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29/01/2019 Textbook - Wikipedia

Textbook
A textbook is a comprehensive compilation of content in a branch of
study. Textbooks are produced to meet the needs of educators, usually at
educational institutions. Schoolbooks are textbooks and other books
used in schools.[1][2] Today, many textbooks are published in both print
format and digital formats.

Contents Textbook
History
Market
The market for textbooks
New editions and the used book market in the USA
Bundling in the USA
Price disclosure
Used textbook market
Campus buyback
Student to student sales
Student online marketplaces
Online book buyers
Textbook exchanges
E-textbooks
Rental programs
Textbook sharing
Open textbooks
International market pricing
Production
Cost distribution
Research

K-12 textbooks
High school
Mathematics
Higher education
Textbook bias on controversial topics
See also
References
Further reading
External links

History
The history of textbooks dates back to ancient civilizations. For example, Ancient Greeks wrote educational texts. The
modern textbook has its roots in the mass production made possible by the printing press. Johannes Gutenberg
himself may have printed editions of Ars Minor, a schoolbook on Latin grammar by Aelius Donatus. Early textbooks
were used by tutors and teachers (e.g. alphabet books), as well as by individuals who taught themselves.

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The Greek philosopher Plato lamented the loss of knowledge because the media of transmission were changing.[3]
Before the invention of the Greek alphabet 2,500 years ago, knowledge and stories were recited aloud, much like
Homer's epic poems. The new technology of writing meant stories no longer needed to be memorized, a development
Socrates feared would weaken the Greeks' mental capacities for memorizing and retelling. (Ironically, we know about
Socrates' concerns only because they were written down by his student Plato in his famous Dialogues.) [4]

The next revolution in the field of books came with the 15th-century invention of printing with changeable type. The
invention is attributed to German metalsmith Johannes Gutenberg, who cast type in molds using a melted metal alloy
and constructed a wooden-screw printing press to transfer the image onto paper.

Gutenberg's first and only large-scale printing effort was the now iconic Gutenberg Bible in the 1450s — a Latin
translation from the Hebrew Old Testament and the Greek New Testament. Gutenberg's invention made mass
production of texts possible for the first time. Although the Gutenberg Bible itself was expensive, printed books began
to spread widely over European trade routes during the next 50 years, and by the 16th century, printed books had
become more widely accessible and less costly.[5]

While many textbooks were already in use, compulsory education and the resulting growth of schooling in Europe led
to the printing of many more textbooks for children. Textbooks have been the primary teaching instrument for most
children since the 19th century. Two textbooks of historical significance in United States schooling were the 18th
century New England Primer and the 19th century McGuffey Readers.

Recent technological advances have changed the way people interact with textbooks. Online and digital materials are
making it increasingly easy for students to access materials other than the traditional print textbook. Students now
have access to electronic books ("e-books"), online tutoring systems and video lectures. An example of an e-book is
Principles of Biology from Nature Publishing.

Most notably, an increasing number of authors are avoiding commercial publishers and instead offering their
textbooks under a creative commons or other open license.

Market

The market for textbooks


As in many industries, the number of providers has declined in recent years (there are just a handful of major textbook
companies in the USA)[6]. Also, elasticity of demand is fairly low. The term "broken market" appeared in the
economist James Koch's analysis of the market commissioned by the Advisory Committee on Student Financial
Assistance.[7]

New editions and the used book market in the USA


Some students save money by buying used copies of textbooks, which tend to be less expensive, and are available from
many college bookstores in the USA, who buy them back from students at the end of a term. Books that are not being
re-used at the school are often purchased by an off-campus wholesaler for 0-30% of the new cost, for distribution to
other bookstores. Some textbook companies have countered this by encouraging teachers to assign homework that
must be done on the publisher's website. Students with a new textbook can use the pass code in the book to register on
the site; otherwise they must pay the publisher to access the website and complete assigned homework.

