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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Mechatronics Laboratory

SENSOR AND ACTUATOR


Actuators: The device which converts Energy into
Motion. An actuator is a component of a machine that Sensor: The device which detects physical state if System
is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism Ex.Temperature, displacement, force, etc. a sensor is a device or
or system, for example by opening a valve. In simple subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its
terms, it is a "mover" environment and send the information to other electronics.

Types of Sensors
1. Temperature ‐ Thermistors ,
thermocouples, RTD’s, IC and many more.
2. Pressure ‐ Fibre op c, vacuum, elas c liquid based manometers,
LVDT,electronic.

Industries

3. Flow ‐ Electromagne c, differen al pressure,


posi onal displacement, thermal mass, etc.
4. Level Sensors ‐ Differen al pressure, ultrasonic radio
frequency, radar, thermal displacement, etc.
5.Proximity and displacement ‐ LVDT,photoelectric,
capaci ve, magne c, ultrasonic .

Sensors Applications
Actuators Applications
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Mechatronics Laboratory

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION PRINCIPLES


Open loop control system

Output

SYSTEM
Here, no feedback is used, so the controller must
An automa c level control system replaces the independently determine what signal to send to the
human with a controller and uses a sensor to actuator.
measure the level

Concept of transfer function Higher level


packages in
industries for
this Area

(a) Open loop Control system, (b) Feed forward


control system, (c) Feedback Control System

Transfer func on: The ra o of the output transforms Transla onal Mechanical System Transfer Applica ons:
C(s) divided by the input transforms R(s) Func ons Automa c Speed
control Ex.
Spinning mills
Water level
Representa on of Transfer func on: Control ex. Dam
Temperature
control ex.
Tex le industries
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Mechatronics Laboratory

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF MECHATRONIC SYSTEM

Transfer func on based System Modelling: Mechanical System

approach

Why Transfer Function?


Because it is easier / better to assess some System Modelling
things using classical techniques, such as
gain and phase margin.

System Modelling: Hydraulic System

How to determine TF?


Derive the Governing Differential
Equation
Assume I.C=Zero and
Take Laplace transform of output
Take Laplace transform of input
Transfer function = L (output) / L (input)

Time Domain Specifica ons

Poles of System
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Mechatronics Laboratory
DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM
DAQ Construction

Why Signal Conditioning


?
Elements of
Mechatronics
System
To measure signals from
transducers, it convert
them into a form a
measurement device can
accept.
It includes amplification,
Data linearization, transducer
excitation, and isolation.
Acquisition
Pulse Code Modula on
system

1. Acquirers data from


process being
measured
2. Convert this data in
to Usable unit
3. Put it in to a form
DAQ Device
that can be display.
Converting a continuously changing waveform (analog) into a series of
discrete levels (digital)

Analog Digital
Control Control
System System
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Mechatronics Laboratory

PLC PROGRAMMING

PLC
A PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) is an
industrial computer control system that continuously monitors
the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom
program to control the state of output devices.

Applications of
PLC System
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Mechatronics Laboratory

CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL SYSTEM
A control system is a device, or set of
devices, that manages, commands, directs or
regulates the behavior of other devices or
Application of systems

Control
System

Advantages and disadvantages of the different types


of controllers