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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Canteen is a very important facility for the students through which a better

standard of food and refreshments can be obtained, when compare to make the shift

hotels that spring up around colleges. Moreover, through these canteens wholesome

food and refreshments cam be provided to the students at reasonable prices so as to

make available to them a balanced and hygienic food. This is likely their health and

efficiency. Canteens also serve as places where students can meet informally and

refresh themselves by a relaxing conversation. The canteen is also an instrument of

social change, as the students belonging to different cases will have to sit at the same

tables and take their food. Thus, canteens can help in improving the morale of the

students. Furthermore, the availability of the food within the college area reduces the

botheration and saves time of the students, otherwise they will have to go out of the

campus.

The result of this study would permanently benefit this student's institution and

the school canteen itself. The objective of this study is to elevate the performance and

satisfaction when it comes to the food and services in school canteen in able to identify

the aspects of the school canteen to think for the better strategy to enhance this service.

One of the strategies we can suggest is to offer delicious and nutritious yet affordable

foods. This research can help the school canteen to have additional knowledge and

strategies that can satisfy their consumer which is the students. To assess the

performance on food and services by the staff of Sacred Heart College canteen. To find
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out the problems met by the Sacred Heart College canteen. To analyze the

respondents' evaluation about the food and services of Sacred Heart College canteen.

The purpose of this qualitative study is to discover the level of satisfaction in

terms of food and services achieved by Sacred Heart College canteen according to the

respondents.

The school canteen is a great place to promote an enjoyment of healthy eating.

for students who use the canteen regularly, the food purchased makes a significant

contribution of their total food intake and nutrition; therefore, it makes sense to ensure

the best food possible is available to enhance their ability to learn and take in the

information presented to them in class.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the problem about satisfaction of food and

services in school canteen. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following

questions:

1. Profile of the respondents:

a. Frequency of eating

b. Average amount of money spent on its food

c. Types of food usually preferred

2. What is the respondent’s experience of satisfaction to the services of Sacred Heart

College canteen as to the following:

a. Ambiance

b. Cleanliness
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c. Variety of food

3. What actions can be proposed to improve Sacred Heart College canteen services?

4. How does the school canteen provides healthy food?

Significance of The Study

This study will benefit the students of Sacred Heart College in a way that it would

be convenient and accessible because they won’t be needing to go out of the school

campus and making it less time consuming.

To the school canteen manager or head, the study will serve as a guide in operating

and considering quantity and quality of services to its clients. This study will also serve

as cue to the manager to continuously enhance their services and to satisfy their clients.

To the canteen staff, this study could provide new and better opportunities for

effective strategies. Thereby, professionalism it helps among the canteen staff, so that

they can enhance their service and their food quality.

The parents of the Sacred Heart College students will also benefit this especially

the parents who work full-time and cannot bring packed lunch for their child. With the

presence of the school canteen it ensures that their child will be able to have a nutritious

and budget friendly meals.

Also, this study will benefit the school itself (Sacred Heart College) for the good

feedback of the students. The feedback of the students will affect the image of the

school. The result of the study may be a great help of improving the school canteen.

To the researchers, the study would benefit the researchers who are the

students of Sacred Heart College, that will patronize the food and services in school

canteen.
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Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is primarily focused on the satisfaction of food and services in Sacred

Heart College Lucena City, were selected purposefully by the researchers for the study.

The respondents of this study consist of the students who are eating at Sacred Heart

College canteen. The school setting is a key part of the social environment that shapes

eating behavior, especially given that children’s food preferences are learned through

repeated exposure to foods. School food services are a basic part of the school

environment and are an ideal site to focus efforts on improving the nutrition of school

children. However, research indicates that many school food services face untold

concerns in their supply of healthy food items. Although school food services should

provide a practical example of good nutrition by supporting the nutritional education

provided in the classroom. If the school relies on the school food service to make a

profit, those making the financial decisions within the school may believe that products

containing high fat and sodium are thought to be most profitable. Given the place of

school canteens within the school system, there are social challenges that require

attention regarding the sale of such products. This raises concerns regarding the

effectiveness of the entire school system in its delivery of healthy behavior. Descriptive

method of research will be used in the study and a total fifteen (15) of respondents

which will be chosen by the researches through purposive sampling. Data gathering

employed the questionnaire which the researcher admits has the limitation of bias.

Hence, the questionnaire was supplemented by observation, interviews, and the

analysis of school directives including journals, articles, books, and unpublished theses

and dissertations as bases for formulating the questionnaire.


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Definition of Terms

The significant terms used in this study are defined as the follows:

Canteen. A restaurant provided by an organization such as a college, factory, or

company for its students or staff.

Canteen Management. It is the completely automated canteen process from placing an

order to delivery including payment. It is the administration of the direction of the

means and objectives of the school canteen which include operation food

service management physical facilities and canteen services.

Clientele. The customers of a shop, bar, or place of entertainment. This refers to the

customers who eat or dine regularly, specifically the persons served by the

canteen.

Facility. A place, amenity, or piece of equipment provided for a particular purpose.

Food. This refers to the newly cook ready to eat meals beverages and other items

bought in the school canteen.

Meal Management. A series of events concerned with menu, food purchasing,

preparation and serving meal and being able to maximize your food, and minimize your

spending.

Nutrition. It is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs.

Good nutrition – an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical
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activity – is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced

immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental

development, and reduced productivity.

School Canteen. This refers to one of the ancillary services in the school system that

sells food items to the pupils/students and services as a support mechanism in

the effort to eliminate malnutrition concerns of the school. It can be used as a

laboratory canteen on food planning, preparation, serving, storage, and selling.

