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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

MEETING ABSTRACTS
105th Annual Meeting, July 10-14, 2004, Salt Lake City, Utah
ADMINISTRATIVE, INSTITUTIONAL, AND School completed the survey. The study found that 77% of the
PROGRAMMATIC ISSUES faculty spent < 20% of their time conducting research. The top
two incentives for faculty to do more research were funding
Completed Research for research projects and hiring research support personnel.
Quantifying Units of Production Among Pharmacy Sixty-five percent and of the faculty felt their research efforts
Academicians. Shane Desselle, Thomas Mattei, Moji were supported by the chair of their department. Thirty-eight
Adeyeye, Vincent Giannetti, Marc Harrold, Chistopher faculty members said they were interested in conducting
Surratt, Paula Witt-Enderby, Duquesne University. Objective: research with other faculty in six general areas. Implications:
To identify sets of activities performed by faculty in the areas Conducting research is an important part of scholarly activity
of teaching and scholarship and weight these activities by their for faculty. Identifying the perceptions and attitudes of faculty
value to the School’s Mission and the effort required to com- is important for understanding research incentives and barri-
plete them. Methods: A panel of faculty members diverse in ers. The results are being used to create research programs and
rank, gender and discipline from one school of pharmacy con- collaboration and identify research funding.
vened in a focused discussion and a modified Delphi proce-
Coverage of HIV/AIDS in United States Pharmacy
dure to identify 29 activities in teaching and 44 activities in
Curricula. Karen Marlowe, Kara Townsend, Auburn
scholarship for weighting by the general faculty. Twenty-three
University. The medical education literature contains very lit-
of 33 full-time faculty responded to an anonymous survey
tle information regarding programs to instruct health profes-
questionnaire eliciting values for each of the activities in a
sion students in the appropriate care of patients with HIV or
process designed to produce a set of weights on a ratio scale.
AIDS. Methods: In December 2002, we distributed a survey
Faculty were provided a copy of the School’s Mission and
to all schools of pharmacy in the United States to determine
Goals and instructions for making comparative judgments
among the activities within each set. Nineteen of 23 faculty the emphasis placed on HIV within their curricula by disci-
responded to a second-round survey designed to facilitate pline as well as the teaching methods employed. Secondarily,
comparisons between teaching and scholarship activities. we sought to quantify the amount and types of interaction
Results: Using recommended mathematical computations, a pharmacy students might have with HIV/AIDS patients.
set of weights was derived for all 73 activities. Respondents Results: Fifty-four (65.8%) completed surveys were returned.
placed considerable value on developing a new course, chair- Coverage of HIV within medicinal chemistry, pharmacology,
ing completed doctoral dissertation committees, obtaining and pathophysiology courses varied. Eight (14.8%) schools
high impact grant monies, making presentations at national indicated that this topic was presented in an integrated format
and international conferences, and winning University and including social sciences, pharmacotherapy, and basic science
national teaching awards. Implications: The results will assist in one course. The majority of schools utilized multiple teach-
School administrators in tracking unit productivity, allocating ing methods. Case based teaching (75%) and lectures (96%)
organizational rewards and communicating with University were the most frequently reported. Approximately half of the
administration. Faculty will be aided by the opportunity to responding schools (48%), employed two teaching methods,
reflect upon the perceptions of colleagues and will be provid- and 20 schools (37%) utilize three or more teaching tech-
ed assistance with prioritizing their time commitments. niques. Four schools reported student interaction with an HIV
patient in the classroom. All survey responders indicated that
Pharmacy and Health Professions Faculty Research students had opportunities to interact and care for HIV patients
Survey. Thomas Lenz, Maryann Skrabal, Michael Monaghan, during their rotations; however, only 38 (70%)schools current-
Creighton University. Objectives: The objective of this study ly offer a specialty rotation in HIV. Thirty-four schools (63%)
was to assess pharmacy, physical therapy and occupational reported having an HIV specialist within their faculty, and 27
therapy faculty perceptions and attitudes towards conducting
(50%) of the responding schools were involved in HIV related
research. The results obtained from the survey will be used to
research. Implications: This paper provides the first descrip-
promote further research within the School of Pharmacy and
tion of inclusion of HIV/AIDS in United States pharmacy
Health Professions at Creighton University. Methods: Each
school curricula.
faculty member was asked to complete a voluntary survey.
Surveys were sent to faculty via email which contained a link Exit Surveys: An Assessment Tool in Pharm.D. Programs.
to a web page where the survey was administered and calcu- Corinne Ramaley, Sushma Ramsinghani, Munama Bazunga,
lated. The survey tool consisted of five sections: motivation Arcelia Johnson-Fannin, Akima Howard, Hampton University.
and support; potential barriers; recognition and satisfaction; Objectives: Systematic assessment of professional pharmacy
incentives; and demographics. Upon completion of the survey, programs is mandated by the American Council on
participants were directed to a second web page which asked Pharmaceutical Education. At Hampton University, a graduat-
their specific research interests to promote research collabora- ing student exit survey was developed 1) to assess student sat-
tion. Results: A total of 57% (59/103) of the faculty within the isfaction with programs, teaching, learning and services, and