Students who look beyond the campus bookstore can typically find lower prices. With the ISBN or title, author and
edition, most textbooks can be located through online used book sellers or retailers.

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Most leading textbook companies publish a new edition every 3 or 4 years, more frequently in math and science.
Harvard economics chair James K. Stock has stated that new editions are often not about significant improvements to
the content. "New editions are to a considerable extent simply another tool used by publishers and textbook authors to
maintain their revenue stream, that is, to keep up prices." A study conducted by The Student PIRGs found that a new
edition costs 12% more than a new copy of the previous edition (not surprising if the old version is obsolete), and 58%
more than a used copy of the previous edition. Textbook publishers maintain these new editions are driven by demand
from teachers. That study found that 76% of teachers said new editions were justified “half of the time or less” and
40% said they were justified “rarely” or “never”.[8] The PIRG study has been criticized by publishers, who argue that
the report contains factual inaccuracies regarding the annual average cost of textbooks per student.[9]

The Student PIRGs also point out that recent emphasis on e-textbooks does not always save students money. Even
though the book costs less up-front, the student will not recover any of the cost through resale.[10]

Bundling in the USA


Another publishing industry practice that has been highly criticized is "bundling", or shrink-wrapping supplemental
items into a textbook. Supplemental items range from CD-ROMs and workbooks to online passcodes and bonus
material. Students often cannot buy these things separately, and often the one-time-use supplements destroy the
resale value of the textbook.[11]

According to the Student PIRGs, the typical bundled textbook is 10%-50% more than an unbundled textbook, and 65%
of professors said they “rarely” or “never” use the bundled items in their courses.[8]

A 2005 Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report in the USA found that the production of these supplemental
items was the primary cause of rapidly increasing prices:

While publishers, retailers, and wholesalers all play a role in textbook pricing, the primary factor
contributing to increases in the price of textbooks has been the increased investment publishers have
made in new products to enhance instruction and learning...While wholesalers, retailers, and others do
not question the quality of these materials, they have expressed concern that the publishers’ practice of
packaging supplements with a textbook to sell as one unit limits the opportunity students have to
purchase less expensive used books....If publishers continue to increase these investments, particularly
in technology, the cost to produce a textbook is likely to continue to increase in the future.[12]

Bundling has also been used to segment the used book market. Each combination of a textbook and supplemental
items receives a separate ISBN. A single textbook could therefore have dozens of ISBNs that denote different
combinations of supplements packaged with that particular book. When a bookstore attempts to track down used
copies of textbooks, they will search for the ISBN the course instructor orders, which will locate only a subset of the
copies of the textbook.

Legislation at state and federal levels seeks to limit the practice of bundling, by requiring publishers to offer all
components separately.[13] Publishers have testified in favor of bills including this provision,[14] but only in the case
that the provision exempts the loosely defined category of "integrated textbooks." The Federal bill[15] only exempts 3rd
party materials in integrated textbooks, however publisher lobbyists have attempted to create a loophole through this
definition in state bills.[16][17]

Price disclosure
Given that the problem of high textbook prices is linked to the "broken" economics of the market, requiring publishers
to disclose textbook prices to faculty is a solution pursued by a number of legislatures.[18] By inserting price into sales
interactions, this regulation will supposedly make the economic forces operate more normally.
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No data suggests that this is in fact true. However, The Student PIRGs have found that publishers actively withhold
pricing information from faculty, making it difficult to obtain. Their most recent study found that 77% of faculty say
publisher sales representatives do not volunteer prices, and only 40% got an answer when they directly asked.
Furthermore, the study found that 23% of faculty rated publisher websites as “informative and easy to use” and less
than half said they typically listed the price.[19]

The US Congress passed a law in the 2008 Higher Education Opportunity Act that would require price
disclosure.[13][20][21] Legislation requiring price disclosure has passed in Connecticut,[22] Washington,[23][24]
Minnesota,[25] Oregon,[23] Arizona,[26] Oklahoma,[27] and Colorado.[17] Publishers are currently supporting price
disclosure mandates, though they insist that the "suggested retail price"[28] should be disclosed, rather than the actual
price the publisher would get for the book.