A school canteen can either be school – management or teachers’ cooperative –

managed.

School Manage Canteen. It refers to a school canteen that is operated and managed

by the school under the general supervision of the school head or principal.

Quality of Food. The quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers.

Quality of Service. The degree to which a provided activity promotes customer

satisfaction.
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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES

This chapter presents a list of readings of literature and studies from local and

foreign sources which reveals on the determinants and findings relevant to the study.

Related Literature

According to Al-Ibrahim (2014), the concept of Service Quality is essentially very

simple, relating to the provision of goods or services that meet the expectations of those

receiving them. Quality in the delivery of goods or services is now accepted as a critical

aspect of business management in all fields since it is realized that only by satisfying its

customers can an organization hope to retain its customer base and indeed expand it

for the future. It should be understood that it is not just in commercial contexts that the

concept has meaning because in those institutions providing services to the public, the

issue of delivering quality is equally important. Consequently, in discussing the concept

of Service Quality and the various approaches to assuring this, the idea that it applies to

both the private and public sector is included, although in discussing the origins of the

concept it is very much on business where the focus lies. Service Quality as an ideal

developed around the world after a need was identified to establish and maintain

service standards for organizations that wished to achieve and retain a substantial

market share in their given fields. However, to some extent, the concept has always

been present in the business and manufacturing sectors, although it was only in the
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20th century that quality standards began to be based upon scientific principles and

accurate statistical measurements of quality. Standards seem to be the key feature in

the concept of quality, it being suggested by Kehoe, that consistency or excellence of

standards in products or services is what is understood by the term ‘quality’.

According to Gegeckaitė (2011), nowadays customer satisfaction is one of the

key goals in both smaller and larger organizations. In service sector it is exceptionally

important because customer satisfaction is probably the main “key” to a successful

business, recognition and retention of customers because service processes more or

less involve the customer. Companies look for ways to find out customers desires but at

the same time want to ensure their satisfaction with services. Therefore it is very

important to clarify not only the most important determinants of customer satisfaction on

services but also explore which of them are the most effective. So the main issue of this

work is to find out the main conceptions and factors of customer satisfaction on services

and its importance for organizations. However, the authors consider that customer

satisfaction is in no way be confused with quality of service. First of all, customer

satisfaction is a broader concept than service quality. Secondly, the service must be

tested to give a final opinion on it. For example, it is possible that some people form an

opinion about the hotel service quality, service, staff work and so on from advertising,

reputation or communication “word of mouth”. However, in this case, it is impossible to

form a satisfaction or dissatisfaction with hotel services in their own field testing. Third,

customer satisfaction is much more subjective and emotion-based phenomenon than

the quality of service. Nowadays customer satisfaction is one of the most important

issues for almost all organizations, especially for service organizations. For this reason

customer satisfaction should be analyzed, evaluated and translated into the main

parameters. As many authors indicate customer satisfaction is often known in two


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ways: satisfaction as an outcome and satisfaction as a process of services. The “key”

indicators which determine satisfaction is service price, its quality, direct contact with

staff, understanding the customer, friendly staff and their attitude and attention to

customer, also physical environment and so on. It should be mentioned that those

parameters are subjective so for this reason the number of customer satisfaction factors

can be continue because of our practice, feelings during (or after) the given service. In

this way, also very important for all organizations to know what makes their customers

the most satisfied, fascinated. Firstly, evaluation of customer satisfaction is the best way

to attract potential customers and make them loyal to organization. Secondly, it’s the

way which helps easier to understand customer behaviour and analyze their

expectations and desires. Finally, it helps to raise organization’s reputation and satisfied

customers more respond good words to potential clients.

In addition to loyalty, positive communication “word of mouth”, reputation and

staff satisfaction, Grigoroudis and Siskos (2010), list a few more arguments why

customer satisfaction today is so important. Firstly, it is noted that customer satisfaction

can reliable realistic market information. In this case, the organization has an excellent

opportunity to assess the current situation and develop plans for the future. Secondly,

the assessment of customer confidence in each organization’s easier to understand

customer behaviour and analyze their customers‟ expectations and desires.

Summarizing all these factors, it might be said that customer satisfaction has a

significant importance and value of each company providing the service. After all,

satisfied with the service customers not only respond good words to potential clients,

recommend to try organization’s service, but also good feedback on service increase

profits and bring more loyal customer, so as we see it’s important and needful to explore
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the behaviour of consumers and their needs, which is very important to every

organization nowadays.

Finally, how ideas generalized Jonikas (2010), he claimed that it’s not enough

just to analyze the satisfaction, but it is necessary to search for causes of

dissatisfaction. Therefore, the importance of customer satisfaction is strongly dependent

on the organization as a service monitor, analyze and take appropriate steps to ensure

that customers are satisfied. After all, satisfied customer tends to be more loyal, more

often share satisfied feelings with other people, potential customers and so on. In

addition, it is believed that satisfied customers pay less attention to competitors, for

example, they do not look at prices, special offers and so on. Simply, it is caused of the

reason that they feel happy and satisfied with their permanent service organization. As

already mentioned, customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors shaping

both business services and other organizations. As a result of customer satisfaction in

any case should be assessed, monitored and analyzed. As stated majority of the

authors, the definitive ratings reveal the most effective, accurate, significant and, of

course, objective information.

Quality is increasingly becoming the key determinant of demand for goods and

services. Managerial philosophy and perceptions shape the overall corporate attitude

towards quality and define the parameters for its role as a determinant of

competitiveness and performance. Quality of services is defined and determined

primarily by individual customers through their perceived delivery of service attributes

expected. Customer input and feedback is essential for bridging the gap between the

perceptions of management and those of the customers, as they view service quality. It

is only the mutual synchronization of perceptions that ensures high quality. This article

discusses important limitations of contemporary methods in use for the control of quality
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in services. It models a system and provides a complete and effective quality

management framework (Brown, 2014).

