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DOI: 10.1007/s00170-003-1701-3

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Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2004) 23: 451–461

DOI 10.1007/s00170-003-1701-3

O R I GI N A L A R T IC L E

in wiping die bending processes

Received: 15 November 2002 / Accepted: 13 March 2003 / Published online: 19 December 2003

Ó Springer-Verlag London Limited 2003

Abstract This paper is devoted to a ﬁnite element pre- Numerical simulations are widely used in industries

diction of material damage distribution within the to optimise sheet metal forming processes such as

workpiece during wiping die bending processes. The stamping, bending, and hydro-forming. However, in

damage mechanics approach has been used in this order to have conﬁdence in the results of such simula-

investigation in order to describe the progressive damage tions, an accurate material model is required. The

evolution within the sheet. A comparative study between accuracy of a material model is aﬀected by the constit-

the results obtained by the simulations using the utive equations and the values of the material parame-

Lemaitre and Gurson damage models is presented and ters.

discussed. The elastoplastic constitutive laws are inte- To describe the sheet behaviour in a realistic way as

grated by means of an incremental formulation which the operation is carried out, various parameters must be

has been implemented in the ﬁnite element code used, such as the material state of hardening and dam-

ABAQUS. The punch load, inﬂuenced by the friction age, the metallurgical morphology (which concerns the

coeﬃcient, is investigated for diﬀerent cases of die ra- shape and size of the grains), the crystallographic tex-

dius. The springback angle, which depends on the elastic ture, and the intergranular structures as they evolve

properties of the material, is computed for all cases. during the operation.

Both models give similar results in the modelling of All the aforementioned physical parameters aﬀect the

bending operations. The Gurson one is shown to have geometrical quality and the mechanical state of the

more ﬂexibility for applications. workpiece. Especially, the states of hardening and

damage conditions of the components have a measur-

Keywords Damage Æ Bending Æ Springback Æ Gurson Æ able eﬀect upon the fatigue life of its future use.

Lemaitre The plastic deformations are localized in the fold and,

generally, more important at surfaces, which leads to

strengthening the part in this zone and may be the cause

of initiation and propagation of cracks as illustrated by

1 Introduction Fig. 1.

In order to accurately simulate sheet metal bending

Sheet metal wiping die bending processes are widely processes, the numerical prediction of the damage evo-

used for mass production. The design of bending pro- lution, crack initiation, and propagation can be de-

cesses is connected with time-consuming and costly scribed by means of a continuum damage approach such

experiments. Therefore, the ﬁnite element simulation of as those described by the Lemaitre and Gurson damage

the process could be a helpful tool for the designer and models.

for the quality assurance of the products. In general, the deformation localization and ductile

fracture in metals involve a considerable amount of

texture evolution [1]. The distribution of the crystallo-

graphic texture of a sheet is not homogeneous and the

A. Mkaddem (&) Æ A. Potiron

Ensam/CER, Angers-LPMI-ERT,

plastic deformation and mechanical properties of the

2 Boulevard du Ronceray, BP3525–49035 Angers, France material depend on the evolution of the preferred grain

E-mail: ali.mkaddem@angers.ensam.fr orientation.

R. Hambli

Spherical (Fig. 2a) or elliptical (Fig. 2b) holes, having

Istia-Lasquo, 62 Avenue Notre Dame du Lac, an arbitrary orientational distribution as observed by

49000 Angers, France Tsukrov et al. [2], are one of the main factors governing

452

close to outer fold edges

choice of suitable damage parameters.

In the ﬁeld of continuum damage mechanics, many

models have been developed by Wang [7, 8],

Chandrakanth et al. [9], and Bonora [10, 11, 12]. These

models have been derived from the concept proposed by

Lemaitre [13] and Chaboche [14, 15] which allows the

prediction of damage evolution under diﬀerent stress

state conditions.

A conclusion drawn from the above papers is that the

description of the progressive damage evolution leading

to crack initiation and propagation must take into ac-

count the ﬁnite element simulation of bending processes.