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

2) to identify areas of the program and curriculum where Predictors of Academic Probation in a Pharmacy
improvement is needed. Methods: Graduating Pharm.D. stu- Program. Joel Houglum, Rajender Aparasu, Teresa Delfinis,
dents completed an exit survey to determine satisfaction with South Dakota State University. Objectives: The purpose of
their education, including quality of instruction, knowledge this study was to identify factors that predict academic proba-
and expertise of faculty, quality of experiential experiences tion in the professional pharmacy program at South Dakota
and quality of academic advising. The students also evaluated State University. Methods: Following institutional review
lab facilities, technology support services, the drug informa- board approval, the academic records of 335 students who
tion center, the career fair and other services. Areas needing entered the pharmacy professional program at South Dakota
improvement were defined as those items in the survey with a State University from 1997–2002 were examined retrospec-
combined satisfaction rating of less than 70% in the upper two tively. Academic probation in the professional program is
categories (very satisfied and mostly satisfied). Results: Eight defined as grade point average of below 2.0 in pharmacy
major areas were identified for improvement: advisement, courses in any semester. Descriptive and stepwise logistic
effectiveness of the integrated curriculum, availability of elec- regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: A
tives, library holdings/services, faculty management of coop- total of 309 (92.5%) student records from 1997–2002 were
erative learning assignments, computer support services, complete and usable. The average (+ standard deviation)
financial aid and concern for academic success. Corrective American College Test (ACT) score, overall grade point aver-
actions were defined for each area. Implications: Positive out- age (GPA), science/math GPA for the study sample were 25.5
comes develop from the use of exit surveys as an assessment (+ 3.3), 3.6 (+ 0.3), and 3.5 (+ 0.3), respectively. Overall, 5.5%
tool. At Hampton University, faculty will receive training in of the students were on academic probation in the first profes-
student advisement and class management techniques. A task sional year. Logistic regression model correctly classified
force has been established to evaluate the structure of the inte- 95.5% of the study sample using five factors significantly
grated curriculum, and students will receive annual updates on (p<0.05) associated with academic probation. Female gender,
library resources. The manner in which exit survey data are organic chemistry grade, ACT scores, and science/math GPA
used becomes a key factor in improving student satisfaction decreased the odds of academic probation, whereas curricu-
lum/faculty factor increased the odds of academic probation.
and program quality.
Implications: The analyses revealed that academic perform-
Influence of Pharmacy School Experiences on Students’ ance measures, namely organic chemistry grades, ACT scores
Perceptions, Attitude, Goals and Expectations Towards and science/math GPA, are important predictors of academic
The Profession. Gary Levin, Kristin Weitzel, Nova probation. Quantitative models such as regression models can
Southeastern University. Objectives: To determine if the be valuable tools in screening promising applicants and can
experience of pharmacy school influences students’ percep- provide useful information for admissions committees to uti-
tions, attitudes, goals and expectations. Methods: A survey lize during the selection process.
assessing students’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations of
An Investigation of Institutional Research Administration
pharmacy school was administered to entering students in
Infrastructure in Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy.
1999 and re-administered prior to graduation (2003). Results: Ronald A. DeBellis, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy-
127 students completed the initial survey (100%). In 2003, 83 Worcester, and Eric J. Mack, Massachusetts College of
of 109 remaining students participated (76%). Students’ opin- Pharmacy-Boston. Objectives: To assess the criteria, qualifi-
ions of the profession, public perception, and the difficulty cations, and issues considered by schools and colleges of phar-
level of coursework remained unchanged. The majority, how- macy in the evaluation of their research administration infra-
ever, chose to enter pharmacy school to work in healthcare structure. Methods: A questionnaire was developed as a sur-
(58%), with the public (13%), or good salaries (13%). After vey instrument. The survey contained items evaluating the
school, more students chose good salaries (30% P=0.0053) or importance of qualitative and quantitative criteria, organiza-
the ability to work part-time (P=0.0204). Initially, most stu- tional and individual qualifications, and administrative issues
dents listed their career goal as residency training (11%), chain in assessing institutional research administration models. The
retail/community pharmacy (32%), or hospital pharmacy questionnaire was sent to all schools and colleges of pharma-
(21%). The number of students choosing a residency (34% cy. Queries and analysis of responses were performed on com-
P=0.0001) or a chain retail/community pharmacy (57% pleted surveys. Importance factors were assigned to criteria-
P=0.0008) increased after school. Initially, 86% of students based questions. Results: Responses were received from thir-
supported the Pharm.D. as an entry-level degree. After com- ty-one schools and colleges of pharmacy. Thirty-five percent
pletion, 25% (P=0.001) of students did not, and stated they of the respondents have a research administration model in
wished there was still a baccalaureate degree option. place. Fifty-two percent of the respondents have never con-
Implications: Students goals after finishing school and per- ducted an institutional review of research programs, thirty-
ceptions of the profession and their career options changed three percent of the respondents review programs annually,
after completing pharmacy school. Further research in this and fourteen percent of the respondents review programs
area may elicit influencing factors and help target potential every three or more years. Level of importance was assessed
areas faculty may provide guidance to students to assist them for questions regarding criteria, qualifications, and issues.
in developing and achieving their career goals and hopes for Implications: The results of the research can be used to devel-
the profession. op an assessment tool for the institutional evaluation of the

