (21)3527-1169;
http://rmo.usuarios.rdc.puc-rio.br/
Advanced transport phenomena, L. Gary Leal.
Livro-texto: Incompressible flow, Ronald L. Panton
Nonlinear dynamics and chaos, Strogatz
Introduction to Hydrodynamic Stability, Drazin
An album of fluid motion, Van Dyke
 Avaliação:
 Listas de exercício;
 1 prova;
 1 trabalho (1 questão mais trabalhosa ).

 EBEM: Escola Brasileira de Escoamento Multifásico (17-18 Maio)


 Sugiro a participação de todos (Windsor Barra)

 International Conference on Multiphase Flow (19-24 Maio)


 FERIADO que afeta o curso:
 23/04/2019 – São Jorge (emenda com Semana Santa);
TOPICS TO BE COVERED

 Introduction
 Surface-tension driven instability in fluid cylinder;
 Saffman-Taylor instability;
 Kelvin-Helmholtz instability;
 Rayleigh-Taylor instability;
 Double-diffusion instability.
 Stability of Ordinary Differencial Equations
 Geometric point of view;
 Fixed point and stability;
 Linear stability analysis;
 Bifurcations.
 Stability of systems of ODE’s
 Linear stability analysis of hydrodynamic problems (PDE’s)
 We will calculate the growth rate of a couple of the following instabilities:
 Surface-tension driven instability; Saffman-Taylor instability; Kelvin-Helmholtz
instability; Rayleigh-Taylor instability; Double-diffusion instability; Rotating Hele-Shaw
cell using Darcy’s law.
DISCUSSÃO QUALITATIVA DE ALGUNS ESCOAMENTOS – ESTÁTICA DE FLUIDOS

Equação de Navier-Stokes:

Gradiente de pressão é paralelo a força gravitacional;


Se existe uma componente de 𝛻𝑝 em outra direção,
fluido escoa. Isso pode ser usado para determinar,
qualitativamente, a estabilidade de alguns sistemas.

Cilindro em rotação gera configuração inicial;


Instável: pressão próximas às paredes é
maior que no centro. Isso gera um gradiente
de pressão horizontal que induz escoamento
para o centro;
Fluido escoa de B para A até que os
contornos de pressão sejam horizontais;

 2º exemplo: gota de água


DISCUSSÃO QUALITATIVA DE ALGUNS ESCOAMENTOS – ESTÁTICA DE FLUIDOS
 3º exemplo: Correntes de turbidez (“avalanche submarina”)

Corrente com sedimentos em


deslocamento;
Ocorre em rio e oceanos;
Gradientes horizontais de pressão
hidrostática irão induzir escoamento;

O não equilíbrio estático ajuda apenas a identificar quando o escoamento vai acontecer.
Para analisar quaisquer detalhes é necessário resolver as equações de movimento para
determinar a distribuição de velocidade e a pressão.
M. Nasr-Azadani & E. Meiburg, UCSB.
QUALITATIVE DISCUSSION – SURFACE TENSION

A bubble or drop that is stationary because of the absence of any external force will
be spherical (constant curvature):
 Sphere minimizes surface area;
 Sphere is the shape that is consistent with a constant hydrostatic pressure
difference between the two fluids.

Young-Laplace boundary condition:

Curvature
Pressure inside bubble Surface tension
QUALITATIVE DISCUSSION – SURFACE TENSION

 Shape-relaxation process (application of Young-Laplace B.C.):

 A drop is initially deformed into the shape of a prolate spheroid;

 The curvature at the ends is increased relative to that in the


middle;

 The internal pressure is higher at the ends;

 This capillary-induced pressure gradient induces a motion of the


fluid from the ends of the drop toward the middle, and this motion
causes the drop to return to the equilibrium spherical shape;

 Surface tension has a stabilizing influence.


QUALITATIVE DISCUSSION– SURFACE TENSION

𝑅𝑚 → 𝜅𝑀 → 𝑝𝑖,𝑀

𝑟-component

 Infinitely long cylindrical thread of constant radius:


 Also satisfies the Young-Laplace equation;

 Unstable to infinitesimal perturbations;


 If the total surface curvature is such that the points of minimum radius produce a local
maximum in 𝜅, then there will be a local maximum in the internal pressure at the same
point, which tends to drive fluid away from the region of minimum radius toward the
regions of maximum radius.
 But this motion further decreases the radius at the waists and terminates when the
waists approach zero radius and break, causing the original thread to disperse into a line of
small drops.
 This process is known as capillary instability and is an important mechanism for breakup
of liquid threads, elongated drops, and so forth.

