Você está na página 1de 28

CHAPTER –II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Bansode [1996] conducted research on “A study of Labour welfare


facilities in the Jamshri SPG and WVG mills” co.ltd, Solapur. She focused
her research on Labour welfare facilities in Jamshri SPG and WVG mills.

She also found the awareness of employees and their knowledge towards
labour welfare programme. This research is conducted in Solapur with
sample size of 86.Finally she concluded that the improvement of human

performance depends on how personnel department takes care of


employees attitude and health. It influences employees attitude towards
work and work environment. She said welfare programmes help the

management to maintain harmony and is essential human objective of the


company to undertake welfare activities. The larger society also believes
that the company is normally responsible for the welfare of employees.

The workers were much co-operative for filling up the questionnaires. It is


found that the workers are more or less satisfied with the majority of the
facilities provided by the company. But these welfare facilities are being

provided as a matter of formality and for fulfilling statutory requirements.


It is found that cleanliness, disposal of waste and effluents, ventilation and
temperature ,lighting ,drinking water ,latrines and urinal ,spittoons ,safety

canteen ,leave benefit, House rent allowance ,medical facilities ,festival


advance ,uniform etc facilities are given to employees properly. It shows
that efforts are made by the company for providing the welfare facilities to

the workers as per the statutory provisions. Company should provide all
facilities as per demand and need of workers which will help in increasing
the efficiency of workers.

18
Bahnudas [2007] conducted research on a study of “labour welfare
Activities and its impact on quality of life of workers with special

reference to Maharashtra Scooters Ltd”, Satara. The main objective of the


research is to study and examining labour welfare activities available to
workers in Maharashtra scooters. Sample size 48 was taken for the

research. She also found the impacts of welfare facilities on life of


workers. Data was collected through observation, interviews with
personnel manager and questionnaire for workers. She concluded that

safety training programme and provisions of safety equipments keep the


workers free from injuries. So workers life becomes more safe, happier
and full of enjoyment. Excellent leave facilities to workers are provided to

meet their requirements. Provision of provident fund, gratuity, and Pension


schemes allows the workers to spend their retirement in much better way.
Welfare services are helpful in maintaining workers moral and health

good. Company is not provided medical facilities for families. Most of


workers are unable to fulfill their habit of reading because of inadequate
time. Accident insurance scheme is beneficial to workers .Payment for

days in which workers remained absent due to accident are being paid by
the company. Through credit society financial problems with the regards
of purchasing essential commodities are to be solved .Company is

providing interest free loan to workers.


Banu and Ashifa (2011) conducted research study on “labour welfare
measures in Public Sector Transport Corporation” that throws light on

welfare measures followed in Public Sector Transport Corporation. This


study analyses the various dimensions of labour welfare measures that are
perceived to the labours. The researcher tried to find out how the existing

welfare measures cater the needs of employees of Public Sector Transport

19
Corporation .Stratified random sampling method was used and 20
employees have been taken from 5 departments ,Operation Department,

Personnel Department, Material Department, Industrial Relations


Department and in Technical Section. The research findings showed that
the State Transport Undertakings provide the following welfare measures

for the welfare of the workers and their families.


1. Free Travel passes to the children of the employee.
2. Subsidized canteen facilities.

3. Education allowances.
4. Allowances with wages.
5. Reimbursement of legal fees.

6. Providing uniforms to employees.


7. Family Benefit Fund.
8. Loan for Marriages.

9. Steering Allowance.
10. Voluntary Retirement Scheme.
11. Leave benefits.

12. Holiday Homes.


13. Special Health Fund Scheme.
14. Preferential Admission in Medical College, Engineering College

and Polytechnics run by the Institute of Road Transport for the


children of employees.
15. The Pension Scheme for Transport employees.

16. Employees' Post-Retirement Benefit Fund Scheme.


17. Funeral expenses.
He found in his research that under working experience, majority

of the respondents had 11 to 15 years of experience. Public Sector

20
Transport Corporation, majority of the respondents belong to neutral level
and some of them were highly satisfied. Majority of the respondents were

satisfied with working environment. Majority of the respondents were


dissatisfied with the service provided in the canteen. The respondents were
dissatisfied with the night duty and the rest room facilities. 89% of the

respondents said that workload is very high.65% of the respondents said


that the leave facility is at moderate level. It has been observed that 46% of
the respondents were highly satisfied with the job 43% of the respondents

were satisfied with their job and 11% of them were at neutral level.
Finally he concluded through the research that the Government
should take a keen interest to fill up the vacancies to share the work among

them as the employees felt that the workload is very high. Some of the
welfare measures like housing facilities; loan facilities, Rest Room facility,
Housing Facilities and Gratuity should be incorporated along with welfare

