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# TUGAS MATA KULIAH KONVERSI MASA

## Name : ANITA PRATIWI

NRP : 0321 18 5001 0001

## Chapter 8 Suspended Growth

8.4 Shown in the following table, with values for convensional wastewater characterization
parameters (to be selected by instructor)

Wastewater
Parameter Unit 1 2 3
TSS Mg/L 220 170 90
VSS Mg/L 200 140 70
BOD Mg/L 200 160 120
RbCOD Mg/L 100 40 80
TCOD Mg/L 500 400 280
sCOD Mg/L 160 200 180
(Selected unit 1)

Assume

##  bCOD/BOD ratio equals 1.6

 the activated sludge treatment effluent sCOD equals 30.0 mg/L.

Determine :

## a) The biodegradable COD concentration

b) The slowly biodegradable COD concentration
c) The non-biodegradable volatile suspended solids (nbVSS) concentration
d) The inert total suspended solids (iTSS) concentration)
Solution :
a) The biodegradable COD (bCOD) concentration. The bCOD/BOD
ratio is given as 1.6.
bCOD = 1.6 (BOD) = 1.6 × (200 mg/L) = 320 mg/L
b) The slowly biodegradable COD (sbCOD).
sbCOD = bCOD – rbCOD = (320 – 100) mg/L = 220 mg
c) 1. The nonbiodegradable COD (nbCOD).
nbCOD = COD – bCOD = (500 – 320) mg/L = 180 mg/L
2. The nonbiodegradable soluble COD (nbsCOD). The nonbiodegradable soluble COD is equal to
the activated sludge system sCOD = 30 mg/L
3. The nonbiodegradable volatile suspended solids (nbVSS) concentration.
a. The particulate nonbiodegradable COD (nbpCOD).
nbpCOD = nbCOD – nbsCOD = (180 – 30) mg/L = 150 mg/L
b. The nbVSS concentration.
From Eq. (8-8, 713)
TCOD− sCOD [ (500 −160) mg/L]
VSSCOD = VSS
= (200 mg/L)
= 1.7 mg COD/mg VSS

## nbVSS = 150/1.7 = 88.2 mg/L

d) The inert TSS (iTSS) concentration.
iTSS = TSS – VSS = 220 – 200 = 20 mg/L
8-7. The following information is given for an activated sludge system design:
Parameter Unit Value
Flowrate (Q) m3/day 10.000
Influent BOD (So) mg/L 150
Effluen BOD (S) mg/L 2
Ɵh Hour 4
Ɵc Day 6
Y g VSS / g bCOD
Wasterwater 1 g VSS / g bCOD 0,40
Wasterwater 2 g VSS / g bCOD 0,50
Wasterwater 3 g VSS / g bCOD 0,30
Y g VSS / g bCOD 0,5
Fd (Debris yield) g VSS / g bCOD 0,15
Kd (Endogeneous Decay ) g VSS / g bCOD. Day 0,08
NbVSS mg/l 40
o
Temperature C 10
(selected wastewater 2)
Assume:
- Assume no nitrification occurs due to the SRT selected and low temperature.
- bCOD = 1,6 BOD

Determine:
a) The aeration tank oxygen requirements (kg/day)
b) The aeration tank oxygen uptake rate (mg/L.hour)
c) The aeration tank biomass concentration (mg/L)
Solution :

## Calculate the biomass production (Px bio)

bCOD = 1.6 (BOD)
bCODinf = 1.6 × (150 mg/L) = 240 mg/L
bCOD efl = 1.6 × (2 mg/L) = 3,2 mg/L

Q x Y x (So-S) Q x Y x (So-S) x Fd x kd x θc
Pxvss = +
1+(kd x θc) 1+(kd x θc)

m3 m3 kg 0,08
10000 x 0,5 x (0,24 - 0,003) kg/m3 10000 x 0,5 x (0,24-0,003) 3 x 0,15 x x 6 day
day day m day
= 0,08 + 0,08
1+( x 6 day) 1+( x 6 day)
day day

= 858,33 kg/day

## a) Determine the oxygen requirements (Ro)

Ro = Q x (So-S) – 1,42 x Px bio
= 10.000 m3/day x (0,24 - 0,003) kg/m3 – 1,42 x 858,33 kg/day
= 1151,17 kg/day

## b) Determine the oxygen uptake rate (Ru)

𝑹𝒐
The formula is: Ru = 𝑽

## First, calculate the Volume of aeration tank

V = Q x Ɵh
1 day
= 10.000 m3/day x 4 hours x 24 hours

= 1.666,7 m3

1151,17 kg/day
Ru =
1.666,7 m3

= 0,691 kg/m3.day
= 28,79 mg/L.hours
c) Determine the biomass concentrations (X)
Px x Ɵc
V = X
858,33 kg/day x 6 day
1666,7 m3 =
X

X = 3,089 kg/m3
= 3089 mg/L

8.12 An activated sludge system is operating with the conditions describes below for system 1,2, or 3
to be selected by instructor. The conditions include the average influent flow, aeration tank
volume and MLSS concentration, return activated sludge flow recycle ratio and TSS
concentration, and the secondary clarifier effluent TSS concentration. Wasting is from the
return activated sludge line leaving the bottom of the secondary clarifier.
Activated Sludge System
Parameter Unit 1 2 3
Flowrate m3/d 4000 10000 5000
Aeration tank volume m3 2000 4000 5000
Aeration tank MLSS concentration mg/L 3000 3500 3000
Clarifier effluent TSS concentration mg/L 10.0 10.0 10.0
Return sludge recycle ratio unitless 0.5 1.0 0.75
Return sludge TSS concentration mg/L 9000 7000 7000
(Selected unit 1)

