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ADVANCED CMG FLOW MODELLING

INSTRUCTOR: NAJMUDEEN SIBAWEIHI


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Create Map Using Builder ..............................................................................................................................................2


Problem Data .............................................................................................................................................................2
Reservoir Section (Static Model) ...............................................................................................................................6
Components Section (Fluid Model) .........................................................................................................................17
Rock-fluid Section ....................................................................................................................................................19
Initial Conditions Section .........................................................................................................................................21
Wells & Recurrent Section .......................................................................................................................................22
Plotting Field Pressure History.................................................................................................................................28
Manual History Matching ............................................................................................................................................30
Matching Field Pressure ..........................................................................................................................................30
Changing Aquifer Properties and DWOC .............................................................................................................30
Well Bottom-hole Pressure Matching .................................................................................................................36
Forecasting ..................................................................................................................................................................37
Depletion .................................................................................................................................................................37
Infill drilling ..............................................................................................................................................................41
waterflooding ..........................................................................................................................................................46
Add New Injection Wells .....................................................................................................................................46
Convert Producer to Injection Well .....................................................................................................................50
Polymer Flooding .....................................................................................................................................................56
Solvent flooding .......................................................................................................................................................60
Hydraulic fracturing .................................................................................................................................................64

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CREATE MAP USING BUILDER

PROBLEM DATA

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Column1 Column3
Est. OWC 6740 ft
Ref Pressure 2020 psia
Init. Press@6550ft 2020 psia
Gas Density 0.075 lb/SCF
Oil Density 47 lb/SCF
Water Density 62.5 lb/SCF
FVF Water 1.02 bbl/STB
Compressiblity
Water 3 x 10-6 psi-1
Water Viscosity 0.4 cp
Rock Compressibility 4 x 10-6 psi-1
Wellbore Diameter 7 1/2 inches
Start of Production 1-Jan-00
Oil Compressibility 2.185 x 10-5 psi-1

Pressure Rs Bo Eg viso visg


14.7 0 1.0348 4.73 0.31 0.0107
500 117.6 1.1017 168.8 0.295 0.0127
1000 222.6 1.1478 350.803 0.274 0.0134
1200 267.7 1.1677 426.603 0.264 0.0138
1500 341.4 1.1997 541.8 0.249 0.0145
1800 421.5 1.235 657.808 0.234 0.0153
2000 479 1.26 735.168 0.224 0.0159
2302.3 572.8 1.301 850.991 0.208 0.017
2500 634.1 1.3278 907.703 0.2 0.0177
3000 789.3 1.3956 1015.022 0.187 0.0195
3500 944.4 1.4634 1096.972 0.175 0.0214
4000 1099.5 1.5321 1159.958 0.167 0.0232
4500 1254.7 1.5991 1215.953 0.159 0.025
4800 1347.8 1.6398 1245.02 0.155 0.0261

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sw krw krow pcow


0.22 0 1 7
0.2316 0.01015 0.913 6.565
0.2432 0.0203 0.826 6.13
0.2668 0.04095 0.649 5.245
0.2896 0.0609 0.478 4.39
0.3136 0.08088 0.3626 3.864
0.336 0.0988 0.301 3.64
0.3604 0.11832 0.2339 3.396
0.3824 0.13592 0.1734 3.176
0.4072 0.15648 0.120672 2.964
0.4288 0.17592 0.107691 2.85599
0.454 0.1986 0.092546 2.73
0.4752 0.21768 0.079805 2.624
0.5008 0.24072 0.064419 2.496
0.5216 0.25944 0.051918 2.392
0.5476 0.28284 0.036292 2.262
0.568 0.3012 0.024032 2.16
0.5912 0.32208 0.010089 2.044
0.6144 0.353041 0.004454 1.928
0.6376 0.390161 0.003898 1.812
0.6608 0.42728 0.003341 1.69599
0.684 0.4644 0.002784 1.58
0.7072 0.50152 0.002227 1.464
0.7304 0.53864 0.00167 1.348
0.7536 0.57576 0.001114 1.232
0.7768 0.61288 0.000557 1.116
0.8 0.650459 0 0.999999
0.8128 0.67304 0 0.935998
0.844 0.7292 0 0.780003
0.8752 0.78536 0 0.624
0.9064 0.84088 0 0.468
0.9376 0.89392 0 0.312001
0.9688 0.94696 0 0.156
1 1 0 0

