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Brock University

Intermediate/Senior Lesson Plan


Consecutive and Concurrent

Lesson Topic/Title: An Investigation Using the Benedict’s Test Date: 3/19/2019

Subject: Science Course Code: SBI3C Duration: 150 minutes

Overall Expectations Math English Science Technology Health & PhysEd Canadian&World Studies The Arts FSL Other

A1. Demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills
(initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communicating);

B1. Evaluate the impact of environmental factors and medical technologies on certain cellular processes that occur in
the human body;

B2. Investigate the structures and functions of cells, and the factors that influence cellular activity, using appropriate
laboratory equipment and techniques.

Specific Expectations

A1.5 Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as


required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to
collect observations and data;

B1.1 Evaluate the effectiveness of medical devices and technologies that are intended to aid cellular functions or
processes (e.g., insulin infusion pump, chemotherapy) [AI, C]

B2.1 Use appropriate terminology related to cellular biology, including, but not limited to: macromolecule, passive
transport, active transport, catalyst, and fluid mosaic model [C];

B2.5 Conduct biological tests to identify biochemical compounds found in various food samples (e.g., use a biuret
solution to test for proteins in samples of gelatin and albumin), and compare the biochemical compounds found in
each food to those found in the others [PR, AI];

Lesson Learning Goals and Success Criteria


Knowledge & Understanding, Thinking, Communication, Application
Describe in student-friendly language the curriculum expectations where applicable.
Learning Goals: Describe in student-friendly language the Success Criteria: Describe in student-friendly language what
lesson learning goals. successful attainment of the learning goals looks like.

I can conduct inquiries controlling relevant variables and I know I was successful when I conducted inquiries
use appropriate materials and equipment safely, controlling relevant variables;
accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and
data (T/I); I know I was successful when I used appropriate materials
and equipment safely, accurately and effectively;
I can evaluate the effectiveness of medical devices and
technologies that are intended to aid cellular functions or I know I was successful when I collected observations and
processes (K/U); data;

I can describe my understandings using appropriate I know I was successful when I evaluated the
terminology related to cellular biology (COMM); effectiveness of medical devices and technologies
intended to aid cellular functions or processes;
I can apply my understandings of biochemical compounds
by conducting the benedict’s test on various food samples I know I was successful when I described my
(APP). understandings using appropriate terminology related to
cellular biology;

I know I was successful when I was able to apply my


understandings of biochemical compounds by conducting
the Benedicts test on various food samples.

Learning Skills and Work Habits and Global Competencies


Responsibility, Independent Work, Organization, Collaboration, Initiative, Self-Regulation
Describe in student-friendly language the learning skills and work habits where applicable. Growing Success, p 10 & 11

☒Responsibility ☒ Organization ☐Independent Work ☒Collaboration ☐Initiative ☐ Self-regulation

Responsibility:
The student:
• fulfils responsibilities and commitments within the learning environment by following teacher led directions as well
as the laboratory procedure;
• completes and submits laboratory handout and independent investigation according to agreed-upon timelines as the
completion of the Benedict’s test is imperative to move forward with learning;
• takes responsibility for and manages own behaviour when completing the laboratory to ensure safe practice.

Organization:
The student:
• follows the laboratory procedure to complete the outlined tasks;
• establishes, priorities, and manages time so that the laboratory and review questions are able to be completed during
the first period of the lesson;
• identifies, gathers, evaluates, and uses information, technology, and resources to complete the Benedict’s test
laboratory as well as the independent investigation assignment regarding type 1 diabetes.

Collaboration:
The student:
• accepts various roles and an equitable share of laboratory group work;
• responds positively to the ideas of others when developing hypotheses;
• builds healthy peer-to-peer relationships through personal interactions when working through the laboratory
procedure;
• shares information, resources, and expertise and promotes critical thinking when discussing the presence of
biochemical compounds in each of the laboratory solutions.

Global Competencies (21st Century Skills)


☒Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, ☐Innovation, ☐Creativity and Entrepreneurship, ☐Self-Directed Learning, ☒
Collaboration, ☒Communication ☐Citizenship
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
The student:
-will actively participate in this investigation by working to solve complex problems both independently and
collaboratively
-will reference their prior knowledge, textbook, notes, and other resources in order to consider information beyond
simple answers
-will demonstrate perseverance if they do not understand the answer right away

Collaboration
The student:
-will work effectively and efficiently with group members in order to complete tasks;
-will work through problems as a group in a respective manner.