Determine :

a) What should be the average daily waste sludge rate in m3/d to maintain an SRT of 10 d?
b) The Plant operater decides to waste 1/10th of the aeration volume each day to maintain the SRT.
What is the waste volume in m3/d and what is the actual SRT ?
Solution :
a) Determine the average daily waste sludge rate in m3/d from the return activated sludge line for a
10 d SRT. Solve for Qw in Eq. (8-27) in Table 8- 10.
V×(X)
SRT = ,
(Q- Qw ) × (Xe ) + Q × XR

Qw =
XR - Xe

## (2000 m3 )×(3000 g /m3 )

[ ] - (4000 m3 / d) × (10 g /m3 )
10 d
Qw= ((9000 -10) g /m3 )

Qw = 62.3 m3/d
b) Determine the actual SRT when 1/10th of the aeration volume is wasted. In this case the wasting
rate, Qw, equals V/10 at a solids concentration = X. Substitute Qw with V/10 into Eq. (8-27).
V(X)
SRT = 𝑉 𝑉
[𝑄− ]𝑋𝑒 +[ ]𝑋𝑅
10 10

## (2000 m3 )(3000 g /m3 )

SRT = 2000 m3 2000 m3
[(4000m3 / d)− ](10 g /m3 )+[ ](9000 g /m3 )
10 10

SRT = 3.3 d
Chapter 9 Attached Growth
9.1 A 20-m diameter plastic packing trickling filter, containing cross-flow plastic packing at a 6,1 –
m depth with a specific surface area of 100 m2/m3, receives domestic wastewater after primary
treatment. The average flowrate is 390, 440, or 490 m3/h (value to be selected by instructor) and
the BOD concentration is 150 mg/L. Determine and compare the effluent BOD concentration
and percent BOD removal at 20oC and 15oC. Assume an n value of 0,5 and recirculation ratio
equal to zero.

Solution :
The average flowrate is 390 m3/h (selected)
1. Determine effluent concentration at 20oC for an average flowrate of 390 m3/h
a. k20 for design conditions using Eq. (9-20).

D 0,5 S1 0,5
k2= k1 [ 1 ] [S ]
D2 2

## 6,1 0,5 150 0,5

= 0,210 [6,1] [150]

## = 0,210 (L / s)0,5 /m2

b. The hydraulic application rate.

𝑄
q= 𝐴
where,
Q = (390 m3/h)× (103 L/1 m3) ×(1 h/3600 s)
= 108.3 L/s
A = 𝜋D2/4 = [(𝜋/4)(202)]
= 314.2 m2
q = (108.3 L/s)/(314.2 m2)
= 0.345 L/m2 • s
c. Effluent concentration using Eq. (9-15).
Se -kD
=exp [ qn ]
Si
n
Se =Si e-k D/q
0,5
= (150 mg / L) [e-(0,210)(6,1)/0,345 ]

= 16.9 mg / L

## d. Percent BOD removal

[(150 -16.9) mg / L]
%removal= (100%) =88.7
(150 mg / L)

## 2. Determine effluent concentration at 15oC.

a. Correct k2 for design conditions using Eq. (9-16).

kT =k20 (1,035)(T-20)

𝑘15 = 0,210(1,035)(15−20)

=0,177

## b. The hydraulic application rate is the same as in Step 1b.

q = 0.345 L/m2 • s

## c. Effluent concentration using Eq. (9-15).

n
Se =Si e-k D/q
0,5
= (150 mg / L)[e−(0,177)(6,1)/0,345 ]
= 23,9 mg / L

## d. Percent BOD removal

[(150 -23,9) mg/L]
%removal= (150 mg/L)
(100%) =84,1

## 3. In comparing BOD removal, the removal rate is reduced at the lower

temperature (88.7 vs. 84.1 %).
9.8 Two 20-m diameter plastic tower trickling filters containing 6,1 m of conventional plastic media
(100 m2 area/m3 volume) receive a primary clarifier effluent at an average flowrate of 11,200
m3/d. The TKN concentration is 24 mg/L and the BOD concentration is 150, 130, or 120 mg/L
(value to be selected by instructor). The temperature is 18oC. Evaluate the trickling filter BOD

Solution :
The BOD concentration is 150 mg/L (selected)
1. The BOD loading for a wastewater with a concentration of 150 mg/L.
BOD loading = (11,200 m3 /d) × (150 g/m3 ) × (1 kg/103 g) = 1680 kg/d

π D2 π(20)2
Surface area of filter = A =2 ( )= 2 [ ]= 628 m2
4 4

(1680 kg/d)

= 2.68 kg/m2 • d

2. The nitrogen removal efficiency by estimating the effluent NH4-N concentration using Eq.(9-23).
NH4-Ne=20.81(BOD)L 1,03 (NH4 -NL )1,53 (lv)-0,38 (T)-0,12

## a. Determine the media surface area.

Media volume = A(D)
= (628 m2 ) × (6.1 m)
= 3830.8 m3
Surface area = (3830.8 m3 )×(100 m2 /m3 )
= 383.080 m2

(11,200 m3 /d)(150 g BOD/m3 )
BODL = = 4.386 g BOD/ m2 .d
383,080 m2
(11,200 m3 /d)(24 g TKN/m3 )
NH4 -NL = = 0.70 g N/ m2 .d
383,080 m2
(11,200 m3 /d)×(10 L / 1m3 )
lv = = 29.2 L// m2 .d
383,080 m2
c. Determine the effluent NH4-N concentration and removal efficiency.
NH4 -Ne = 20.81×(4.386)1,03 ×(0.70)1,52 ×(29.2)-0,38 ×(18)-0,12 = 11.6 mg / L

(24 mg/ L)
= 51.7%