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sl krg krog pcog


0.22 1 0 3.9
0.2512 0.926875 0 3.744
0.2824 0.85375 0 3.588
0.3136 0.77 0 3.432
0.3384 0.6925 0 3.308
0.3604 0.623749 0 3.198
0.3828 0.553749 0 3.086
0.4072 0.4962 0 2.964
0.4272 0.47824 0 2.864
0.4568 0.45456 0 2.716
0.4864 0.43088 0 2.568
0.5164 0.40688 0 2.418
0.5476 0.38192 0 2.262
0.5788 0.35696 0 2.106
0.6048 0.3352 0.00096 1.976
0.61 0.33 0.002 1.95
0.6344 0.3056 0.00688 1.828
0.6568 0.2832 0.01136 1.716
0.68 0.26 0.016 1.6
0.704 0.233639 0.0232 1.48
0.728 0.2008 0.0424 1.36
0.7528 0.16608 0.06224 1.236
0.776 0.1336 0.0808 1.12
0.8 0.101408 0.1 1
0.824 0.08128 0.155199 0.88
0.844 0.06568 0.2012 0.78
0.864 0.05008 0.2472 0.68
0.8908 0.029283 0.30884 0.546
0.9156 0.01628 0.4002 0.422
0.9376 0.008213 0.4992 0.312
0.96 0 0.6 0.2
0.976 0 0.76 0.12
1 0 1 0

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RESERVOIR SECTION (STATIC MODEL)

1. Go to Windows | All Programs | CMG | Launcher 2016.10. Select OK for the dialog the appears.
2. Double click on Builder 2016.10.

3. In the window that opens click File | New. Fill the dialog as shown below.

4. Click OK and OK for the dialog that appears.


5. Click IO Control | Titles and Case ID. Fill as follows with your name.

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6. Click File | Create Map File.


7. Fill the dialog that appears as follows. You can also copy from the attached file in the project folder
reservoirData.xlsx.

8. In the upper right corner of the Create Map dialog, click on the three buttons to change the name of the
file to TopMesh.

NB: Make sure you save it in your project working directory.

9. Click on the Mesh tab and change the mesh number to 15. Click save file to generate top map.

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10. Go to points tab and replace the Value column with thickness data. From the upper right column click on
the three dots to change the name of the mesh to ThickMesh. Click on Update file to generate thickness
map. Click close to return to main Builder window.

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11. Click on Reservoir | Create Grid | Orthogonal corner point. Fill the dialog as follows. Click OK to return to
main Builder window.

12. Press on SHIFT or CTRL with left mouse button click to adjust the mesh to fit the map as you like.
13. Click on probe mode to activate Specify Properties button.
14. Click on Specify Button to load the top and thickness map.

15. Right click on Layer 1 row of Grid Top Column and select Geological Map.

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16. In the Property Specification dialog click on Values in file 1.

17. Select CMG Mesh format as Map type and Units as ft. Click on the three dots to select top map file from
your project directory.

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18. Click OK twice to return to General Property specification dialog.


19. Right click on Layer 1 row of Grid Thickness Column and select Geological Map.
20. In the Property Specification dialog click on Values in file 1.
21. Select CMG Mesh format as Map type and Units as ft. Click on the three dots to select thickness map file
from your project directory.
22. Click OK to return to Property specification dialog. Enter 0.2 for times to allocate 20% of the thickness to
each layer.

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23. Click OK to return to General Property specification dialog.


