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Portugal.
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como evento fundador do nosso Romantismo.
(Fontes: http://www.instituto-camoes.pt)
Literatura Portuguesa II

,1752'8d®2

Saudade! gosto amargo de infelizes,


Delicioso pungir de acerbo espinho,
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Almeida Garrett,
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Nesta aula, veremos que o Romantismo em Portugal traduziu a con-


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contudo, deixar de abordar outros nomes, como Alexandre Herculano,
Feliciano de Castilho e Soares de Passos.

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animaria intelectuais, escritores e artistas a se envolverem com os ideais
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antenada com os movimentos culturais europeus. Pode-se, inclusive, dizer
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93
Literatura Portuguesa II

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Literatura. Veremos, a seguir, como a mesma se estruturou no panorama
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A LITERATURA PORTUGUESA SEGUNDO A


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Alexandre Herculano e Feliciano Castilho. Em suas obras, podemos tanto
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95
Literatura Portuguesa II

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portuguesa, seus autores e obras.

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SOCIEDADE: OS POETAS PORTUGUESES
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e de Alexandre Herculano expoentes importantes para compreender o
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&RQVWLWXFLRQDO3RUWXJXHVDTXHRFDUDFWHUL]RXVXFHGHXjTXHGDGH&RVWD
6
&DEUDO TXHH[HUFLDQDpSRFDIXQomRVHPHOKDQWHDGHXPSULPHLURPLQLVWUR 
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tQGLFHVGDSHQHWUDomRGRVLGHDLVGD5HJHQHUDomRHQWUHRVWH[WRVSURGX]LGRV
(VWXGHPRV SRLV XP SRXFR GR TXH 0DVVDXG 0RLVpV FKDPRX GH
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por Almeida Garrett:

A POESIA DE ALMEIDA GARRETT

-RmR%DSWLVWDGD6LOYD/HmRGH$O
meida (1799-1854), mais tarde Visconde
de Almeida Garrett, foi um dos maiores
nomes da Literatura Portuguesa, por sua
FRQWULEXLomRFRPRHVFULWRU SRHWDGUD
PDWXUJRHQVDtVWDFRQWLVWDURPDQFLVWDH
missivista) e como intelectual engajado na
sociedade portuguesa, atuando na vida
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' %UDQFD   )UHL /XtV GH 6RX]D
(1843), Viagens de minha terra (1846) e
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HPVXDH[WHQVDSURGXomR
Almeida Garret (fontes: http://www. 2IpOLD 3DLYD 0RQWHLUR QR DUWLJR
noscafora.be)
Romantismo e modernidade, publicado na
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$DEHUWXUDGH*DUUHWWDR5RPDQWLVPRQRGHFXUVRGDVFRQIURQWDo}HV
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WDPEpP DODUJDPHQWRVFXOWXUDLVGHWHUPLQDQWHV QRV PHLRV HVWUDQJHLURVTXH
FRQKHFH ,QJODWHUUDIUDQoDH%pOJLFD ²H[SDQGHHDSURIXQGDHVWDVSHUVSHFWLYDV
Os sofrimentos pessoais e os desenganos com os sucessos portugue-
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HQWUHDVIDFo}HVOLEHUDLVH[DFHUEDPOKHDVXEMHWLYLGDGHHRFDVLRQDPOKH
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SDUDGR[DOGRKRPHP²JUDQGH]DHPLVpULD²HGRSHVRFRQIRUPDGRUGR
WHPSRRROKDUGHVHQJDQRGRVREUHDH[LVWrQFLDDLQWHQVLÀFDomRGRVHQ
timento religioso).

