0 visualizações

Enviado por Gera Barbosa

Veiculo tripulado controlller

- The Critic as Artist
- Efficient Additive Kernels via Explicit Feature Maps---Vedaldi10
- Soft Computing
- Kernels Review
- Limpieza de datos
- Study of Supply Vector Machine (SVM) for Emotion Recognition
- Pedestrian Detection Report
- Women Entrepreneurship
- IRJET-Speech Emotion Recognition using CART algorithm
- A Multicriterion Fuzzy Classification Method With Greedy Attribute Selection for Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection
- 12345
- InTech-Types_of_machine_learning_algorithms.pdf
- SSSVM2015
- SVM - report
- Elarab Et Al (2015) - Estimating Chlorophyll in Ag With Thermal and Broadband Multispectral CHI2
- 5 Keerthi Report New
- aaai04-2up
- CS_pamphlet_en.pdf
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
- Press_eng_20090615

Você está na página 1de 9

Crack Inspection Method

Manuscript ID 18-TIE-2203

Fo

Manuscript Type: Regular paper

rP

Yes

ee

Member?:

No

Member?:

rR

ev

iew

Page 1 of 8 Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

2

3 Design of A Novel Low-cost UAV and

4

5

6

Vision-based Concrete Crack Inspection Method

7

8

9

10 Abstract—With the explosive development of the com- thermography [16], light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sen-

puter vision technology, more and more vision-based in-

11 sors [17], microwave systems [16], etc. Moreover, UAVs can

spection methods enabled by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

12 (UAV) technologies have been researched on the crack

have small size [16], low cost [16], excellent maneuverability

13 inspection of the sundry concrete structures. However, and versatility [18], and adaptability in complex environ-

14 because of the limitation of the low-cost UAV hardware, ments [19]. Therefore, UAVs can perform the inspections of

15 most of vision-based methods are difficult to be imple- structures which are inconveniently accessible by traditional

mented on the low-cost UAV for real-time crack inspection. inspectors [16]. Especially, UAVs integrated with optic devices

16

To address this challenge, in this paper, a new computa- and image processing has been increasingly applied in the

17 tionally efficient vision-based crack inspection method is

18 designed and successfully implemented on a low-cost UAV. photogrammetric three-dimensional (3D) structural model re-

19 Furthermore, to reduce the acquired data samples, a new construction and analysis [9],[16], remote sensing [9],[20], and

Fo

20 algorithm entitled, Crack Central Point Method (CCPM), is various structural health detections [11],[16],[17-18],[21],[22].

designed to extract the effective information from the pre- Generally, the application of UAVs can overcome many flaws

21 processed images. The proposed vision-based crack detec-

22 of traditional SHM methods [13],[23], improve the quality of

tion method includes three major components, 1) the image

23 inspections [12], reduce inspection time [8], cost and work

rP

pre-processing algorithm, 2) CCPM, and 3) the Support Vec-

24 tor Machine (SVM) model based classifier. To demonstrate incidents[21], decrease logistics [21] and traffic interference

25 the effectiveness of the new inspection method, a concrete [8], and increase structural accessibility [8],[16].

structure inspection experiment is implemented. The ex-

26 Computer vision technology applies multi-disciplinary tech-

ee

27 accurately and rapidly inspect the cracks of concrete struc- nologies, which include optical imaging, image processing,

28 ture in real time. This new vision-based crack inspection artificial intelligent and machine learning, to derive meaningful

29 method shows great promise for practical application. information and gain high-level understanding from images or

rR

30 Index Terms—Vision-based Inspection; Crack Inspec- videos [24]. In the last two decades, computer vision has been

31 tion; Computer Vision; Support Vector Machine (SVM); increasingly utilized in SHM [6-7],[14],[21], which expedites

32 Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Unmanned Aerial Ve- inspection process [16], decreases costs and safety risk [16],

ev

34 Unquestionably, computer vision-based SHM (CVSHM) has

35 been a state-of-the-art research area [16]. Recently, computer

I. I NTRODUCTION

36

iew

37 GING and degradation of civil and industrial infrastruc- ed for SHE of sundry concrete structures, which is shown in

38

39

A tures has posed notable public safety threat, and attracted

many attentions from researchers [1-2]. Consequently, an

Table 1. However, almost all applications in Table 1 just use

UAVs as a data collection tool for SHM. Even though Pereira

40 increasingly number of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) et al. [19] and Sankarasrinivasan et al. [22] have proposed

41 applications with noncontact means have been researched and the integrated UAV and Image Processing System to enable

42 applied for the monitoring and inspection of a variety of real-time SHM, the integration of UAVs and computer vision

43 critical structures [3-4], such as bridge [1],[5-8], dam [2],[9] technology have not been fully explored and implemented

44 and wind turbine [10-11]. However, the majority of noncontact to automate and optimize the SHE process. Till now, how

45 SHM methods can be complex [12], time-consuming [13- to integrate computer vision with the cutting-edge machine

46 14], labor-intensive [5],[8],[14], expensive [9],[12-13], or error learning algorithm, into low-cost UAVs for accurate, efficient

47 prone due to the limitation of the skill and experience of and real-time SHM remains an unsolved issue.

48 inspectors[5]. Additionally, it engenders unexpected safety To address this issue, this paper proposes a vision-based

49 risks when the inspectors access the unsafe structural areas crack inspection method with Support Vector Machine (SVM),

50 [9],[12-13]. Therefore, developing the cost-effective, accurate which can bex integrated into the low-cost UAV. To the best

51 and automated noncontact solutions for efficient and reliable knowledge of the authors, this is the groundbreaking research

52 SHM has been an emerging research topic [8]. to develop a low-cost UAV enabled, vision and machine

53 learning based, and real-time crack inspection method with

54 Nowadays, the rapid development of Unmanned Aerial

Vehicle (UAV) propels SHM of the large-scale concrete struc- two significant contributions.