Communication
The student:
-will communicate their understandings orally with their group members, the class, and the teacher
-will communicate their understandings in written format both in the observation table and by answering laboratory
questions
-will communicate their understandings and findings visually through the creation of a pamphlet

Assessment and Evaluation


How will I know when my students are successful?
Assessment Task/Strategy: What evidence (observation,  Assessment For Learning Assessment tools:
o Diagnostic Identify and describe the tool that will be used to
product, conversations) will I collect to know my students
o Formative
are successful? record the information for the assessment task,
 Assessment As Learning
Identify and describe what students will be doing to o Formative and use to help analyze what students are able to
address the learning goals for this lesson.  Assessment Of Learning do against the established success criteria.
o Summative (Anecdotal Record, Rating Scale, Checklist, Rubric, etc)

1. Observation  Assessment For Anecdotal Record


I will be observing students throughout the Learning Anecdotal notes will be used to record the
lesson; however, more specifically while students I will gather diagnostic participation and behaviour of students
are completing the Benedict’s test laboratory, and information about throughout this lesson. Behaviour
are working on the development of their students at the includes appropriately working with group
pamphlet. beginning of the lesson members and following laboratory as well
by engaging in as safety procedures. Participation
2. Conversation conversation with includes using class time wisely to
I will engage in conversation throughout the them. This will allow complete assignments and engaging in
lesson, especially by asking students questions in me to develop a general critical thinking and problem solving
order to foster an inquiry based approach to understanding of their throughout the lesson.
education as well as to support students mood and preparedness
throughout their investigations. Specifically, I for learning. I will also
will engage in conversation with students at the ask them to tell me
beginning of the lesson while they are entering what they remember Checklist
the classroom and while we talk about the from the previous A checklist will be used to assess students
schedule, lesson learning goals and success lesson so that I am able as they complete the laboratory. For
criteria. Furthermore, I will converse with to determine where example:
students as they learn about the Benedict’s test students are in their -did the student complete the lab handout?
and it’s use in relation to type 1 diabetes. I willlearning and if there is -did the student hand in assignments on
also use conversation as a method to continually something that needs to time?
check in with students. be reviewed. -did the student follow safety practices
during the lab?
3. Product Assessment As -did the student consult available
The students’ laboratory results, completed Learning resources and talk with a peer before
laboratory handout, investigation pamphlet, as Assessment as learning asking for further assistance?
well as the answers they provide during class will will take place
all serve as a product of student learning. throughout the action Rubric
portion of the lesson. I A rubric will be used to assess the
will gather formative students’ independent investigation
information by assignment. Students will be graded out
observing students, of a total of 24.
engaging in
conversation with them
and reviewing their
products of learning.
Specifically, I will be
gathering formative
information as students
complete the
Benedict’s test as well
as when we discuss the
Benedict’s test as a
form of urinalysis.

Assessment Of
Learning
The independent type 1
diabetes investigation
assignment will serve
as summative
assessment and should
demonstrate student’s
learning throughout this
lesson. This
assignment will be
graded using a rubric.

Prior Learning
Prior to this lesson, students will be able to…

Prior to this lesson, students . . .


-Will be able to identify and discuss the biochemical compounds found in our food (carbohydrates, proteins, and
lipids);
-Will be aware of the laboratory safety rules;
-Will be able to correctly use a pipette;
-Will be able to follow laboratory procedure with little assistance;
-Will be able to identify and utilize scholarly resources;
-Will be able to cite sources using APA format.