97
Literatura Portuguesa II

6RERHVWtPXORGHQRYDVOHLWXUDV %\URQ:6FRWW/DPDUWLQH9LFWRU
Hugo, Goethe, etc.) lhe abrem o gosto e lhe pedem novas formas de ex-
SUHVVmRSDUDGL]HURVPHDQGURVGDYLGDLQWHULRUDVVLQXRVLGDGHVGRMRJR
VRFLDOHRUHFRUWHWmRGLYHUVRGRPXQGRUHLYLQGLFDPROGHVTXHVLJDPR
´FRUDomRµHQmRUHJUDVUHVXOWDQWHVGDLPSOLFDomR´RUJkQLFDGRFRQWH~GRH
GD S H[SUHVVmR²RJUDQGHHSURVSHFWLYRSULQFtSLRURPkQWLFRGD
XQLGDGHSRpWLFD1HVVHSULQFLSLRIXQGDPHQWDDOLiVGHVGHHQWmRDUHFXVD
de submeter-se a escolas e modelos. (p. 22/23)
*DUUHWURPkQWLFRSHQVDSRLVRDXWRUFRPRRFULDGRUGHXPXQLYHUVR
´IDEXORVRµGHVHQWUDQKDGRGHVLPHVPRHGHVXDFRPXQLGDGHTXHSRGH²H
GHYH²HVWDEHOHFHUFRPRVOHLWRUHVXP´GLiORJRµHSRULVVRYrQRHVFULWRU
ÀHODRLGHDOGHFLGDGDQLDDJRUDHQULTXHFLGRFRPQRYDVSHUVSHFWLYDVXP
FRRSHUDQWHQDFRQVWUXomRGD´SROLVµDVREUDVTXHSURGX]²RUJDQL]DGDV
´UHSUHVHQWDo}HVµGRPXQGRQRVSODQRVVHPkQWLFRHHVWpWLFRVHPSUHLQGLV
VRFLiYHLV²GHYHPRIHUHFHUjVRFLHGDGHLPDJHQVTXHDUHÁLWDPHDHVWLPXOHP
ajudando-a a entender-se e a criticar-se. (p.25)
&RQIRUPH DSRQWD D DXWRUD *DUUHWW UHFHEHX R HVStULWR URPkQWLFR
FRPRXPDIRUoDFDSD]GHRULHQWDUVXDSURGXomROLWHUiULDMiTXHROLEHUDYD
GHFRQYHQo}HVTXHVHJXQGRDYLVmRTXHRFRQWDWRFRPRSHQVDPHQWRH
DVSURGXo}HVLQJOHVDVHIUDQFHVDVOKHWURX[HMiQmRHUDPFDSD]HVGHH[
SUHVVDUVXDUHODomRFRPRPXQGRHPHVPRDYLVmRGRPXQGRFRPRXPD
HVWUXWXUDFROHWLYD'HXPODGRSRUWDQWR*DUUHWWYDORUL]RXDFULDomRFRPR
LQVWUXPHQWRSDUDDIRUPDomRGDFRQVFLrQFLDGHQDFLRQDOLGDGHHFLGDGDQLD
HGHRXWURQDGLPHQVmRSHVVRDOWUDWRXGHSUREOHPDVGHIRURLQWLPLVWD
2IDWRGHSHQVDUDIXQomRGRHVFULWRUFRQIHULXDHOHXPSDSHOLPSRUWDQWH
QRVHQWLGRGHGLVVHPLQDUXPDSUHRFXSDomRSUySULDGR5RPDQWLVPRMiTXH
FRPRYLPRVQDDXODVHUiQHVWHPRPHQWRTXHRHVFULWRUHRDUWLVWDHP
JHUDOUHFHEHUmRXPDLPSRUWkQFLDSDUWLFXODUHWHUmRVHXVGLUHLWRVGHH[SUHVVmR
SUySULDSRVLWLYDPHQWHFRQVLGHUDGRV$VVLPQDOtULFDHPHVSHFLDOTXHQHVWH
PRPHQWRQRVLQWHUHVVDWDQWRHQFRQWUDUHPRVSURGXo}HVGHFDUiWHUPDLV
ÀORVyÀFRRXVRFLDOTXDQWRRXWUDVFDUUHJDGDVGHVXEMHWLYLGDGH/HLDPRVH
comentemos um poema:

1mRWHDPR

1mRWHDPRTXHURWHRDPDUYHPG·DOPD
(HXQ·DOPDWHQKRDFDOPD
A calma - do jazigo.
$LQmRWHDPRQmR

1mRWHDPRTXHURWHRDPRUpYLGD
E a vida - nem sentida
$WUDJRHXMiFRPLJR

98
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

$LQmRWHDPRQmR

$LQmRWHDPRQmRHVyWHTXHUR
6
De um querer bruto e fero
Que o sangue me devora,
1mRFKHJDDRFRUDomR

1mRWHDPReVEHODHHXQmRWHDPRyEHOD
Quem ama a aziaga estrela
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'DVXDSHUGLomR"

(TXHURWHHQmRWHDPRTXHpIRUoDGR
'HPDXIHLWLoRD]DGR
Este indigno furor.
0DVRKQmRWHDPRQmR

E infame sou, porque te quero; e tanto


Que de mim tenho espanto,
De ti medo e terror...
0DVDPDUQmRWHDPRQmR
)ROKDV&DtGDV WUHFKR

2EVHUYHYRFrTXHHVWHSRHPDWUDGX]DH[SHULrQFLDLQWLPLVWD
UHÁHWLQGRRFRQÁLWRHQWUHRVHQWLPHQWRHRGHVHMR$EHOH]DFRPRLQVSL
UDGRUDGRGHVHMRSDUHFHLQFRPSDWtYHOFRPRVHQWLPHQWRGRDPRU/HP
EUHPRVTXHRDPRULGHDOL]DGRFRUUHVSRQGHQWHDRSDGUmRURPkQWLFRGD
PXVDLQDFHVVtYHOFRORFDYDRHURWLVPRQRSODQRLPDJLQDWLYR$PXVDQmR
poderia ser tocada, ainda que houvesse o desejo do toque. Aqui Garrett
UHYHOD D DQJ~VWLDGH VHQWLUWmR IRUWH R GHVHMRD SRQWR GH VHU QHFHVViULR
UHIXWDURDPRUFRPRSRVVLELOLGDGH2´TXHUHUµVHGLIHUHQFLDGR´DPDUµ
FULDQGRXPDLQFRPSDWLELOLGDGHGHÀQLWLYDHQWUHDPERVDLQGDTXHR´WRPµ
GRSRHPDSDUHoDVLPUHPHWHUQRVjLGpLDGRDPRUHPVXDVIRUPDVLQLFLDLV
Um poema da Literatura Brasileira, de Casimiro de Abreu, intitulado Amor
HPHGRWHPW{QLFDSDUHFLGDDLQGDTXHPDLVLQJrQXD9HMDXPWUHFKR

Quando eu te vejo e me desvio cauto


'DOX]GHIRJRTXHWHFHUFDyEHOD
Contigo dizes, suspirando amores:
³´0HX'HXVTXHJHORTXHIULH]DDTXHODµ
&RPRWHHQJDQDVPHXDPRUpFKDPD
Que se alimenta no voraz segredo,