55

56 tures to advance with the direction of process automation 1) To acquire the smaller set of valid data samples for

57 and remote monitoring [15]. Currently, UAVs can carry a the further crack recognition, a novel Crack Central Point

58 wide range of imagery and sensing instruments, including Method (CCPM) [28] has been developed to extract the

59 cameras [13], radar [16], optical imagery[16-17], infrared

60

Transactions on Industrial Electronics Page 2 of 8

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

TABLE I: T HE E XAMPLES OF UAV VISION - BASED SHM A PPLICATION

2

3 Authors Applications Data collection Image processing Methods

4

Khaloo et al. [9] Applied multiple UAVs and multi-scale Collected the images by the UAVs from Multi-scale photogrammetry and com-

5 photogrammetry for dam inspection. a hydroelectric dam. puter vision to detect dam defects.

6

Hallermann et al. [12] Applied the low-cost UAVs to monitor Collected the images by UAVs. Computer Vision to detect displacement

7 large scale structures (dams, walls, etc.) and deformation in post flight analysis.

8 Kim et al. [13] Applied UAVs for the concrete cracks Collected the images by the UAVs. Image Binarization and Hybrid Image

9 assessment. Processing in workstations.

10 Brooks et al. [17] Applied UAVs for traffic monitoring Collected the images and other infor- Vision-based image processing to re-

11 and infrastructural health inspection. mation by the UAVs. construct 3D sites and identify damage.

12 Pereira et al. [19] Applied UAVs to automatically detect Captured the images and other data by Edge detection and particle filter in

13 cracks in civil constructions. the UAVs. MatLab / embedded sensors on UAVs.

14 Ellenberg et.al [20] Applied UAVs for remote sensing and Collected the high-quality images and Vision-based image processing and

15 inspection of the large-scale infrastruc- other data by UAVs. quantitative assessment to evaluate the

ture condition. infrastructural health.

16

Sankarasrinivasan et al. [22] Applied UAVs to detect crack and sur- Acquired the images and other data by Hat transforms, HSV and grey scale

17 face degradation of large structures. the UAVs. thresholding in MatLab.

18

Wang et.al [25] Applied UAVs to inspect the cracks of Collected the high-quality images by Haar-like features, LogitBoost, Deci-

19 wind turbine blade surface. the UAVs. sion Tree, and SVM to detect cracks.

Fo

20 Eschmann et al. [26] Applied UAVs for remote damage as- Captured the high resolution images by Image post-processing and pattern

21 sessment and monitoring purposes. the UAVs. recognition to assess damages.

22 Kang et al. [27] Applied UAVs, ultrasonic beacons for Collected the images by the UAVs. Deep convolutional neural network (C-

23

rP

damage localization and detection. NN) to detect damage.

24

25

26

ee

cracks characters from the pre-processed images. CCPM has A. Principle Statement

27 improved adaptability and robustness compared to both the

28 traditional edge detection methods such as Canny, Prewitt and Traditionally, a computer vision task consists of the methods

29 Sobel algorithms, and K-mean clustering based method [28]. of obtaining, processing, analyzing and interpreting digital

rR

30 With CCPM, the size of training data set for the cracks recog- images or videos, and extracting multi-dimensional data to

31 nition can be significantly reduced [28], which provides the generate numerical or symbolic information [24]. To rapidly

32 possibility of fast computation and real-time crack detection. and effectively detect the cracks from the captured images, an

ev

34 2) To accurately and rapidly recognize different types of method is proposed. Fig. 1 shows the working process of the

35 concrete cracks with fewer training samples, a SVM based proposed inspection method, which includes three steps: 1)

36 crack classification algorithm has been researched and devel-

iew

37 oped. SVM requires fewer training images and takes less train- CCPM method; and 3) crack classification and recognition.

38 ing time than other machine learning especially deep learning The general illustration of each step is presented as follows.

39 methods. Due to its low computational complexity and high

detection accuracy, this algorithm can be implemented in the First, the images of the concrete surface, which are acquired

40

low-cost UAVs for real-time and automated crack inspection. by the UAVs, are converted to grayscale binary images via pre-

41

processing. Second, CCPM is applied to extract the center of

42 The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II each crack from the grayscale binary images. CCPM have

43 presents the design process and mathematical models of the improved performance than the traditional edge detection

44 proposed vision-based crack inspection method. Section III

45 describes the experiment to illustrate the effectiveness and

46 applicability of the novel vision-based method. Concluding

47 remarks and future works are summarized in Section IV.

48

49 II. A N EW V ISION - BASED C RACK I NSPECTION M ETHOD

50

51 The goal of our research is to develop an effective recog-

52 nition method to quickly inspect and detect various types of

53 cracks from images captured by the UAVs. Meanwhile, this

54 proposed method should have low computational complexity

55 to enable the real-time crack inspections using the low-cost

56 UAV devices. To design this method, the whole process will

57 begin from the principle analysis of the research problem.

58 Then mathematical models of each step will be assembled to

ensure the validity of key design components of this method. Fig. 1: Method Working Process.

59

60

Page 3 of 8 Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

2 methods, especially when the images are captured with uneven where C(α) = pi · α, and δ(C(α), pi ) = kC(α) − pi k2 . Then

3 nature light, dirty spots and rusts on the structural surface, and the minimization problem is to minimize the objective function

4 environment noise [28]. Also, CCPM has advantages over K- N X

5

X

means clustering algorithms, due to the more computational L(pi ) = arg min kC(α) − pi k2

6 time, sensitivity to noise points and variability of K value P ={pi }N

i=1 i=1 pi ∈P

(2)

7 in K-means clustering [28]. In this crack extraction process,

= kDak2 .

8 the crack is characterized by the existing minimum grayscale

9 value, which exhibits the property of parabolic function in the which is subject to the constraint that kαk2 = 1. The design

10 row of crack area [28]. The eigenvalues selected by CCPM can matrix D is a n × 6 matrix with rows xi . Then the problem

11 differentiate four types of cracks: Transverse, Longitudinal, becomes an eigenvector problem DT Dα = λα, where αmin

12 Oblique and Mesh crack [28]. Finally, the characteristics of the is the eigenvector corresponding to the smallest eigenvalue.