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

research administration infrastructure at schools and colleges clinical group (n = 18), 72% were female, 61% White, 33%
of pharmacy. Asian, 6% Black (no Hispanics), 47% served as tutors or TAs,
76% participated in research, 77% had faculty mentors and
Assessing Pharm.D. Student Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs
72% engaged in community service activities. Implications:
Regarding Professionalism. Lori Duke, William Kennedy,
Based on respondents, a low number of racial/ethnic minori-
Charles McDuffie, Mindi Miller, The University of Georgia.
ties were seeking opportunities in academics. Although, many
Objectives: To measure student attitudes, values and beliefs
of the respondents seeking academic careers had experience as
toward faculty-derived competency statements regarding pro-
a tutor and participated in research and community service,
fessionalism. Methods: Sixty students per professional year
those seeking clinical positions reported similar experiences.
were randomly selected to participate in a WebCT survey
designed to measure whether student perceptions of profes- Characteristics of Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates
sionalism were similar to that of the faculty. Survey items were Entering Residency Training Programs Upon Graduation.
developed from the faculty-derived and adopted curricular Marianne McCollum, Laura Hansen, University of Colorado
competency statements regarding professionalism. Students Health Sciences Center. Objectives: To examine characteris-
were asked to rate a series of 33 statements as to the degree tics of students from the University of Colorado School of
that each is consistent with being professional as a pharmacist. Pharmacy (CUSOP) 2003 PharmD class choosing and not
Results: Survey response rates by class were 43 (71.7%), choosing to enter residency training program. Methods:
47(78.3%), 47 (78.3%), and 40 (66.7%). There was good CUSOP conducted a student exit survey in 2003. Questions
agreement among curricular years on individual items and the included items regarding residency plans, demographics
majority of students agreed with all items. The statements stu- (eg,age, sex, race, debt level), curricular evaluation, and the
dents disagreed with most frequently still had agreement rates student’s perceived level of preparedness to practice pharma-
of 89% to 92%. Survey items were found to be highly consis- cy. Survey responses were compared for students entering and
tent internally (reliability coefficient = 0.9115, standardized not entering residencies using t-tests for continuous variables
item alpha = 0.9215). Of the thirty-three statements there were and X2 and Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables.
four where differences among curricular years existed: confi- Students also commented on the type of and reasons for pur-
dentiality regulations (p = 0.007), formulates constructive suing residencies. Results: Thirty percent of students (23 of
evaluations (p = 0.009), displays positive attitude when receiv- 76) planned to enter residencies, twice the national average.
ing constructive criticism (p = 0.05), and identifies conflicts Race was significantly different between the groups: non-
with patient interests (p = 0.01). These results suggest areas white students were less likely to enter residencies than white
where professionalism should be given greater emphasis at students (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.08, 0.76, p = 0.01). No signif-
various points in our curriculum. Implications: Students sur- icant differences were found in responses to any other survey
veyed agreed that the objectives contained in the new profes- items. Students were motivated by the desire to improve clin-
sional curricular competency were consistent with being a ical skills and job competitiveness, or to gain credentials for
pharmacy professional. specialty practice. Implications: White students are more
likely to pursue residency training than non-white students,
A Survey of Faculty and Clinical Applicants in the
perhaps due to language barriers. Improving clinical skills and
Personnel Placement Service (PPS) at the American
competitiveness remain motivating forces for students to pur-
Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear
sue post-graduate training. Continued research is needed to
Clinical Meeting 2002 and 2003. William McIntyre, Jeri
identify specific barriers to completing residencies.
Sias, L Littlefield, University of Texas at Austin. Objectives:
To examine the demographics of applicants seeking academic Geographical Distribution of Community-Based Advanced
pharmacy positions (clinical faculty and fellowships). To Pharmacy Practice Experiential Sites in Metropolitan
examine common factors and experiences during their phar- Chicago. Charisse Johnson, Stephanie Crawford, Swu-Jane
macy education which may have contributed to individuals Lin, J. Warren Salmon, University of Illinois at Chicago.
seeking academic careers. To compare the experiences of Objectives: The geographical distribution of community-
those seeking faculty positions with those seeking clinical based Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (4th-year
positions. Methods: In 2002, a survey was conducted of par- clerkship) sites in metropolitan Chicago was assessed to deter-
ticipants in the ASHP PPS who were seeking academic posi- mine the availability of viable experiential learning opportuni-
tions. The survey collected demographic information and ties in underserved areas and identify opportunities and barri-
asked the responders about specific experiences during their ers to attract and sustain such sites. Methods: Income,
pharmacy education including serving as a tutor, participating racial/ethnic composition and crime index of census tracts in a
in research, and mentorship. In 2003, the survey was repeated 5-county metropolitan Chicago area were used to predict the
and expanded to 100 randomly selected participants seeking presence or absence of community-based pharmacy clerkship
non-academic positions (clinical or medical liaison positions). sites for UIC during academic year 2002–2003. Analyses
Results: The response rates were 30/100 in 2002 and 24/193 included geographic mapping, descriptive statistics and logis-
in 2003. In the academic group (n = 36)), 83% were female, tic regression. Key faculty members involved in experiential
78% White, 11% Asian, 8% Black, 3% Hispanic, 53% served education were interviewed to identify other factors that influ-
as tutors or TAs, 39% participated in research, 69% had facul- ence the placement and/or selection of community clerkship
ty mentors, and 89% participated in community service. In the sites. Results: Community-based pharmacy clerkship sites