24. Copy map for layer one and paste in layers 2 to 5 and click OK twice to return to main Builder window.

25. From the top left corner, select 3D view.

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26. To remove the maps, right click anywhere in the 3D window and select Properties. From Builder
properties dialog under Model view select Maps. Uncheck Show Map. Click OK to return to main Builder
window.
27. Click Reservoir | Geostatistics.
28. In the Create Geostatiscal Objects dialog, click on the arrow beside the Name and select New (default).
Enter Porosity as the name.
29. From the Output Property drop down list select Porosity from the list.
30. Select Use layer numbers for 3D radio button.
31. From reservoirData.xlsx copy porosity data and paste as shown below.

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32. Click on Methods Tab. Select Gaussian Geostatistical Simulation as Calculation method. Click on Click to
match Variogram button to edit Variogram graphically. To edit the Variogram manually, click on Click to
edit Variogram data button for Horizontal and Vertical Variogram to edit.
33. Click on Run to populate the porosity data for each grid cell. If you are satisfied with the distribution click
Apply button.
34. Repeat steps 28 to 33 for Permeability I.
35. Click OK to return to Main Builder window.

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36. Click Specify Properties button.


37. Right click Whole grid row in Permeability J column and select EQUALSI.

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38. Click OK in Property Specification dialog.


39. Right click Whole grid row in Permeability J column and select EQUALSI. Fill Property Specification dialog
as shown.

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40. Click OK twice to return to main Builder window.


41. Select Reservoir | Rock Compressibility and fill the dialog as follows. Click OK.

COMPONENTS SECTION (FLUID MODEL)

1. Click Components | Model and select None of the above. Launch detail dialog as shown.

2. Select Black Oil as the Model.


3. Click on PVT Regions in the Model dialog.

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4. Fill the PVT table as shown from the data provided.

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5. Click on general Tab and fill as shown from the data provided.

6. Click OK twice and return to main Builder window.

ROCK-FLUID SECTION

1. Click Rock-Fluid | Create or Edit Rock Types.


2. Click on the arrow beside rock type and select New Rock Type.
3. Click on Relative permeability tables tab and select Water-Oil Table.
4. Copy and paste water-oil relative permeability table.

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5. Select liquid-gas table (Liquid Saturation). Copy and paste liquid gas table as shown.

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6. Click Apply and OK to return to main Builder window.

INITIAL CONDITIONS SECTION

1. Click Initial Conditions | Initialization Settings.


2. Fill the dialog as shown.

3. Click Apply and OK.

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WELLS & RECURRENT SE CTION

1. Click Wells & Recurrent | Well New.


2. Click Wells & Recurrent | Import Production/Injection Data
3. Select FHF as file type.
4. Browse to locate PRODUCTION_HISTORY.FHF file in the project folder provided.

5. Click Next.
6. Select Output in history matching mode option. Make sure well names imported matches well names in
the input file.
7. Click Finish.

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8. In the Simulation time dialog that appears scroll down to the bottom and set Stop as shown

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9. Click Close to return to main Builder window.


10. Save your project.
11. Click Wells & Recurrent | Well Completions(PERF).
12. Select General Tab.
13. Under Well & Date select Well-1001.
14. Change well radius to 0.625
15. Select LAYERXYZ as geometric data and click Apply as Shown in the figure below.

16. Click on Perforations tab.


17. Fill the well locations and perforations as shown and click Apply. Use the icons in the red box to add or
delete row.

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18. Repeat steps 6 to 10 for Well-1002 to Well-1009.


19. Click to return to main Builder window.
20. Click File| Scripting.
21. Click on the black arrow and select new. Use PoroPermSim as the name of the script.

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22. Click on + to add rows.


23. Click on X to delete rows.
24. To move row up or down click on the icons shown.
25. Right click inside the cells of the Actions column to select an action to take.
26. For row 1 select repeat it will automatically add the End Repeat row. The repeat value is 10 which means
10 realizations of properties we are calculating.
27. Insert Geostatistical Calculations for row 2 and 3 then select porosity and permeability as values to
calculate.
28. In the fourth row, right click inside the cells of the Actions column and select Save as Dataset to save each
realization in a separate input file. Click OK.
29. The following dialog appears, fill the dialog according to your preference.