Although customer satisfaction is increasingly seen as an important objective for

many businesses, the extent to which it is taken seriously is varied, its measurement is

problematic and the precise nature of its impact on financial performance and

shareholder value remain the subject of debate. While the existence of a link between

customer satisfaction and business performance is clearly a central tenet of marketing

theory, evaluating the existence, nature and strength of this relationship at the level of

the firm has proved problematic. Researchers have had much greater success when

focusing on individual behavioural constructs (such as quality and satisfaction and

satisfaction and loyalty) and rather less success when exploring the link between

behavioural outcomes and financial performance (Ennew et al., 2011).

According to Haugaard & Lähteenmäki (2017), The results demonstrate that

consumers perceive meal satisfaction as a holistic experience integrating sensory and

quality experiences of the food, physiological consequences of eating, and social and

environmental aspects of the meal. Consumer meal satisfaction was linked to

achievement of short- and long-term goals on maintaining or improving physical and

mental well-being. Alignment of meal-related goals and behavior promotes meal

satisfaction.

Based from the article written by Royce (2017), cash isn’t the only type of

currency in business. The collective attitude and satisfaction of your customers is just as

important to your bottom line as your cash flow. Meaning the way you treat your

customers and respond to their questions, needs and concerns has a direct impact on

how your company performs. The customer-company relationship is much more


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nuanced than the timeworn adage of “the customer is always right.” Even when the

customer isn’t right, their opinions are still important.

On the other hand, Scholten (2014) stated that in the food service industry, it’s a

truism that you cannot cut your way to profitability. But failure to control costs will reduce

your bottom line. And this applies most importantly to your prime costs. Prime costs are

a restaurant's total food, beverage, and payroll costs for a given period, say a month or

a week. Payroll costs here include wages and salaries of managers and hourly workers,

including taxes and benefits. It’s easy to lose money in your prime costs for many

reasons, including spoilage, food waste, and poor scheduling. Some operators focus

much of their effort on boosting the revenue side of the equation, taking the expense

side as more or less fixed. But tweaking the expense side can yield higher profitability,

and often is easier to adjust than revenue.

According to Department of Education and Training, place refers to the canteen

environment and the way in which foods and drinks are arranged within the canteen.

These are important aspects to consider when creating a positive image for a canteen.

The canteen should be an attractive, appealing place that everyone enjoys visiting.

When planning the layout and appearance of the canteen consider if it is easily

accessible and spacious, clean and attractive. Placing some tables and chairs and

plants near the canteen creates a nice eating atmosphere. Design and technology

students could be involved in construction of such furniture. Many schools provide a

separate eating area for senior students. Some schools have created an outdoor eating

area with chairs and tables under umbrellas or a sail. Utilize any spare ground near the

canteen for a small herb or vegetable garden, or use pots. This not only provides a nice

environment for eating, but provides quick and easy access to fresh herbs when

preparing foods.
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According to Australian Government Department of Health (2013), the school

canteen is a great place to promote an enjoyment of healthy eating. For students who

use the canteen regularly, the food purchased makes a significant contribution to their

total food intake and nutrition; therefore, it makes sense to ensure the best food

possible is available to enhance their ability to learn and take in the information

presented to them in class. For students who don’t use the canteen regularly, the

canteen still plays an important educational and modelling role for healthy eating habits.

There are many aspects of a child’s life that may be restricted in an educational setting.

For example: the type of reading material accessed in the library, internet access and

visual material (DVD) and the clothes they wear. It is appropriate to restrict unhealthy

food in an educational setting. The canteen also plays an important role within the

broader school environment – that of reinforcing knowledge, skills and behaviours about

healthy eating and lifestyle which are taught in the classroom. Food provided at school

has a considerable influence on the development of children’s long-term eating habits,

food preferences and attitudes towards food. The school canteen plays a vital role in

promoting healthy foods and creating a school culture of healthy eating. Food

preferences are developed in childhood. By promoting and encouraging healthier food

choices during childhood, it is anticipated that healthy eating habits will be carried

through to adulthood and may go some way to help prevent chronic disease later in life.

According to Health Education Research (2011), The school setting is a crucial

part of the social environment that shapes eating behavior, especially given that

children’s food preferences are learned through repeated exposure to foods. School

food services are an integral part of the school environment and are an ideal site to

focus efforts on improving the nutrition of schoolchildren. However, research indicates

that many school food services face myriad concerns in their provision of healthy food
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items. Although school food services should provide a practical example of good

nutrition by supporting the nutritional education provided in the classroom, many do not.

If the school relies on the school food service to make a profit, those making the

financial decisions within the school may believe that products containing high fat and

sodium are thought to be most profitable. Given the place of school canteens within the

school system, there are ethical challenges that require attention regarding the sale of

such products. This raises concerns regarding the effectiveness of the entire school

system in its delivery of healthy behavior. The school can be viewed as a complex but

permeable open system. When all parts of that system are functioning efficiently, there

is a greater likelihood of producing desired outcomes. School food services sit within

that system and should be an integral part of the school environment. If the school

system supports the ethos of a health-oriented canteen, together they can provide an

ideal site upon which to focus efforts on improving the nutrition of school students.