13 extracted cracks should be mutually independent. To meet the 2) Crack Feature Extraction: The crack is characterized

14 real-time computational capacity of the low-cost UAV, SVM- based on the existed minimum grayscale value which displays

15 based method is selected as the crack classifier. The crack a parabolic property and is calculated from Eq.(2). Through

16 projection characteristics in X and Y coordinates, crack area analyzing the characteristics of the crack areas in the pre-

17 and distributed density are the input features. processing image, the image function is f (r, c). The gradient

18 of the points in digital image is a vector. Then, the gradient is

19 determined by the vector of the first-order partial derivative.

B. Mathematical Model for Proposed Method

Fo

20

∂f (r, c) ∂f (r, c)

21 According to the working process in Fig. 1, the correspond- 4 f (r, c) = ( , ) = (fr , fc ), (3)

∂r ∂c

22 ing mathematical model of each step is shown as follows.

23 where fr and fc are the gradients along the row and column

rP

1) Original Image Pre-Processing: The original digital directions respectively. The respective row and column deriva-

24

color image Io is represented by a Ho × Wo × 3 matrix, where tives, and direction angles are:

25

Ho and Wo are the height and width of the image. The pixel

26 ∂f (r, c) ∂f (r, c)

ee

xi,j in image Io is denoted as [b, g, r] representing the color (4f (r), 4f (c) = ( , ),

27 ∂r ∂c

of the pixel, where i = {0, 1, . . . Ho }, j = {0, 1, . . . Wo }. Io

28 fr

is then converted into image Ig in grayscale. The grayscale φ = −arctan( ), (4)

29 fc

rR

30 0 1

31 fi = (fi+1 − fi−1 ).

xi,j = 0.299r + 0.587g + 0.114b. 2

32 0

where fi = 0, and the minimum grayscale value can be

ev

Ib . To reduce the impact of the different lighting conditions obtained at the corresponding point. Since the distribution of

34

on the image, adaptive threshold method is used. The value in the grayscale value f (r, c) in crack area is a parabolic function,

35

pixel xi,j in Ib is determined by two adjacent points r and c can be taken to fit the parabola

36

iew

37 (

M axV alue, if xi,j in Ig > Wi,j , line position of the parabola, the center of the crack (ri , cj ),

38 xi,j =

0, otherwise. where i < r and j < c in a row or column, can be calculated.

39

40 where Wi,j is the is a weighted sum (cross-correlation with a However, in the real complex environment, some factors

41 Gaussian window) of the neighborhood of xi,j . including the presence of noise, rust, and others, result in the

42 grayscale value to be no more than the minimum grayscale

43 The contours C in the binary grayscale image are detected value in the crack area [28]. Consequently, the results of the

44 based on the topological analysis of binary images introduced crack detection, feature extraction and crack classification are

45 in [29], in which the contours are determined to be the affected as well. To address this essential issue, the threshold

46 boundaries between the black and white points. Each detected can be adjusted as a basic characteristic of detecting the crack

47 contour of C is a set of 2-D points and i = {1, 2, , N }, according to the features of the crack in the image. The

48 where N is the number of contours. The ellipse fitting of the threshold is T , and detected length is H. Characteristics are:

49 detected contours C is based on the Least Squares algorithm (

[30]. In our method, given a set of 2-D points in the image H ≥ T, (crack characteristics),

50

51 P = {pi }N i=1 where, pi = (xi , yi ) and xi , yi are two- 0 ≤ H < T, (other characteristics).

52 dimensional coordinates of the point, pi . An ellipse curve

C(α) is parameterized by the vector α and the distance metric The crack width is defined to be larger than 2mm [31]. If the

53 length of the recognized feature is no less than the threshold

54 δ(C(α), pi ) which measures the distance from a point pi to the

curve C(α), find the global minimum grayscale value through (100 or 400), it’s considered as a crack. Otherwise, it’s not.

55

the objective function, which is given by To find the edge coordinates of the crack, we take the second

56

derivative of the Eq.(3).

57 N X

X

58 L(pi ) = arg min δ(C(α), pi ). (1) ∂ 2 f (r, c) ∂ 2 f (r, c)

P ={pi }N 42 f (r, c) = ( + ) = (frr + fcc ), (5)

59 i=1 i=1 pi ∈P

∂r2 ∂c2

60

Transactions on Industrial Electronics Page 4 of 8

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

2 In practice, the formula of second derivatives is: dual objective function Ψ is still quadratic in α. Thus, the

3 object function of SVM model is given as,

00 1

4 f (i) = (fi+1 − 2fi + fi−1 ), N X

N N

2 1

min Ψ(→

− yi yj K(→

−

xi , →

−

X X

5 α ) = min xj )αi αj − αi ,

α α 2

6 00

When fi = 0, we can obtain its maximum and minimum. The i=1 j=1 i=1

7 crack edge coordinates are the coordinates of maximum and 0 ≤ αi ≤ C, ∀i,

8 minimum values, (ri+1 , cj+1 ) and (ri−1 , cj−1 ) respectively. N

9

X

Finally, the crack width, W , can be calculated below: yi αi = 0.

10 i=1

11 RowR − Row (9)

12 W =2×{

cos(φ)

}. (6)

where C is the correction parameter.

13

14 where RowR and Row are the crack right and center position. Furthermore, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions are

15 necessary and sufficient for an optimal point of a positive

3) Cracks Classification and Recognition: To develop an definite SVM QP problem [35], and K must obey Mercers

16

effective and accurate cracks classifier for the low-cost UAV conditions [36]. KKT conditions for the QP problem in Eq.

17

equipment, based on our preliminary research, SVM model (9) are particularly simple. The QP problem is solved below:

18

[32] is a good selection. The key ideas and advantages of SVM

19 αi = 0 ⇔ yi fi ≥ 1,

include: 1) the efficient separability of non-linear regions,

Fo

20 0 < αi < C ⇔ yi fi = 1, (10)

which use kernel functions to generalize the similarity to the

21

new similarity measures by dot products [33]; 2) the use αi = C ⇔ yi fi ≤ 1.

22

of quadratic optimization to avert local minimum issues in

23

rP

where fi is the output of the SVM for the ith training sample.