measures in order to satisfy employees and so the job performance can be


improved. The corporation should take necessary steps to improve these
measures. By doing this the employee can do their job more effectively

and efficiently.
Belot, Boone and Vanours [2004] conducted research on “Welfare
improving employment protection”. This paper presents a theoretical

model to show that workers invest their specific knowledge for


employment protection legislation can raise employment, productivity and
welfare. More educated workers tend to have better protected job .In this

paper researcher concluded that the welfare effects of employment


protection in an environment where workers invest in firm specific
knowledge. He observes that in this environment employment protection

can increase the worker's training effort by raising the expected duration of

21
the job. Thus, employment protection legislation can raise welfare,
employment and average productivity. Model provides a rationale for the

observation that more educated workers tend to have better protected jobs.
From an empirical analysis of a cross-country time series data it appears
that employment protection legislation has a non-linear effect on economic

growth. At low levels of employment protection an increase in protection


stimulates growth, at high levels of employment protection an increase in
protection is harmful to growth. This is in line with the prediction of our

theoretical model .When labour markets in different countries are


compared, the popular press tends to emphasize employment protection.
Countries with high employment protection typically show higher

unemployment durations and lower unemployment in- and out flows.


Employment protection stimulates worker’s investments in firm specific
skills and integrates it in a general equilibrium search framework.

Researcher shows that the optimal level of employment protection is not


necessarily identical for all firms and worker
Copeland [2009] in research paper on “The Welfare Effects of Incentive

Schemes” found that the change in welfare associated with the


introduction of incentives. He measured by how much the welfare gains
of increased output due to incentives outweigh workers disutility from

increased effort. He studied the use of incentives by a firm in the check-


clearing industry. Using this firm's production records, model and estimate
the worker's dynamic effort decision problem. Finally he concluded that

the firm's incentive scheme has a large effect on productivity, raising it by


12% over the sample period for the average worker. The cost of increased
effort due to incentives is equal to the dollar value of a 5% rise in

productivity. Welfare is measured as the output produced minus the cost of

22
effort. Hence, the net increase in the average worker's welfare due to the
introduction.

Davis and Gibson (1994) conducted research on “Designing Employee


Welfare Provision” concluded that design a employee welfare process
through which organizations might seek to implement interventions

relating to employee well-being,emphasizes the importance of a


comprehensive needs assessment both in obtaining the breadth of
information needed to design appropriate interventions and also in

providing baseline information against which to evaluate programme


effectiveness. Discusses factors, which influence the type of intervention
appropriate for a particular situation and highlights their design

implications. Finally, provides guidance on programme implementation


and evaluation, and discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of
different approaches to tertiary welfare provision.

Dhere [1995] conducted research on “The study of Labour Welfare


Activities in Shetakari Sahakari Soot Girni Ltd”.Sangola.He has taken
sample size of 100 employees in Shetakari Sahakari Soot Girni Ltd to

study Labour Welfare Activities and laws implemented in an


organization and attitude of employees towards management. He
concluded that maximum employees working in the mill are young i.e.

26-40 years old but they have paid good wages in the soot Girni .Most of
educated employees are not satisfied about dispensary facilities .Regarding
cleanliness of lavatories and Urinals facilities, management is taking

proper care about its maintenance. In summer season, cool and clean
drinking water is not provided to employees. Majority of the workers have
complained about canteen facility. The food served in the canteen is of

poor quality and due to that many workers are facing health problems in

23
the mill. The mill gives financial aid to the workers through co-operative
society. The mill has not provided adequate conveyance facility to the

workers. Majority of workers are coming from near by villages so they


don’t require housing facility. Workers are not guided properly in case of
family planning programme. Recreation and education facilities provided

by mill to the workers are unsatisfactory.


Dieter and David [1991] conducted research on “Privatized Transport
Infrastructure and Incentives to Invest”.

This paper examines incentives to invest in Transport infrastructure


under Public and privatized ownership. It argues that the methods used to
request the United Kingdom’s nationalized industries plans but that

changes in regulation introduced after 1978 have given more incentives.


The author examined arguments which suggest that privatized utilities
subject to price cap regulation will have inadequate incentives to invest

.Investment behavior provided support for these propositions. The authors


concluded by suggesting further investigation of solution to the dilemma
posed by the possibility of under investments and the associated social

costs which include competitive supply of infrastructure, greater reliance


on short run pricing and more explicit regulatory contracts in relation to
investments.