According to Stoneham (2017), with the introduction of the National Healthy

School Canteens guidelines which involves training to help canteen managers make

healthier food and drink choices for school canteens and the labelling of foods in red,

amber and green categories, the food options in our school canteens should be

relatively healthy. Yet even these mandatory guidelines have come into questions with

some stating they are unable to cope with calls to ban sugar-sweetened drinks and fat-

laden offerings. In the near future, a new regime for foods sold in canteens will be

launched. It is claimed that the new regime will require all foods sold in school canteens

and health facilities to carry a new Health Star Rating, will categorize foods as

“everyday” or “occasional”, will ban soft drinks and caffeinated drinks and will control

portion sizes. Unhealthy foods high in fat and sugar will be hidden from view and make

up a much smaller proportion of the overall menu. Students will be encouraged to drink
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water instead of sugary beverages and freshly prepared foods, fruit and vegetables will

be clearly in the purchasers’ line of sight. The solutions to stocking school canteens with

fresh and healthy foods are not simple. School canteens need to follow and be

recognized for following the good practice guidelines, balanced with the need to build

the capacity of schools, canteen managers and suppliers to make innovative and

appetizing healthy options available on school canteen menus. We need to keep

reinforcing to children that healthy foods will keep them well both now and into the future

and show evidence where healthy foods still make a profit for the canteen. The offering

of incentives to manufacturers to create more foods that fulfil the ‘green’ criteria and are

in demand by students, may also contribute to an improvement in menu items. For

those schools in lower socioeconomic areas, the option of government assistance to

upgrade the quality of food available to students would keep costs for parents to a

minimum, and reduce concern about losing much-needed funds through an initial or

perceived drop in canteen sales.

Eating patterns influence the nutritional status, health, learning process and

academic performance of the school children. This study was conducted to explore the

food availability at school canteens and food intake by adolescents in break period. A

cross sectional study was conducted on 290 adolescents (145 were girls and 145 boys)

of 6th, 7th and 8th grade from public schools of Chak Shahzad, Islamabad. Pre-

structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Chi square / fisher exact test was

done by using SPSS to check the association. The mean age of adolescents was 12.6 ±

1.33 years. They were reported normal, underweight, overweight and obese as 176

(60.7%), 79 (27.2%), 27 (9.3%) and 9 (2.8%) respectively. Nutritional status was

significantly related with gender, age and grade of adolescents with p-value <0.05.

Response showed that 199 (68.6%) adolescents prefer canteen food during break time,
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and 66 (22.8%) give preference to homemade lunch. Few of them 25 (8.6%) take fruits

in school break time. About (24.8%) took drink with lunch which were juices 30 (10.3%),

milk/milk shake 14 (5.9%), carbonated drinks 6 (2.1%), and tea/coffee 13 (4.5%).

Consumption of carbohydrates, protein, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products was found

as 64 (22.1%), 26 (0.9%), 32 (11%), 4 (1.4%) and 1 (0.3%) respectively in adolescents

who brought their lunch from home. Around 49% of students were not satisfied with food

provided on their school canteens. Availability of food items on school canteens and

overall eating pattern of adolescents is not satisfactory. There is a need of school

canteen guidelines/policy and nutritional education to canteen staff and pupils (Fouzia et

al., 2016).

Adolescence (10–19 years) is a vulnerable period of life as health-related

behaviours that drive the major chronic degenerative diseases start or are reinforced

during this time. Adolescents’ food habits are important determinants of both their

present and future health. The food intakes of adolescents in developed countries such

as USA, UK and Australia do not meet dietary guidelines. Adolescents from these

countries have high rates of consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and

inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. In addition, adolescents also exhibit

unhealthy eating habits such as meal skipping and snacking on fast foods. Although

limited, evidence from developing countries including India also report similar findings.

These food behaviours may set in train unhealthy eating trends for adult life, and

contribute to a number of health problems including overweight and obesity, metabolic

syndrome, diabetes and a number of cancers. Improvement of the food habits of

adolescents is therefore one avenue to reduce the prevalence of these health problems.
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Adolescents’ food consumption tends to vary according to gender. Studies across a

number of countries have consistently shown that females’ dietary patterns are healthier

than those of males. Women are more likely to avoid high-fat foods, consume more

fruits and fibre and limit salt intake than men. For example in Australia, adolescent girls

had a higher average daily intake of fruits compared with male counterparts and boys

tended to consume more carbonated beverages than girls (Rathi et al., 2017).

Related Studies

To increase the number of customer/students on every meal, under the category

of food quality, the food shop should consider preparing the food with complete

ingredients and the sauces of food are available and not recycled. Under the category of

food service, the food shop should consider serving the food accurately in terms of kind

and quantity. The staff should also need to be friendly and courteous. Under the

category of environment, the food shop should consider the cleanliness of segregating

the biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste. (Laborte III et al., 2011) The

customers of the selected restaurants in Lucena City were very satisfied with the

marketing strategies employed by selected restaurants in Lucena City in terms of place

such as accessibility, cleanliness on dining utensils, and ambiance. atmosphere. They

were also very satisfied with the variety of food and beverages as the marketing
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strategy employed by selected restaurants in Lucena City in terms of product. The

researchers accepted the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship

between the marketing strategies and level of customer satisfaction. The finding means

that the marketing strategies are not related to the level of customer satisfaction

(Dimacali et al., 2012). The researches came up with the following findings in the level

of consumer’s satisfaction of fast food restaurant customers based on Tangible

Dimension, Reliability Dimension, Responsiveness Dimenion, Assurance Dimension,

Empathy Dimension and Service Quality (Rikka et al., 2015).

CHAPTER III

METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presents the method of research used in the study. Specifically, this

research will cover the following: research design, research locale, population and

sample, research instrument, and data gathering procedures.