Differentiated Instruction Responses


What will I do to assist and/or differentiate instruction for individual learners? Differentiation: Geography - Differentiation: Mathematics
Learning Materials (Content)
-Benedict’s test;
-Laboratory handout;
-Conversation;
-YouTube;
-Independent investigation assignment.
Ways of Learning (Process)
-Students are able to learn collaboratively when developing hypotheses and working on the laboratory experiment as
well as through conversation in order to develop responses to the inquiry based questions indented to lead the lesson
investigation.
-Students are able to learn individually when answering the laboratory handout questions as well as when they are
researching and developing their pamphlet.
-Visual learners will likely be most engaged when watching the YouTube videos and examining the qualitative
effects of the Benedict’s test.
-Auditory learners will likely be most engaged when listening to the YouTube videos as well as when listening and
participating in discussion.
-Kinesthetic learners will likely be most engaged when carrying out the Benedict’s test and when creating a
pamphlet.
Ways of Demonstrating Learning (Product)
Students will demonstrate their learning through the following methods:
-Conversation with peers, the class, and the teacher
-Laboratory results
-Laboratory handout
-Independent investigation assignment
Accommodations: Modifications:
Accommodations will be made based on the diverse and individual -I will modify the curriculum based on the
requirements of the students. The ELL student will be provided a handout individual requirements of each student as
support that will assist them in understanding what the Benedict test is outlined in their IEP.
and how it is used in biology. The student will have peer support in
completing the lab and I will ensure that I am available if the student
requires additional assistance. The student will be permitted to use a
translation dictionary, Google translate, and speech to text software
throughout the lesson. Furthermore, the student may work on their
pamphlet in the resource/student success room.
Materials/Preparation/Safety Consideration(s) for Teaching
What do I need to prepare before I begin the lesson?

-Prepare in advance the materials used for lab activity


-Learning goals and success criteria printed on chart paper
-SMART Board with LCD projector and speakers
-Homeroom computer with the appropriate cables to connect to the SMART Board
-Internet connection
-Access to YouTube
-Class set of laboratory handouts
-Handout support for ELL student
-7 test tubes
-Sharpie for labelling test tubes
-Pipettes
-Test tube stand
-Test tube holder
-Hot plate
-500 mL beaker
-Timer
-Distilled water
-Glucose solution
-Chicken broth
-Bread solution
-Orange juice
-Milk
-Benedict’s reagent
-Safety goggles
-Laboratory coats
-Gloves

Instructional Sequence
MINDS ON Time: 15 minutes Assessment Opportunities
 Establishing a positive learning environment Guiding Questions:
 What are you collecting?
 Connection to prior learning and/or experiences
(Observations/Conversations/Products)
 Setting the context for learning  How are you collecting student data?
(Assessment tool)

DAY 1

Greeting and Welcoming the Students (5 minutes) Conversation


As students enter the classroom, I will engage in conversation with them, I will engage in conversation with the
asking them about their day and how they are feeling. This will provide student as they enter the classroom in
me with diagnostic information regarding their general mood and order to build positive relationships and
preparedness for learning. It will also help me build positive relationships gather diagnostic information.
with the students by getting to know them and showing them you care. I
will also ask students if they have any questions about prior learning
before we move forward in order to ensure students are on the right track.

Schedule, Learning Goals and Success Criteria (5 minutes) Observation/Conversation


I will then go over the schedule for the day so that students have a clear I will discuss with students the schedule,
understanding of what they will be doing. I will then describe the learning goals and success criteria and will
learning goals and success criteria so that students know exactly what is observe their behaviour in order to ensure
expected of them and what they need to do in order to be successful. they are engaging and prepared for the
lesson to come.
Video Introduction (5 minutes) Observation
I will observe students as they watch the
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PE6_DGwLVA minds on video in order to make sure they
are engaging.
Watch from 0:45 minute to 1:30 minutes. This video should capture
students’ attention and intrigue for the lesson to come. I will then engage Conversation
in a dialogue with students about what the Benedict’s test is and ask them I will discuss with students what they just
questions regarding why it might be a beneficial test to use within a saw and why the Benedict test is important
biological context. Students will be asked to write down their preliminary within the context of biology.
thoughts and ideas in the space provided on their lab handout. I will then Furthermore, I will discuss with them how
review the safety instructions associated with this lesson as we will be they will be using the Benedict’s test and
using a hot plate, pipettes, and biological materials. I will then organize will prepare them for the laboratory.
students into groups of three of four students (depending on the size of the
class) and ask them to get their safety gear on and choose a pre-set lab
bench.