99
Literatura Portuguesa II

(VHWHIXMRpTXHWHDGRURORXFR
eVEHOD³HXPRoRWHQVDPRUHX³PHGR

$VVLP*DUUHWWHPERDSDUWHGHVXDSURGXomRGHXYR]jVTXHVW}HV
GDVXEMHWLYLGDGHURPkQWLFDFRPVHXVDQVHLRVHUHÁH[}HVVREUHRFRQÁLWR
HQWUHVHQWLPHQWRHUD]mRVHQWLPHQWRHPRUDO6XDYLGDDPRURVDVHPSUH
HVWHYH FHUFDGD GH HVFkQGDORV H H[LELFLRQLVPR PDV 6DUDLYD DSRQWD TXH
GHEDL[RGHVWD´PiVFDUDKiXPDYLGDHPRFLRQDOLQWHQVDTXHGiDSDUWHGH
VXDREUDOLWHUiULDXPDSURIXQGH]DSVLFROyJLFDHPTXHQmRVHWHPUHSDUDGR
EDVWDQWHµ S
'HRXWURODGRFRPRMiGLVVHPRVHQFRQWUDPRVDSURGXomRGHFDUiWHU
PDLVFROHWLYR RXVRFLDO2IDPRVRSRHPD&DP}HV  GHÀQLGRSRU
DOJXQVFRPRSRHPDQDUUDWLYRHSRURXWURVFRPRSRHPDpSLFRGLYLGHVH
HPFDQWRVFRPRQDVHSRSpLDVWUDGLFLRQDLVHpXPDREUDTXHFRORFDHP
GHVWDTXHDÀJXUDGHXP&DP}HVKHURLFRWDQWRSRUVXDWUDMHWyULDGHYLGD
como pelo legado que deixou para a cultura portuguesa e mundial. Vimos
TXHRUHVJDWHGHÀJXUDVKHUyLFDVIRLXPDGDVIRUPDVURPkQWLFDVGHUHFRQ
VWUXomRGDVLGHQWLGDGHVQDFLRQDLV1HVVHVHQWLGRDREUDGH*DUUHWWDLQGD
TXHVXVWHQWDGDHVWHWLFDPHQWHSRUFkQRQHVFOiVVLFRVHVWiLPSUHJQDGDSHOR
HVStULWRURPkQWLFR9HMDFRPR6DUDLYDGHVFUHYHRSRHPD

9HPRV QR SULPHLUR R KHUyL YDJXHDQGR SHODV UXDV GH /LVERD


DPDUJXUDGRSHODVVDXGDGHVGDDPDGDPRUWDSHODLQMXVWLoDGRUHL
TXHOKHQmRSUHPLDUDRSRHPDRSULPLGRSHODPLVpULDTXHVyR-D~
OKHDOLYLDSHGLQGRSHODVUXDVHVPRODSDUD&DP}HVDIDOWDQRWtFLDGD
GHUURWDGH$OFiFHU4XLELUYHPSRUWHUPRDHVWDYLGDVHPHVSHUDQoD
LGHQWLÀFDQGRDPRUWHGRSRHWDFRPDPRUWHGD3iWULD2SRHPD
VHJXHPXLWRGHSHUWR2V/XVtDGDVQDFRPSRVLomRQDOLQJXDJHP
HDWpHPVpULHVLQWHLUDVGHHVWURIHVGHFDOFDGDVVREUHDVGH&DP}HV
GHQXQFLDQGR FHUWD IDOWD GH LPDJLQDomR TXH VH UHYHOD WDPEpP QD
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LQFRPSUHHQGLGRGHQXQFLDPDLQÁXrQFLD URPkQWLFD VREUHWXGRGH
Byron. (p.114).

$VVLP DLQGD TXH UHFHED DOJXPDV FUtWLFDV QHJDWLYDV R SRHPD p XP


UHIHUHQWHLQHJiYHOGDLPSODQWDomRGR5RPDQWLVPRHP3RUWXJDODOpPRE
YLDPHQWHGHVHUPDLVXPUHJLVWURGDLPSRUWkQFLDGH&DP}HVSDUDDFXOWXUD
SRUWXJXHVD/HLDDSULPHLUDHVWURIHGR~OWLPRFDQWRGH&DP}HV

100
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

´4XHH[HPSORDIXWXURVHVFULWRUHVµ
2V/XVtDGDV
6
I

O Tejo o ouviu no algoso de suas grutas


E em despeitoso brado lhe responde.
Gemem as ninfas que o lidado canto
Inspirado lhe haviam, e em suas telas
Com tristes, negras cores debuxaram
$LQM~ULDRFULPHDLQJUDWLGmRWmRIHLD
4XHLQGHOpYHOQRVIDVWRVSRUWXJXHVHV
ePDQFKDKRUUHQGDHYLO«

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WXGRDRPHVPRWHPSRWDPEpPpIiFLOSHUFHEHUVXEMHWLYLGDGHURPkQWLFD
DWULEXLQGRYDORUQHJDWLYRHGUDPiWLFRjIRUPDFRPRDFXOWXUDSRUWXJXHVD
tratou a obra e o poeta.
6HJXQGR6DUDLYDDREUDOtULFDGH*DUUHWWHYROXLXGR$UFDGLVPRSXUR
UHWyULFRDR5RPDQWLVPRLQGLYLGXDOLVWDHFRQIHVVLRQDO)ROKDVFDtGDVOLYUR
SXEOLFDGRXPDQRDQWHVGHVXDPRUWHHVWiPDUFDGRSRUHVVH~OWLPRWUDoR(V
tilisticamente Garrett faz uso de linguagem coloquial, busca formas populares
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2XWUROLYURGHSRHPDV)ORUHVVHPIUXWR  HVWDULDDLQGDQDYLVmRGR
KLVWRULDGRUQRPHLRGRFDPLQKRHQWUHDVGXDVHVWpWLFDV$DGHVmRGH*DUUHWW
DIRUPDVSRSXODUHVHDEXVFDSRUWHPDVIROFOyULFRVHWUDGLFLRQDLVWRUQDUDP
QRUHIHUHQWHLPSRUWDQWHQRQDFLRQDOLVPROLWHUiULRLQFLSLHQWHHP3RUWXJDO
2XWUDVREUDVGH*DUUHWWWHUmRPDLVLQWHUHVVHHPUHODomRjVXDYHUWHQWH
FUtWLFD'HODVWUDWDUHPRVQDDXODTXDQGRDSURVDURPkQWLFDVHUiFRQWHPSODGD
3DVVHPRVDEUHYHVLQIRUPDo}HVVREUHRXWURVSRHWDVGRSULPHLURPRPHQWR