Used textbook market


Once a textbook is purchased from a retailer for the first time, there are several ways a student can sell his/her
textbooks back at the end of the semester or later. Students can sell to 1) the college/university bookstore; 2) fellow
students; 3) a number of online websites; or 4) a student swap service.

Campus buyback
As for buyback on a specific campus, faculty decisions largely determine how much a student receives. If a professor
chooses to use the same book the following semester, even if it is a custom text, designed specifically for an individual
instructor, bookstores often buy the book back. The GAO report found that, generally, if a book is in good condition
and will be used on the campus again the next term, bookstores will pay students 50 percent of the original price paid.
If the bookstore has not received a faculty order for the book at the end of the term and the edition is still current, they
may offer students the wholesale price of the book, which could range from 5 to 35 percent of the new retail price,
according to the GAO report.[12]

When students resell their textbooks during campus “buyback” periods, these textbooks are often sold into the
national used textbook distribution chain. If a textbook is not going to be used on campus for the next semester of
courses then many times the college bookstore will sell that book to a national used book company. The used book
company then resells the book to another college bookstore. Finally, that book is sold as used to a student at another
college at a price that is typically 75% of the new book price. At each step, a markup is applied to the book to enable the
respective companies to continue to operate.

Student to student sales


Students can also sell or trade textbooks among themselves. After completing a course, sellers will often seek out
members of the next enrolling class, people who are likely to be interested in purchasing the required books. This may
be done by posting flyers to advertise the sale of the books or simply soliciting individuals who are shopping in the
college bookstore for the same titles. Many larger schools have independent websites set up for the purpose of
facilitating such trade. These often operate much like digital classified ads, enabling students to list their items for sale
and browse for those they wish to acquire. Also, at the US Air Force Academy, it is possible to e-mail entire specific
classes, allowing for an extensive network of textbook sales to exist.

Student online marketplaces


Online marketplaces are one of the two major types of online websites students can use to sell used textbooks. Online
marketplaces may have an online auction format or may allow the student to list their books for a fixed price. In either
case, the student must create the listing for each book themselves and wait for a buyer to order, making the use of

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marketplaces a more passive way of selling used textbooks. Unlike campus buyback and online book, students are
unlikely to sell all their books to one buyer using online marketplaces, and will likely have to send out multiple books
individually.

Online book buyers


Online book buyers buy textbooks, and sometimes other types of books, with the aim of reselling them for a profit.
Like online marketplaces, online book buyers operate year-round, giving students the opportunity to sell their books
even when campus "buyback" periods are not in effect. Students enter the ISBN numbers of the books they wish to sell
and receive a price quote or offer. These online book buyers often offer "free shipping" (which in actuality is built into
the offer for the book), and allow students to sell multiple books to the same source. Because online book buyers are
buying books for resale, the prices they offer may be lower than students can get on online marketplaces. However,
their prices are competitive, and they tend to focus on the convenience of their service. Some even claim that buying
used textbooks online and selling them to online book buyers has a lower total cost than even textbook rental services.

Textbook exchanges
In response to escalating textbook prices, limited competition, and to provide a more efficient system to connect
buyers and sellers together, online textbook exchanges were developed. Most of today's sites handle buyer and seller
payments, and usually deduct a small commission only after the sale is completed.

According to textbook author Henry L. Roediger (and Wadsworth Publishing Company senior editor Vicki Knight), the
used textbook market is illegitimate, and entirely to blame for the rising costs of textbooks. As methods of "dealing
with this problem", he recommends making previous editions of textbooks obsolete, binding the textbook with other
materials, and passing laws to prevent the sale of used books.[29] The concept is not unlike the limited licensing
approach for computer software, which places rigid restrictions on resale and reproduction. The intent is to make
users understand that the content of any textbook is the intellectual property of the author and/or the publisher, and
that as such, subject to copyright. Obviously, this idea is completely opposed to the millennia-old tradition of the sale
of used books, and would make that entire industry illegal.