 Surface tension has a destabilizing influence.


QUALITATIVE DISCUSSION – SURFACE TENSION

 Convex in 𝑧 (maximum curvature 𝜅𝑀 );


𝑧
 Minimum pressure w.r.t. outer fluid 𝑝𝑖,𝑚 ;
 Compare to bubble: inside is concave with higher pressure.

 Capillary instability only occurs for wavelengths 𝜆 that exceed a critical value 𝜆𝑐 .

 For 𝜆 < 𝜆𝑐 , the importance of the axial curvature (𝑧 − 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡) on the internal
pressure is increased relative to the radial curvature.

 As a result, the disturbance in shape is driven back toward a constant-radius cylinder.

 Surface tension has a stabilizing influence.


HYDRODYNAMIC STABILITY THEORY

 Studies the response of a hydrodynamic flow to a perturbation;

 If the flow returns to the original condition, it is considered stable. If the


perturbations grow and lead to a different flow regime, the flow is
considered unstable.

stable neutral unstable conditionally stable


LINEAR STABILITY ANALYSIS

 Provides a quantitative analysis that leads to detailed predictions of the


growth or decay rates as functions of the wavelength of the initial
perturbation;
 Tell us what types of disturbances will grow, the amplification rate, and the
critical values of the dimensionless control parameters (e.g. Reynolds
number, dimensionless surface tension, Rayleigh number, …) at which this
will happen;
 Small-amplitude assumption results in a linear system of equations;
 Linear perturbation theory applies to algebraic equations, ODE’s and PDE’s. The
equations of fluid dynamics are PDE’s
 Since the equations for a small disturbance are linear, a disturbance can be
decomposed into normal modes of various wavelengths (Fourier series).
 A theory of this nature can only mark the beginnings of any instability, as
the growth of the disturbance soon invalidates the linearity assumption.
MORE QUALITATIVE EXAMPLES – SURFACE TENSION

 Elongated drop breaks into smaller pieces. Is capillary instability the source
of breakup ?
MORE QUALITATIVE EXAMPLES – SURFACE TENSION

 Drop: circular cylinder of radius 𝑅, with hemispherical ends, also of radius 𝑅;


 Estimate the internal pressure using the Young–Laplace equation. The pressure in the
cylindrical region is 𝜎/𝑅 larger than the external pressure, and the pressure in the
hemispherical ends exceeds by 2𝜎/𝑅;
 Induces flow that pumps fluid from the ends toward the center of the drop;

A potential equilibrium shape satisfying the Young–Laplace


equation could be achieved by spherical ends with radius 2𝑅.
The capillary pressure increment would be 𝜎/𝑅 everywhere;
There is no way to smoothly connect a sphere of radius 2𝑅
and a cylinder of radius 𝑅 without going through a local
transition zone where the total curvature exceeds 1/𝑅;
The capillary pressure is a little larger in this constriction zone
and drive fluid out it;
This flow further increases curvature and capillary pressure
until the throat pinches off;
The cylindrical thread is shortened and the process repeats;
This process is called end-pinching;
After a while, capillary instability acts in the center of the
cylinder and a competition of the two processes is observed.
VISCOUS FINGERING IN A HELE-SHAW CELL

More
viscous
Less viscous

 Model for displacement flows in porous media;


 Both Hele-Shaw and porous media flows can be described by Darcy’s law.

For Hele-Shaw cell For porous media


RADIAL DISPLACEMENT IN HELE-SHAW CELL

Air displacing a mixture of


water and glycerin (80%)
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY

 Injection of a less viscous fluid (20x) to displace resident fluid;


 3D concentration isosurface and projection of center planes;
 Width of domain coincides with wavelength of perturbation.
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY

 A sinusoidal perturbation is imposed;


 Width of domain coincides with wavelength of perturbation;
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY

Rafael M. Oliveira and E. Meiburg, J. Fluid Mech., 687, 431-460 (2011)


SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY

 Can occur when there is velocity shear in a single continuous fluid, or


where there is a velocity difference across the interface between two fluids;
Wind blowing over water: The instability manifests in waves on the water
surface.
Panton 25.2.19: All shear layers 𝑈1 ≠ 𝑈2 are inviscidly unstable to
disturbances of all wavelengths.
KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY
A KH instability on the planet
Saturn, formed at the interaction of
two bands of the planet's
atmosphere.