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

(n=87) were fairly distributed across metropolitan Chicago, the past 18 months. The evaluation process and results are
though census tracts with higher White and Asian populations described. Methods: Three faculty members developed an
exhibited a slightly increased likelihood of the presence of a evaluation instrument with feedback from the department. The
community-based site, after controlling for other variables. instrument evaluated CC performance in general and specific
Faculty interviews revealed that distance from the College, activities/functions including planning, personnel, general
pharmacy staffing issues, and decisions of district/corporate administration, finances, curriculum and research. The Dean’s
management at community pharmacy chains, were critical Office administered the instrument at 6, 12 and 18 months
considerations in clerkship site establishment and sustainabil- after implementation of the CC. Results were forwarded to the
ity. Implications: A strategic objective of the College is to CC who prepared a summary for department discussion.
enhance pharmacy students’ abilities to meet emerging chal- Results: Response rates were 85%, 70% and 65% at 6, 12, and
lenges and opportunities by expanding and diversifying 18 months. “Overall performance” was rated “satisfactory” or
advanced professional experience program sites across “excellent” in 100% of responses at 18 months, compared with
Chicago and throughout Illinois. This study provided helpful 85% at 12 months. Items related to general performance,
data to determine the locations of the College's current com- including approachability, adaptability/organization, decision-
munity clerkship sites. The information will be used in the making and communication have improved since the 12-
development of strategies for expanding experiential learning month evaluation. Each of these areas were rated “satisfacto-
opportunities. ry” or “excellent” by greater than 80% of respondents at 18
months. The CC also earned high ratings on issues related to
Analysis of Pharmacy Student Attitudes Toward Academic planning, general administration and finance. Areas in need of
and Professional Advising: A Cross Sectional Study. improvement at 12 months, including equity in assigning
Maureen Knell, Cathryn Carroll, Heather Hughes, Daniel workload and development of a faculty rewards/retention pro-
Dugan, University of Missouri-KC. Objectives: To evaluate gram also demonstrated improvement at 18 months.
general trends in student utilization of faculty advising and Implications: The evaluation instrument and administration
other sources of academic and professional information. To process were successful in identifying areas for improvement.
identify determinants of varying levels of reported satisfaction Consequently, these areas were targeted and improvements
and perceived value of advising. Methods: A cross sectional demonstrated. Results of the evaluation at 18 months suggest
study using a non-validated instrument, evaluated baseline the CC is an effective management model for the Department
characteristics and 268 student perceptions. Respondents of Pharmacy Practice.
included students in various levels of matriculation throughout
the professional pharmacy program. Students were asked to Assessment of Remedial Policy at Nova Southeastern
rate their perceptions based on the previous two semesters of University College of Pharmacy. Karen Daniel, Dean
academic advising experiences. Descriptive statistics and Chi Arneson, Nova Southeastern University. Objective: To examine
Square tests were used to evaluate responses. Results: The the utility of the remedial system at Nova Southeastern
results revealed that students engaged in the advising process University (NSU) College of Pharmacy and to identify students
with a greater frequency in the first year of the curriculum. at risk of requiring remediation. Methods: A 24-question survey
Only 43% of the total students evaluated reported encounters was administered to second and third year pharmacy students at
with their faculty advisor. For students who met with advisors, NSU between November 2003 and January 2004. The survey
84% of students reported value in the encounter and 67% were was conducted at all four NSU sites, including Ft. Lauderdale,
satisfied with the advisor. Higher levels of satisfaction were West Palm Beach, Puerto Rico, and the International Program.
reported for older students, students without prior degrees and The survey collected data pertaining to individual student reme-
students currently on academic probation. Higher perceived dial examination experience, views about the current remedial
value for the advising process was reported for students on policy at NSU, and demographic data. The survey was distrib-
uted during class time, and completed surveys were deposited in
academic probation, and those students who were older.
a confidential drop box. Data was analyzed using descriptive
Students reported obtaining advising related to academic and
statistics and the SPSS program. Results: Out of the 315
professional issues from sources other than faculty advisors
respondents, 98 (31%) were male, 217 (69%) were female, and
including pharmacists in the workplace, student services office
the average age was 27. One hundred and five (33%) partici-
staff, and peers. Implications: While different factors influ-
pants had taken a remedial examination at NSU College of
ence the rate of utilization of faculty advising services, the atti-
Pharmacy. Most sited health or lack of time management skills
tudes expressed in this survey can be applied to develop a bet-
as the reason for requiring reexamination. The courses most fre-
ter advising system to address students’ academic and profes-
quently necessitating remediation included Biochemistry,
sional needs.
Physiology, and Pharmacodynamics. Students at greatest risk of
Use of an Administrative Evaluation Tool to Assess needing remediation were younger students and students with
Effectiveness of the Coordinating Council Management English as a second language. Overall, 254 (81%) students
Model at Albany College of Pharmacy. Aimee Strang, Mario agreed that remedials were beneficial, and that remedials should
Zeolla, Nancy Waite, Union University. Objectives: An eval- be offered to all students, not just those with extenuating cir-
uation tool was developed to assess the effectiveness of the cumstances. Implications: Identifying students at risk for reex-
Coordinating Council (CC), the Albany College of Pharmacy amination will allow for development of policies and programs
Department of Pharmacy Practice’s management model for to reduce the number of students requiring remediation.