Research Design

This study was conducted in order to determine the satisfaction of food and

services in Sacred Heart College canteen. The study focuses at present condition.

Phenomenological research was used to determine the experience of people in a

certain phenomenon.
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Research Locale

The researchers conducted this study in the vicinity of Sacred Heart College. In

terms of services, the canteen staff responds to the questions and needs of their

customer. The facilities are good, equipment such as fryers, heaters, steamers, some

catering equipment, and soup kettles are appropriate to use. The mood or aura of the

canteen is slightly comfortable and feels like at home. Foods are placed orderly

organized in a glass estante (food shelve rack). The canteen has a common setting

where patrons fall in line to get served then pays at the end of the line. The Sacred

Heart College canteen is a self-service type where the patrons clean up by themselves

after they had their meal. The canteen is spacious and it has sets of tables and plastic

chairs. The tables are said to be crooked. The Sacred Heart College canteen also

caters service water but with limited plastic cups.

Research Population and Sample

The researchers target population and sample to this study are the students who

are eating at the school canteen of Sacred Heart College. The purpose of this study is

to discover the different causes why students should patronize or should not patronize

the Sacred Heart College canteen. The total number of population and number of

respondents are fifteen (15). Furthermore, the students identify using the purposive

sampling.

Research Instrument

The researchers designed a questionnaire for the data gathering process to get

qualitative data. The primary aim of the questionnaire is to determine the satisfaction of

food and services in Sacred Heart College canteen. This research used the method of
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interview to gather data. For this study, the interview-questionnaire instruments were

used to achieve the main objective of the study. The questionnaire was distributed to

the selected students. The questionnaire was structured in such a way that respondents

will be able to answer it orally. The first part of the questionnaire asked

questions pertaining to the students’ frequency of eating, average amount of

money spent on its food, and type of food usually preferred. On its second part,

respondents were asked about the food and services. The third part consists

of questions asking what actions can be proposed to improve the Sacred

Heart College canteen. The fourth part, the respondents were asked how

does the school canteen provides healthy food.

Data Gathering Procedure

The questionnaire was used as the main data gathering material in this study.

The researcher constructed informal interviews to gather data and information. The

researchers presented the letter of request, asking for the permission and approval from

the students of Sacred Heart College. The researchers administered the questionnaires

to the respondents of the study.

The researchers approached their respondents to collect reactions on their

interview. The gathered information was used needed to justify the problem and the

data were analyzed and interpreted by the researchers.


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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

In this chapter, the gathered data were presented, analyzed, and interpreted. It

presents the data gathered through the questionnaires and intended to answer the

various questions in this study.

Part 1. Profile of the Respondents


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Frequency of Eating
6
5
4
3
2 Frequency of eating
1
0
R1 R3, R4, R6, R12, R14, R5, R7 R2, R9
R10, R11, R15
R13

Figure 1. Frequency of eating in Sacred Heart College School Canteen

Figure 1 represents the frequency of eating in Sacred Heart College school

canteen. It shows that the answers of R1, R3, R4, R6, R10, R11, R13 ranges from 3-4

times a week. While the other answers of R12, R14, R15 are only once a week. The

answers of R2, R8 and R9 are during break time every day, most of the time during

lunch break and 5 times a week.

Amount of Money Spent on its Food


250
200
150
100
50
Amount of Money Spent
0
on its Food
R1 R4 R7 R11, R1, R13 R10, R8
R14 R5, R15
R6,
R9,
R12

Figure 2. Amount of Money Spent by the Students in School Canteen


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Figure 2 represents the amount of money spent by the students in school

canteen. It shows that R3 answered Php 30.00. While R2, R4, R7, R11 and R14 budget

ranges from Php 40-45.00. Moreover R1, R5, R6, R9 and R12 all responded Php 50.00.

On the other hand, R13 is the only one who stated Php 70.00. Furthermore, R10 and

R15 replied with Php 100.00 for their budget. Lastly, R8 responded with Php 200.00.

TYPE OF FOOD USUALLY PREFER

8%

Rice Meals

Vegetables
25%

50% Anything

Combination of Healthy and


Street Food

17%

Figure 3. Type of Food Usually Preferred by the Students

Figure 3 represents the type of food usually preferred by the students. It shows

that the most preferred food by the students is rice meals. Furthermore, some students

do not care about the type of food that will be served in the school canteen. In addition,

students also preferred vegetables while the others preferred to have a combination of

healthy and street food.

Table 1

Frequency of Eating at the Sacred Heart College Canteen


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Respondents Frequency of Eating at the Sacred Heart


College Canteen
R1, R3, R4, R6, R,10, R11, R13 4 times a week.
3-4 times a week
3 times a week
3 times a day
3 times a week
Three times
R12, R14, R15 1 time a day
Once a week
R2, R8, R9 During break time everyday
most of the time or lunch break
5 times a week
R5, R7 2 times a week
twice a week

The profile of the respondents. When asked about the frequency of eating at the

Sacred Heart College canteen, the answers of R1, R3, R4, R6, R10, R11, R13 ranges

from 3-4 times a week. While the other answers of R12, R14, R15 are only once a

week. The answers of R2, R8 and R9 are during break time everyday, most of the time

during lunch break and 5 times a week.

The responses R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R12, R13, R14, and R15

revealed their frequency of eating at Sacred Heart College canteen which mostly

consists of 3-4 times a week.