A KH instability rendered visible


by clouds, known as fluctus, over
Mount Duval in Australia.
RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY

 Denser fluid on top of lighter fluid;


 Water suspended above oil in the gravity of Earth;
 Mushroom clouds like those from volcanic eruptions and atmospheric nuclear explosions;
 Supernova explosions in which expanding core gas is accelerated into denser shell gas.

denser fluid on top Lighter fluid rises Interface gets more


while heavier sinks distorted as time goes on
𝜌2 > 𝜌1 𝒈 𝜌2 > 𝜌1
𝒈 𝒈

𝜌1 𝜌1

 “If a fluid element is displaced vertically up by some perturbation, it


finds itself surrounded by a more dense fluid, and this provides an
additional buoyancy force that pushes it further in the upward direction.”
Leal, page 812.
RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR AND KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY
RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR AND SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR AND SAFFMAN-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
THERMOCAPILLARY-DRIVEN MOTION
Lower surface tension at
warmer side of the interface
RAYLEIGH-BÉRNARD INSTABILITY

 It is a type of natural convection, occurring in a


plane horizontal layer of fluid heated from below;
 The fluid develops a regular pattern of convection
cells known as Bénard cells;
 Warm water rises, its lower surface tension
displaces warm water to the edges to the Bérnard
cell cooling the fluid which then sinks. Hot plate
warms the fluid element again and process repeats.

𝑇 𝜌

Hot plate on bottom


RAYLEIGH-BÉRNARD INSTABILITY

 Silicone oil, mica powder (for visualization purposes) and hot plate.
DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE CONVECTION

 Double diffusive convection describes a form of convection driven by


two different density gradients, which have different rates of diffusion.

 Salt fingering regime:

Hot salty
𝒈

Cold fresh

stable unstable

Initial overal density: stable

 When fluid element is perturbed upwards, its Singh, Srinivasan, Phys. Fluids (2014)
temperature equilibrates quickly, so a fresher
fluid element is surrounded by salty water.
Buoyancy than amplifies growth.
DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE CONVECTION

 Gary Leal, chap. 12:


 “Salt fingering regime”: In this case we have warm, salty water overlaying cooler, fresher
water. The contribution to the density profile produced by the salinity gradient is
unstable, while that due to the temperature gradient is stable. Qualitatively, the
explanation for this lies in the difference in the thermal and mass diffusivities. A fluid
element that is displaced upward by some perturbation process will quickly equilibrate
thermally with its new surroundings, but will still have less salt. This means that it is
lighter than its surroundings and there is a net buoyancy force that causes it to continue
to move upwards. When this happens, the system will spontaneously undergo
convection and it is unstable. Finally, we should note that the key generic feature
identifying this “finger regime” is that the unstable contribution to the density gradient
is contributed by the entity (salt) that diffuses more slowly (i.e., 𝑫𝒔𝒂𝒍𝒕 < 𝜿).
 The second case is known as the “diffusive regime”. In this case, for the oceanographic
application, we have cold, fresh water overlaying warmer, saltier water below. In this
case, the unstable contribution to the overall density profile is associated with the entity
that has the larger diffusivity (temperature). Again, to gain qualitative understanding, we
can consider the fate of a fluid element that is displaced upward by some perturbation.
In this case, the “displaced” fluid element will lose heat to the surroundings but retains
its original salinity (more or less), and this produces a net buoyancy force that drives the
fluid element back toward its initial position leading to oscillatory motion.
DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE CONVECTION

 Why are the fingers moving upwards?


DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE CONVECTION

 Why are the fingers moving upwards?

Hot salty
− Sugar − cream
𝒈 𝒈
+ Sugar + cream
Cold fresh

stable unstable stable unstable

Denser salt fingers fall Lighter cream fingers rise