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Evaluation of a Student-directed Enhanced Orientation ment tools. The oral communication focus group determined
Program for Incoming Pharmacy Students. Katherine Hale, the number and type of oral communication exercises present
Dana Hammer, University of Washington. Objective: Evaluate in the curriculum and obtained data from preceptors as to per-
first-year students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of upper- ceived oral communication skills of 6th year students.
class student-directed orientation activities. Methods: Surveys Assessment led to development of a new student course eval-
were created and administered to first-year students and facul- uation instrument. Implications: Effective curriculum assess-
ty using Web site and email formats, respectively, to evaluate ment is a labor intensive process that requires dedication from
length and specific activities of the orientation program. faculty and commitment from administration. Course mapping
Results: Fifty-nine of 86 students and 11/32 faculty members is an excellent means of jumpstarting the assessment process.
responded. Almost half of the students (~49%) felt orientation Curriculum Focus groups are an effective way of fostering
length was “just right” and 44% felt it was too long. Activities interdisciplinary assessment.
receiving the most positive evaluations (scale 1–3) were the
How a Workshop Has Impacted the Behavior of Pharmacy
Welcome to Profession Ceremony (N = 57, mean 2.93), facul-
Preceptors in Providing Effective Feedback to Learners.
ty/student luncheon (N = 47, mean 2.91), and overnight retreat
Kim Leadon, Sandro Pinheiro, University of North Carolina.
(N = 47, mean 2.72). Least positive were the faculty scavenger
Objectives: Faculty development is crucial for improving the
hunt (N = 48, mean 1.58) and time/stress management work-
quality and standardization of pharmacy training in experien-
shop (N = 49, mean 1.9). Faculty members (63.6%) felt 1–2
tial sites. A workshop was designed to improve preceptor
hours participation over all activities should be expected. Over
effectiveness in providing feedback to learners. This study
64% felt addressing and defining student professionalism
assesses the impact of this educational intervention on phar-
aided transition and progression through the curriculum and
macy preceptors’ teaching practices. Methods: A three-hour
improved interactions among students and faculty. Activities
interactive workshop was offered at four sites across North
receiving the most positive evaluations were addressing
Carolina. In order to assess the impact of the workshop on pre-
school expectations of students (N = 10, mean 2.80), student
ceptors’ teaching practices, participants will complete a retro-
professionalism workshop (N = 7, mean 2.70), and the student
spective survey indicating the frequency by which they apply
written Pledge of Professionalism (N = 9, mean 2.67). Least
feedback principles prior to and following the workshop.
positive were faculty/student lunch (N = 10, mean 2.25) and
Students who completed rotations with a preceptor who
faculty scavenger hunt (N = 6, mean 2.00). Open-ended com-
attended a workshop will also complete a similar 12-item sur-
ments from students and faculty were positive. Implications:
vey with respect to how often their preceptor applied the feed-
These results validate prior pre-orientation survey results.
back principles during rotations. Results: Sixty-six preceptors
Overall results were positive toward student-directed activities
attended one of four workshops. Sixty-one participants com-
in the orientation program. These results will help guide plan-
pleted a workshop evaluation. The majority of participants
ning for future years.
indicated that the learning objectives were met and that they
were satisfied with the interactive format. Data from preceptor
Work In Progress self-assessment and survey of students are being collected
with plans for presentation at the AACP Annual Meeting.
Implementation of a Comprehensive Assessment Program
Discussion: Interactive workshops have been shown to impact
for a New Pharm. D. Curriculum. Martin Zdanowicz, Kathy
participants’ professional practice (Davis, 1999). Preceptor
Zaiken, Susan Jacobson, Laurie Kelly, Massachusetts College
and student survey data will inform us how an adult learning-
of Pharmacy and Health Sciences–Boston. Objectives: With
centered interactive workshop impacts preceptors’ feedback
implementation of a new Pharm.D. curriculum it was neces-
skills. Davis D., et al. Impact of formal continuing medical
sary to develop a comprehensive assessment program. Once in
education: do conferences, workshops, rounds, and other tra-
place, ongoing curriculum assessment will serve as a driving
ditional continuing education activities change physician
force for continuous program evaluation and improvement.
behavior or health care outcomes? JAMA. 1999 Sep
Methods: A committee of Practice and Science faculty devel-
1;282(9):867–74.
oped and implemented the assessment program. The commit-
tee performed extensive literature searches and consulted col- An Assessment of Stress Experienced by Students in a
leagues from other Schools of Pharmacy. The final assessment Prepharmacy Curriculum. Patricia Canales, Peter Kranz,
plan was reviewed by an outside expert from AACP. University of Texas-Pan American and The University of
Comprehensive curriculum mapping was performed to start Texas. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the level of
the process. In addition to collection of demographic student stress experienced by students in a prepharmacy curriculum,
data and surveys, college-wide focus groups were formed to the factors most associated with this stress, and the mecha-
assess oral communication across the curriculum and precep- nisms used by these students to minimize stress. Methods:
tor satisfaction with our 6th year students. Results: The study will use a survey to capture information regarding
Curriculum mapping data identified areas of potential weak- levels of stress experienced, factors that contribute to stress,
ness in the new curriculum. Faculty used curriculum mapping and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants will be
to match specific educational outcomes with course content. recruited from a population of students who are enrolled in the
Curriculum mapping provided a breakdown of various instruc- Cooperative Pharmacy Program and are currently in the first
tional and active-learning techniques along with their assess- year of prepharmacy coursework. Data collection will consist

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

of a demographic questionnaire, a stress questionnaire, and a versity, accreditation, profession) is included. In order to reduce
formal individual interview. The demographic questionnaire student burden, the number of questions was reduced from ten
will capture age, ethnicity, gender, employment, marital status, to five per course, and from fifteen to four per instructor com-
living situation, and travel to campus. The Student Stress pared with the evaluations used in Fall 2003. To facilitate longi-
Questionnaire includes questions regarding perceived stress tudinal comparisons, questions were modeled on previous
levels, anticipation of stress in future courses, methods used to course evaluation questions used by the department whenever
reduce stress, life factors that contribute to stress, and level of possible, and the technical design of the questions and evalua-
support from family, friends, faculty, and program. tion facilitate creation, assignment, and analysis of evaluations.
Participants will complete the survey, and then will be inter- To minimize the chance that students will submit responses for
viewed individually to capture further qualitative information a different course or instructor, all questions are customized to
that will aid in characterizing and/or explaining responses. The identify the course name and/or instructor name to ensure that
framework analytic approach will be used to identify common students are completing the correct evaluation. Implications:
themes within each questionnaire item. The framework Course evaluations are one source of data to collect student per-
approach is based on a grounded theory approach of data ceptions about courses and instructors. Student evaluations of
analysis whereby theories are generated or refined from data, courses and faculty are an important component in the evalua-
in this case, accounts from students during the interview tion of faculty teaching. The design and implementation of a
process. Demographics will be reported descriptively. streamlined course and faculty evaluation system will reduce
student and staff burden and produce data that can be analyzed
An Assessment of the HIPAA-Related Knowledge of and reported out to stakeholders. The revised evaluation will be
Pharmacy Students at the University of Arizona. Karen used for courses in the Spring 2004 semester, and the design and
Sauer, Tim Alfred, Jabin Davis, The University of Arizona. methods could be easily adapted for use by other institutions.
Objectives: To assess students’ knowledge of HIPAA and to
address the null hypotheses that knowledge scores on HIPAA- Alumni Survey as a Curriculum Evaluation Tool. Kimberly
related questions did not differ by class year, months of work Deloatch, Pamela Joyner, University of North Carolina.
experience, or HIPAA training and work experience. Methods: Objectives: The UNC School of Pharmacy conducts an ongo-
This project used a cross-sectional survey design with a self- ing, multifaceted curriculum evaluation process, including both
administered questionnaire distributed by the investigators in a internal and external assessments. One external assessment tool
classroom setting. The questionnaire consisted of 13 multiple- used is an alumni survey, administered every 2–5 years. The
choice questions to assess students' knowledge of HIPAA as objectives of this project were to conduct a survey of recent
graduates to (1) verify appropriateness of currently defined abil-
well as four descriptive items. The questions addressed: general
ity outcomes for the PharmD program and (2) evaluate curricu-
principles of HIPAA; minimum necessary standards for use of
lar effectiveness in enabling students to develop those abilities.
protected health information (PHI); permitted uses and disclo-
Methods: A survey was developed to ascertain demographic
sures of PHI for treatment, payment, and health care operations;
information, post-graduate training, professional involvement,
personal representatives and PHI; PHI for marketing; and pub-
current practice type, knowledge and skills most commonly
lic health activities and PHI. The questionnaire was tested for
employed in early practice, and graduates’ perceptions of their
content validity and item reliability. First, second, and third year
preparedness for entry-level practice. Surveys were mailed to
pharmacy students who were enrolled during the spring 2004
the 316 graduates, of the first three graduating classes of the
semester and attended class the day the questionnaire was
entry-level PharmD program. Results: Usable surveys were
administered were eligible to participate. Results: Scores were
completed and returned by 127 (40%) of those surveyed and are
derived for the 13 multiple-choice questions and mean scores
currently being analyzed. Particular attention will be focused on
for the three classes were compared using ANOVA. Pearson skills found to be highly relevant to entry-level practice, espe-
correlation coefficients were calculated for scores vs months of cially those which graduates felt poorly prepared to perform.
work experience. Spearman rank correlations were used to com- Implications: The UNC School of Pharmacy has invested con-
pare knowledge scores with the following: (1) work experience siderable time and energy identifying core ability outcomes for
and HIPAA training, (2) work experience and no HIPAA train- the Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum, and designing and evaluat-
ing, (3) no work experience and HIPAA training, or (4) no work ing curriculum in light of those outcomes. Results of this survey
experience and no HIPAA training. Implications: Students will help us refine definition of key entry-level practice skills,
training at experiential sites must be familiar with the HIPAA assess the effectiveness of our curriculum in helping students
requirements. This assessment provided important curricular develop those skills, plan more effectively for curricular
feedback to the College. enhancement and faculty / preceptor development, and prepare
A Stakeholder-Based Approach to Revising and Analyzing appropriate documentation for an upcoming accreditation site
Course and Instructor Evaluations. Phillip Vuchetich, visit.
William Hamilton, Frances Moore, Creighton University.
Objectives: To revise and analyze online course and faculty BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
evaluations used for approximately thirty courses and thirty-five
faculty in one department. Methods: A stakeholder-based
Completed Research
approach to developing questions was used to ensure that at Evaluation of a CD-ROM Tutorial Reinforcing Concepts
least one key issue of each stakeholder (students, faculty, uni- in Endocrinology. Paula Witt-Enderby, Shane Desselle,

