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Mobile Technology

Abstract

The following report reviews an in-depth analysis of mobile technology over the
years. Mobile phones enables communication of voice, images, text and video. The
important fact is that these could be shared with anyone in any corner of the world at
the demand of the user. Communication is no longer the only service mobile
technology offers. It offers a wide range of services such as access to the World Wide
Web, view television and movies, interact with GPS, play games and read and
respond to barcode and augmented reality messages. To fully comprehend the topic
mobile technology the history of it plays a major role. From the technical perspective,
the history of mobile technologies originated with the limited use of radio
frequencies; where the ability to establish simultaneous two-way communication (full
duplex) was considered a technological feat. From the social perspective, mobile
technologies began as a rare device used by limited personnel who needed to
communicate to others in real time emergencies. From the user perspective, the
history of mobile technologies began with the use of two way radios and evolved to
the current state of prolific smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices. Popularity
of the technology sky rocketed with the invention of “smart phones”. Today there are
more people using mobile phones that a personal computer. The future of the mobile
technology unravels in front of our very eyes each passing hour.

1. Introduction

The Latin term mobile means “ability to move” or portable. Therefore mobile
technology means, technology that is portable. Mobile devices enables access to
services like (Naismith et al., 2004:36).

 Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)


 Bluetooth
 ‘third generation’ (3G), ‘fourth generation’ (4G), global system for mobile
communications (GSM) and general packet radio service (GPRS) data
services
 dial-up services – data networking services using modems and telephone lines
 virtual private networks – secure access to a private network

Mobile technology has gone a long journey from a simple two way pager to a device
that fits in your pocket which can be used as a substitute for a computer (Naismith et
al., 2004:36).

1.1
History

1G 2G 3G 4G
Year Early 80s 1991 2001 2010
D- CDMA2000/ EV-DO,
AMPS, LTE. LTE
Standards AMPS,GSM/GPRS, WCDMA/HSPA+,TD-
NMT,TACS Advanced
cdma One SCDMA
Technology Analog Digital Digital Digital
Broad
Bandwidth – Narrow Band Broad Band
Band
xDSL-like
Data Rate – <80-100 Kb/s Up to 2 Mbit/s
experience

Mobile 3G and 4G technologies continue to evolve to deliver faster and better mobile
broadband experiences (Nordin et al., 2010:132).

2. Various devices which use mobile technology

 laptop and netbook computers


 tablet devices
 palmtop computers or PDA’s
 Mobile phones and ‘smart phones (Quinn, 2011:18).

3. The popularity of mobile devices

According to a study done by the US consumers use mobile technology for the
following

1. Call
2. SMS
3. Mobile Web
4. Apps
5. Social networking ( Quinn, 2011:18).
The quantity of individuals who utilize portable advances has developed such a great
amount in the previous decade that there are presently a greater number of individuals
utilizing mobile innovations than there are individuals utilizing PCs all through the
world there are an incredible number of cell phones in current usage. These
incorporate cell phones, PDAs, MP3 players, game devices, handhelds, tablets and
laptops (Nordin et al., 2010:132).

The astonishing fame of cell phones is shown by the way that by April 2012 more
than 60 million iPads had been sold According to the CIA World Fact Book (South
Africa Communications, 2012)

.Worldwide sales of Smartphones increased 24 percent to 172.4 million units in 2009


according to Gartner, Inc. Popularity continues to grow because it provides services
like emergency notification systems, customer service, customer payments, inventory
management, employee dispatching, travel directions and non-profit fundraising. For
an example, When the Red Cross recently used Mobile to raise funds for Haiti almost
$5 million was raised in less than 48 hours- all via Mobile (Valk, Rashid & Elder,
2010).
4. Mobile devices and interactivity

There are four sorts of intelligence: “up close and personal” intuitiveness, “PC
intervened” intelligence, “human-PC” intelligence, and “synchronous gathering”
intelligence. Intuitiveness helps understudies to create ideas and place them in their
right setting. This thusly helps understudies to build up their very own intellectual
structures. Intelligence likewise give understudies chances to make their own learning
condition. This, thus, has a noteworthy effect on their learning since it brings about
more dynamic learning and gives valuable input to the address (van’t Hooft, Brown-
Martin & Swan, 2008).