In such a situation, the concept of continuum damage

mechanics can be applied to describe the damage process

of the material before the ﬁnal fracture.

In this paper, Gurson [9] and Lemaitres [10] behav-

iour laws coupled with damage have been retained to

simulate the process. To compare the performances of

both theories, a comparative study has been carried out

between the results obtained by the simulation.

After bending, springback occurs upon the removal

of the tool [1, 2, 3, 4]. The amount of elastic recovery

depends on the stress level and the modulus of the

elasticity of the material. Most ﬁnite element simulations

of sheet metal bending have focussed on the prediction

of the part springback during air bending processes.

Such eﬀorts typically involve the use of 2D models [2, 5,

6, 7]. However, little work has been done in the past to

Fig. 2 Micro-defects shape observed in a Longitudinal and b

transversal sections of 0.09% sheet metal carbon steel

predict springback during wiping die bending processes.

In order to improve the accuracy of the wiping die

bending process, the material properties variation dur-

the formability of the roll sheets and their behaviour. As ing and after bending must be predicted, especially the

suggested by Gurson [3], void nucleation and growth are damage contour within the sheet.

commonly observed as processes which are character- The accuracy of the springback prediction depends

ized by a large local plastic ﬂow such as ductile fracture. on the accuracy of the constitutive equations and their

As mentioned by Sevostianov et al. [4], porosity corresponding material parameters. Springback is also

enhances plasticity in elastic plastic materials; this phe- sensitive to a range of material and process parameters,

nomenon is observed in aspects of the growth and such as strain hardening [11, 12, 13, 14], evolution of

coalescence of ductile materials and the resulting chan- elastic properties [15, 16], elastic and plastic anisotropy

ges in the overall porosity. Examining the fractured [16], and the presence of a Bauschinger eﬀect [13, 17, 18,

edge, Kalpakjian [5] shows that failure depends on the 19].

micro-defects density, the micro-defects shape, and the The elastic properties variation is the consequence of

strain hardening ratio. As originally suggested by Kra- the damage evolution generated by the plastic defor-

jcinovic [6], the area density of voids and other material mation as stated by Lemaitre [20].

decohesions in a given cross-section provides an intuitive In order to investigate the sensitivity of sheet

characterization of the material damaging. Accurate springback simulations, the Lemaitre and Gurson

453

allows the study of the inﬂuence of the properties

variations on the ﬁnal quality of the parts.

processes, and bending are all characterized by the

presence of small zones where damage accumulates

further as plastic deformations localize. The correct

description of the mechanical behaviour of the material

in these small zones is important.

In order to predict damage evolution within the sheet, Fig. 3 Hardening Law

the continuum damage mechanics approach has been

applied as a means to describe the workpiece behaviour The derivative form of / gives the rising gradient of

during its forming process. The conditions for initiation the damage noted HG:

and growth of micro-cracks in metals have been studied @/

extensively using micromechanics analysis. It has been HG ¼ ð4Þ

@ePl

observed from metallurgical test results that ductile

fracture occurs due to void nucleation, growth, and As deﬁned by Crisﬁeld [24], the normal to the frontier

coalescence into micro-cracks. of the yield function is deduced from the derivative form

The application of damage theories allows for the of f by r. it is generally noted by a and written in the

identiﬁcation of the cause of defects, the prediction of vectorial form:

ductile fracture during forming processes, and the eval-

@f @f 3

uation of the material properties variation generated by a¼ ¼ ¼ Ls ð5Þ

the damage. Such variations have signiﬁcant eﬀects on @r @s 2req

the fatigue life of the workpieces. where s is the deviator stress and L is a diagonal

In this investigation, Gurson [9] and Lemaitre [10] matrix.

behaviour laws coupled with damage have been retained The normality rule implicates that the plastic strain

to simulate the wiping die bending process. To study the increment is calculated normally to the yield function

performance of both theories, a comparative study has frontier. Moreover, it can be written:

been carried out between the numerical results.

dePl ¼ dePl a ð6Þ

where dePl is the Lagrange multiplier deﬁned by:

3 Lemaitre model

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Pl 2 PlT 1 Pl

The von Mises criterion are taken as the basis of the de ¼ e_ L e_ ð7Þ

3

theoretical development of the constitutive equations.