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) [33]; 3) the result learning

24 To solve the SVM QP problem, SMO is used to optimize

algorithm will be an optimization algorithm instead of a greedy

25 the objective function, Eq. (9) based on KKT conditions as

search [33]. Thus, compared to the other traditional machine

26

ee

learning or pattern recognition methods, SVM requires fewer Eq.(10). SMO can quickly solve the SVM QP problem without

27 any extra matrix storage or using numerical QP optimization

data samples [32]. In our proposed method, the Sequential

28 steps at all. SMO decomposes the overall QP problem into QP

Minimal Optimization (SMO) algorithm is applied to deal

29 sub-problems, using Osunas theorem to ensure convergence.

rR

30 The SMO algorithm includes three steps: 1) an analytic

was developed to solve the SVM quadratic programming (QP)

31 method for solving for the two Lagrange multipliers, 2) a

problem [34]. SMO algorithm first decomposes the SVM

32 heuristics for selecting multipliers to optimize, and 3) com-

QP problem into several QP sub-problems [34], then solves

ev

each smallest possible optimization problem individually [34],

34

which involves two Lagrange multipliers at each step. Step 1: Solving for two Lagrange multipliers

35

36

iew

SVM model includes two different forms: linear and non- In SMO, all quantities referring to the first multiplier have

37 linear form. Considering the complexity of the available data a subscript 1, and a subscript 2 for the second multiplier.

38 sets and application, non-linear form SVM model is selected Without loss of generality, the algorithm first computes the

39 for the classification. The output formula of SVM is below, second Lagrange multiplier α2 and computes the ends of the

40 N

diagonal line segment in terms of α2 . If the target y1 does not

41 fi =

X

yj αj K(→

−

xj , →

−

x ) − b, i, j = {1, 2, · · · , N }, (7) equal the target y2 , then the following bounds apply to α2 :

42 j=1 L = max(0, α2 − α1 ), H = min(C, C + α2 − α1 ). (11)

43

44 where yj is label set, αj is Lagrange multipliers, b is bias, If the target y1 equals y2 , then the below bounds apply:

45 and K is the kernel function that measures the similarity or

L = max(0, α2 + α1 − C), H = min(C, α2 + α1 ). (12)

46 distance between the input vector →−x and the stored training

47 →

−

vector xj . In the presented method, Gaussian kernel is finally where L is bound negative support vectors and H is bound

48 selected due to its higher efficiency, lower simplicity, and positive support vectors.

49 better performance compared to other SVM kernels. The

The second derivative of the objective function along the

50 Gaussian kernel function is shown as follows.

diagonal line can be expressed as:

51 2

52 K(→

−

xj , →

−

x ) = Exp(−

kx − xj k

). (8) η = K(− →, −

x →) + K(−

x

1 1

→, −

x →) − 2K(−

x 2 2

→, −

x x→).

1 2

53 2σ 2

In normal circumstances, the objective function is positive

54 where σ is a free parameter. σ is utilized to control the definite. Also, there is a minimum along the direction of the

55 underfitting (large σ 2 for high bias and low variance) and linear equality constraint, and η is greater than zero. SMO

56 overfitting (small σ 2 for low bias and high variance). computes the minimum along the direction of the constraint:

57

58 The Lagrange multiplier αi is computed via the quadratic y2 (E1 − E2 )

program. The non-linearity alters the quadratic form, but the α2new = α2 + , (13)

59 η

60

Page 5 of 8 Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

2 where E = ui − yi is the error on the ith training sample. As Once the first Lagrange multiplier is chosen, the second

3 the next step, the constrained minimum is found by clipping Lagrange multiplier is chosen by SMO to maximize the step

4 the unconstrained minimum to the ends of the line segment: size taken during joint optimization. However, evaluating the

5 kernel function K is time consuming, so SMO approximates

H if α2new ≥ H,

6 the step size by the absolute value of the numerator in

new,clipped new

7 α2 = α2 if L < α2new < H, Eq.(13): |E1 − E2 |. SMO keeps a cached error value E for

8 L if α2new ≤ L. each non-bound training example and then chooses an error to

9 Let s = y1 y2 . α1 is computed from the newly clipped α2 :

approximately maximize the step size. If E1 is positive, SMO

10 chooses an example with minimum error E2 . Conversely, if

11 α1new = α1 + s(α2 − α2new,clipped ). (14) E1 is negative, SMO chooses one with maximum error E2 .

12 Step 3: Computing the threshold

In unusual circumstances, η is not positive. A negative η

13

occurs if K does not obey Mercers condition, which can cause The threshold b is recomputed after each step, so that the

14

the objective function to become indefinite. A zero η can occur KKT conditions are fulfilled for both optimized examples. The

15

even with a correct kernel, if more than one training sample following threshold b1 is valid when the new α1 is not at the

16

has the same input vector x. In any event, SMO will work even bounds, since it forces the output of the SVM model to be y1

17

when η is not positive. In those cases, the objective function when the input is x1 :

18

Ψ should be evaluated at each end of the line segment:

19 b1 = E1 + y1 (α1new − α1 )K(− →, −

x →

1 x1 )

f1 = y1 (E1 + b) + α1 K(− →, −→ −

→ − →

Fo

20 (16)

x 1 x1 ) − sα2 K(x1 , x2 ), + y2 (α2new, clipped − α2 )K(−→, −

x →

1 x2 ) + b.

21 f = y (E + b) + sα K(−

2 2 2 1

→, −

x 1

→) − α K(−

x 2 2

→, −

x 2

→),

x 2

22 The following threshold b2 is valid when the new α2 is not

L1 = α1 + s(α2 − L),

23

rP

24 H1 = α1 + s(α2 − H),

25 1 1 2 −

ΨL = L1 f1 + Lf2 + L21 K(−

→, −

x → → −→

1 x1 ) + L K(x2 , x2 )

26 2 2

ee

27 + sLL1 K(−→, −

x →

1 x2 ),

28 1 1 2 −

ΨH = H1 f1 + Hf2 + H12 K(− →, −

x → → − →

1 x1 ) + H K(x2 , x2 )

29 2 2

rR

30 + sHH1 K(− →, −

x →

1 x2 ).