30. In the fifth row, right click inside the cells of the Actions column and select Simulator Initialization to run
each realization.
31. The following dialog appears, fill the dialog according to your preference. Click OK.

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32. This step is required if only you require initial fluid in place for each realization.
33. Add row 6 after Simulator Initialization.
34. Right click and select Simulation Queue.
35. Fill the dialog as shown and click OK.

36. Click Run Script.

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37. After the run, you should get this output message.

Dataset Repeat # Total oil in place Total water in place Total gas in place HC. Pore Volume Total Pore Volume.
STB STB SCF M RBBL M RBBL
SECTOR-0 SECTOR-0
HIST_MATCH_0000.dat 1 5.31E+08 2.11E+08 2.74E+11 678105 888863
HIST_MATCH_0001.dat 2 5.35E+08 2.13E+08 2.76E+11 682412 895392
HIST_MATCH_0002.dat 3 5.38E+08 2.15E+08 2.77E+11 686121 900777
HIST_MATCH_0003.dat 4 5.45E+08 2.18E+08 2.81E+11 695558 913642
HIST_MATCH_0004.dat 5 5.39E+08 2.15E+08 2.78E+11 687122 902084
HIST_MATCH_0005.dat 6 5.44E+08 2.17E+08 2.80E+11 694168 910790
HIST_MATCH_0006.dat 7 5.40E+08 2.16E+08 2.78E+11 688464 904861
HIST_MATCH_0007.dat 8 5.39E+08 2.17E+08 2.77E+11 687176 903722
HIST_MATCH_0008.dat 9 5.32E+08 2.12E+08 2.74E+11 679322 891163
HIST_MATCH_0009.dat 10 5.37E+08 2.13E+08 2.77E+11 685643 898461

38. Save and Close your project and return to Launcher.


39. Wait for launcher to finish running all simulations you sent. This is shown at the bottom of launcher.

PLOTTING FIELD PRESS URE HISTORY

1. Double click on Results 2016.10


2. Click on Add Files to load the results files.

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3. Change the file type to SR3 Files and select files with extension .sr3 not rstr.sr3 and click Open.
4. Click Add files but this time change the file type to Field History Files.
5. Select FIELD_PRESSURE_HISTORY.FHF and PRODUCTION_HISTORY.FHF files and click Open.
6. Click on Add Time Series Plot.

7. Make the following selections in the order as shown below to plot the field pressure history.

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8. From the above we can observe that in 16-year period of production reservoir pressure has not drop
significantly which suggest we may have an aquifer.
9. Open HIST_MATCH0000.DAT in Builder.

MANUAL HISTORY MATCHING

MATCHING FIELD PRESS URE

CHANGING AQUIFER PROPERTIES AND DWOC


1. Click on Reservoir | Create/Edit Aquifers or click on the Aquifer icon.

2. Select Bottom Aquifer from the dialog as shown and click OK.

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3. Make the following changes for Aquifer Properties dialog.

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4. Click Apply and OK.


5. Click Initial Conditions | Initialization Settings.
6. Change the DWOC as shown.

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7. Save and close the project to return to Launcher.


8. Repeat step 1 to 7 for HIST_MATCHXXXX.dat. XXXX = 0001 to 0009.
9. Drag and drop all HIST_MATCHXXXX.dat on IMEX 2016.10 icon in launcher.
10. Make the following selection as shown in the dialog below.

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11. Click OK to run the files.


12. After IMEX finish running all the files Launcher interface will appear as shown.

13. From the Results 2016.10 which you open earlier click on Reread now to update your uploaded results.

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14. To compare simulated and History field pressure make the following selection as shown.

15. If your field pressure did not match as shown, change the Aquifer properties and DWOC as in steps 1 to 7
until you obtain a reasonable match.
16. The following plots show matched Cumulative Oil, Water and Gas for selected wells.

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WELL BOTTOM-HOLE PRE SSURE MATCHING


1. To match BHP for well-1009 we have to change the skin factor.

2. Drag and drop HIST_MATCH0000.DAT on Builder 2016.10.


3. Click on Wells | Well Completion (PERF).
4. Select General Tab and change the Skin Value as shown.

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5. Click Apply and OK.