E-textbooks
Another alternative to save money and obtaining the materials you are required are e-textbooks.The article "E books
rewrite the rules of education" states that, alternately to spending a lot of money on textbooks, you can purchase an e-
textbook at a small amount of the cost. With the growth of digital applications for iPhone, and gadgets like the Amazon
kindle, e-textbooks are not an innovation, but have been "gaining momentum".[30] According to the article " Are
textbooks obsolete?", publishers and editorials are concerned about the issue of expensive textbooks. "The expense of
textbooks is a concern for students, and e-textbooks, address the face of the issue, Williams says " As publishers we
understand the high cost of these materials, and the electronic format permit us diminish the general expense of our
content to the market".[31]

Rental programs
In-store rentals are processed by either using a kiosk and ordering books online with a third party facilitator or renting
directly from the store's inventory. Some stores use a hybrid of both methods, opting for in-store selections of the most
popular books and the online option for more obscure titles or books they consider too risky to put in the rental
system.

Textbook sharing

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Another method to help students save money that is coming up is called Textbooks Sharing. Using textbook sharing
the students share the physical textbook with other students, and also the cost of the book is divided among the users
of the textbook. So over the life of the textbook, if 4 students use the textbook, the cost of the textbook for each student
will be 25% of the total cost of the book.

Open textbooks
The latest trend in textbooks is "open textbooks." An open textbook is a free, openly licensed textbook offered online
by the copyright holders. According to PIRG, a number of textbooks already exist, and are being used at schools such
as MIT and Harvard.[32] A 2010 study published found that open textbooks offer a viable and attractive means to meet
faculty and student needs while offering savings of approximately 80% compared to traditional textbook options.[33]

Although the largest question seems to be who is going to pay to write them, several state policies suggest that public
investment in open textbooks might make sense.[34] To offer another perspective, any jurisdiction might find itself
challenged to find sufficient numbers of credible academics who would be willing to undertake the effort of creating an
open textbook without realistic compensation, in order to make such a proposal work. Currently, some open textbooks
have been funded with non-profit investment.

The other challenge involves the reality of publishing, which is that textbooks with good sales and profitability
subsidize the creation and publication of low demand but believed to be necessary textbooks. Subsidies skew markets
and the elimination of subsidies is disruptive; in the case of low demand textbooks the possibilities following subsidy
removal include any or all of the following: higher retail prices, a switch to open textbooks, a reduction of the number
of titles published.

On the other hand, independent open textbook authoring and publishing models are developing. Most notably, the
startup publisher Flat World Knowledge already has dozens of college-level open textbooks that are used by more than
900 institutions in 44 countries.[35][36][37] Their business model[38] was to offer the open textbook free online,[39][40]
and then sell ancillary products that students are likely to buy if prices are reasonable - print copies, study guides,
ePub, .Mobi (Kindle), PDF download, etc. Flat World Knowledge compensates its authors with royalties on these
sales.[41] With the generated revenue Flat World Knowledge funded high-quality publishing activities with a goal of
making the Flat World financial model sustainable. However, in January, 2013 Flat World Knowledge announced
their financial model could no longer sustain their free-to-read options for students.[42] Flat World Knowledge intends
to have open textbooks available for the 125 highest-enrolled courses on college campuses within the next few
years.[43]