31 (15)

32

SMO will move the Lagrange multipliers to the end point that

ev

33

has the lowest value of the objective function.

34

35 Step 2: Heuristics for selecting multipliers to optimize

36

iew

37 choice heuristics are required, which include one for the first

38 Lagrange multiplier. and one for the second. The choice of the

39 first heuristic provides the outer loop of SMO. The outer loop Fig. 2: Hardware of Low-cost UAV.

40 first iterates over the entire training set, determining if each

41 example violates the KKT conditions in Eq.(10). If an example TABLE II: T HE S PECIFICATIONS OF L OW- COST UAV

42 violates KKT, then it is eligible for optimization. The first

43 choice heuristic concentrates the CPU time on the examples Components Name Components Type Quantity

44 that are most likely to violate the KKT conditions: the non- Micro Controller STM32F407VGT6 1

45 bound subset. After one passes through the entire training Barometer MEAS MS5611 1

46 set, the outer loop iterates over all examples whose Lagrange Accelerometer MPU6050 1

47 multipliers are neither 0 nor C (the non-bound examples). Magnetometer HMC5883L 1

48 Wi-Fi Module ESP8266 1

49 Again, each example is checked against the KKT conditions Flash M24128-BWDW6TP 1

50 and violating examples are eligible for optimization. The outer Ultrasonic Module HC-SR04 1

51 loop repeatedly passes over the non-bound examples until all Storage Module Micro SD Card 1

52 of the non-bound examples obey the KKT conditions within ε Screen 0.96 inch OLED screen 1

53 which is the control parameter. Notice that the KKT conditions LED RGB full color LED 1

54 are checked to be within ε of fulfillment. Typically, ε is set to ESC Brushless Motor HTI-D20-491101 4

55 be 10−3 . The outer loop then goes back and iterates over the Brushless Motor A2212-13 980KV 4

56 entire training set. The outer loop keeps alternating between GPS Module Radiolink M8N GPS SE100 1

57 single pass over the entire training set and multiple passes over Figure transmission module VT58 5.8G 40CH FPV 1

58 the non-bound subset until the entire training set obeys the Power supply Module 3S lithium battery (5200mAH 11.1 V ) 1

59 KKT conditions within ε where upon the algorithm terminates.

60

Transactions on Industrial Electronics Page 6 of 8

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

2 at bounds, because it forces the output of the SVM model to C) module, Ultrasonic module, Inertial navigation module,

3 be y2 when the input is x2 : Transmission and reception module, Optical flow module,

4 b2 = E2 + y1 (α1new − α1 )K(− →, −

x →

1 x1 )

Communication module, Global Positioning System (GPS)

5 (17) module, Power loss memory module, and the power supply

new, clipped

+ y2 (α2 − α2 )K(−→, −

x →

1 x2 ) + b.

6 module.

7 When both b1 and b2 are valid, they are equal. When both Control module is composed of ST M 32F 103ZET micro-

8 new Lagrange multipliers are at bound and if L is not equal computer. It is used to control the attitude of the quadrotor

9 to H, then the interval between b1 and b2 are all thresholds UAV, exchange data between the quadrotor UAV and terminal

10 that are consistent with the KKT conditions. SMO chooses the devices, and handle the data acquisition and processing. ESC

11 threshold to be halfway in between b1 and b2 . module is used to handle the driving operation of the brushless

12 motor in the quadrotor UAV. Inertial navigation module is

13 III. E XPERIMENTS AND R ESULT A NALYSES composed of an accelerometer, gyroscope, electronic compass,

14 and barometer. It is used to provide the information feedback

15 To verify the performance of the new vision-based cracks for the smooth flight of the quadrotor UAV. Ultrasonic module

16 inspection method, a bridge structure inspection experiment is used to measure the flight height of the quadrotor UAV.

17 using the UAV combined with computer vision and SVM Transmission and reception module is used for the wireless

18 algorithm for crack detection is implemented as follows. real-time video transmission. Optical flow module is used for

19 the fixed-point control of the quadrotor UAV. Communication

Fo

20 A. Hardware configuration for crack data acquisition module uses N RF 24L01 module for the quadrotor UAV

21 and PC side of the data transmission. GPS module is used

22 The hardware platform of a low-cost quadrotor UAV has for positioning and navigation of the quadrotor UAV in the

23

rP

ten modules: Control module, Electronic Spark Control (ES- high altitude. Power loss memory module is used to handle

24

25 Algorithm I: Vision-based Cracks Inspection Algorithm

26

ee

27

Output: Accuracy A

28

29 Step 1: Convert Color Image to Binary Image.

rR

31 BinaryPixel xi,j = CovertImage.GrayToBin(GrayPixel xi,j );

32

Step 2: Detect the contour in grayscale binary image.

ev

33

Compute smallest eigenvalue αmin with Eq.(2);

34

35 Compute minimum grayscale value L(pi ) with Eq.(2);

36

iew

37 Compute φ with Eq.(3) and Eq.(4);

38 Compute H with Eq.(6);

39 Step 4: Cracks Classified by SVM algorithm (SMO).

40 Training set −

→;

x j

41 Label set −

→ −

→

yj = H ;

Fig. 3: Results of crack inspection experiment.

42

Initialize: αi = 0,fi = −b;

43

Compute: L, H using Eq.(11) and Eq.(12);

44

45 Update: α1 , α2 ; using Eq.(13) and Eq.(14)

46 Repeat:

47 Update f1 , f2 using Eq.(15);

48 Compute L1 , H1 using Eq.(15);

49 Update α1 , α2 using Eq.(13) and Eq.(14);

50 Until: f1 converge to f2 ;

51

Update: b1 , b2 using Eq.(16) and Eq.(17).

52

Store new α1 and α2 .