ALEXANDRE HERCULANO
7DPEpPFRQVLGHUDGRIXQGDGRUGR5RPDQWLVPRHP3RUWXJDODRODGR
GH*DUUHWW$OH[DQGUH+HUFXODQRGH&DUYDOKRH$UD~MR  ÀFRX
mais conhecido por seu valor como historiador. Liberal, teve que fugir para
D,QJODWHUUDVREDPHDoDGHVHUHQIRUFDGR3DUWLFLSDGHOXWDVPLOLWDUHVQR
3RUWRDWpREWHUXPFDUJRQDELEOLRWHFD3~EOLFDGR3RUWRORFDORQGHFRPHoD
DGHVHQYROYHUVHXWDOHQWRFRPRLQWHOHFWXDOHHVFULWRU$OpPGHYDVWDREUD
em prosa, publicou os libros de poesia A Voz do Profeta (1836) e A Harpa
GR&UHQWH  TXHSHORVWtWXORVGHPRQVWUDPVHXYtQFXORFRPDUHOL
JLRVLGDGH'LULJLQGRDUHYLVWD23DQRUDPDWRUQRXVHUHIHUHQWHQDVHOHomR
HSXEOLFDomRGHWH[WRVLPSUHJQDGRVSHORVLGHDLVHSHODHVWpWLFDURPkQWLFD

101
Literatura Portuguesa II

(PSXEOLFRXRSULPHLURYROXPHGH+LVWyULDGH3RUWXJDO$WpD
REUDHVWDYDFRPSOHWDWRUQDQGRRFRPRMiGLVVHPRVUHIHUrQFLDQRUROGRV
KLVWRULDGRUHVSRUWXJXHVHVSULQFLSDOPHQWHSRUVXDVLGHLDVSROrPLFDVHSRQWR
GHYLVWDKLVWyULFREDVWDQWHSHFXOLDU/HLDRWUHFKRGRSRHPD´2VROGDGRµ
para perceber, em sua poesia, um pouco do teor social, ainda que, como
vimos, muitos de seus poemas tenham teor espiritual.

O soldado (trecho)

III

Bem abundante messe


De pranto e de saudade
O foragido errante
Colhe na soledade!

3DUDRTXHDSiWULDSHUGH
eRXQLYHUVRPXGR
Nada lhe ri na vida;
Mora o fastio em tudo;

No meio das procelas,


Na calma do oceano,
No sopro do galerno,
Que enfuna o largo pano.

(QRHQWHVWDUF{DWHUUD
Por abrigado esteiro,
(QRSRXVDUjVRPEUD
Do tecto do estrangeiro.

IV

(HVVDVPHPyULDVWULVWHV
Minha alma laceraram,
(DVHQGDGDH[LVWrQFLD
Bem agra me tornaram:

3RUpPQHPVHPSUHIpUUHR
Foi meu destino escuro;
Sufocou de luz um raio
As trevas do futuro.

102
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

'RPHXSDtVTXHULGR
A praia ainda beijei,
E o velho e amigo cedro
6
No vale ainda abracei!

Nesta alma regelada


Surgiu ainda o gozo,
E um sonho lhe sorriu
Fugaz, mas amoroso.

2KIRLVRQKRGDLQIkQFLD
Desse momento o sonho!
3D]HHVSHUDQoDYLQKDP
$RFRUDomRWULVWRQKR

Mas o sonhar que monta,


6HSDVVDHQmRFRQIRUWD"
0LQK·DOPDGHXHPWHUUD
Como se fosse morta.

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4XHRYHQWRVRPHiWDUGH
Facho de guerra aceso
Em labaredas arde!

'RIUDWULFtGLRDOXYD
,UPmRDLUPmRODQoDUD
E o grito: ai do vencido!
Nos montes retumbara.

$VDUPDVVHKmRFUX]DGR
2SyPRUGHXRIRQH
Caiu: dorme tranquilo:
Deu-lhe repouso a morte.