T

h i T

The damage evolution is based on the isotropic and dePl ¼ dePlT ¼ dePl Pl Pl

x ; dey ; dez ; dcxy ; dcxz ; dcyz is

assumption as suggested by diﬀerent authors [6, 14, 15, the vectorial form of the plastic strain rate.

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23]. The yield function, depending on When the material ﬂow occurs, the expression of the

the equivalent stress, the hardening law, the variable D, yield function becomes:

and also the plastic strain, is given by:

req f ¼ G 2~e 3dePl ry þ R ~ ð1 D Þ ¼ 0 ð8Þ

f req ; ePl ; D ¼ ry R~ ePl ; D ð1Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1D T

where G is the shear modulus, ~e ¼ 32 ^e L1^e, and

As illustrated by Fig. 3, the hardening law R~ is expressed Total

^e ¼ eEl

n þ de as they are deﬁned by Hibbit et al. [25].

by:

The nonlinear Eq. 8 can be resolved using the

~¼K

R ~ ePl n ð2Þ Newton-Raphson iterative method. This approach leads

to the ﬁnal expression of the plastic corrector as written

where K~ ¼ K ð1 DÞ is the hardening modulus of the in the following relation:

puissance hardening law and n is the hardening expo-

nent. CnPlNEWT

The damage evolution is taken to be linear. It de- G0 ð1 DÞ 2~e 3dePl ~ ePl

n1 ð1 DÞ ry þ R n1

pends on the equivalent plastic strain and is written as: ¼

3G0 ð1 DÞ þ HD þ ðHG G0 ð2~e 3dePl ÞÞ

D ¼ / ePl ð3Þ ð9Þ

454

K

the damage eﬀect, as well as on Youngs modulus and

~ ePl

@R

HR ¼ ð10Þ the shear modulus. Then:

@ePl

~ ð DÞ ¼ K0 ð1 DÞ

K ð24Þ

and

where

@req

~ HG

HD ¼ Pl

¼ ð1 DÞHR ry þ R ð11Þ E0

@e K0 ¼ ð25Þ

3ð1 2mÞ

The theory of isotropic plasticity leads to the rela-

tionship between the deviatoric stress and the deviatoric and

strain such as:

~ ¼ K0 @D ¼ K0 HG @ePl

@K ð26Þ

@s ¼ AD @^e ð15Þ

Taking this last expression into account, Eq. 19 and

where s is the deviatoric form of stress and AD is the Eq. 23 lead to:

matrix deﬁned as presented below:

" ~ m 3K0 HG @ePl em

@rm ¼ 3K@e ð27Þ

req 1

AD ¼ L <D and then:

~e

! # ~ T @e K0 HG @ePl jjT e

@r ¼ AD @^e þ Kjj ð28Þ

HG

þ ssT

2G~e ð1 þ BD Þð1 DÞ þ H3G ð2~e 3dePl Þ It can be demonstrated that the equivalent plastic

strain can be written as:

ð16Þ

T

where BD ¼ H3GD , G ¼ G0 ð1 DÞ is the shear modulus, and 3G^e L1 @^e

@ePl ¼ ð29Þ

<D is the expression given in the next relation: ~e½HD þ 3G þ G0 HG ð2~e þ 3dePl Þ

3 HD Pl ð1DÞ Substituting @ePl with its expression in the relationship

<D ¼ 1 de of Eq. 28:

2req req ~e ð1þBD Þð1DÞþ H3G ð2~e 3dePl Þ

ð17Þ 1 T ~ T @e

@r ¼ AD I jj @e þ Kjj

3

Also, the relationship leading to the calculation of the ^eT L1 @^eð1 DÞ

stress increment from the strain increment can be found. K0 HG jem

It is already well known that: ~e ð1 þ BD Þð1 DÞ þ H3G ð2~e 3dePl Þ

ð30Þ

e ¼ e þ jem ; e ¼ ^e ð18Þ

where After some modiﬁcations, the last term has to be

modiﬁed so that de will appear. Then a new expression is

1 1 found in such a manner that:

em ¼ j T e ¼ ex þ ey þ ez ð19Þ

3 3 T

1 1

and jT ¼ ð111000Þ. jem eT L1 @e ¼ jjT eeT I jjT L1 I jjT @e ð31Þ

3 3

It can also be written as follows:

1 The substitution of Eq. 31 in Eq. 30 transforms it

e ¼ e þ jjT e ð20Þ into:

3

1 T ~ T @e

The diﬀerentiation of the next relation gives: @r ¼ AD I jj @e þ Kjj

3

1 T

@^e ¼ I jj @e ð21Þ K0 ð1 DÞHG

3

~e ð1 þ BD Þð1 DÞ þ H3G ð2~e 3dePl Þ

where I is the unit matrix.

On the other hand, we have:

T T 1 T T 1 1 T

jj ee I jj L I jj @e ð32Þ

r ¼ s þ jrm ð22Þ 3 3

where The expression above relayed the stress increment to

1 the strain increment thanks to the consistent tangent

~

rm ¼ jT r ¼ 3KðDÞe m ð23Þ operator KtgD given in the following expression:

3

455

"

~ G

KH plastic strain. q1, q2, q3 are material parameters. The

KtgD ¼ AD ranges of values reported in the literature [27] and [29],

~e ð1 þ BD Þð1 DÞ þ H3G ð2~e 3dePl Þ as speciﬁed for typical metals, are q1=1.0–1.5, q2=1.0,

! #

1 T T 1 1 T and q3=q12=1.0–2.25. The original Gurson model is

T T

jj ee I jj L I jj þ Kjj ~ T

recovered when q1=q2=q3=1.0. The plastic strain is

3 3 assumed to be normal to the yield function:

ð33Þ @U

e_ Pl ¼ e_ Pl ð36Þ

@r

The hardening of the fully dense matrix material is

4 Gurson model described by r0 ¼ r0 e_ Pl . The evolution of the equiva-

lent plastic strain in the matrix material is obtained from

The concept of continuum damage mechanics as ob- the following equivalent plastic work expression:

served by Kachanov [26] is based on the isotropic dis-

tribution of the spherical voids existing in the matrix ð1 f Þr0e_ Pl ¼ r : e_ Pl ð37Þ

material. Under the critical conditions of loading, the

growth of voids is inevitable when material ﬂow occurs. The total change in void volume fraction is given as:

Later, the increase of micro-defects density leads to a

cracking phenomenon and consequently to failure. The f_ ¼ f_gr þ f_nucl ð38Þ

relationships deﬁning the model are expressed in terms where f_gr expressed the growth of existing voids and

of the void volume fraction, named f [27]. It is deﬁned as f_nucl expressed the nucleation of new voids. Growth of

the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of the existing voids is based on the law of conservation of

the material. It follows that f=1)r, where r is the rela- mass and is expressed in terms of the voids fraction:

tive density of a material deﬁned as the ratio of the

volume of solid material to the total volume of material. f_gr ¼ ð1 f Þe_Pl : I ð39Þ

f=0 implies that material is fully dense and f=1 implies

that the material is completely void and has no stress- The nucleation of voids is given by a strain-controlled

carrying capacity. Gurson [3] proposed a yield condition relationship:

as a function of the void volume fraction. Later,

Tvergaard [28] modiﬁed this yield condition and trans- f_nucl ¼ Ae_ Pl ð40Þ

formed it into the following form: where A is an exponential function of ePl and the volume

2 fraction of the nucleated voids is as given in the fol-

req 3rH

U¼ þ2q1 f cosh q2 1 þ q3 f 2 ¼ 0; lowing expression:

ry 2ry

2

ð34Þ Pl

1 e eN

2

fN sN

A ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ e ð41Þ

where sN 2p

1 The normal distribution of the nucleation strain has a

rH ¼ r : I ð35Þ

3 mean value eN and a standard deviation sN. fN is the

Pl Pl

and r0 e ¼ ry þ R~ e is the yield stress of the fully volume fraction of the nucleated voids during the ten-

dense matrix material as a function of the equivalent sion case. The complete list of parameters used for the

Gurson model simulation is recapitulated in Table 1.