53

54 Step 5: Recognize the cracks.

55 Input the new samples S;

56 Call SVM algorithm to identify the input sample;

57 Calculate the inspection accuracy;

58 Output the Cracks inspection accuracy A; Fig. 4: Crack inspection accuracy.

59

60

Page 7 of 8 Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Fo

20

21

22

23

rP

24

25

26

ee

27

28

29

rR

30

31 Fig. 5: The whole experimental process.

32

ev

33

34 the debugging of the flight control algorithm. Power supply reason lies in the different optical (lens) distortion, which is

35 module is used to supply the entire system with power. Fig. 2 generated by the optical design of lenses in the different height

36

iew

shows the hardware and real environment of the low-cost UAV. of UAVs. Fig. 5 shows the example images and result of the

37 The detail specifications of components are listed in Table II. real-time crack inspection by the proposed method.

38

Overall, the result illustrates the accuracy, applicability and

39

B. New Algorithm Design for the Proposed Method robustness of the proposed methods in the different flight

40

height of the UAV. The only minor issue is that SVM has

41 Based on Fig. 1, Algorithm I with C language is used to slightly lower detection accuracy for mesh cracks than for

42 implement this new method (shown in Fig. 2). SVM uses the other crack types. The reason may be that mesh cracks are

43 crack projection characteristics in X and Y coordinates, crack more sensitive to the environment noise and have less crack

44 area and distributed density as the input features and crack length. Consequently, some features of mesh cracks may be

45 type as the output label. The correct and classified label of easier to be filtered out in the image pre-processing. So mesh

46 each sample are compared to compute accuracy. cracks have more probability to be undetected or misclassified.

47

48

49 C. Result Discussion IV. C ONCLUSION AND F UTURE W ORK

50

51 In our experiment, we inspected four types of cracks: Trans- Till now, few noncontact and vision-based SHM methods

52 verse, Longitudinal, Oblique and Mesh crack in different flight have been effectively utilized and integrated with low-cost

53 heights of UAVs. These inspection images are captured by the UAVs to perform the real-time crack inspection. To solve

54 UAV in real time, and translated to the terminal devices, such this challenge, a novel low-cost UAV enabled, vision and

55 as, laptops, pads, smart phones, and others via Wi-Fi network. SVM based cracks inspection method has been designed and

56 The experimental result in Fig. 3 shows the measurement size implemented to inspect the cracks of concrete structure in

57 of each crack is pretty close to the actual size. Meanwhile, Fig. real time. The working procedures include the three steps:

58 4 demonstrates that the accuracy of the inspection of different pre-processing of the image acquired by the UAV, crack

59 cracks generally improves with the flight height increase. The characters extraction from the pre-processed images using

60

Transactions on Industrial Electronics Page 8 of 8

IEEE TRANSACTION ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

1

2 CCPM, and the crack classification via SVM. The results [14] V. Hoskere, Y. Narazaki, T. Hoang, B. Spencer Jr, 2018. ”Vision-

based Structural Inspection using Multiscale Deep Convolutional Neural

3 from the bridge concrete inspection experiment further validate

Networks.” arXiv preprint, arXiv:1805.01055.

4 the effectiveness and robustness of this proposed method.

[15] D. Lattanzi, G. Miller, 2017. ”Review of robotic infrastructure inspection

5 Therefore, this paper provides an exemplary research about the systems.” Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 23(3), p.04017004.

6 state-of-the-art computer vision, machine learning technology [16] A. Khaloo, D. Lattanzi, K. Cunningham, R. DellAndrea, M. Riley,

7 and low-cost UAVs application in noncontact SHM. The 2017. ”Unmanned aerial vehicle inspection of the Placer River Trail

Bridge through image-based 3D modelling.” Structure and Infrastructure

8 proposed method realizes the real-time crack inspection and Engineering, pp.1-13.

9 process automation, and displays the significant advantages [17] C. Brooks, R.J. Dobson, D.M. Banach, D. Dean, T. Oommen, R.E. Wolf,

10 over traditional noncontact SHM methods. T.C. Havens, T.M. Ahlborn, B. Hart, 2015. ”Evaluating the use of

unmanned aerial vehicles for transportation purposes.” (No. RC-1616),

11 Future research includes the three following aspects: 1). The Michigan Tech Research Institute.

12 detailed analysis of computational time and space complexity [18] I. Hernandez, T. Fields, J. Kevern, 2016. ”Overcoming the Challenges

13 of the proposed vision-based method, to implement seamless

of Using Unmanned Aircraft for Bridge Inspections.” AIAA Atmospheric

Flight Mechanics Conference, pp.3396.

14 integration with low-cost UAVs and reduce system failures. [19] F.C. Pereira, C.E. Pereira, 2015. ”Embedded image processing systems

15 2). The solutions to improve CCPM, so that its robustness can for automatic recognition of cracks using uavs.” IFAC-PapersOnLine,

16 be further enhanced especially for the low-quality images cap-

48(10), pp.16-21.

[20] A. Ellenberg, L. Branco, A. Krick, I. Bartoli, A. Kontsos, 2014. ”Use

17 tured with severe noise, dirty spots, rusts, shades, UVA jitter or of unmanned aerial vehicle for quantitative infrastructure evaluation.”

18 in poor environmental conditions. 3). The crack classification Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 21(3), p.04014054.

19 using genetic algorithm, or other machine learning algorithms [21] N. Metni, T. Hamel, 2007. ”A UAV for bridge inspection: Visual

servoing control law with orientation limits.” Automation in construction,

Fo

20 (e.x., boosting, random forest or neural network), to improve 17(1), pp.3-10.

21 the accuracy of the mesh crack detection. [22] S. Sankarasrinivasan, E. Balasubramanian, K. Karthik, U. Chandrasekar,

22 R. Gupta, 2015. ”Health Monitoring of Civil Structures with Integrated

UAV and Image Processing System.” Procedia Computer Science, (54),

23

rP

R EFERENCES pp.508-515.

24 [23] S.S. Choi, E.K. Kim, 2015.”Building crack inspection using small

[1] T. Harms, S. Sedigh, F. Bastianini, 2010. ”Structural health monitoring

25 of bridges using wireless sensor networks.” IEEE Instrumentation and

UAV.” In 17th International Conference on Advanced Communication

Technology (ICACT), (pp. 235-238). IEEE, July, 2015.