Ao menos, nestes campos


Sepulcro conquistou,
E o adro dos estranhos
6HXVRVVRVQmRJXDUGRX

(OHKHUGDUiDRPHQRV
Aos seus honrado nome;
Paga de curta vida
6HUOKHiODUJRUHQRPH

103
Literatura Portuguesa II

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H[SHULrQFLDYLYLGDQDSUySULDSHOH2VLGHDLVTXHPRYHPMRYHQVDOXWDUHP
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YH]HVQmRUHFRQKHFLGRVRXYDORUL]DGRV

$32(6,$520Ç17,&$32578*8(6$12
SEGUNDO MOMENTO
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caracterizou-se pelo Ultra-romantismo. Entre
RV SRHWDV FLWDGRV SRU 0RLVpV GHVWDFRXVH
principalmente, Soares de Passos (1826-1860).
Negro pessimismo e uma poesia chamada de
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SURGXomR $ PRUWH SRU WXEHUFXORVH DRV 
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TXHSDGHFHQGRGRPDOGRVpFXORIDOHFHUDP
jovens, deixando uma obra ainda em estado
de amadurecimento. O poema mais famoso
p´2QRLYDGRGRVHSXOFURµTXHLOXVWUDPRV
Soares de Passos (fontes: http://
abaixo, citando um trecho:
biblio.com.br)

Balada

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-iPHLDQRLWHFRPYDJDUVRRX
4XHSD]WUDQTXLODGRVYDLYpQVGDVRUWH
6yWHPGHVFDQVRTXHPDOLEDL[RX

Que paz tranquila!... mas eis longe, ao longe


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Branco fantasma semelhante a um monge,
'·HQWUHRVVHSXOFURVDFDEHoDHUJXHX

(UJXHXVHHUJXHXVHQDDPSOLGmRFHOHVWH
Campeia a lua com sinistra luz;
O vento geme no feral cipreste,
2PRFKRSLDQDPDUPyUHDFUX]

Ergueu-se, ergueu-se!... com sombrio espanto


2OKRXHPURGDQmRDFKRXQLQJXpP

104
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

Por entre as campas, arrastando o manto,


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&KHJDQGRSHUWRGXPDFUX]DOoDGD
6
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Parou, sentou-se e com a voz magoada
Os ecos tristes acordou assim:

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´(TXHQDWXPEDQmRFHVVHLG·DPDU
´3RUTXHDWUDLoRDVGHVOHDOPHQWLGD
´2DPRUHWHUQRTXHWHRXYLMXUDU"

´$PRUHQJDQRTXHQDFDPSDÀQGD
´4XHDPRUWHGHVSHGDLOXVmRIDOD]
´4XHPG·HQWUHRVYLYRVVHOHPEUDUDDLQGD
´'RSREUHPRUWRTXHQDWHUUDMD]"

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´$LTXmRSHVDGDPHWHPVLGRDORXVD
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´$LTXmRSHVDGDPHWHPVLGRµHHPPHLR
$IURQWHH[DXVWDOKHSHQGHXQDPmR
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)XQGRVXVSLURGHFUXHOSDL[mR

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´*R]HVFRPRXWURG·LQIHUQDOSUD]HU
´(RROYLGRFREULUiPHXVRVVRV
´1DIULDWHUUDVHPYLQJDQoDWHU

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5HVSRQGHXPHFRVXVSLUDQGRDOpP
´2KQXQFDQXQFDµUHSHWLXDLQGD
)RUPRVDYLUJHPTXHHPVHXVEUDoRVWHP

$32(6,$520Ç17,&$12
TERCEIRO MOMENTO
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IUXWRGDFRQWDPLQDomRGRHVFULWRUHVGDpSRFDSHODFRQVFLrQFLDGRHVJRWD
PHQWRRXGDDJRQLDGRHVStULWRURPkQWLFRHPSUROGHXPDYLVmRGHPXQGR

105
Literatura Portuguesa II

DIHWDGDSHORVDYDQoRVGDFLrQFLDHGRSUySULRSHQVDPHQWRÀORVyÀFR$V
VLPQDGpFDGDGHVHULD-RmRGH'HXVRJUDQGHUHSUHVHQWDQWHQDSRHVLD
SRUWXJXHVDGHVVDWUDQVIRUPDomRQRPRGRGHYHUHSHQVDURPXQGR

  -RmRGH'HXV5DPRV IRQWHVKWWSZZZSXUOSW

-RmRGH'HXV5DPRV  IRLXPHVFULWRUUHFRQKHFLGRHYDOR


UL]DGRHPVXDpSRFD3UHRFXSRXVHFRPRHQVLQRGHOHLWXUDSDUDFULDQoDV
SXEOLFDQGRXPDREUDGLGiWLFDLQWLWXODGD&DUWLOKDPDWHUQDO&KDPDGRSRU
PXLWRV´SRHWDGRDPRUµFRPS{VHQWUHRXWUDVDREUD&DPSRGHÁRUHV
 TXHUH~QHGRLVYROXPHVHpVHXSULQFLSDOUHJLVWURSRpWLFR9HMDFRPR
0RLVpVGHVFUHYHDSURGXomRGRHVFULWRU

2PRWLYRSHUPDQHQWHpRDPRUeXPPRWLYREDWLGRJDVWRTXDVH
HPHVSHFLDOQR5RPDQWLVPRPDVRSRHWDFRQVHJXHLQVXÁDUOKHFDUJDV
QRYDVGHVFREULQGROKHUHFDQWRVDWpHQWmRSRXFRRXQDGDH[SORUDGRV
&RPOLQJXDJHPVLPSOHVÁXHQWHFRPRVHEURWDVVHGXPPRYLPHQWR
LQYROXQWiULRVHPHOKDQWHDRUHVSLUDU-RmRGH'HXVDOFDQoRXPDLV
GR TXH QLQJXpP H[SUHVVDU D GDLIDQHLGDGH H D HVSLULWXDOLGDGH GR
FRQYtYLR DPRURVR $V FRPRo}HV PDLV VLPSOHV RV HÁ~YLRV PDLV
HOHYDGRVDGTXLUHPHVSLULWXDOL]DomRWUDQVXEVWDQFLDGRUDREULJDQGRDV
SDODYUDVDVHGHVSRMDUHPGHVHXHQYROWyULRItVLFRRXOyJLFRSDUDVHUDV
medianeiras de uma ultra-sensibilidade que nos desvenda os segredos
UHF{QGLWRVHPFDGDJHVWRGRWUDWRVHQWLPHQWDO(VVHHVSLULWXDOLVPR
SRU VXD YH] QmR HVFRQGH DV QRWDV HUyWLFDV VXEWHUUkQHDV YLYDV H
escaldantes, a anular, com seu realismo, a hipocrisia da sensibilidade
URPkQWLFD S