Gupta [2009] conducted research on a “study on employee welfare


measures in Arignar Anna Sugar Mills,Tanjore”. In this project the
researcher has found the labour welfare measures provided in the Arignar

Anna Sugar Mills are satisfactory, He studied the various dimensions of


employee welfare measures perceived by the worker and to the perception
of the respondents regarding the various labour welfare provided to them

and to suggest to suitable measures to enhance HRD intervention used to

24
improve the welfare facilities. The study of satisfaction level of various
employees towards welfare measures with special reference to social

security. He concluded that 75% employees are satisfied with welfare


facilities provide by Arignar Anna Sugar Mills.
Harbeson(1977) conducted research on “Social welfare and Economic

Efficiency in Transport policy”. This research focuses on transport policies


of the United States and virtually all other countries have almost from the
beginning reflected, explicitly or implicitly, various economic and social

objectives in addition to the competitive pricing standard. He concluded in


his research that Economic growth, regional development, distributional
equity and in recent years environmental protection and resource

conservation are considered in transport policy.. It is noted that in


competitive pricing standard has been approved as a policy objective. It
has been because its distributional effects have been regarded as preferable

to those of unregulated monopoly or oligopoly. There is no evidence that


this standard has been approved because of an understanding of or concern
for its economic efficiency implications.

Hay[1993] conducted research on “Equity and welfare in the geography of


public transport” provisions that focuses on equity and welfare
implications of four differing principles of public transport provisions and

demonstrates by means of graphs and a case study. He concluded that


formal equality, substantive equality, and least social cost and profit
maximizations.

Ingale. [1997] conducted research on “Labour welfare Activities with


special reference to Hutatma Kisan Ahir Sahakari Sakar Karkhana”.He
focused in his research on Labour welfare facilities available in Hutatma

Kisan Ahir Sahakari Sakar Karkhana and find out any deficiencies in

25
welfare activities. Sample size was 65 taken for research. He concluded in
his research that Hutatma Kisan Ahir Sahakari Sakar Karkhana is doing its

best to improve the working conditions of its employees. Majority of the


workers were coming in factory on foot and by bicycle .They are not
satisfied because management has not provided adequate conveyance

facilities. It is observed that not a single female is working in any


department. Majority of employees are working in factory have experience
below 05 years. Proper guidance should be provided in case of family

planning programme. Workers borrowed loan on medium and long term


bases and hence these workers had not sound financial position or
background. Different festivals are celebrated in factory for entertainment

of workers. Most of workers were coming by bicycle, so they face many


difficulties. There is a need to start factory bus for workers. So that
efficiency of the workers will definitely get increased and it will ultimately

affect production. Few workers in factory are illiterate so management


should organized and implemented adult education programme for the
guidance of the workers.

Jacob (1999) conducted research on “Evaluating the role of Public


Transportation in welfare Reform”.This research focuses on evaluating the
role of public transit in welfare reform .This research devised an

economically viable model to be used as a guide in meeting the


transportation needs related to welfare reform within the Arkansas
counties. The transportation model was developed for a specific region

within the state of Arkansas and focuses on moving TANF recipients to


work, training, and child care facilities.
He concluded in his research that transportation plays an important

role in moving welfare recipients to work. It is a noted that welfare

26
recipients must be able to travel to a job in order to maintain employment.
Rural areas, unlike urbanized areas, are faced with a greater challenge of

providing transportation to citizens. Rural public transportation helps to


enhance the quality of life for those who may use them. He found some
important points

Place of Work: For the counties considered, the data collected revealed
that 83% of all workers work within their county of residence, whereas
only 15% worked outside the county of residence.

Means of Transportation to Work: For the counties considered 83% of all


workers drove alone, 16% carpooled, 3% walked and 1% had other means
of transportation.

Commuting Pattern Per County For the individual counties


considered three counties had a large percentage of workers commuting
outside of their county of residence These counties included Calhoun

(54%), Lincoln (45%), and Grant (39%).


Education Needs Assessment: The data analysis revealed that 30% of
current TEA clients have completed 10th through 12th grade, and 31%

hold high school diplomas .


Transportation Needs Assessment: The data analysis revealed that 18% of
current TEA clients receive transportation assistance from their family, or

have other options, 17% have a car and 17% have undetermined
transportation needs. Only 4% had no transportation options.
Industrial and Occupational Trends: The data analysis reveals that

in the year 2005 the following industries will have the highest growth for
the regions that the counties in this study falls in : Northeast Arkansas 38%
services industry, Southeast Arkansas 34% services, Northwest Arkansas

35% services .

27
The data analysis for occupational trends reveals that in the year 2005 the
following industries will have the highest growth: Northeast Arkansas

agriculture, forestry, and fishing, Northwest Arkansas executive,


administrative, and managerial 22%, and Southeast Arkansas agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 23% .97

Jansson (1996) conducted research on “Welfare and markets in passenger


transport” observed that privatization and deregulation concepts used
frequently over the last decade, also in the transport context. He found out

the meaning and relevance of these concepts in the passenger transport


sector.It deals with consequences for social welfare of various
organizational forms, examining private versus public, competition versus

co-ordination and the mixed form “public planning and competitive


tendering for operation”. First, discusses a proposed multi-billion public
transport and ring-road project in Stockholm in terms of private or public

ownership and benefits and costs. Discovers that there are severe problems
related to a private profit maximizing regime in the passenger transport
sector, especially so for local and regional transport and road transport.