Table 1 Gurson parameters used for simulation Table 2 gives a comparison between the Lemaitre and

Gurson damage models. The total number of parame-

q1 q2 q3 r0 eN sN fN

ters is computed for each model.

1.50 1.10 2.25 1 0.10 0.05 0.04 Gurson ﬂow stress (Eq. 34) depends on a scalar

damage variable f describing the void volume fraction.

Table 2 Comparison between Lemaitre and Gurson damage models

Microcracks

Damage D ¼ A ATotal f_ The growth rate of the micro-void volume fraction f_ ¼ f_gr þ f_nucl

D ¼ / ePl

Pl rH

Variables e ; req Tr e_Pl

: First

invariant

of the plastic

strain rate tensor

n req 2 3rH 2

Yield function f ¼ req ð1 DÞ ry þ K ePl ¼0 U ¼ ry þ2q1 f cosh q2 2ry 1 þ q3 f ¼ 0

Youngs Modulus E=E0(1)D) (variable) E=E0 (ﬁxed)

Application Shearing processes Tensile and compressive processes

Damage parameters 5 parameters 7 parameters

456

The model allows for the damage prediction of porous element (F.E.) mesh, including element splitting, sepa-

materials. The normality assumption ensures that plastic rating of nodes, element deletion, and stiﬀness F.E.

dilation can occur if both the mean stress and damage decreasing. This last technique has been used in this

values are non-zero. The ﬁrst invariant of the plastic work in order to simulate crack propagation. During the

strain rate tensor Tr e_Pl is the main variable of the analysis, the initiation of a crack is assumed to occur at

damage evolution (Eq. 39). any point in the structure where the damage reaches its

In the past few years several diﬀerent approaches critical value Dc. The crack propagation is simulated by

were developed and applied to the analysis of ductile the propagation of a completely damaged area. From a

fracture, commonly known as the coupled damage numerical point of view, the damage value is abruptly set

approach, incorporating the accumulation of damage in to the value DR (DR1). This method leads to a decrease

the constitutive equations. The ﬁrst attempts in this ﬁeld in the stiﬀness of the concerned elements.

of research were made by Gurson who developed a

ductile damage macroscopic constitutive law based on

micro-void growth and by Tvergaard [28] who improved 5 Simulation of wiping die bending operation

Gursons model by including some coalescence eﬀects.

These initial investigations and other subsequent devel- The bent part characteristics are aﬀected by several

opments enabled the development of a continuous factors. In this study, only the inﬂuence of the die shape

damage mechanics model for ductile fracture by is treated. The material parameters obtained by tensile

Lemaı̂tre. The main advantage of the coupled damage tests are recapitulated in Table 3.

approach is that it allows the yield surface of the The meshing of the part is carried out by using tri-

material to be modiﬁed by the density changes and void angular and quadrangular node continuum elements.

growth induced by the accumulation of damage. 1192 elements are used for the mesh. The tool (punch,

The ﬁnite element model, using Gursons yield crite- die, and blank holder) is modelled by adopting analyti-

rion, allows for the prediction of the damage evolution cal rigid bodies. The mesh region and the bending

during the plastic loading of structures. The model geometry are shown in Fig. 4.

assumes that throughout the process, the matrix mate- The data used in the numerical modelling are

rial work hardens according to the power law given in reported in Table 4. All parameters remain constant

Eq. 34. The Gurson model assumes that the total vol- except for the die radius.

ume of voids grows, consequently weakening the mate- Rp and Rd are the punch and the die radius, respec-

rial. However, one should be aware of the fact that the tively. J is the clearance between die and punch, C is the

work hardening rate may change at larger strains punch stroke according to lower springback angles in

beyond the start of necking. The model simulates a industrial press machines, a is the bending angle, and t is

weakening of the material due to the propagation of the sheet thickness.

damage but does not include a further failure (cracking)

of the blank material.