Table 2

Average Amount of Money Spent


25

Respondents Average Amount of Money Spent

R2, R4, R7, R11, R14 ₱45.00


₱40.00
₱ 43.00
₱ 45.00
₱ 45.00
R1, R5, R6, R9, R12 ₱50.00
₱50.00
₱ 50.00
₱ 50.00
₱ 50.00
R10, R15 ₱ 100.00
₱ 100.00
R3 ₱30.00
R13 ₱ 70.00
R8 ₱ 200.00

The respondents stated their budget or how much they usually spend on food. R3

answered Php 30.00. While R2, R4, R7, R11 and R14 budget ranges from Php 40-

45.00. Moreover R1, R5, R6, R9 and R12 all responded Php 50.00. On the other hand,

R13 is the only one who stated Php 70.00. Furthermore, R10 and R15 replied with Php

100.00 for their budget. Lastly, R8 responded with Php 200.00.

The responses R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R12, R13, R14, and R15

revealed their spending money at Sacred Heart College canteen.

Table 3

Types of Food
26

Respondents Types of Food

R2, R4, R5, R6, R15 Fried Chicken


Rice meals
chicken with rice
fried chicken
Rice and Viand (student meal)
R7, R11, R14 vegetables
chop suey with rice
Home cooked
R1,R12, R13 Lunch/Snack/Appetizer
Anything
R8 combination of healthy and street foods

Understanding the Satisfaction of Food in SHC school canteen. When asked

about what type of food that the students prefer, R2, R4, R5, R6, R15 stated "Fried

Chicken.", "Rice meals.", "Chicken with rice.", and "Rice with Viand (student meal)."

Moreover, in answering the same question, R7, R11, R14 said that they prefer

"Vegetables.", "Chopsuey with rice." and "Home cooked.". While R12 and R13 said that

they prefer anything and R1 prefers lunch/snack/appetizer. R8 prefers combination of

healthy and street foods and R1 prefers food like lunch, snack and appetizer.

The responses of R1, R2, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R11, R12, R13, R14 and R15

revealed what type of food that the student prefer in school canteen.

PART II Respondent’s Experience of Satisfaction to the Services of Sacred Heart

College Canteen

Table 4

The Ambiance of School Canteen


27

Respondents The Ambiance of School Canteen


R2, R5, R7, R13 It is noisy
Not relaxing, too noisy
Not good
Not so quiet, not so noisy.
R3, R8, R10, R14 It’s over-crowded; the school should fix the
problem; fix the schedule with the teachers,
discussing its schedule of recess. Fix also
the maintenance of the school and the way
they are managing it.
Quite stressful because of the hot
temperature.
Most of the time, it’s crowded
It’s crowded but it’s nice.
R4, R6, R9 It’s quite good
it’s nice
Comfortable
R15 Suitable for dining
R1 It’s windy and the smell is like a rotten food
sometimes.
R12 Like any either restaurant or canteen.

Understanding the respondent’s experience in terms of satisfaction to the services

in of sacred heart college canteen. When the respondents asked about the ambiance of

school canteen, R2, R5, R7, and R13 stated “It’s is noisy.”, “Not relaxing, too noisy.”,

“Not good.” and “Not so quiet, not so noisy.” Moreover, in answering the same question,

R3, R8, R10, and R14 said that “It’s over-crowded; the school should fix the problem; fix

the schedule with the teachers, discussing its schedule of recess. Fix also the

maintenance of the school and the way they are managing it.”, “Quite stressful because

of the hot temperature.”, “Most of the time, it’s crowded.” and “It’s crowded but it’s nice.”

Furthermore, the respondents R4, R6, and R9 answered, “It’s quite good.”, “It’s nice.”
28

and “Comfortable.” R15 and R1 shared that its “Suitable for dining.” and “It’s windy and

the smell is like a rotten food sometimes.” While R12 replied that “Like any either

restaurant or canteen.” The responses R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R12,

R13, R14,and R15 revealed their experiences about satisfaction to the services of

sacred heart college canteen.

According to Health Education Research (2011), The school setting is a crucial part

of the social environment that shapes eating behavior, especially given that children’s

food preferences are learned through repeated exposure to foods. School food services

are an integral part of the school environment and are an ideal site to focus efforts on

improving the nutrition of schoolchildren.

Table 5

The Cleanliness of Food in Canteen

Respondents The Cleanliness of Food in Canteen


R4, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R14, It’s clean
R15 I think it is clean because they care about the
health of the student, they thoroughly check
the ingredients that they have bought.
Great
Keep it up.
The service crew observes proper attire and
sanitation.
It is very clean and the facilities.
Decent
It’s clean enough to eat.
It is well cleaned.
R1, R2, R5, R13 It’s not that clean or should I say I’m not
satisfied with the cleanliness of the food.
Uhm, sometimes the food has a strand of
29

hair.
It’s not clean
Sometimes the cleanliness of the canteen is
not so clean.
R3 Other foods they’re selling are delicious but
the way they’re selling it, is not properly
organized / presented.

Understanding the satisfaction of cleanliness in terms of food in SHC school

canteen. When asked about the different students that encountered, R4, R6, R7, R8,

R9, R10, R11, R12, R14, R15 stated "It's clean.", "I think it is clean because they care

about the health of the student, they thoroughly check the ingredients that they have

bought.", "Great.", "Keep it up.", "The service crew observes proper attire and

sanitation.", "It is very clean and the facilities.", "Decent.", "It's clean enough to eat." and

"It is well cleaned." respectively. However, in answering the same question, R1, R2, R5,

and R13 says that "It's not that clean or should I say I'm not satisfied with the

cleanliness of the food.", "Uhm, sometimes the food has a strand of hair.", "It's not

clean." and " Sometimes the cleanliness of the canteen is not so clean.", R3 shared that

"Other foods they're selling it, is not properly organized / presented."

The responses of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14,

and R15 revealed that the difficulties encountered by the students the satisfaction of

cleanliness of food in Sacred Heart College in school canteen.