John[2004] conducted research on “Social Security and Labour Welfare


with Special Reference to Construction Workers in Kerala”.
He found and concluded in his research that Social security

benefits are given mainly in the form of provident funds, paid to workers
on superannuation, monthly pensions, and gratuity. Social insurance is
given in the form of ex gratia payment in the event of disability or death.

Welfare assistance consists of financial assistance for housing, education


of children, and marriage of daughters. Welfare Funds are raised by
levying cess on production, sale or export of specified goods, or by

collecting contributions from various sources including employers and

28
employees, as well as the Government, and are used for meeting
expenditures on the welfare of workers. The Government, employers, and

trade unions in Kerala generally agree that Labour Welfare Funds have
gone a long way in ameliorating the conditions of life of labour outside
their work premises and in the society at large. It is essential to co-ordinate

the activities of the various Welfare Boards, or to amalgamate them into a


common administrative set-up for the sake of economy and efficiency of
welfare activities. Labour in the unorganized/informal sector accounts for

about 85 percent of the working population in Kerala. The basic objective


of the KBCWWF is to provide a measure of social security and insurance
cover for construction workers who are vulnerable to risks and

uncertainties and do not have any other institutional protection arising


from their employment status. In 1999-2000, 0.30 lakh workers were
benefited from the Welfare Fund, with a total amount of Rs 1049.6 lakh.

Even though the majority (54 percent) of the construction workers were
satisfied with the present functioning of the KBCWWF, 84 percent opined
that existing benefits are inadequate to meet their needs. Despite the fact

that KBCWWF was constituted for the welfare of construction workers in


the unorganized sector, it could not reach every worker due to the
voluntary nature of membership and poor attractiveness of the provisions

of the Fund. Lack of awareness and illiteracy was not found to be the
major factor which prevented the construction workers from joining the
Welfare Fund; the determinant factor was undoubtedly inadequacy of the

anticipated benefits. Socio-psychological analysis of the pensioners


showed that the breakdown of the joint family system and the emergence
of the nuclear family system create socio-psychological tensions in the

lives of the elderly population. Personal and family liabilities compel a

29
good proposition of the elderly construction workers to engage in some
kind of economic activities. Programmes will have to be developed to

promote family values and sensitize the young generation on the necessity
and desirability of inter-generational bonding and continuity. The more
vulnerable among the construction workers (such as the poor, the disabled,

the infirm, the chronically sick and those without family support) may be
identified and special welfare schemes may be instituted for them on a
priority basis.

Joseph, Injodey and Varghese [2009] in their article on “Labour Welfare


In India” mentioned that labour welfare activities in India originated in
1837 underwent notable changes during the ensuing years. This article is a

description of these changes and the additions which were included over
this period. On the whole, it paints a picture of the Indian Labour welfare
scene. The 10 Five Year Plans have had a tremendous impact. Further, the

Indian Planning Commission has laid down measures to enhance the


welfare of workers in various areas such as child labour, bonded labour,
female labour and occupational safety and health. Welfare work in India is

carried out by various government and non-government organizations of


which the most important are National Government, State Government,
Trade Unions, the Public Sector and Private Sector nongovernment

organizations. Activities in this area include provision of housing facilities,


education, occupational safety and health, prevention of child and bonded
labour, and enhancement of working women's welfare. Private Sector

welfare measures are of a similar nature. Notable companies taking


initiatives in this regard are Tata and Larsen and Toubro. The article points
out that the structure of a welfare state rests on its social security fabric.

Government, employers and trade unions have done a lot to promote the

30
betterment of workers' conditions. However, a great deal still needs to be
done.

Kamdi [2010] conducted research on “welfare facilities provided to


employees by Bank of India”. Welfare is a comprehensive term including
various services, benefits and facilities offered by the employees through

such a generous fringe benefits the employers makes life worth living for
employees the welfare amenities extend in addition to normal wages &
other economic rewards available to employees as per the legal provision.

Total numbers of 30 employees were interacted in the research study.


Research findings showed that Bank of India has presently provided
welfare facilities to employees like Canteen, Housing rent allowance,

Holiday home, Reimbursement of educational benefit, Good working


condition, Reimbursement of expenses towards medical check-up. The
data and information was collected regarding wages, cost-benefits analysis

of training, benefits, productivity, absenteeism, employee turnover, strikes,


accidents, operations, working hours, shifts etc and also to find out the
defects and shortcoming in the existing policies and practices. Employees

were highly satisfied with the facilities provided by Bank of India. Finally
he concluded in his research that all the routine welfare facilities are
availed by all the employees in Bank of India in different proportion. More

than 70% employees avail routine welfare facility on routine basis. More
than 30% employees avail special welfare facility according to how the
need arises .The time required for sanctioning the special welfare facility is

maximum 2 weeks. Welfare facilities are availed by everyone in the


organization & time required is also nominal. The employees of Bank of
India are highly satisfied with the routine welfare facility, which they are

availing on regular basis.