ACTION Time: 90 minutes Assessment Opportunities


 Introducing new learning or extending/reinforcing prior learning
 Providing opportunities for practice and application of learning (guided vs
independent)

The Benedict’s Test (60 minutes) Observation


I will begin by reviewing safety instructions with students and will ensure I will be observing students as they
each learner is wearing the appropriate safety gear. Students will then complete this laboratory investigation in
make a prediction regarding what they think will happen during the order to ensure they are following proper
laboratory based on what they know about each of the solutions and procedure and safety practices.
biochemical compounds in general. Students will state what colour they
think the solution will turn once the test is complete and explain why. Conversation
Students may develop a hypothesis with their group members. At their lab I will engage in conversation with the
station, students have been provided with all the materials they need to students by asking them questions
complete this lab including the solutions which include the following: a throughout the laboratory in order to
control substance (distilled water), glucose solution, chicken broth, bread inspire critical thinking and guide them
solution, orange juice, and milk. Students will pipette 5 mL of each into a through the investigation.
separate test tube and will label the test tube appropriately. They will then
pipette 5 mL of Benedict’s solution into each test tube. Students will then Checklist
add 300 mL of water into the glass beaker and heat the water to a boil. A checklist will be used to assess students
Students will then place the test tubes into the beaker, using a test tube as they complete the laboratory and will
holder, and wait for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, students can remove the based on criteria outlining their
test tubes, using a test tube holder and place them back onto the stand for appropriateness, responsibility, and
observation. I will ensure students remember to turn off the hot plate. collaboration during the lab.
During this lab activity, I will constantly be observing and moving from
group to group in order to ensure they are following safety procedures, Product
and progressing well with their lab. At the completion of the lab, students Laboratory results from each group as
must record their observations in the table provided on their lab handout. well as their hypotheses, completed
Students will then interpret their group’s results independently on the laboratory handout, and discussions will
handout provided explaining why the solution changed the colours that it all serve as products of student learning
did referencing the various kinds of biological compounds present in during this collaborative investigation.
various food samples, as a result. Students will be given 20 minutes to
complete this in class and will hand it in once they are finished. Their
answers will be checked for completion and will demonstrate their
participation within this laboratory.

DAY 2

Benedict’s Test as a Urinalysis (30 minutes) Conversation


Now that students have completed a Benedict’s test and have an I will help bridge students’ knowledge and
understanding of the processes and results that take place throughout, I understanding of the Benedict’s test to its
will introduce them to the concept of using a Benedict’s test as a form of possible use as a form of urinalysis by
urinalysis. Furthermore, we will compare the composition of urine from a engaging students in a discussion and
healthy individual to someone who has type 1 diabetes. Since we cannot asking them questions.
use urine within the laboratory setting, we will refer to our results from
the Benedict’s test in which we used food samples. I will begin by Observation
describing to students what a urinalysis is and how it has been used over I will be observing students throughout
the years as a form of medical assessment. I will ask them questions such our conversation as well as when they are
as, why might understanding the composition of urine help medical watching the video in order to ensure they
professionals determine the health of their patient? We will discuss what are engaged and participating.
the composition of urine might look like for a normal healthy individual
and why as well as consider where it might land on the qualitative Anecdotal Record
Benedict’s colour scale. Instead of giving students the answers, I will use I will keep anecdotal notes in order to
an inquiry approach to teaching by asking them questions that facilitate record the participation and behaviour of
critical thinking. If students are having a hard time reaching a solution students as well as to keep track of their
independently, I will allow them to do a think-pair-share as well as use answers and learning so that I know
their resources to help guide them to the correct answer. I will then whether or not concepts need to be further
introduce them to type 1 diabetes if they are not already familiar with the reviewed or if we can move forward with
disease. I will play the following video in order to give students a better learning.
understanding of how glucose and insulin act within the body.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OOWhuC_9Lw

At the end of the short video, I will ask students why the body might
starve if the person has type 1 diabetes, even though there is glucose
present within the blood stream. I will then ask them what happens to the
glucose since the body’s cells cannot use it for energy. Students should
be able to understand that out body excretes the glucose in urine, making
the Benedict’s test and urinalysis relevant in order to determine if a
patient has diabetes or not. We will then consider where a healthy
individual and diabetic individual might fall with regards to the
Benedict’s test.
CONSOLIDATION AND CONNECTION Time: 45 minutes Assessment Opportunities
 Helping students demonstrate what they have learned
 Providing opportunities for consolidation and reflection