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Duquesne University. Objectives: To develop and evaluate the excellent retention of course material on a separate behav-
utility of a tutorial designed to enhance student learning of var- iorally anchored ratings scale. Implications: Soliciting form-
ious endocrine disorders. Methods: A self-guided, CD-ROM ative feedback was successful in enhancing discussion during
tutorial was created using Director’ software. The tutorial subsequent class meetings, tailoring review sessions, and
encompasses two major assignments: one involving the cre- assisting students to connect basic science concepts with phar-
ation of a pregnancy test, the other comprised of several exer- macy practice.
cises describing the etiology of various diseases that manifest
Online Delivery of an Introduction to Toxicology Course:
from hormonal imbalance and the selection of appropriate
Development and Assessment. Alicia Bouldin, Kristine
therapeutic regimens. Upon completion of this compulsory
Willett, The University of Mississippi. Objectives:
program, the software generates a printed certificate with the
Introduction to Toxicology has regularly been offered in a tra-
student’s name and date. Students completed a self-adminis-
ditional undergraduate class setting at UM. To increase options
tered survey questionnaire measuring their perceptions of the
available to interested students, the course was recently deliv-
utility of the tutorial on an 18-item, five-point, Likert-type
ered via an online format for two semesters. Methods:
scale. Results: Student feedback concerning the tutorial pro-
Students were expected to view 2–3 online presentations per
gram was positive. Students reported highest agreement with
week to supplement assigned reading (online and textbook).
the use of the tutorial as a refreshing break from lecture and as
The course was paced by online assignments, to be delivered
a vital supplement to lecture, but somewhat less agreement
with the tutorial’s ability to help them apply knowledge to electronically to the instructor at scheduled points during the
clinical practice. The scale demonstrated excellent internal semester. During the last class period of each semester, stu-
consistency (Cronbachs alpha = 0.96). Factor analysis dents participated in a voluntary assessment of their attitudes
revealed that students’ perceived the program’s utility along and perceptions of the online course, as well as perceived
two dimensions (“learning” and “fun”), with the learning comparisons between online and traditional classroom envi-
dimension more predictive of students’ overall attitudes about ronments. Results: All respondents agreed with the statement
the program. Test scores improved from previous offerings, “The same amount of material was covered in this class as in
however the study’s design precludes our attributing this find- a traditional class.” A primary advantage of the online format
ing to the use of the tutorial, only. Implications: Students as perceived by the students was working at a time of their
appreciated the opportunity for self-directed instruction. own choosing; yet managing that time was reported as being
Revisions in the tutorial’s content and its place in course difficult by 46%. Most students (73%) did believe that they
design may help students better connect course concepts to saved time by taking this course online; and most (82%)
pharmacy practice. agreed that the course structure required them to “keep up”
from week to week. Students with on-campus Ethernet access
The Use of Formative Feedback to Facilitate Student found it easier to access the large lecture and video files than
Application and Discussion in Two Pharmacy those with dial-up access. Implications: While no specific
Physiology/Pathology Courses. Wilson Meng, Shane student comments were made about course content, ideas for
Desselle, Duquesne University. Objectives: To implement and delivery improvement could be interpreted from their feed-
evaluate course-embedded formative and summative assess- back. Data will be used to guide improvements in future offer-
ment procedures toward students’ achievement of desired edu- ings of the course.
cational outcomes. Methods: The intervention was conducted
over four semesters in two required human physiology/pathol- Effects of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on Pigmented
ogy courses. Topics included inflammation, neoplasm, neuro- Melanoma Cells. Michelle Lubonia, Loni Bowers, Stephen
muscular junction, red blood cells, coagulation, and immunity. Kerr, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Massachusetts College of
At various intervals throughout both courses, students were Pharmacy-Boston. Objectives: The effects of butylated
asked to provide qualitative, anonymous feedback about hydroxytoluene (BHT), an anti-oxidant widely used in cos-
aspects of the previous material they found most interesting metic formulations, on pigmentary cells is unknown. This
and most confusing. This feedback was used to structure study focused on assessment of cell viability and expression of
reviews and facilitate discussion during the current offering key melanocyte-specific gene products in pigmented
and redesign certain aspects of the course in a subsequent melanoma cells, on exposure to BHT. Methods: Pigmented
offering. The instructor collaborated to design summative melanoma cells (SK-MEL-23) were maintained in standard
assessments that provide more substantive feedback about the minimum essential media. Cell viability was assessed by incu-
course’s instruction and design. Results: A majority (95%) of bating varying concentrations of BHT (10 uM ¡V 500 uM)
students agreed that the intermittent qualitative feedback was with cells for 96 hours; after which cells were washed, har-
beneficial to them and the instructor. The grand means of stu- vested and counted using a hemocytometer. Cellular expres-
dent evaluations were consistently high (# 6.00 on a 7-item, 7- sion of tyrosinase (rate limiting enzyme in the melanin biosyn-
point Likert-type scale) and improved significantly from one thesis) was determined by incubating cells with 100 uM BHT
year to the next. Students were especially pleased with the for 0, 4, 7, 11 and 14 days, followed by harvesting and pro-
effectiveness of the instructor’s presentation and their per- cessing of cell lysates for western blot analysis. Modulation of
ceived ability to connect basic principles in physiology with tyrosinase protein expression in cells exposed to 100 uM BHT
pathological conditions. The scales demonstrated good inter- was quantitated using a phosphor-imager by measuring band
nal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha # 0.81). Students predicted intensities generated by chemiluminscent detection of tyrosi-