31
Kaur [2008] conducted research on “To study the welfare measures
provided to the workers in Verka milk plant at Mohali”. He found in his

research that labour welfare is a comprehensive term including various


services, benefits and facilities offered to employees by the employer.
Through such generous fringe benefits the employer makes life worth

living for employees. The welfare amenities are extended in addition to


normal wages and other economic rewards available to employees as per
the legal provisions. Sample size is 50 for this research. Research is

conducted in Verka milk plant at Mohali. Majority of the workers feel that
they work in a comfortable surrounding, whereas some loopholes are there
in sanitation measures. Finally she found half of the workers are not

satisfied with ventilation and hygiene measures. Safety Equipments are not
provided to some employees. Most of the employees are not satisfied with
the medical facilities concerning their families. For men and women,

washing facilities are not adequately provided separately. Facility for


sitting at the place of work has not been provided to the employees. Both
first aid and ambulance facility are not provided in all the cases. 100%

employees are not satisfied with quality of products in the canteen.


Employees are not satisfied with the canteen rates which they find to be
highly unreasonable. She concluded that In Milk Plant Mohali, welfare

measures are provided to the workers in an organized manner. On the basis


of the analysis on the welfare measures provided to the workers, some
loopholes are there in various kinds of amenities. Like hygiene and

sanitation require major form of improvement. Regarding the provision of


safety equipment, it needs to be looked as a priority. The system of
medical check ups needs to be streamlined. Cultural events need to be

conducted into an organized manner. The quality of canteen products as

32
well as rates charged on them should be adequate. One of the major
drawbacks is lack of awareness about the suggestion/ complaint box

among the employees of Verka Milk Plant, Mohali.


Khan [2010] conducted research on the “Welfare facilities provided with
regard to job satisfaction in Apollo Tyres Ltd”. Perambra, Chalakudy (

Kochi), Kerala observed that job satisfaction is the positive orientation of


an individual towards all aspects of the work situation. Welfare facilities
are designed to take care of the well being of the employees, they do not

generally result in any monitory benefits to the employees nor are these
facilities provided by employers alone, government and non-governmental
agencies and trade unions too contribute towards employee’s benefits. The

population was 2000 employees and the sample selected was 100
respondents. The Chi square test was used. Researcher has found in his
research that 37% of the total employees were satisfied, towards the

overall welfare measures Maximum employees i.e.53% were satisfied with


the drinking water facility provided by Apollo Tyres Ltd. Employees
were not satisfied towards the canteen facility. The study revealed that

91%, of the employees satisfied respectively regarding the transportation


facility. 83% of the employees were dissatisfied with the clock room and
restroom facilities, Medical facility provided to the employees was

satisfactory. The safety precautions followed in the company was


satisfactory. From the total sample 66% feel that the superior show interest
in their welfare .The employees feel that they are included in the

Management Decision making as 96% of the respondents say good. The


interest subsidy scheme on housing loan and two wheeler loans makes
85% satisfied.The educational support for the employee’s children

provided by the company satisfies 62%.

33
The response of the overall welfare measures provided by the
company showed that 2% feel highly satisfied. Finally he concluded that,

Employee welfare is an important thing in any organization. Welfare


means faring or doing well. It is comprehensive term, and refers to the
physical, mental, moral, and emotional well being of an individual.

Employee's welfare is the inevitable thing concerned with every


organization. If organization provides good welfare facility to the
employees, moreover it can reduce absenteeism, employee's grievances

etc. It means employees welfare is a significant term regarding with any


organization. Every organization must give more attention the employee's
welfare. Ultimately satisfaction in welfare measures leads to job

satisfaction of the employees. More facilities of recreation need to be


functioning for the employees like cultural clubs etc. which will boast their
social security.Most of employees working in Apollo Tyres Ltd having

less than ten years experince. Proper maintenance of machinery will


reduce the noise problem. The canteen and the canteen premises should be
maintained and needs to be kept clean. Quality check system needs to be

implemented in the canteen. There is a need to provide a larger and better


rest room for the employees.
Kumar [2007] conducted research on “A Study of Labour Welfare

Activities in the industrial Sector” This research focuses on Facilities


provided to employees i.e. Statutory Welfare Provision and Industrial
Hygiene Provision. Different principles of labour welfare and its benefits

and Acts. According to Labour Investigation Committee, there are three


main benefits of labour welfare.
Educational facilities, sports, entertainment, etc. make the worker

feel that the employer is interested in their day-to-day life and therefore,

34
their tendency to grouse and grumble will gradually disappear. Housing,
canteens, sickness and maternity benefits, provident fund, gratuity,

pensions, etc. make the worker feel that they have a stake in the industry as
much as anyone else has.
Provisions of good and clean food in the canteens improve their

health, medical and maternity benefits free for the workers.