CK-12 FlexBooks are the open textbooks designed for United States K-12 courses.[44] CK-12 FlexBooks are designed to
facilitate conformance to national and United States and individual state textbook standards. CK-12 FlexBooks are
licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license. CK-12 FlexBooks are free to use online and offer formats
suitable for use on portable personal reading devices and computers - both online and offline. Formats for both iPad
and Kindle are offered. School districts may select a title as is or customize the open textbook to meet local
instructional standards. The file may be then accessed electronically or printed using any print on demand service
without paying a royalty, saving 80% or more when compared to traditional textbook options. An example print on
demand open textbook title, "College Algebra" by Stitz & Zeager through Lulu is 608 pages, royalty free, and costs
about $20 ordered one at a time (March, 2011).[45] (Any print on demand service could be used - this is just an
example. School districts could easily negotiate even lower prices for bulk purchases to be printed in their own
communities.) Teacher's editions are available for educators and parents. Titles have been authored by various
individuals and organizations and are vetted for quality prior to inclusion in the CK-12 catalog. An effort is underway
to map state educational standards correlations.[46] Stanford University provided a number of titles in use.[47]

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Curriki is another modular K-12 content non-profit "empowering educators to deliver and share curricula." Selected
Curriki materials are also correlated to U.S. state educational standards.[48] Some Curriki content has been collected
into open textbooks and some may be used for modular lessons or special topics.

International market pricing


Similar to the issue of reimportation of pharmaceuticals into the U.S. market, the GAO report[12] also highlights a
similar phenomenon in textbook distribution. Retailers and publishers have expressed concern about the re-
importation of lower-priced textbooks from international locations. Specifically, they cited the ability students have to
purchase books from online distribution channels outside the United States at lower prices, which may result in a loss
of sales for U.S. retailers. Additionally, the availability of lower-priced textbooks through these channels has
heightened distrust and frustration among students regarding textbook prices, and college stores find it difficult to
explain why their textbook prices are higher, according to the National Association of College Stores. Retailers and
publishers have also been concerned that some U.S. retailers may have engaged in reimportation on a large scale by
ordering textbooks for entire courses at lower prices from international distribution channels. While the 1998
Supreme Court decision Quality King v. L'anza protects the reimportation of copyrighted materials under the first-sale
doctrine, textbook publishers have still attempted to prevent the U.S. sale of international editions by enforcing
contracts which forbid foreign wholesalers from selling to American distributors.[49] Concerned about the effects of
differential pricing on college stores, the National Association of College Stores has called on publishers to stop the
practice of selling textbooks at lower prices outside the United States.[50] For example, some U.S. booksellers arrange
for drop-shipments in foreign countries which are then re-shipped to America where the books can be sold online at
used prices (for a "new" unopened book). The authors often getting half-royalties instead of full-royalties, minus the
charges for returned books from bookstores.

Production

Cost distribution
According to the National Association of College Stores, the entire cost of the book is justified by expenses, with
typically 11.7% of the price of a new book going to the author's royalties (or a committee of editors at the publishing
house), 22.7% going to the store, and 64.6% going to the publisher. The store and publisher amounts are slightly
higher for Canada. Bookstores and used-book vendors profit from the resale of textbooks on the used market, with
publishers only earning profits on sales of new textbooks.

Research
According to the GAO study published July 2005:

Following closely behind annual increases in tuition and fees at postsecondary institutions, college
textbook and supply prices have risen at twice the rate of annual inflation over the last two decades.

Rising at an average of 6 percent each year since academic year 1987-1988, compared with overall
average price increases of 3 percent per year, college textbook and supply prices trailed tuition and fee
increases, which averaged 7 percent per year. Since December 1986, textbook and supply prices have
nearly tripled, increasing by 186 percent, while tuition and fees increased by 240 percent and overall
prices grew by 72 percent. While increases in textbook and supply prices have followed increases in
tuition and fees, the cost of textbooks and supplies for degree-seeking students as a percentage of tuition
and fees varies by the type of institution attended. For example, the average estimated cost of books and
supplies per first-time, full-time student for academic year 2003-2004 was $898 at 4-year public
institutions, or about 26 percent of the cost of tuition and fees. At 2-year public institutions, where low-

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income students are more likely to pursue a degree program and tuition and fees are lower, the average
estimated cost of books and supplies per first-time, full-time student was $886 in academic year 2003-
2004, representing almost three-quarters of the cost of tuition and fees.[12]

According to the 2nd edition of a study by the United States Public Interest Research Group (US PIRG) published in
February 2005: "Textbook prices are increasing at more than four times the inflation rate for all finished goods,
according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Producer Price Index. The wholesale prices charged by textbook
publishers have jumped 62 percent since 1994, while prices charged for all finished goods increased only 14 percent.
Similarly, the prices charged by publishers for general books increased just 19 percent during the same time period."

