Você está na página 1de 8

ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

“Just Weld It”

Report
on
Major Engineering Failure
(1977-2007)

Submitted To: Submitted By:

Dr Viwek Vaidya Ishpreet Singh


40029774

Joining Processes and Non Destructive Testing


MECH 6541

24 January 2017
ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

Contents

1. Synopsis Page No: 1


2. 50 Major Engineering Failures (1977- 2007) Page No: 2
3. Failure Analysis Page No: 4
4. Prevention Methods Page No: 5
5. References Page No: 6
ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

Synopsis

This report contains the information about the 50 major engineering failures that
occurred across the world within 3 decades (1977-2007).These failures occurred
in various processing plants, refinery, oil and petrochemical plants; which has to
deal with fuel and oil.

In the table given below, It clearly depicts the title of the plant, place, and cause
of failure and revenue loss in $.It was observed that major failures happened due
to corrosion, pipe leakage and weld failure.
Moreover, the failures which took place were described using a pie chart in
percentage. In addition to this, the analysis of failure were made and preventive
measures were discussed accordingly.

In a nutshell, it was observed that these failures led to huge loss of life and
investments. It was an alarming sign for the future engineers that a small change
in design can lead to disastrous effects considering the factor of safety as their
priority.

1
ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

Table 1. 50 MAJOR ENGINEERING FAILURES


LOSS
CAUSE OF REVENUE
S.NO TITLE COUNTRY OF
FAILURE LOSS (IN $)
LIFE
1 Gas Processing Plant Qatar Weld Failure 3 179,000,000
2 Gas Processing Plant Saudi Arabia Corrosion NA 117,000,000
3 Offshore Platform Norway Weld Failure 123 NA
4 Petrochemical Plant Canada Fatigue NA 33,000,000
5 Refinery Plant United States Weld Failure 17 273,000,000
6 LPG Terminal Mexico Pipe Rupture 650 29,000,000
Hydrogen
7 Refinery Plant Venezuela NA 89,000,000
Embrittlement
8 Refinery Plant United States Erosion-Corrosion 4 336,000,000
9 Offshore Platform UK Gas Leaking 167 1,270,000,000
10 Petrochemical Plant Belgium Fatigue/Weld Failure NA 99,000,000
8
11 Refinery Plant United States Weld Failure 112,000,000
Injured
Brittle Fracture/pipe
12 Refinery Plant United States NA 89,000,000
crack
13 Petrochemical Plant Mexico Pipe Leaking NA 112,000,000
14 Petrochemical Plant Bangladesh Weld Failure NA 71,000,000
15 Refinery Plant Germany Erosion-Corrosion NA 62,000,000
16 Fuel Pipeline Plant Mexico Corrosion 206 300,000,000
17 Petrochemical Plant United States Weld Failure NA 30,000,000
18 Refinery Plant United States Erosion-Corrosion NA 96,000,000
19 Refinery Plant Japan Fatigue 10 196,000,000
20 Refinery Plant France Pipe Leaking NA 318,000,000
21 Refinery Plant United States Creep NA 78,000,000
22 Fuel Pipeline Plant United States Pitting Corrosion NA 33,000,000