Improvement in the quality of labour, productivity, skills and working
conditions and provision of welfare and social security measures,

especially of those working in the unorganized sector, are crucial elements


of the strategy for quantitative and qualitative enhancement of
employment opportunities.

An attempt was made to study the behavior display by the


respondents of the organization. The users surveyed include labour,
operator, supervisor and mechanic etc. From the survey, it was found that

most of the people were satisfied with the facilities given by the company.
Finally he concluded in his study that maximum employees are
satisfied with facilities provided by the organization. Respondents are

aware about safety provisions and health provisions in org. Respondents


are agree that training program increases the skills of the workers.
Respondents are agree with the statement of better working environment

motivates the workers to work in better manner job satisfaction is essential


in the organization.
Mane [1994] conducted research on “A Study of Labour Welfare

Activities in the Ichalkaranji co-operative Spinning mills Ltd”. He


conducted research in Ichalkaranji and 116 sample size was taken. He
found in his research that welfare facilities extended by ICOSPIN to its

workers are satisfactory. The mill has followed in principle the

35
requirements of the factory Act of 1948 in fulfilling the demands of the
workers by extending statutory and non statutory welfare facilities. The

mill has made an attempt to a sense of participation and belonginess


among the workers. The mill is trying its best to provide more and more
labour welfare facilities to increase the efficiency, productivity and moral

of the employees. By this it is also possible to maintain harmonious


relations between workers and management. However the proposed labour
welfare facilities which should be extended as early as possible. Some

further improvement and change is required about existing welfare


facilities. Attitude of staff, supervisors and other officials towards workers
is positive and relation is also good and cordial.

Mishra [2011]conducted research study on “effect of welfare measures on


employee”. This project aims at studying and analyzing the safety and
welfare measures of the employee. The project objective is to evaluate the

effect of the welfare measures on employee morale and satisfaction level


of employee about the work environment .He concluded that most of the
employees in the company are female. More than 50% of respondent are

working for more than 10 years. Sample size was 50 respondents.


Respondents are highly satisfied with the medical facility. Most of
employees were dissatisfied with the safety measure and only few are

satisfied. Employees were satisfied with the working condition.


Respondents were satisfied with the motivation given by the company and
the relation between supervisor and workers. Respondents are satisfied

with the canteen facility, credit facility and working condition. The
communication in work place has no effect on work satisfaction.. The
increase in employee motivation will increase the work satisfaction. The

effect of welfare measures is about 25% on employee morale. The study

36
on effect of welfare measure on employee morale helps the management to
know the satisfaction level of the employees about the welfare measure

provided by the company. From this study we can infer that the majority of
the employees are satisfied with the welfare measures. The company can
concentrate on other facility like crèche facility, uniform, and safety

measures to boost the employee morale. The employee morale is good in


the company. It is found that the effect of welfare measure on employee
morale in this study is about 25%.

Padam[1993]: conducted research on “Performance Criteria For


developing countries” concluded in his research that six categories based
on the Indian experience. They are, i] marketing and operational coverage.

ii] Fleet performance .iii] Quality of service, iv] Personnel management, v]


Cost control, vi] financial performance .this is useful to measure
performance .

Marketing and Operational Coverage:-Public transport is a capital


market, where supply creates demand and quality sustains it .But if
efficient and adequate service is not provided the demand is likely to be

diverted to other uneconomic channels. Every public transport


organization should compare its operational performance on a timescale of
1 to 5 years based on I] increase in fleet strength II] increase in kilometers

operational III] kilometers operated per 100000 population and number of


buses per 100000 population .The emphasis should be both on adding to
the fleet Strength and increasing the productivity of the Fleet already held.

Fleet Performance: Roughly 80% of the capital of public transport


organizations is invested in bus fleet .The greater the fleet productivity and
efficiency, the less is the dependence on concessions and subsidies .the

fleet performance is measured against I] vehicle Utilization [Kilometers

37
operated per bus per day].Fleet utilization [% of buses on road against the
buses held] and load factor and occupancy ratio [Revenue per kilometers

*100]/Fare per KM * Seating Capacity.