The literature values for the model parameters (q1, q2, Table 3 Elastic and hardening parameters

q3, eN, sN, fN, r0) for typical metals were used. These

E0 ry ~k n m0 HG

values showed suﬃcient similarity between the simulated

GPa MPa MPa – – –

and the actual results from the tensile test [31].

It has to be remarked that in the constitutive frame- 200 560 800 0.745 0.28 0.4

work proposed by Lemaitre, damage aﬀects internal

associated variables, such as strain, the yield condition,

and Youngs modulus. According to this approach,

when damage reaches its critical value, the material

stiﬀness is reduced to zero. Contrary to the Gurson

approach, the Lemaitre approach allows for the simu-

lation of crack initiation and propagation within the

workpiece.

When the critical Lemaitre damage value is satisﬁed

within an element, the element fractures and cracks

occur. The direction of crack propagation and the crack

tip position are then determined by the value contour of

the fracture or damage value at each element of the

mesh.

For the simulation of processes where rupture is to be

considered, it is necessary to develop and apply methods

using mechanical fracture models where a material sep-

aration must be predicted. There are at least four pos-

sible methods to simulate a crack propagation in a ﬁnite Fig. 4 Mesh used for the fold zone

457

Table 4 Process parameters for numerical model The bending force curve versus punch penetration is

aﬀected by the damage of the sheet. The results show

RP Rd t J C a

mm mm mm mm mm (°) that the curves are superimposed until a punch pene-

tration of about 7 mm, and there is a signiﬁcant diﬀer-

4 2-3-4-5-6 4 4 29 90 ence between both evolutions for higher punch

penetration.

In Fig. 6a it can be observed that the punch load

Table 5 Friction coeﬃcient for the contact modelling [32] increases sharply, especially for low values of the die

radius, reaching a maximum value, and then the force

Surfaces Punch Die Blank holder

decreases rapidly and similarly. The curves ﬁt well to-

Blank top 0.09 – 0.15 gether with a higher maximum force without damage

Blank bot – 0.15 – inﬂuence simulations.

Figure 7 shows the evolution of maximum bending

force versus the die corner radius obtained by the dif-

The contact model is simulated by the coulomb fric- ferent simulations; without damage inﬂuence and, also,

tion law. In industrial processes, lubrication is mostly using Gurson and Lemaitre models. The punch pene-

used in order to reduce the tools wear and friction. For tration corresponding to the maximum force values for

this reason, relative sliding between punch and blank is each conﬁguration is also reported in Fig. 7.

modelled by adopting a low friction coeﬃcient [32]. The It can be observed that the predicted maximum

l-coeﬃcients used for numerical modelling are reported bending force decreases with an increasing corner die

in Table 5. radius. The curves have the same trend; nevertheless,

The computation results, corresponding to diﬀerent there is a signiﬁcant diﬀerence between curves with and

displacement steps of the punch penetration are pre- without damage, especially for low values of the die

sented in Fig. 5. It can be seen that the springback radii.

takes place when the punch is removed from the sim- Figure 7 shows that the damage aﬀects the maximum

ulation. bending force especially for a small value of the die

radius. As observed, the diﬀerence between Lemaitre

and Gurson models does not reach 2.5%.

6 Simulation results

The punch load is investigated during the bending Corrections for springback are essential during die de-

operation. The numerical calculation using the Lemaitre sign in order to obtain speciﬁed ﬁnal shapes.

and Gurson models are superimposed as shown in Figure 8 shows the eﬀects of the die radius on the

Fig. 6. springback angle obtained by simulation with and

Figure 6a describes the load evolution of the bending without damage inﬂuence. When damage is accounted

process with various die radii obtained by ﬁnite element for, it can be observed that the springback is lower as a

simulation. At the initial stage of the bending process, consequence of the material parameters variation,

material ﬁrst ﬂows at the fold zone. With the punch especially the elastic modulus and the strain within the

force, the blank comes into contact with the punch and ﬁbres. The diﬀerence between the curves decreases with

is drawn into the die. Although a large displacement the increase of the die radius. The decrease is attributed

occurs in the corner, the large deformation is located in to the damage reduction within the sheet for higher die

this zone. A severe gradient of stress exists in this part radius values.