6. Save and Close the project.
7. Drag and drop HIST_MATCH0000.DAT on IMEX 2016.10 in Launcher and click OK to run.
8. When run is complete, go to Results 2016.10 and click Reread now to update your results and plots.
9. If simulated BHP does not match History BHP, repeat steps 2 to 8 until a reasonable match is obtained.

FORECASTING

The demonstrations below are only for teaching how to use CMG-Builder to do forecasting.

DEPLETION

Under this scenario, we utilize same wells and constraints of the history stage. This is used as our base case for
comparisons other forecasting methods.

1. Open the best matched obtained during history matching using Builder.
2. Save as DEPLETION.DAT in prediction folder.
3. Click on Wells |Dates.
4. Click on Add a Range of Dates calendar icon.
5. Add 10-year prediction period starting 2016/01/01 t0 2026/01/01 and click OK.

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6. Uncheck set stop from 2016-01-01.


7. Check set stop 2026-01-01 as end of simulation and click Close button to return to Builder main window.
8. Click Wells | Well Events.
9. Select well-1001 and click on the Calendar icon to select 2016-01-01 as the first date for prediction.
10. Click on Constraints tab and check Constraint definition box.
11. Add BHP bottom hole pressure as primary constraint (1300psi) and click Apply.
12. Click on Well-1001 and scroll down constraints for 2016-01-01 event and right click to select copy events
using filter.
13. In the dialog that appears, select Wells tab, All as Auto select Wells and click on Select button.

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14. Click on Dates tab and check 2016-01-01.


15. Check Create new dates for selected wells if they do not exist box.
16. Click on Search & Add button.
17. Click OK.

18. Right click on 2016-02-01 date in well-1001 and select delete events using filter.
19. Click on Dates tab.
20. Uncheck 2016-01-01.
21. Check 2016-02-02 and click Search & Add.
22. Click OK. If SHUTIN events still exist repeat steps 18 to 21 to delete for all wells.
23. Save and Close the Depletion.dat.
24. Run Depletion file from Launcher.
25. After RUN is completed open your results in Results 2016.10

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INFILL DRILLING

In this scenario, we add extra production wells to increase the average field oil production rate.

1. Open DEPLETION.DAT in prediction folder using Builder.


2. Save as INFILL.DAT in prediction folder.
3. Click on Wells |Well New.
4. Select ID & Type.
5. Check Add multiples wells and select from 1 to 3.
6. Select Producer as well Type.
7. Change Well definition date to 2016-01-01 by clicking on calendar icon.
8. Check Add wells using drilling schedule of 1 wells every 3 months.

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9. Click Constraints tab and fill Create New well dialog as shown and Click OK.

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10. Click Wells |Well Completions(PERF).


11. Select Well-10001.
12. Change the radius to 0.625ft.
13. Select LAYERXYZ as XYZ geometric data.
14. Click Apply

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15. Select Perforations tab.


16. Add perforations for layer 1 to 5 as shown. Use icons in red box to add or delete row.

17. Click Apply.


18. Repeat steps 11 to 17 for Well-10002 (36 49 1:5) and Well-1003 (67 63 1:5).

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19. Click OK
20. Save and Close INFILL.DAT.
21. Run INFILL.DAT from Launcher
22. After Run is complete load the results in Results 2016.10

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WATERFLOODING

ADD NEW INJECTION WELLS


In this scenario, we add extra injection wells for pressure maintenance and to increase the average field oil
production rate.

1. Open DEPLETION.DAT in prediction folder using Builder.


2. Save as WATERFLOODING.DAT in prediction folder.
3. Click on Wells |Well New.
4. Select ID & Type.
5. Check Add multiples wells and select from 1 to 3.
6. Select Producer as well Type.
7. Change Well definition date to 2016-01-01 by clicking on calendar icon.
8. Check Add wells using drilling schedule of 1 wells every 3 months.

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23. Click Constraints tab and fill Create New well dialog as shown and Click OK.

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24. Click Wells |Well Completions(PERF).