Independent Investigation (45 minutes) Conversation


Testing the presence of sugar in urine is a methodology that has been used I will engage in conversation with students
for years in order to determine if someone was suffering from diabetes. about their independent investigation
For this investigation, students will demonstrate their learning regarding assignment and will make sure all students
what they know about the Benedict’s test and it’s use in determining the have a clear understanding of what is
presence of reducing sugars in relation to diabetes. Furthermore, students expected of them and how they will be
will be asked to conduct further research on type 1 diabetes as well as a graded.
modern medical technology used to aid cellular functions such as an
insulin pump. Students will present this information on a pamphlet that Observation
could be given out at a health care center, intended to educate people I will observe students during the time
about the disease and how technologies are helping to support them. they have to work on their project to make
Students must cite their references in APA format. Students will have the sure students are understanding their task,
remainder of the period to begin working on this investigation and ask me progressing well, and staying focused.
any questions they may have.
Anecdotal Record
Anecdotal notes will be used to record
their participation and behaviour during
their work period.

Product
Their completed investigation assignment
will serve as a product of their learning.

Rubric
A rubric will be used to summatively
grade the students’ products.

REFLECTION
Questions to determine the success of your lesson:
 Were my students successful in meeting the learning goals and success criteria? How do I know?
 Did my instructional decisions meet the needs of all students? If not, what are my next steps?
 What worked well? Why?
 What will I do differently in the future…
o …when teaching this lesson?
o …for the subsequent lesson?
 What are the next steps for my professional learning?
Laboratory: The Benedict’s Test

Figure 1: A Qualitative Test for Determining the Presence of Reducing Sugars

Introduction:

Benedict’s reagent is initially blue in colour. After performing the Benedict’s test, the
solution may change colour depending on the presence and concentration of reducing sugars
within certain substances. The higher the concentration of sugar, the deeper the solution changes
to red, red/brown as indicated by Figure 1.

Purpose:

You will be completing the Benedict’s test in order to identify the presence of reducing
sugars in various food samples.

Before you begin, please consider . . .

1. Why is the Benedict’s test important and how might it be used for biological purposes?

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Materials:

 7 test tubes
 Sharpie for labelling test tubes
 Pipettes
 Test tube stand
 Test tube holder
 Hot plate
 500 mL beaker
 Timer
 Distilled water
 Glucose solution
 Chicken broth
 Bread solution
 Orange juice
 Milk
 Benedict’s reagent
 Safety goggles
 Laboratory coats
 Gloves

Safety:

 Ensure long hair is tied back and any dangling jewelry is taken off and put away;
 Make sure everyone is wearing safety googles, gloves, and a lab coat;
 Follow Ms. Thurner’s instructions for hot plate usage in order to prevent burns. DO NOT
TOUCH HOT PLATE WHEN ON;
 Use test tube holders when transferring test tubes to and from the beaker;
 Remember to turn off and unplug the hot plate when it is not in use;
 Dispose of all materials as instructed by Ms. Thurner, and clean your work area thoroughly.

Procedure:

1. Begin by developing a hypothesis with your group members and recording your theories in
the appropriate section of Table 1.
2. Label each of the test tubes in order to match the corresponding solutions that will be added
(distilled water, glucose solution, chicken broth, bread solution, orange juice, and milk).
3. Using a pipette, measure 5 mL of each solution into the corresponding test tube. Rise out the
pipette between uses in order to reduce the risk of cross contamination.
4. Using the pipette, measure 5 mL of Benedict’s reagent into each of the test tubes.
5. Swirl the test tubes in order to mix the solution and the reagent.
6. Turn on the hot plate to approximately 70 C.
7. Fill the beaker with 300 mL of warm water and place the beaker on the hot plate.
8. When the water begins to boil, USE THE TEST TUBE HOLDER to carefully place each of
the test tubes into the beaker of boiling water.
9. Set your timer for 5 minutes.
10. When the timer ends, USE THE TEST TUBE HOLDER to remove each of the test tubes
and place them back into the test tube stand.
11. Turn off and unplug hot plate.
12. Record your observations in Table 1.
13. Independently answer the review questions.

Observations:

Table 1:
Solutions: Hypothesis Observation

Using your pre-existing After completing Benedict’s


knowledge and test, list your observations.
understandings, what do you
think will happen and why?
Control 1: Distilled Water

Control 2: Glucose Solution

Chicken Broth

Bread Solution

Orange Juice

Milk

Review Questions:

1. Did your observations match your original hypothesis, why or why not?

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2. Explain the results of this experiment using your observations as evidence.

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