26 Measurement Magazine, 6(13), pp.14-18.

ee

27 [2] G. Tessari, P. Riccardi, P. Pasquali, 2017, December. ”Monitoring the on- ria, I. Alumni, 2011.”Computer vision: a modern approach.” Computer,

going deformation and seasonal behaviour affecting Mosul Dam through

28 space-borne SAR data.” In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

16(11).

[25] L. Wang, Z. Zhang, 2017. ”Automatic detection of wind turbine blade

29 [3] F.G. Baptista, J. Vieira Filho, 2009. ”A new impedance measurement surface cracks based on uav-taken images.” IEEE Transactions on Indus-

rR

30 system for PZT-based structural health monitoring.” IEEE Transactions trial Electronics, 64(9), pp.7293-7303.

on Instrumentation and Measurement, 58(10), pp.3602-3608.

31 [4] Y. Yu, J. Ou, J. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Li, 2009. ”Development of wireless

[26] C. Eschmann, C.M. Kuo, C.H. Kuo, C. Boller, 2013. ”High-resolution

multisensor infrastructure inspection with unmanned aircraft systems.”

32 MEMS inclination sensor system for swing monitoring of large-scale ISPRS-International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing

ev

33 hook structures.” IEEE Transactions on industrial Electronics, 56(4), and Spatial Information Sciences, (2), pp.125-129, 2013.

pp.1072-1078.

34 [5] M. Magno, D. Boyle, D. Brunelli, B. O’Flynn, E. Popovici, L. Benini,

[27] D. Kang, Y.J. Cha, 2018. ”Autonomous UAVs for Structural Health

Monitoring Using Deep Learning and an Ultrasonic Beacon System with

35 2014. ”Extended wireless monitoring through intelligent hybrid energy GeoTagging.” ComputerAided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

36 supply.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 61(4), pp.1871-

iew

[28] B. Lei, N. Wang, P. Xu, G. Song, 2018. ”New Crack Detection Method

1881.

37 [6] R. Davoudi, G.R. Miller, J.N. Kutz, 2017. ”Computer Vision Based

for Bridge Inspection Using UAV Incorporating Image Processing.”

Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 31(5), p.04018058.

38 Inspection Approach to Predict Damage State and Load Level for RC [29] S. Suzuki, 1985. ”Topological structural analysis of digitized binary

Members.” Structural Health Monitoring 2017.

39 [7] J.Z. Huang, D.S. Li, H.N. Li, G.B. Song, Y. Liang, 2018. ”Damage

images by border following.” Computer vision, graphics, and image

40 identification of a large cablestayed bridge with novel cointegrated

processing, 30(1), pp.32-46.

[30] J.N. Yang, S. Lin, 2005. ”Identification of parametric variations of struc-

41 Kalman filter method under changing environments.” Structural Control

tures based on least squares estimation and adaptive tracking technique.”

and Health Monitoring, 25(5), e2152.

42 [8] D. Reagan, 2017. ”Unmanned aerial vehicle measurement using three

Journal of engineering mechanics, 131(3), pp.290-298.

43 dimensional digital image correlation to perform bridge structural health

[31] GB 50144-2008, 2008. ”Standard for Appraisal of Reliability of Indus-

trial Buildings and Structures”, Prepared by the Ministry of Housing and

44 monitoring.” (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Lowell).

Urban-Rural Development of China, Beijing, p. 38.

[9] A. Khaloo, D. Lattanzi, A. Jachimowicz, C. Devaney, 2018. ”Utilizing

45 UAV and 3D Computer Vision for Visual Inspection of a Large Gravity

[32] M.M. Adankon, M. Cheriet, 2009. ”Support vector machine.” In Ency-

46 Dam.” Frontiers in Built Environment, 4, p.31.

clopedia of biometrics (pp. 1303-1308). Springer US.

[33] R. Berwick, 2003. ”An Idiots guide to Support vector machines (SVM-

47 [10] F.N. Catbas, A.E. Aktan, 2002. ”Condition and damage assessment:

s).” Retrieved on October, 21, p.2011.

issues and some promising indices.” Journal of Structural Engineering,

48 128(8), pp.1026-1036.

[34] Z.Q. Zeng, H.B. Yu, H.R. Xu, Y.Q. Xie, J. Gao, 2008. ”Fast training

49 [11] G. Lapoutre, 2017. ”Acoustic Emission Monitoring: of Offshore Wind

support vector machines using parallel sequential minimal optimization.”

In Intelligent System and Knowledge Engineering, 2008. ISKE 2008. 3rd

50 Turbine Support Structures for Detection and Localization of Fatigue

International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 997-1001). IEEE.

Crack Growth.”

51 [12] N. Hallermann, G. Morgenthal, V. Rodehorst, 2014. ”Vision-based

[35] A.F. Izmailov, M.V. Solodov, 2003. ”Karush-Kuhn-Tucker systems:

52 deformation monitoring of large scale structures using Unmanned Aerial

regularity conditions, error bounds and a class of Newton-type methods.”

Mathematical Programming, 95(3), pp.631-650.

53 Systems.” In IABSE Symposium Report (Vol. 102, No. 8, pp. 2852-2859).

[36] T.B. Trafalis, H. Ince, 2000. ”Support vector machine for regression

International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.

54 [13] H. Kim, J. Lee, E. Ahn, S. Cho, M. Shin, S.H. Sim, 2017. ”Concrete

and applications to financial forecasting.” In Neural Networks, 2000.

55 Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Process-

IJCNN 2000, Proceedings of the IEEE-INNS-ENNS International Joint

Conference on (Vol. 6, pp. 348-353). IEEE.

56 ing”. Sensors, 17(9), p.2052.