Quality of Service:-It is measured by, a] Trips and /or kilometers cancelled
for reasons other than non availability of passengers .b] Rate of breakdown

per 100000kms.c] Rate of accidents per 100000 kms. d] Punctuality of


departures and arrivals.
Personnel Management: There are two indicators for measuring labour

productivity,
a] No of employees per bus .b] Effective KMs per Employee [per
day per year].

Cost of personnel per Kilometer: In transport industry there is a


global phenomenon of increasing wages and declining productivity .Only
an effective personnel management for maintaining productivity can save

the situation.
Cost Control: Cost of operations should constitute only the genuine costs
and not those in internal inefficiencies .Cost per Km on personnel

petroleum products, Spare parts, depreciation, interest and taxes should be


separately calculated for comparison over periods of time, together with
price increases.

Financial performance: Uneconomic fares and uncontrollable costs are the


bane of transport .The indicators for measuring financial performance are
a] Revenue per bus per day.

b] Revenue per KM.


c] Return on investments.
d] Contribution of internal resources to total capital .

38
e] Profit and loss per bus or kilometer .It is necessary to compare
performance over periods of time and ascertain reasons for

variance.
Paul[2011] in her research in journal on “Labour welfare policy and
administration in Haryana” ,found that labour welfare is very compressive

and includes various types of activities undertaken for the economic, social
,intellectual or moral benefits of the labour community workers. She
conducted research in Haryana. She explained problems and principles of

labour welfare. People have to depend on others for their livelihood..The


socio economic status of the workers was far below the status their
employer. The employer taking advantage of the poor condition of the

workers dictated their own terms and conditions with regard to wages
,hours of work, leave etc.The workers were left with no choice and they
accept such terms for their livelihood because service is sole source of

earning .She also study welfare policy in India. Labour welfare policy is
basically of action designed to advance the general welfare of the working.
She concluded that officials of labour department, Haryana did not contact

the workers .They should try to establish better rapport among workers.
Training is given to workers to increase their knowledge .In India,
Industrialization implies the growth of a factory system with employees

and wage earners in varying circumstances with varying characteristics


.Workers were exposed to serious accident because machines were not
properly screened. Accidents were considered as normal risk. The worker

who was unfortunate victim of an accident lost his employment and had no
right to compensation. Found wages paid to the workers were very low.
Wages is only one source of their income. It is observed that the Haryana

Labour Department is headed by Minister of state. It is suggested that that

39
Minister of cabinet rank should be appointed to handle delicate matters of
policy and administration in Haryana. Effective implementation of labour

enactments requires regular interaction between the officials and workers.


Rani [1993] conducted research on “Employees Welfare Measures in
Select Public Enterprises In Andhra Pradesh”observed that welfare

measures existing in the two enterprises and their impact on industrial


relations and impact of welfare measures on the productivity of SLPE’s
under study. Keeping the broad assumption that make the welfare

measures better are the productivity levels of personnel concluded in


research that APSRTC is providing good medical facilities as compared to
A.P.D.D.C.F.Ltd With regard to housing facilities in APSRTC, workers

revealed that the procedures prescribed for the allotment of houses are
sometimes violated by the management. At the same time, in the
A.P.D.D.C.F. Ltd., it is revealed that the percentage of housing satisfaction

has been declining from year to year. Regarding the social security
measures, it is found that the corporation is implementing provident fund,
family pension and gratuity schemes for its employees. In addition, the

management is also following a policy of providing employment to the


dependents of the deceased workers. At the same time A.P.D.D.C.F .Ltd. it
is found that the federation is implementing provident fund, family

pension and gratuity schemes for its employees. With whatever facilities
management is providing, APSRTC employees are happier than
A.P.D.D.C.F. Ltd.

Raman[2007] conducted research study of “Labour welfare measures in


Pondicherry co-operative sugar mills” at Pondicherry. This research is
intended to determine the whether employees are really satisfied with

welfare measure and their expectations about welfare and work

40
environment in the organization. It will help to improve productivity.
Sample size was 75 respondents. Questionnaire was prepared based upon

it directly. The prepared questionnaire was used to get the response from
the employees. The response given by the employees were analyzed and
interpret using different type of statistical tools such as percentage

analysis, correlation, and weighted average method. He concluded that


majority of respondents were satisfied with transport facility, medical
facility, canteen facility and technical tour programme. Nearly half of the

respondents were satisfied with welfare measures provided by the


management.
Employers are more than willing to understand the employee’s

requirement and design their welfare packages and employee benefits


programmes accordingly. The time for them to understand the changes in
employee needs and bridge the gap. Employers should understand what

employees want and compensate them accordingly. Welfare facilities are


given by Pondicherry Co-operative sugar mills is good. They should start
Library, Drinking water, Sports and game, Technical Tour programme.The

organizations want to achieve the aim of attracting and retaining suitable


talent from the labour market.
Rusila[2003] in her research paper on “An approach to holistic evaluation