106
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

9LPRVTXHHP*DUUHWWÀUPDYDVHXPDRSRVLomRHQWUHRTXHUHUHR
DPDU&RP-RmRGH'HXVHVVHDQWDJRQLVPRFHGHHVSDoRDXPDDFHLWDomR
mais natural do erotismo. No plano formal, voltaremos a encontrar o son-
6
HWRIRUPDTXHQDVPDQLIHVWDo}HVOtULFDVURPkQWLFDVDQWHULRUHVHUDPDLVUDUD
SHORVFODURVYtQFXORVGRVRQHWRFRPDVIRUPDVFOiVVLFDV/HLDGRLVSRHPDV
GRDXWRUHYHULÀTXHVHXGLiORJR FRPDVQRYDVWHQGrQFLDVGD/LWHUDWXUD
OHPEUDQGR LQFOXVLYH TXH VHULD R 6LPEROLVPR D QRYD HVWpWLFD TXH ORJR
DGLDQWHGLDORJDULDFRPR5RPDQWLVPR&DEHGHVWDFDUTXH-RmRGH'HXV
VHJXQGR0RLVpVIRLXP´PHVWUHµSDUDRVSRHWDVUHDOLVWDVTXHVHEDVHDUDP
HPPXLWDVGHVXDVWUDQVJUHVV}HVDRPRGHORURPkQWLFR2EVHUYDQGRRWRP
VLQJHORGRSRHPD´+\PQRGHDPRUµHPTXHDÀJXUDGRPHQLQR-HVXV
JDQKDFRQWRUQRVKXPDQRVJUDoDHOHYH]DQmRÀFDGLItFLOOHPEUDUGRTXH
)HUQDQGR3HVVRDDWUDYpVGH$OEHUWR&DHLURGLULDPXLWRVDQRVGHSRLVGR
SUySULRPHQLQR-HVXV

Hymno de Amor

Andava um dia
Em pequenino
Nos arredores
De Nazareth,
Em companhia
'H6DQ-RVp
O bom-Jesus,
O Deus-Menino.
(LVVHQmRTXDQGR
9rQXPVLOYDGR
Andar piando
Arrepiado
(HVYRDoDQGR
Um rouxinol,
Que uma serpente
De olhar de luz
Resplandecente
Como a do sol,
E penetrante
Como diamante,
Tinha attrahido,
Tinha encantado.
-HVXVGRtGR
'RGHVJUDoDGR
Do passarinho,
Sae do caminho,

107
Literatura Portuguesa II

Corre apressado,
Quebra o encanto,
Foge a serpente,
E de repente
O pobrezinho,
Salvo e contente,
5RPSHQ·XPFDQWR
7mRUHTXHEUDGR
Ou antes pranto
7mRVROXoDGR
7mRUHSDVVDGR
'HJUDWLGmR
De uma alegria,
8PDH[SDQVmR
Uma cadencia,
Que commovia
2FRUDomR
Jesus caminha
No seu passeio,
E a avesinha
Continuando
No seu gorgeio
Em quanto o via;
De vez em quando
/iOKHSDVVDYD
­GLDQWHLUD
E mal poisava,
1mRDIURX[DYD
Nem repetia,
Que redobrava
De melodia!
Assim foi indo
E foi seguindo
De tal maneira,
Que noite e dia
1·XPDSDOPHLUD
Que havia perto
'·RQGHPRUDYD
Nosso Senhor
Em pequenino,
(UDMiFHUWR
(OODOiHVWDYD
A pobre ave

108
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

Cantando o hymno
Terno e suave
Do seu amor
6
Ao Salvador!

1RRXWURSRHPD´$YLGDpRGLDGHKRMHµSHUFHEHUHPRVDJUDQGH
SUR[LPLGDGHFRPDUHDOLGDGHHDDFHLWDomRVHPGUDPDVGRPRYLPHQWRGD
YLGD9HMDTXHRSRHPDQmRSRVVXLtQGLFHIRUWHGHVXEMHWLYLGDGHSRUQmR
PDUFDUDSULPHLUDSHVVRDRTXHGiRWRPÀORVyÀFRSUySULRGHXPDDWLWXGH
MiQmRWmRFRPSURPHWLGDFRPDLQGLYLGXDOLGDGHHRVHQWLPHQWDOLVPR

$9,'$e2',$'(+2-(
$YLGDpRGLDGHKRMH
$YLGDpDLTXHPDOVRD
$YLGDpVRPEUDTXHIRJH
$YLGDpQXYHPTXHYRD

$YLGDpVRQKRWmROHYH
Que se desfaz como a neve
E como o fumo se esvai:
A vida dura um momento,
Mais leve que o pensamento,
A vida leva-a o vento,
$YLGDpIROKDTXHFDL

$YLGDpÁRUQDFRUUHQWH
$YLGDpVRSURVXDYH
$YLGDpHVWUHODFDGHQWH
Voa mais leve que a ave:

Nuvem que o vento nos ares,


Onda que o vento nos mares,
8PDDSyVRXWUDODQoRX
$YLGDSHQDFDtGD
Da asa da ave ferida
De vale em vale impelida
A vida o vento levou!