57

58

59

60

- The Critic as ArtistEnviado porNizarudin Art
- Efficient Additive Kernels via Explicit Feature Maps---Vedaldi10Enviado porXianbiao Qi
- Soft ComputingEnviado porPrasanta Padhi
- Kernels ReviewEnviado porChun F Hsu
- Limpieza de datosEnviado porMarisol Cantarero
- Study of Supply Vector Machine (SVM) for Emotion RecognitionEnviado porAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Pedestrian Detection ReportEnviado porVictor Rios
- Women EntrepreneurshipEnviado porneemarawat11
- IRJET-Speech Emotion Recognition using CART algorithmEnviado porIRJET Journal
- A Multicriterion Fuzzy Classification Method With Greedy Attribute Selection for Anomaly-based Intrusion DetectionEnviado porAndi Muhammad Nurhidayat
- 12345Enviado pornik_cul
- InTech-Types_of_machine_learning_algorithms.pdfEnviado porDaniel Arya
- SSSVM2015Enviado porMinh Le
- SVM - reportEnviado porGautam Praveen
- Elarab Et Al (2015) - Estimating Chlorophyll in Ag With Thermal and Broadband Multispectral CHI2Enviado porGrace Mena
- 5 Keerthi Report NewEnviado porRatna Verma
- aaai04-2upEnviado portplate
- CS_pamphlet_en.pdfEnviado porninja
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)Enviado porIJERD
- Press_eng_20090615Enviado porAbhishek Saxena
- IRJET-Hand Gesture Recognition and Voice Conversion for Deaf and DumbEnviado porIRJET Journal
- Neural Network and Regression Spline Value Function Approximations for Stochastic Dynamic ProgrammingEnviado porcall2000
- YyEnviado porSubbuNaidu
- 06.pptEnviado porAshish Patel
- 16-337Enviado porMilan Joshi
- Image RecognitionEnviado porVaseemAhmed
- Slides Lecture5Enviado porBatoul Zargar
- Artificial Intelligence and RoboticsEnviado porSharjeel MaLik
- 07434232Enviado porCarlos
- spt123Enviado porMohammad Rofii

- 2.17-23Enviado porGera Barbosa
- TCC_LUIZ_GRILO_Bom.pdfEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Uma Ferramenta Digital Para Auxiliar No Ensino e No Projeto de Estações de Bombeamento (1)Enviado porGera Barbosa
- Relatorio de Estágio Alexsandro Mendes_FinalEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Termografia Aplicada No Monitoramento Da Temperatura Superficial Corpórea de AnimaisEnviado porGera Barbosa
- App_Dimensionamento Do Sistema EólicoEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Declaração de AutoriaEnviado porGera Barbosa
- 16 04 26 Partida Motor CCEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Catalogo ParkerEnviado poramenon fernandes
- App_Mapeamento de Campo ElétricoEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Projeto [Raphael Baltar]FinalEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Festo Didactic - PneumaticaEnviado porDheiver Santos
- EletrofloculaçãoEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Apost.1Enviado porgustavo_romanhol2338
- Apost.1Enviado porgustavo_romanhol2338
- 1.a Aula Clp Ifsp SpEnviado porWanderley Terci Esteves
- Relatorio Do Estagio - Felipe LiraEnviado porGera Barbosa
- 3 Capacitores e IndutoresEnviado porGera Barbosa
- 16 04 22 Dahlander Baixa Alta AutomáticoEnviado porGera Barbosa
- embasaEnviado porelisioleal
- Projeto CLP - Portão GaragemEnviado porNeviton Gomes
- trabalho-1000015665.pdfEnviado porGera Barbosa
- trabalho-1000015665.pdfEnviado porGera Barbosa
- 8P-EP38A-Engenharia e Eficiencia EnergeticaEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Ensaio de flexão.pdfEnviado porCaroline Américo
- Exercícios-de-CLP-Supervisório.pdfEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Exercicios de DesenhoEnviado porruilima2004
- Domótica Utilizando CLPEnviado porGera Barbosa
- Instrumentação Industrial Princípios BasicosEnviado porGera Barbosa

- Mark Suster: A Primer on ExitsEnviado porapi-204718852
- MLA FormatEnviado porjacob0904
- Procure to PayEnviado porLucky Jai
- Love is in the Air (Song)Enviado porPraveer Peter
- Friend FunctionEnviado pormail.sushilk8403
- Outdoor Guide 2016Enviado porcn_cadillacmi
- NASCOMEnviado porSabir Khan
- HistoryEnviado porkunal_rathod25
- erpdocumatation.pdfEnviado pormittal
- A Seminar Report Csr (1)Enviado porAmanat Talwar
- Canon CanoscanN650U.pdfEnviado porAnonymous d7SDw1
- Auto Sector Update November 2011Enviado porAngel Broking
- My Student DataEnviado porWalid Loukili
- Let 3 Academic ChallengeEnviado porAnonymous ixz73JLjGK
- Witt O’Brien’s and SEACOR Donate 100,000 Outreach Program Meals to Children Affected by Hurricane HarveyEnviado porPR.com
- IPPTChap015Enviado porMo Zhu
- Redes Videoconferencias Full HD Panasonic KX-VC300-500-600 www.logantech.com.mx Mérida, Yuc.Enviado porLogantech
- Sony HR ProblemsEnviado porkingjanuarius
- A cavitation algorithm for arbitrary lubricant compressibilityEnviado porMohammadhossein Nirooei
- A Critical Discussion on Bath-Tub CurveEnviado porSyafik Pipik
- Jin Lin v. Eric Holder, Jr., 4th Cir. (2011)Enviado porScribd Government Docs
- Quantity.surveyorEnviado porqaiserkhan001
- Final_ppt on Aqua SilncerEnviado porPravin Patil
- ACOUSTIC EMISSION STUDIES DURING FATIGUE TESTING OF GFRP ELLIPTIC SPRING ELEMENTSEnviado porJefri Bale
- Asus e7895 Me400c Tablet ManualEnviado porMurali Thangaraj
- Philippines Corridor Learning FinalEnviado porandrea-s-orozco-8148
- Jet Fuel - SDS 941 - 130709.pdfEnviado porSUBHOMOY
- English for Law Enforcement Unit 2 Students BookEnviado poresl trainer
- Table Formwork_new.pdfEnviado porMuhammad Zuhayr
- sample buisness plan 1Enviado porapi-307578607