According to Haugaard & Lähteenmäki (2017), The results demonstrate that

consumers perceive meal satisfaction as a holistic experience integrating sensory and

quality experiences of the food, physiological consequences of eating, and social and

environmental aspect of the meal. Consumer meal satisfaction was linked to


30

achievement of short- and long-term goals on maintaining or improving physical and

mental well-being. Alignment of meal-related goals and behavior promotes meal

satisfaction.

PART III Actions That Can Be Proposed to Improve Sacred Heart College Canteen

Services

Table 6

Actions That Can Be Proposed to Enrich the Services of Sacred Heart College Canteen

Actions That Can Be Proposed to Enrich the Services of


Respondents Sacred Heart College Canteen
R8, R9, R12, R15 More space
More space in the canteen
Expand spaces, create a schedule that help students know what
meals are provided every day.
R1, R4, R6 They need to add more crew, and also, they need to fix the
facilities like chairs and tables.
Hire more kitchen staff so the services would be faster
More people that will assist the student and have more utensils
that will needed to use
R7, R5, R13 They should put more tables so that they can handle a lot of
students.
Having complete utensils and having no reservation
Student should not stay after they finished eating their meals so
other customer have a chair to sit in.
R2,R3, R10 Fix the system.
Speed up to serve the customers.
They should come up with strategic actions to solve the problem
of canteen.
R11, R14 Put aircon
Add more ventilation.
31

Actions that can be proposed to improve Sacred Heart College canteen services.

When asked about actions needed to enrich the services of the canteen, R7,R5,R13

and R14 stated, “They should put more tables so that they can handle a lot of stud

ents”, “Having a complete utensils and having no reservations”, “Have more space in

the canteen” and “Add more tables” respectively. Moreover, in answering the same

question, R1, R4, R6 said that “They need to add more crew, and also, they need to fix

the facilities like chairs and tables”, “Hire more kitchen staffs so the services would be

faster”, “More people that will assist the student and have more utensils that will be

needed to use”. In addition, R2 and R3 stated that “fix the system” and “speed up to

serve the customers”. R12 shared that they need to add more ventilation.

The responses of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, and

R14, stated the possible actions that can be used to improve the services of the school

canteen.

According to Jonikas (2010), analyzing the satisfaction is important as knowing the

causes of dissatisfaction. Therefore, the importance of customer satisfaction is strongly

dependent on the organization as a service monitor, analyze and take appropriate steps

to ensure that customers are satisfied. The respondents expressed their problems

regarding the need to add more furnishings and hiring more staff. If this problem will be

addressed, a satisfied customer would be more loyal and attract more potential

customers. As already mentioned, customer satisfaction is one of the most important

factors shaping both business services and other organizations.


32

Table 7

Responses on How would it be Helpful to Have a Program in Improving the Canteen

Services

Responses on How would it be Helpful to Have a Program in


Respondents Improving the Canteen Services
R2, R4, R5, R6, It will encourage the students to eat at the canteen.
R9, R10, R11, R13 So there would be more students eating in the canteen.
So everyone will have seat to eat
It’s a big help for all the students
The students can eat more comfortably.
It would create more convenient environment for every teachers and
students eating in the canteen.
It will increase the number of students who will eat in canteen.
R3, R8 They must start on a firm and reliable plan before they implement
some programs which aren’t helpful to the improvement of the
school’s canteen
It’ll be so much more good if there are programs implemented in our
canteens.
R14, R15 It will provide better services for the students and teachers.
It would be very helpful in terms of improving the school canteen
services.
R1 It’ll be helpful because in this, the program will guide us.
R7 I think people who uses the canteen should follow their rules and
regulations so that the place would be cleaner and organized.
R12 It improves the overall experience for students, faculty staff, and
guests in the school canteen.

When the respondents asked about their opinion on how would it be helpful to have

a program in improving the canteen services, R2, R4, R5, R6, R9, 10, R11, R13 stated

that " It will encourage the students to eat at the canteen ", " so there would be more
33

students eating in the canteen ", " so everyone will have seat to eat ", " it's a big help for

all the students ", " the students can eat more comfortably ", " it would create more

convenient environment of every teachers and students eating in the canteen ", " it will

increase the number of students who will eat in canteen ". R3 and R8 answered the

same question, and they said that " they must start on a firm and reliable plan before

they implement some programs which aren't helpful to the improvement of the school

canteen." Another is “ it'll be so much more good if there are programs implemented in

our canteens ". R1 replied that "it'll be helpful because in this, the program will guide

us". R7 think that people who uses the canteen should follow their rules and regulations

so that the place would be cleaner and organized. R12 said that " it improves the overall

experience for students, faculty staff, and guests in the school canteen " and R14 and

R15 answered that it will provide better services for the students and teachers and it

would be very helpful in terms of improving the school canteen services.

The responses of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14,

R15 revealed that this program in improving the canteen services would be a great help

to the students, teachers and to the canteen itself.

According to Department of Education and Training, place refers to the canteen

environment and the way in which foods and drinks are arranged within the canteen.

These are important aspects to consider when creating a positive image for a canteen.

The canteen should be an attractive, appealing place that everyone enjoys visiting.

When planning the layout and appearance of the canteen consider if it is easily

accessible and spacious, clean and attractive. Placing some tables and chairs and

plants near the canteen creates a nice eating atmosphere. Design and technology

students could be involved in construction of such furniture. Many schools provide a

separate eating area for senior students. Some schools have created an outdoor eating
34

area with chairs and tables under umbrellas or a sail. Utilize any spare ground near the

canteen for a small herb or vegetable garden, or use pots. This not only provides a nice

environment for eating, but provides quick and easy access to fresh herbs when

preparing foods.