109
Literatura Portuguesa II

&21&/86®2
$OtULFDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVDUH~QHQRPHVLPSRUWDQWHVFXMDVWUDMHWyULDV
FRQWULEXtUDPSDUDTXHWUDQVIRUPDo}HVQDDUWHOLWHUiULDSRUWXJXHVDSXGHVVHP
DFRQWHFHU'XDVGHVVDVWUDQVIRUPDo}HVIRUDPDJUDGXDOLQFRUSRUDomRGR
UHSHUWyULRSRSXODUHRUHFXUVRGDOLQJXDJHPPDLVFRORTXLDO$OPHLGD*DUUHWW
H-RmRGH'HXVIRUDPRVGRLVH[SRHQWHVGRURPDQWLVPROtULFRFDGDTXDO
QXPH[WUHPRGRPRYLPHQWR'HXPODGR*DUUHWWSHQVRXDFRQGLomRHD
IXQomRGRSRHWDOHYDQGRSDUDVXDSRHVLDSUHRFXSDo}HVGHRUGHPVRFLDO
'HRXWUR-RmRGH'HXVOLEHUWRXDSRHVLDGRIRUPDWRURPkQWLFRHPVXD
pSRFDMiXPOLPLWHDRVDYDQoRVGDFULDomRHGRSHQVDPHQWRGDVHJXQGD
PHWDGHGRVpFXOR;,;DEULQGRSRUWDVSDUDDSHUVSHFWLYDUHDOLVWD0DVVDXG
0RLVpV H $QWyQLR -RVp 6DUDLYD FRPSUHHQGHQGR D SURGXomR URPkQWLFD
FRPRJHUDFLRQDODJUXSDUDPQRPHVHREUDVDSDUWLUGDUHODomRGRVSRQWRV
GHYLVWDÀORVyÀFRVHHVWpWLFRVFRPDUHDOLGDGHLPHGLDWDPHQWHDQWHULRU D
iUFDGH HDVWUDQVIRUPDo}HVTXHOHYDUDPDFXOWXUDRFLGHQWDODRUHDOLVPR

RESUMO
(VWXGDPRVROLULVPRURPkQWLFRSRUWXJXrVFRPrQIDVHQRVQRPHVGH
$OPHLGD*DUUHWWH-RmRGH'HXVHÀ]HPRVDERUGDJHPGHDFRUGRFRPD
YLVmRGRVKLVWRULDGRUHV0DVVDXG0RLVpVH$QWyQLR-RVp6DUDLYDVREUHHVVD
IDVHGD/LWHUDWXUD3RUWXJXHVD$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVDSDVVDSRUWUrV
PRPHQWRV2SULPHLURGHWUDQVLomRWHPFRPRSULQFLSDOSRHWD$OPHLGD
*DUUHWWTXHLQWURGX]R5RPDQWLVPRHP3RUWXJDOFRPDSXEOLFDomRGROLYUR
GHSRHPDVLQWLWXODGR&DP}HVHP1HVVDGpFDGDDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGR
Romantismo pouco a pouco se acentuam. O segundo, com uma linguagem
XOWUDURPkQWLFD PHORVDWHPFRPRUHSUHVHQWDQWH6RDUHVGH 3DVVRVH R
WHUFHLURPDUFDGRSRUXPDSRHVLDGHDOWRQtYHOSHUPHDGDGHEXFROLVPRH
LQJHQXLGDGHWHPFRPRUHSUHVHQWDQWH-RmRGH'HXV3RGHPRVGL]HUTXH
QHVVD~OWLPDIDVHWHPRVRPHOKRUGDSRHVLDURPkQWLFDHP3RUWXJDO

ATIVIDADES
 3HVTXLVH D SRHVLD GH SURWHVWR GR 5RPDQWLVPR SRUWXJXrV EXVFDQGR
SRHPDVGRVDXWRUHV)DXVWLQR;DYLHU$OH[DQGUHGD&RQFHLomR$OH[DQGUH
%UDJD*XLOKHUPH%UDJDH$QWyQLR$XJXVWR6RDUHVGH3DVVRV
2. Busque em livros e/em sites de Literatura Portuguesa poemas de Feli-
FLDQRGH&DVWLOKRHFRQÀUDDFRQÁXrQFLDGDVHVWpWLFDViUFDGHHURPkQWLFD
em sua poesia.
%XVTXHR´3RHPDGR0HQLQR-HVXVµGH$OEHUWR&DHLURHHVWDEHOHoDXPD
FRPSDUDomRHQWUHRPHVPRHRSRHPD´+\PQRGH$PRUµGH-RmRGH'HXV

110
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

$SRQWHQRSRHPD´'HVWLQRµGH$OPHLGD*DUUHWWPDUFDVGR5RPDQ
tismo.
6
Destino (Almeida Garrett)

4XHPGLVVHjHVWUHODRFDPLQKR
4XHHODKiGHVHJXLUQRFpX"
A fabricar o seu ninho
&RPRpTXHDDYHDSUHQGHX"
4XHPGL]jSODQWD²´)ORUHVFHµ
E ao mudo verme que tece
Sua mortalha de seda
2VÀRVTXHPOKRVHQUHGD"

(QVLQRXDOJXpPjDEHOKD
Que no prado anda a zumbir
6HjÁRUEUDQFDRXjYHUPHOKD
2VHXPHOKiGHLUSHGLU"