According to the 2007 edition of the College Board’s Trend in College Pricing Report published October 2007:
"College costs continue to rise and federal student aid has shown slower growth when adjusted for inflation, while
textbooks, as a percentage of total college costs, have remained steady at about 5 percent."

K-12 textbooks
In most U.S. K-12 public schools, a local school board votes on which textbooks to purchase from a selection of books
that have been approved by the state Department of Education. Teachers receive the books to give to the students for
each subject. Teachers are usually not required to use textbooks, however, and many prefer to use other materials
instead.

Textbook publishing in the U.S. is a business primarily aimed at large states. This is due to state purchasing controls
over the books, most notably in Texas, where the Texas Education Agency sets curricula for all courses taught by the
state's 1,000+ school districts, and therefore also approves which textbooks can be purchased.

High school
In recent years, high school textbooks of United States history have come under increasing criticism. Authors such as
Howard Zinn (A People's History of the United States), Gilbert T. Sewall (Textbooks: Where the Curriculum Meets the
Child) and James W. Loewen (Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong),
make the claim that U.S. history textbooks contain mythical untruths and omissions, which paint a whitewashed
picture that bears little resemblance to what most students learn in universities. Inaccurately retelling history, through
textbooks or other literature, has been practiced in many societies, from ancient Rome to the Soviet Union (USSR) and
the People's Republic of China. The content of history textbooks is often determined by the political forces of state
adoption boards and ideological pressure groups.

Science textbooks have been the source of ongoing debates and have come under scrutiny from several organizations.
The presentation or inclusion of controversial scientific material has been debated in several court cases. Poorly
designed textbooks have been cited as contributing to declining grades in mathematics and science in the United
States and organizations such as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS) have criticized the layout,
presentation, and amount of material given in textbooks.

Discussions of textbooks have been included on creation and evolution in the public education debate. The Smith v.
Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County case brought forward a debate about scientific fact being presented
in textbooks.

In his book, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, the late physics Nobel Prize laureate Richard P. Feynman described
his experiences as a member of a committee that evaluated science textbooks.[51] At some instances, there were
nonsensical examples to illustrate physical phenomena; then a company sent — for reasons of timing — a textbook
that contained blank pages, which even got good critiques. Feynman himself experienced attempts at bribery.

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Mathematics
Largely in the US, but increasingly in other nations, K-12 Mathematics textbooks have reflected the controversies of
new math and reform mathematics which have sought to replace traditional mathematics in what have been called the
math wars. Traditional texts, still favored in Asia and other areas, merely taught the same time-tested mathematics
that most adults have learned. By contrast "progressive" approaches seek to address problems in social inequity with
approaches that often incorporate principles of constructivism and discovery. Texts such as TERC and CMP
discourage or omit standard mathematics methods and concepts such as long division and lowest common
denominators. For example, an index entry to multiply fractions would lead to "devise your own method to multiply
fractions which work on these examples", and the formula for the area of a circle would be an exercise for a student to
derive rather than including it in the student text. By the 2000s, while some districts were still adopting the more
novel methods, others had abandoned them as unworkable.

Higher education
In the U.S., college and university textbooks are chosen by the professor teaching the course, or by the department as a
whole. Students are typically responsible for obtaining their own copies of the books used in their courses, although
alternatives to owning textbooks, such as textbook rental services and library reserve copies of texts, are available in
some instances.