when tensile strain outside the fold is excessive [33]. The springback angle increases rapidly against the die

Excessive tensile strain will causes a high damage dis- radius. The simulation results computed by both models

tribution due to the growth and nucleation of micro give similar results with a deviation less then 4%.

defects. However, the nucleation of voids is rather large

in comparison to the growth of voids as can be seen in

Fig. 6b. 6.3 Damage evolution

die bending process are shown in Fig. 9. The damage is

computed at the outer surface of the fold zone. Both

damage curves, plotted for a die radius of 2 mm, evolve

similarly, reaching their maximum in the central zone of

the fold and then fall to zero.

The Lemaitre formulation gives a larger value than

Fig. 5 Deformed conﬁguration at diﬀerent steps the Gurson one. The diﬀerence noticed especially at the

458

and b Damage distribution

using the Gurson model and the

Lemaitre one when the die

radius changes from 2 mm to

6 mm during the bending

operation

459

models

can be noted that for low values of the die radius, the

Fig. 7 Maximum load versus punch penetration for diﬀerent springback error between the Lemaitre model and the

values of the die radius Gurson one increases sharply, whereas it decreases for

bending force. For high values of the die radius, the

maximum value is essentially due to the choice of bending force evolves similarly for both models. The

damage parameters for modelling. diﬀerence in springback angle becomes considerable,

In order to evaluate the reliability of each method, reaches a maximum, and falls slightly as can be observed

Lemaitre and Gurson, error is quantiﬁed using the fol- in Fig. 10.

lowing relations: In spite of the diﬀerence, which is essentially due to

the choice of problem parameters particularly for the

jhLem hGur j Gurson simulation, it can be concluded that the two

vh ð%Þ ¼

hLem models give similar results. The maximum error reached

Punch is 3.7%.

F Punch

Lem FGur

vF punch ð%Þ ¼ Punch

FLem

7 Discussion and comparison

vh is the error associated with the spring back angle

obtained by means of the two models and vF Punch is the The comparative study of numerical computation using

error associated with the punch load during bending. It Gurson and Lemaitre models shows that ﬁnite element

outer fold zone for Rd=2 mm

460

provide useful information about the inﬂuence of the

tools design, especially the die shape, on the quality of

the ﬁnal product.

8 Conclusion

bending processes using the continuum damage

mechanics approach has been applied in the modelling

of the operation. The Lemaitre damage model was

implemented in a ﬁnite element code allowing for the

description of the damage evolution within the sheet.

The comparative study between the results obtained

by the simulations using Gurson and Lemaitre models

Fig. 10 Springback and punch load errors between the Lemaitre

and Gurson models showed that the material behaviour has to be accurately

known, especially in accounting for damage evolution

and rupture simulation. Both models give similar results

on springback prediction with a deviation less than 4%.

Table 6 Increment number required for convergence The 2D simulation provides a good modelling tool

Rd (mm) 2 3 4 5 6 for the sheet metal forming problems where it is not

necessary to go into more detail. Stretching phenomena

Lemaı̂tre model 247 223 218 219 233 and the boards eﬀects are well known in a bent product,

Gurson model 243 210 216 211 227 and they cannot be observed by adopting a 2D simula-

tion. In fact, a 3D simulation of wiping die bending

operations becomes necessary in order to predict real-

modelling using the Lemaitre damage law in describing istically the ﬁnal state of damage, bending part aptitude,

the operation of wiping die bending is more costly. and the geometry of the ﬁnal product.

Incidentally, the total increment number computed

when the Lemaitre model is adopted is higher than the Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Deville S.A

one required for the convergence using Gurson model. Industry for its technical support.

In fact, the CPUS(Computer Processor Units)-time,

which is tied to the increment number, is more consid-

erable when the Lemaitre model is used for numerical References

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