5.Advantages and disadvantages

 Advantages

 Mobile computing can improve the customer service


 Powerful solutions can link directly.
 Supports for more flexible working practices by providing customer friendly
services (Wagner, 2005:44).

DisadvantagesÂ

 Cost required to set up the equipment’s and training is high

Cyber security system is needed to ensure the safety of imported data from getting
exposed to unauthorized people via mobile devices (Wagner, 2005:44).

6.Ongoing Research on mobile technology

 M2M networking for IoT-based Intelligent Environments – efforts within this


context focus on the interconnection of large numbers of such heterogeneous
smart objects, enabling the communication provision for applications spanning
from Intelligent Transportation Systems to Intelligent Building Management.
This is performed through the usage of cognitive radio inspired M2M
communications(Quinn, 2011:18).

Real-Time Monitoring of Available Bandwidth

 Optimization Concepts for Capacity Analysis of Wireless Communications –


The research develops novel optimization concepts, models, and mathematical
programming algorithms for capacity analysis problems in wireless networks.
Solving these problems generate insights and understanding going beyond the
state-of-the-art of performance analysis of wireless communications (Quinn,
2011:18).

 Generating Road Traffic Information from Cellular Networks(Quinn, 2011:18)

7. Future Analysis
Future of the technology could go from faster transfer speeds to the ability to
communicate a relative who lives in a newly found planet. Some recent expected
upgrades include- Flexible mobile devices, wearable technology, and mobile wallets
completely replacing notes and coins, 5G networks and devices which are capable of
interpreting ones’ thoughts.

It is not strange to predict that one day when a new born is born the first thing the
doctors would do will be implementing a mobile device so small into their bodies
enabling communication and access to information in ways which we cannot imagine
(Wagner, 2005:44).

Electro vibration technology will change the mobile touchscreen experience


dramatically. You will be able to feel different kinds of texture. This advancement can
also lead to socially beneficial trends. For instance, blind people can use it for Braille,
and access smartphones like everybody else.

Running out of battery power is one of the most persistent and frequent complaints of
most smartphone users. The availability of the ultra-rapid charger that comes with an
advanced battery technology that will allow you to charge your phone completely in
just 30 seconds (van’t Hooft, Brown-Martin & Swan, 2008).

8. Conclusion

As stated in the report above mobile technology has evolved from where it was first
invented, up to date. It will obliviously continue to expand the horizons and touch
human lives. Mobile technology which was foreign to many has now become an
essential part in life. It will further help people to break barriers and explore the world
and quite possibly the world beyond our world.

Mobile technology has its’ advantages and disadvantages towards the society. It is
worth noting that sufficient precautions should be placed in order to manage the
misuse of the technology. This could be done through proper education and guidance
in regard to this technology. Proper practice should always be promoted (Naismith
et al., 2004:36).

Encouragement on further research to develop the technology should be promoted.


Universities and individuals interested in that matter should have easier ways to
access funds for their researches.

9.References

NAISMITH, L., LONSDALE, P., VAVOULA, G. & SHARPLES, M. 2004.


Literatureview in mobile technologies and learning. [Online] Available from:

http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications-reports-articles/literature

reviews/Literature-Review203 [Accessed 15 October 2009]:1-47.

NORDIN, N., EMBI, M.A. & YUNUS, M.M. 2010. Mobile Learning framework for
lifelong learning. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 7(C):130-138.

QUINN, C. 2011. Designing mLearning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

South Africa Communications 2012. [Online] (Updated 6 March 2012) Available

from:
http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/south_africa/south_africa_communications.h

tml [Accessed 25 June 2012].

VALK, J-H., RASHID, A.T. & ELDER, L. 2010. Using mobile phones to improve

educational outcomes: An analysis of evidence from Asia. The International

review of research in open and distance learning. [Online] Available from:

http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/794/1487 [Accessed 13

November 2011].

VAN’T HOOFT, M., BROWN-MARTIN, G. & SWAN, K. 2008. Anywhere,


anytime

learning using highly mobile devices. [Online] In: Tomei, L.A. Encyclopedia of

information technology curriculum integration. Available from:

http://www.books24x7.com/book/id_18674/viewer.asp?bookid=18674&chunkid=0

907360816 [Accessed 16 December 2010].

WAGNER, E.D. 2005. Enabling mobile learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 40(3):42

44.

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