In some European countries, such as Sweden or Spain, students attending institutions of higher education pay for
textbooks themselves, although higher education is free of charge otherwise.

With higher education costs on the rise, many students are becoming sensitive to every aspect of college pricing,
including textbooks, which in many cases amount to one tenth of tuition costs. The 2005 Government Accountability
Office report on college textbooks said that since the 1980s, textbook and supply prices have risen twice the rate of
inflation in the past two decades. A 2005 PIRG study found that textbooks cost students $900 per year, and that
prices [12] increased four times the rate of inflation over the past decade.[52] A June 2007 Advisory Committee on
Student Financial Assistance (ACSFA) report, “Turn the Page,” reported that the average U.S. student spends $700–
$1000 per year on textbooks.[53]

While many groups have assigned blame to publishers, bookstores or faculty, the ACSFA also found that assigning
blame to any one party—faculty, colleges, bookstores or publishers—for current textbook costs is unproductive and
without merit. The report called on all parties within the industry to work together to find productive solutions, which
included a movement toward open textbooks and other lower-cost digital solutions.

Textbook prices are considerably higher in law school. Students ordinarily pay close to $200 for case books consisting
of cases available free online.

Textbook bias on controversial topics


In cases of history, science, current events, and political textbooks, "the writer might be biased towards one way or
another. Topics such as actions of a country, presidential actions, and scientific theories are common potential biases".

See also
John Amos Comenius - "the innovator who first introduced pictorial textbooks, written in native language instead
of Latin, applied effective teaching based on the natural gradual growth from simple to more comprehensive
concepts, supported lifelong learning and development of logical thinking by moving from dull memorization"
Orbis Pictus - 1658 textbook by Comenius, one of the first books with pictures for children
Casebook - A special type of textbook used in law schools in the United States.
Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - 2013 decision of the US Supreme Court regarding textbook resale

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Japanese textbook controversy


Pakistani textbooks controversy
NCERT textbook controversy
Kanawha County textbook controversy
Sourcebook – collection of texts, often used in social sciences and humanities in the United States
Workbook - Usually filled with practice problems, where the answers can be written directly in the book.
Problem book - A textbook, usually graduate level, organized as a series of problems and full solutions.
Open textbook - A textbook licensed under an open copyright license, and made available online to be freely used

References
1. "schoolbook" (https://www.ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=schoolbook). The American Heritage Dictionary
of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014.
2. "schoolbook - definition of schoolbook in English from the Oxford dictionary" (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/d
efinition/english/schoolbook). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20160818041404/http://www.oxforddictionarie
s.com/definition/english/schoolbook) from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
3. "Archived copy" (http://wondermark.com/socrates-vs-writing/). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/2013013002
0156/http://wondermark.com/socrates-vs-writing/) from the original on 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2013-05-12. True
Stuff: Socrates vs. the Written Word, January 27th, 2011. By David Malki
4. Marcia Clemmitt, "Learning Online Literacy," in "Reading Crisis?" CQ Researcher, Feb. 22, 2008, pp. 169-192.
5. British Library, "Treasures in Full: Gutenberg Bible," http://www.bl.uk/treasures/gutenberg/background.html.
6. Rose, Marla Matzer. City at the head of the class: Consolidation, talent pool have made Columbus a hotbed for
educational publishers. (https://web.archive.org/web/20110523050151/http://www.dispatch.com/live/contentbe/dis
patch/2007/08/05/20070805-D1-01.html) August 5, 2007. Retrieved 2/14/09. Archived from the original (http://ww
w.dispatch.com/live/contentbe/dispatch/2007/08/05/20070805-D1-01.html) on 23 May 2011.
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Further reading
Baier, Kylie, et al. "College students’ textbook reading, or not." American Reading Forum Annual Yearbook Vol.
31. 2011. online (http://americanreadingforum.org/yearbook/11_yearbook/documents/BAIER%20ET%20AL%20P
APER.pdf)
Berkeley, Sheri, et al. "Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" After 20 Years?." Journal of Special Education
(2014) 47#4 PP: 217-230.
Buczynski, James A. "Faculty begin to replace textbooks with "freely" accessible online resources." Internet
Reference Services Quarterly (2007) 11#4 pp: 169-179.
Campbell, Alex, and Mr Flint. "New Digital Tools Let Professors Tailor Their Own Textbooks for Under $20 And
that's just one option, along with mix-and-match Web sites from big publishers and libraries of open-source
content." Chronicle of Higher Education (October 9, 2011). online (http://www.agnesscott.edu/teachingandlearnin
g/files/documents/professors-create-their-own-texts.doc)
Carbaugh, Robert, and Koushik Ghosh. "Are college textbooks priced fairly?." Challenge (2005) 48#5 pp: 95-112.
Casper, Scott E.; et al. (2014). "Textbooks Today and Tomorrow: A Conversation about History, Pedagogy, and
Economics". Journal of American History. 100 (4): 1139–1169.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textbook 13/14
29/01/2019 Textbook - Wikipedia