2
ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

Gas Distribution Wrong Material in


23 Puerto Rico 33 5,000,000
Pipeline HCA
24 Refinery Plant United States Creep NA 82,000,000
25 Petrochemical Plant Japan Erosion-Corrosion NA NA
26 Refinery Plant India Pipe Leaking 50 64,000,000
27 Fuel Pipeline Plant United States Corrosion-Pitting NA 17,000,000
High Temperature
28 Gas Processing Plant Malaysia NA 294,000,000
Failure
29 Gas Processing Plant Australia Brittle Fracture 2 171,000,000
30 Refinery Plant United States Corrosion NA 23,000,000
31 Fuel Pipeline Plant Nigeria Pipe Leaking 100 NA
32 Fuel Pipeline Plant United States Brittle Fracture NA 8,100,000
33 Heat Exchanger Plant United States Corrosion 4 NA
34 Crude Oil Pipeline United States Fatigue NA 7,100,000
35 Fuel Pipeline Plant United States Corrosion NA 40,000,000
36 Fuel Pipeline Plant United States Pipe Leaking NA 57,000,000
37 Refinery Plant Kuwait Erosion-Corrosion 5 433,000,000
38 Natural Gas Pipeline United States Corrosion-Pitting 12 100,000,000
39 Offshore Platform Brazil Tank Leaking 2 515,000,000
40 Refinery Plant United States Pipe Leaking NA 124,000,000
41 Refinery Plant Kuwait Pipe Leaking 4 200,000,000
Stress Corrosion
42 Natural Gas Pipeline Canada NA 13,000,000
Cracking
Liquid Metal
43 Gas Processing Plant Australia NA 5,000,000
Embrittlement
Liquid Metal
44 LNG Plant Algeria 27 30,000,000
Embrittlement
45 Refinery Plant UK Erosion Corrosion NA 82,400,000
46 Natural Gas Pipeline Belgium Pipe Leaking 24 NA
47 Power Plant Japan Erosion-Corrosion 6 NA
High Temperature
48 Refinery Plant United States 15 30,000,000
Hydrogen Attack
49 Natural Gas Pipeline Indonesia Pipe Leaking 11 NA
50 Natural Gas Pipeline Sierra Leone Pipe Leaking 17 NA

3
ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

FAILURE ANALYSIS

2% 4%
2%4%
12% 36%

24%
6%
6% 4%

Corrosion Brittle Fracture creep


fatigue pipe leakage weld failure
wrong material in hca liquid metal embrittlement hydrogen embrittlement
high temperature

This pie chart illustrates the 50 major failures of engineering across the world that
has happened from 1977 to 2007.
Overall, Corrosion constituted the main source of failure during the tenure of 30
years, while failures like improper material selection, hydrogen embrittlement
were minimum across all the failures.

At First, It is crystal clear that 36% of failure is contributed by corrosion and


combined effect of erosion and corrosion followed by pipe leakage 24% and
consecutively by weld failure 12%.

However, the other failures like fatigue, brittle fracture and high temperature
accounts for 4%.The remaining losses in failures contributed less but even though
plays a key role while designing any product.

4
ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

PREVENTION
1) Corrosion: The breaking down or destruction of a material, especially a
metal, through chemical reactions. It is very common in industries and can
be prevented by various methods given below :
1) Cathodic Protection: - In this direct electrical current is used to
control external corrosion when pipeline is buried underground.
2) Protective Coatings: - The application of a paint coating is a cost-
effective way of preventing corrosion. Paint coatings act as a barrier
to prevent the transfer of electrochemical charge from the corrosive
solution to the metal underneath.
3) Passivation: - In passivation, a light coat of a protective material, such
as metal oxide, creates a protective layer over the metal which acts
as a barrier against corrosion.
4) Corrosion Inhibitors: - Corrosion inhibitors are chemicals that react
with the surface of the metal or the surrounding gases to suppress
the electrochemical reactions leading to corrosion.

2) Weld Failures: The methods to prevent weld failures according to EN ISO


5817 are given below:
1) Design of the weld based on the loading conditions the joint will carry
2) Accessibility to enable ease of welding
3) Control of distortion
4) Matching welding process with materials

3) Fatigue Failures: The various methods of prevention are mentioned below:-


1) Proper care should be given to details at the design stage so that cyclic
stresses are sufficiently low to achieve the required endurance.
2) Stress concentration should be avoided as much as possible.

However, other failures such as hydrogen and liquid metal embrittlement


can be prevented by application of proper inspection techniques, design
and engineering processes keeping factor of safety as their priority.

5
ARC WELDERS INDUSTRIES

REFERENCES:-
1. https://www.metalsupermarkets.com/how-to-prevent-corrosion/
2. http://www.hobartbrothers.com/index.php?mact=News,cntnt01,print,0
&cntnt01articleid=111&cntnt01showtemplate=false&cntnt01returnid=5
23
3. https://abduh137.wordpress.com/2008/04/25/the-50-major-
engineering-failures-1977-2007-part-1/
4. http://www.twi-global.com/technical-knowledge/faqs/structural-
integrity-faqs/faq-what-is-fatigue-failure-and-how-can-it-be-avoided/