PART IV Healthy Food Provided by the School Canteen

Table 8

The School Canteen on Providing Healthy Food

Respondents The School Canteen on Providing Healthy Food


R1, R2, R4, R5, They serve veggies and fruits.
R6, R7, R9, They cook nutritious foods such as vegetables.
R10, R11, R12, They serve not only pork and chicken but also vegetables
R13, R15 By having a healthy food like vegetables
There are different variations of vegetables in the menu.
They provide mixed variety of foods, there are equal amount of meats
and vegetables serves.
Eating vegetables.
All are made from organic ingredients, cooked like homemade meals
They provide well in terms of healthy food.
By not selling junk foods
R3 It is not healthy. They are more on selling unhealthy foods like cheese
sticks, burgers etc. They’re selling buko shakes on plastic bottles when it
is on the school rules and regulations that plastic bottles aren’t allowed in
the school premises
R8 4 out of 5 stars
R14 By serving clean foods

Healthy Food Provided by the School Canteen. When asked about how does the

school canteen provides healthy food, the answers of R1,R2,R4,R5,R6, R7, R9, R10,
35

R11, R12, R13, and R15 stated “They serve veggies and fruits.”, “They cook nutritious

foods such as vegetables.”, “They serve not only pork and chicken but also

vegetables.”, “By having a healthy food like vegetables.”, “There are different variations

of vegetables in the menu.”, “They provide mixed variety of foods, there are equal

amount of meats and vegetables serves.”, “Eating vegetables.”, “All are made from

organic ingredients, cooked like homemade meals.”, “They provide well in terms of

healthy food.” and “By not selling junk foods.” Moreover, in answering the same

question R3 and said that “It is not healthy. They are more on selling unhealthy foods

like cheese sticks, burgers etc. They’re selling buko shakes on plastic bottles when it is

on the school rules and regulations that plastic bottles aren’t allowed in the school

premises.” R8 shared that "4 out of 5 stars.” While R14 replied that “By serving clean

foods.”

The responses R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, and

R15 revealed how does the school canteen provides healthy foods.

According to Stoneham (2017), the National Healthy School Canteens guidelines

which involves training to help canteen managers make healthier food and drink choices

for school canteens and the labelling of foods in red, amber and green categories, the

food options in our school canteens should be relatively healthy. It is claimed that the

new regime will require all foods sold in school canteens and health facilities to carry a

new Health Star Rating, will categorize foods as “everyday” or “occasional”, will ban soft

drinks and caffeinated drinks and will control portion sizes. Unhealthy foods high in fat

and sugar will be hidden from view and make up a much smaller proportion of the

overall menu. Students will be encouraged to drink water instead of sugary beverages

and freshly prepared foods, fruit and vegetables will be clearly in the purchasers’ line of

sight. School canteens need to follow and be recognized for following the good practice
36

guidelines, balanced with the need to build the capacity of schools, canteen managers

and suppliers to make innovative and appetizing healthy options available on school

canteen menus.

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter deals with the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations

based on the data gathered, presented, analyzed and interpreted in the previous

chapter.

Summary of Findings
37

Based on the analysis made on the data gathered, the following are derived:

1. The study revealed that majority of the respondents are eating three to four

times a week in Sacred Heart College canteen. In terms of the amount of

money they spend for food, majority of them are spending in a range of 40-50

pesos. The type of food they most prefer in Sacred Heart College canteen are

chicken and rice meals.

2. The majority of the respondents revealed that in terms of the ambiance of the

Sacred Heart College canteen is not suitable for dining. In cleanliness of

Sacred Heart College canteen, most of the respondents revealed that the

canteen is clean when it come to the utensils and their service is efficient and

observes proper sanitation.

3. This study revealed that majority of the respondents think that the actions

needed to enrich the services of Sacred Heart College is to add more canteen

staff that will assist the students and add more utensils, chairs and tables that

will suffice the number of students. Most of the respondents’ opinion stated that

it will be helpful to have a program in improving the canteen services because it

will encourage and increase the number of students to eat in the Sacred Heart

College canteen. The respondents also mentioned that considering and

knowing the feeling of the students will help to improve the services.

4. The greater number of respondents specified that the school canteen provides

healthy meals by serving nutritious foods such as vegetables.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are made:
38

1. The researchers can conclude how often the respondents eat in Sacred

Heart

College canteen using the right amount of money they spend and they

prefer rice meals.

2. Therefore, the researchers can conclude that the cleanliness of Sacred

Heart College school canteen is properly observed in terms of their services

and sanitation but the Sacred Heart College canteen has insufficient space

of dining.

3. The researchers concluded that the Sacred Heart College canteen is

insufficient in terms of canteen staff and equipment such as utensils, chairs

and tables. The students expressed the need to have programs in improving

the canteen services.

4. The Sacred Heart College canteen serves vegetables to balance the

nutritive ratio for the students.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusion of the study, the following recommendations are made:

1. To the staffs of Sacred Heart College school canteen to improve their

marketing strategies they use to attain more students to patronize their own school

canteen.

2. To the staffs of Sacred Heart College school canteen to improve their dining

Area to accommodate more students and to maintain the cleanliness of the school

canteen.

3. For the school canteen of Sacred Heart College to improve the variety of foods
39

they serve and to attend to the needs of the costumers that will surely satisfy them.

Moreover, they must encourage the students of Sacred Heart College to patronize

their school canteen.

4. To the Sacred Heart College canteen to apply innovation and inject creativity without

spending too much money for them to be able to upgrade the services.
40

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