25. Select Well-10001.
26. Change the radius to 0.625ft.
27. Select LAYERXYZ as XYZ geometric data.
28. Click Apply

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29. Select Perforations tab.


30. Add perforations for layer 1 to 5 as shown. Use icons in red box to add or delete row.

31. Click Apply.


32. Repeat steps 11 to 17 for Well-10002 (36 49 1:5) and Well-1003 (67 63 1:5).

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33. Click OK
34. Save your file now.

CONVERT PRODUCER TO INJECTION WELL


35. Go to Wells | Copy Well.
36. Select Well- 1007 from the well list

37. Click Next.


38. Accept all default and click Next.
39. In step 5 of 6 of the copy wizard, change new well definition date to 2016-01-01.

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40. Click Next.

41. Click Finish


42. Click Finish to return to Builder.
43. Go to Well | Well Events.
44. Select Well-1007_inj.
45. Under ID & Type change well type to INJECTOR MOBWEIGHT and click Apply button.
46. Go to constraints button and check Constraint definition box.
47. Set constraints as BHP 3500psi as shown and click Apply.

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48. Go to Injected Fluid tab and Select Water. Click Apply.


49. Select Well-1007 and click event date 2016-01-01 PRODUCER.
50. Click on Options tab and change Status to SHUTIN.

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51. Click Apply and OK.


52. Save and Close WATERFLOODING.DAT.
53. Run WATERFLOODING.DAT from Launcher
54. After Run is complete load the results in Results 2016.10

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GAS INJECTION

You can inject gas instead of water.

1. Open WATERFLOODING.DAT in prediction folder using Builder.


2. Save as GASINJECTION.DAT in prediction folder.
3. Go to Well |Well Completions (PERF).
4. Make the following changes to all injection wells. Click Apply.

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5. Click OK.
6. Go Well | Well Events and change Injection Fluid for all Injectors to GAS.
7. Click Apply and OK.
8. Save and Close GASINJECTION.DAT.
9. Run GASINJECTION.DAT from Launcher
10. After Run is complete load the results in Results 2016.10

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POLYMER FLOODING

1. Open WATERFLOODING.DAT in prediction folder using Builder.


2. Save as POLYMERINJECTION.DAT in prediction folder.
3. Go to Components |Model.
4. Change the model from Black Oil to Polymer. Click Apply.

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5. Click Polymer Tab. Fill as shown. Tables are in the reservorData.xlsx.

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6. Click Apply.
7. Change Polymer Properties Table from Polymer adsorption table to Polymer permeability table and fill as
shown. Table is in the reservorData.xlsx.

8. Click Apply and OK.


9. Go to Well | Well Events.
10. Select Well-1007_inj.
11. Select injected fluid event.
12. Enter Polymer concentration of 0.7 lb/bbl. Click Apply.
13. Repeat steps 10 to 12 for Well-10001 to Well-10003.

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14. Click OK to return to main Builder window.


15. Save and exit the project.
16. Run POLYMERINJECTION.DAT from Launcher
17. After Run is complete load the results in Results 2016.10

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SOLVENT FLOODING

1. Open GASINJECTION.DAT in prediction folder using Builder.


2. Save as SOLVENTINJECTION.DAT in prediction folder.
3. Go to Components |Model.
4. Change the model from Black Oil to Pseudo-miscible with chase gas. Click Apply.

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5. Click Solvent Tab. Fill as shown. Tables are in the reservorData.xlsx.

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6. Click Apply and OK.


7. Click Specify Property button.
8. Enter Solvent Sat Pressure of 1500psi.

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9. Click OK for any dialog that appears.


10. Go to Well | Well Events.
11. Select Well-1007_inj.
12. Select injected fluid event.
13. Go Well | Well Events and change Injection Fluid for all Injectors to SOLVENT.
14. Click Apply and OK.
15. Save and Close SOLVENTINJECTION.DAT.
16. Run SOLVENTINJECTION.DAT from Launcher
17. After Run is complete load the results in Results 2016.10

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HYDRAULIC FRACTURING

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