7
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

nase using a tyrosinase specific polyclonal antibody. Results: lished an activity grid for the two required medicinal chemistry
A dose dependent decrease in the viability of SK-MEL-23 courses (PHA 337 and 447). Learning objectives were identified
cells at 96 hours exposed to increasing concentrations of BHT for each activity, and measurable approaches to their accom-
was observed with ~50% cell survival at 100 ƒYM concentra- plishment in each pathway were articulated, including the facil-
tion. There was significant decrease in tyrosinase expression itative role of an educational mentor utilized exclusively in the
between day 0 and day 4 with tyrosinase expression increasing web-based pathway. Results: The medicinal chemistry student
to greater than 2-fold by day 14 as compared with control. cohorts under study performed at a comparable level on exami-
Implications: While high concentrations (> 100 uM) of BHT nations, in-class assessments and case presentations. Significant
can be detrimental to the viability of pigmented melanoma differences were noted between cohorts on weekly quiz per-
cells, prolonged exposure to BHT can modulate the expression formance and final letter grade distribution. The letter grade dis-
of tyrosinase. tribution for both cohorts shifted to higher final grades in the
second semester as compared with the first. Implications: The
instructional methods employed resulted in partial performance
Work In Progress parity between campus and web-based medicinal chemistry stu-
Investigation of Acute Renal Toxicity of Raisins in Dogs dents in 2002–03. Factors that may have contributed to cohort
Using an in Vitro Model. Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Steven performance differences are being addressed. Of primary
Cohen, Carolyn Friel, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy- importance is the availability of audiofiles for the web-based
Worcester. Objective: The toxicity of grapes and raisins in dogs cohort, and the use of a single educational mentor for this stu-
is a recently recognized and growing problem. Over 80 cases dent group to enhance the consistency, regularity and effective-
have been reported to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control ness of communication.
Center that, despite supportive therapy, resulted in a 50% mor-
tality rate. Our working hypothesis is that a natural chemical Work In Progress
component in the fruit itself is the primary cause of the acute
renal failure observed in dogs. Currently, neither the identity of Development and Assessment of Computer-Based Tutorials
the chemical component, nor the mode of action that leads to as Instructional Tools for Teaching Basic Concepts in
acute renal failure is known. The primary objectives of this proj- Medicinal Chemistry. Marc Harrold, Shane Desselle, James
ect were to 1) systematically prepare defined extracts from Knittel, Duquesne University. Objectives: To develop, imple-
raisins, and 2) to evaluate the extracts for their ability to produce ment and evaluate a series of computer-based tutorials that
toxicity in canine kidney cells in culture. Methods: enhance the instruction, review and retention of basic medicinal
Commercially available raisins identified by lot number were chemistry concepts. Methods: The following areas were identi-
used as raw material for chemical extraction. The four major fied as core, fundamental concepts of medicinal chemistry:
fractions generated were (a) crude extract (b) water soluble functional group recognition, acid/base chemistry, pH/pKa and
bases (c) water soluble acids (d) lipophilic fraction. The cyto- drug ionization, water and lipid solubility, drug binding interac-
toxicity of each fraction was assessed using Madin-Darby tions, drug metabolism and prodrugs, and stereochemistry. The
Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, an immortalized cell line of renal software program, ToolBook II Instructor, was chosen to devel-
distal tubular epithelial origin, using standard toxicity assays. op a series of eight computer-based tutorials that covered the
Implications: The present standard of care for dogs with raisin above concept areas. To date, six of these tutorials have been
toxicosis is empirical. Results from this study will provide the completed, and one (drug metabolism) is currently in develop-
basis for the rational development of therapies to significantly ment. Students at Duquesne University use these tutorials pri-
improve survival outcomes. marily as a review source throughout the three semesters that
medicinal chemistry is integrated into disease-based modules.
Students at the University of Cincinnati use these tutorials as
CHEMISTRY part of an initial course in medicinal chemistry concepts.
Completed Research Results: A series of 17 behavioral objectives were developed
Evaluation of Performance Parity Between Two Required for the eight planned tutorials. During the Spring 2004 semester,
On-Campus and Web-Based Medicinal Chemistry Courses. a survey instrument will be used at both schools to assess stu-
Naser Alsharif, Victoria Roche, Alaba Ogunbadeniyi, Robert dent perceptions of the tutorials. Survey questions will address
Chapman, Creighton University. Objectives: Creighton overall perceptions of the tutorials (eg,ease of use, level of dif-
University implemented an entry-level web-based Pharm.D. ficultly) as well as specific behavioral objectives for all of the
pathway in 2001. Parity between web- and campus-based cours- six completed tutorials. Additionally, a correlation of student use
es has been mandated by faculty, and defined to include course to examination performance will be evaluated for Duquesne stu-
objectives, ability-based outcomes and student evaluation tech- dents. Implications: Computer-based tutorials which can aug-
niques. Instructional methods may be pathway-specific as long ment student learning and retention of basic medicinal concepts
may prove valuable in enhancing students' abilities to apply
as identical learning outcomes are achieved through their use.
these concepts to therapeutic decisions.
This poster documents the evaluation of performance parity
between the on-campus and web-based versions of two required Chemical Probes of Rapid Steroid Hormone Signaling.
medicinal chemistry courses taught in the 2002–03 academic Ross Weatherman, Joseph Trebley, Melinda Morrell, Priscilla
year. Methods: The instructors in medicinal chemistry estab- Reyes, Purdue University. Nuclear receptors are validated