Chiappetta, Eugene L., and David A. Fillman. "Analysis of five high school biology textbooks used in the United
States for inclusion of the nature of science." International Journal of Science Education (2007) 29#15 pp: 1847-
1868.
Doering, Torsten, Luiz Pereira, and L. Kuechler. "The use of e-textbooks in higher education: A case study." Berlin
(Germany): E-Leader (2012). online (http://www.g-casa.com/conferences/berlin/papers/Doering.pdf)
Elliott, David L., and Arthur Woodward, eds. Textbooks and schooling in the United States Vol. 89. NSSE, 1990.
Kahveci, Ajda. "Quantitative analysis of science and chemistry textbooks for indicators of reform: A
complementary perspective." International Journal of Science Education (2010) 32#11 pp: 1495-1519.
Koulaidis, Vasilis, and Anna Tsatsaroni. "A pedagogical analysis of science textbooks: How can we proceed?."
Research in Science Education (1996) 26#1 pp: 55-71.
Liang, Ye, and William W. Cobern. "Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS
Textbook Standards." (2013). online (http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1047&context=sci
ence_slcsp)
Myers, Gregory A (1992). "Textbooks and the sociology of scientific knowledge". English for Specific purposes. 11
(1): 3–17.
Richardson, Paul W. "Reading and writing from textbooks in higher education: a case study from Economics."
Studies in Higher Education (2004) 29#4: 505-521. online (http://users.monash.edu.au/~hwatt/articles/Richardson
2004_SHE_29_4.pdf); on Australia
Roediger III, Henry L. "Writing Textbooks: Why Doesn’t It Count?." Observer (2004) 17#5 online (https://www.psyc
hologicalscience.org/index.php/uncategorized/writing-textbooks-why-doesnt-it-count.html)
Silver, Lawrence S., Robert E. Stevens, and Kenneth E. Clow. "Marketing professors’ perspectives on the cost of
college textbooks: a pilot study." Journal of Education for Business (2012) 87#1 pp: 1-6.
Stone, Robert W., and Lori J. Baker-Eveleth. "Students’ intentions to purchase electronic textbooks." Journal of
Computing in Higher Education (2013) 25#1 pp: 27-47.
Weiten, Wayne. "Objective features of introductory psychology textbooks as related to professors' impressions."
Teaching of Psychology (1988) 15#1 pp: 10-16.

External links
How College Students Battled Textbook Publishers To A Draw, In 3 Graphs (https://www.npr.org/sections/money/2
014/10/09/354647112/how-college-students-battled-textbook-publishers-to-a-draw-in-3-graphs)
Textbooks used in Mexico in preschool, primary, secondary and high school education (http://libros.conaliteg.gob.
mx)
Historic textbooks used in Mexico in primary school from 1960 to 2013 (http://historico.conaliteg.gob.mx)

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