of welfare impacts in strategic transport system planning” found and


concluded that the transport system has great effects on the welfare of
communities and individuals. However, the traditional way of evaluating

the impacts of changes in the transport system has mainly concentrated on


quite narrow technical and economical aspects. The objectives of the study
are,

41
To create evaluation criteria that can be used to evaluate the
welfare impacts in regional transport systems. To provide a tool that

guides the production of applicable decision-making material based on the


above-mentioned evaluation.
In this study, she concluded that evaluation of welfare impacts is

examination of changes in certain response variables, with respect to


changes in transport system. The identification of these response variables
that represent the significant welfare impacts is one of the main challenges

of this study.
Transport system is understood as an aggregate that comprises of
two major components. These components are 1) transport infrastructure,

including transport facilities and terminals, as well as the systems for


transport management and guidance, and 2) vehicles, organizations for
transport administration and maintenance, as well as public transport

operations. The Transport system is in close interaction with the


surrounding land use and urban development. The target of work is to
promote sustainable development

Sabarirajan, Meharajan, Arun [2010]conducted research on “A study


on the various welfare measures and their impact on QWL” provided by
the Textile Mills with reference to Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India

The Cotton Textile plays a vital role in human life. Textile


industries are one of the important industries of India for earning Foreign
Exchange and giving employment to lakhs of workers .The term welfare

suggests the state of well being and implies wholesomeness of the human
being. Adequate levels of earnings, safe and humane conditions of work
and Access to some minimum social security benefits are the major

qualitative dimensions of employment which enhance quality of life of

42
workers and their productivity. Institutional mechanisms exist for ensuring
these to workers in the organized sector of the economy. Research was

conducted in Tamil Nadu, Salem district. the descriptive research was


conducted to find out the information about the factor and to spotlight the
areas that need the management’s attention. Sampling size is 250.10 textile

units, 25 participants were selected from each unit. He found and


concluded in his research that maximum employees were highly benefited
with the welfare measures provided by the mills .They show positive

attitude towards the provision of the welfare measures. From entire


population majority of the employees were highly satisfied with the
welfare measures provided by the textiles mills. Employees having

experience between 5 – 10 years are highly satisfied with the safety


measures, working conditions .Welfare measures are recreational, medical,
educational, housing, sanitation and so on. Every organization provides the

statutory welfare measures but some organization provides some more


welfare facilities to the employees so that they may retain the employees
and their quality of work life. By the result of improved quality of work

life among the employees their involvement in job gets increased and
results in increased productivity of the organization. The organizations
maintaining smooth relationship between workers and management, which

leads to attainment of organization efforts. By conducting this study we


could infer that the Employees of Textile Mills in Salem district are
satisfied with the welfare measures provided by their organization.

Shrivastava[2004] presented his research paper on “Impacts of labour


welfare on employee attitude and job satisfaction”. The purpose of the
present study was to see the effects of welfare activities on job satisfaction

and attitude of workers in private and public sectors. For this study two

43
hundred workers were selected from private and public sectors with the
help of incidental sampling method and both the sectors have been taken

from Kanpur city for this research. It is concluded that private and public
sector workers significantly differ in terms of overall welfare activities.
Result indicates that public sector provides better welfare facilities to their

workers in comparison to private sectors. Private and public sectors


workers significantly differ in terms of job satisfaction. Secondly he
concluded that public sector workers are more satisfied with their job as

compared to the private sector workers. The workers who feel better
welfare facilities they are more satisfied rather than who feel poor welfare
facilities in private sector as well as public sector. Private and Public

sector workers significantly differ on attitude of workers towards


management. Public sector workers have more favorable attitude towards
management in comparison to private sector workers.

Wachs and Taylor (1995), conducted research on “Can transportation


strategies help meet the welfare challenge” concluded in his research that
welfare reformers, economic development experts, and housing advocates

turn to transportation policies as strategies for overcoming some of the


enormous shortcomings in American urban policy. But transportation
programs cannot compensate for failures in other policy areas precisely

because transport is also a damaged part of our deeply flawed urban


policy. Transport cannot be expected to eliminate both welfare and poverty
itself, but should be part of integrated economic development, housing,

and educational programs to address urban poverty rather than an


afterthought to correct for omissions in other urban policies. After building
urban highway and transit systems quite intentionally to economically

segregate metropolitan areas and to encourage middle- and upper-class

44
suburbanization, researchers should not suddenly expect to rely on existing
infrastructure to provide links between poor people. Policies have made

transportation systems part of the American welfare problem rather than


the obvious solution to the problems of poverty. The transportation
responses to welfare reform will likely be complex, expensive, and

politically unpopular. Perhaps the realization that this is so will contribute


to fundamental reconsideration of our welfare, economic development, and
transportation policies.

* * *

45