Que eras tu meu ser, querida,


Teus olhos a minha vida,
Teu amor todo o meu bem...
$LQmRPRGLVVHQLQJXpP
Como a abelha corre ao prado,
&RPRQRFpXJLUDDHVWUHOD
Como a todo o ente o seu fado
Por instinto se revela,
Eu no teu seio divino
Vim cumprir o meu destino...
9LPTXHHPWLVyVHLYLYHU
6ySRUWLSRVVRPRUUHU

&20(17É5,262%5($6$7,9,'$'(
&RPRDFHVVRD WH[WRVGLJLWDLVQmRVHUiGLItFLOFKHJDU DSRHPDV
GHVVHV DXWRUHV (OHQFDQGR DOJXQV SRHPDV YRFr WHUi PDWHULDO SDUD
REVHUYDU R TXH 6DUDLYD FDUDFWHUL]D FRPR ´SRHVLD GH SURWHVWRµ RX
VHMDSRGHUiUHFRQKHFHUVHRVSRHPDVWRFDPHPTXHVW}HVVRFLDLVH
SROtWLFDVGHL[DQGRGHDOJXPPRGRHYLGHQWHDVRSo}HVÀORVyÀFDVGRV
poetas enumerados.
3DUDUHDOL]DUHVVDWDUHIDYRFrGHYHOHYDUHPFRQVLGHUDomRDVPDUFDV
GDV GXDV HVWpWLFDV OHPEUDQGR SRU H[HPSOR TXH D QDWXUH]DiUFDGH

111
Literatura Portuguesa II

pH[WUDtGDGHXPPRGHORFOiVVLFRJUHJRHQTXDQWRTXHDURPkQWLFD
valoriza aspectos da natureza local; que a subjetividade no Arcadismo
SDVVDSRUXPÀOWURTXHDLVHQWDGHJUDQGHVWHQV}HVHQTXDQWRTXHD
URPkQWLFDpPDLVVHQWLPHQWDOHjVYH]HVGUDPiWLFD
9RFrFHUWDPHQWHJRVWDUiGHYHUDLQWLPLGDGHFRPTXHR(X/tULFR
WUDWDR´PHQLQR-HVXVµQRSRHPDGH&DHLUR2EVHUYHDVHPHOKDQoD
QDDERUGDJHPDRPHQLQR-HVXVQRTXHVHUHIHUHDSHUFHErORQXPD
GLPHQVmRGHUHDOLGDGHPXLWRSUy[LPDQDWXUDOHLQIDQWLOLVHQWDQGRGH
certo modo, o menino da imagem do Cristo homem e martirizado.
'HRXWURODGRRSRVLFLRQDPHQWRGR(X/tULFRQRSRHPDGH&DHLURp
PDLVYLVtYHOPDUFDQGRXPSRQWRGHYLVWDHPUHODomRDRTXHVHVHQWH
e pensa sobre o Cristo menino. Compare.
/HYHHPFRQVLGHUDomRSDUDDQDOLVDURSRHPDDUHODoDRURPkQWLFD
que se estabelece entre a subjetividade e a natureza. No Romantismo,
DQDWXUH]DpWRPDGDFRPRSDUkPHWURHFRPRF~PSOLFH2EVHUYHRV
HOHPHQWRVGDQDWXUH]DTXHUDWLÀFDPRPRGRFRPRR(X/tULFRYrVXD
SUySULDFRQGLomRGHDPDQWH

$872$9$/,$d®2
$SyVRHVWXGRGDDXODFRQVLJRH[SOLFDUDLQÁXrQFLDGDVUD]}HVKLVWyUL
cas para que o Romantismo se desenvolvesse em Portugal? Ficou clara a
diferente forma que cada um dos historiadores estudados utilizou para
FRQWHPSODUDOLWHUDWXUDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD"3RVVRDQDOLVDUDVSULQFLSDLV
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHFDGDSRHWDHVWXGDGRHUHÁHWLU VREUHDFRQWULEXLomRGH
cada um para a Literatura Portuguesa? Compreendi que o Romantismo foi
LPSRUWDQWHSDUDDIRUPDomRGDLGHQWLGDGHOLWHUiULDQDFLRQDOSRUWXJXHVD"
Sei quais foram os autores e as obras mais relevantes desse movimento?

35Ð;,0$$8/$
1DDXODVHJXLQWHFRQFOXLUHPRVDDERUGDJHPDR5RPDQWLVPRSRUWXJXrV
HVWXGDQGRDVPDQLIHVWDo}HVHPSURVD

112
$SRHVLDURPkQWLFDSRUWXJXHVD
Aula

5()(5È1&,$6
AGUIAR E 6,/9$ 9tWRU 0DQXHO GH Teoria da Literatura. Coimbra:
6
Livraria Almedina, 1982.
CLAUDON, Francis. (QFLFORSpGLDGR5RPDQWLVPR. Minho: Verbo.
HAUSER, Arnold. +LVWyULDVRFLDOGDDUWHHGDOLWHUDWXUD6mR3DXOR
Martins Fontes, 1998.
JEAN, Georges. $HVFULWDPHPyULDGRVKRPHQV. Rio de Janeiro: Ob-
jetiva, 2002.
02,6e60DVVDXGA literatura portuguesa6mR3DXOR&XOWUL[
_______________. 'LFLRQiULRGHWHUPRVOLWHUiULRV6mR3DXOR&XOWUL[
6$5$,9$$QW{QLR-RVp/23(6ÐVFDU+LVWyULDGDOLWHUDWXUDSRUWX
guesa. 14 ed. Porto: Porto Editora Lda., s/a .

113

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