8
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

therapeutic targets in the treatment and prevention of many requirements of the assignments before orientation were not
different diseases, but many drugs targeting these receptors required to attend a formal computer orientation that occurred
suffer from undesired effects in other tissues. The mechanism as an add-on to the regular incoming class orientation.
by which these drugs were believed to exert their effects was Assignments were designed to be efficient in allowing stu-
through the direct regulation of transcription, but there is dents to demonstrate multiple competencies with each assign-
ample evidence that there are also other mechanisms of action ment. Competencies that were required include word process-
that involve other known signal transduction pathways. To bet- ing, spreadsheet calculations and charting, presentation graph-
ter study these responses, we have begun to design, synthesize ics, library searches, computer setup up for video lectures,
and test chemical probes of estrogen and progesterone signal- viewing a universal precautions lecture and completing health
ing with the objective of discovering novel chemical entities center HIPAA training. Results: The first students through the
capable of selectively modulating these cross-talk driven program were in the entering Class of 2001. Students’ per-
responses. Several compounds based on known nuclear recep- formance was evaluated for each assignment and data was
tor drugs have been synthesized and tested for their ability to gathered regarding number of students participating and com-
bind to the nuclear receptor, regulate transcription in a classi- pleting each assignment. Implications: Post-admission, for-
cal model, and modulate other signaling transduction path- malized training of this sort is a new concept in pharmacy edu-
ways. A summary of the progress made thus far will be pre- cation. The success of this program could lead to the adoption
sented. of similar programs to pre-assess students on competency
Effectiveness of a Chemistry Online Module as Didactic areas as required by any college, especially as distance educa-
Tool in the Pharmacodynamics Course. Maria Hernandez, tion programs and advanced educational pedagogies requiring
Nova Southeastern University. Objective: An interactive high technology continue to develop.
online module was developed to enhance the learning out- Internet Health Information for the Spanish Speaking
comes of first year Pharmacy students on the topic of acid- Consumer. Clinton Chichester, Erica Estus, Anne Hume,
base properties of drugs. Methods: A pre-test was adminis- Brian Felice, University of Rhode Island. Objectives: A com-
tered to the entire class of 188 students in the Davie, West prehensive, consumer oriented, health information Web site in
Palm Beach and Ponce sites, one week after the lecture mate- Spanish was developed. The aim was improve access of
rial was introduced on the chosen topic. The interactive online Spanish-speaking and underserved Rhode Island consumers to
module was then made available to students in the three sites high quality health information via the Internet. Methods: In
for five days, and a post-test was administered to evaluate the an effort to eliminate the disparities in health among all popu-
effectiveness of the online module as a didactic tool. A survey lation groups, using a grant from the National Library of
was also administered to students to evaluate their satisfaction Medicine, faculty and professional degree students from the
with the online module. Implications: Enhancing the learning University of Rhode Island, College of Pharmacy developed a
process is crucial for all students in topics of greater difficul- web portal (www.uri.edu/e-salud) containing over 600 links to
ty, but it is especially significant for distance students, who do quality Spanish language Internet sites. All the Web sites were
not have face-to-face interaction with the instructor. The com- systematically evaluated using standard instruments for
ponents of the module (lecture, resources, online activities)
assessing information on the web. The Web site is database
were designed to accommodate the personal learning styles of
driven which makes it easily modified. Results: Since
the students, regardless of location. The effectiveness of the
September 2003, P4 students on their Advance Practice
online module will be evaluated for main campus and distance
Experience in Health Information have been assisting
students. The results of this study will guide our efforts in
Spanish-speaking patients in accessing health information at
developing larger online components for the
different sites throughout Rhode Island. This has promoted the
Pharmacodynamics series, and will form a framework for
involvement of consumers in their own healthcare using health
other courses in the Pharmacy curriculum.
information from the Internet. Implications: The Internet is an
influential force and basis for many health decisions. Health
COMPUTER ABSTRACTS information fosters shared decision-making between con-
sumers and providers. (supported in part by NIH grant 1 G07
Implementation of a Computer Competency Training
LM07747–01).
Program for Entering Pharmacy Students. Randell Doty, L.
Ried, Dominic Kellenberger, J. Blanchard, University of Evaluating Pharmacy Student Demonstration of Clinical
Florida. Objective: Students at the University of Florida are Communication Skills in a Web-based Environment.
required to be competent with certain hardware and software. Lourdes Planas, Nelson Er, University of Oklahoma.
We developed and implemented an online program of assign- Objectives: Given a web-based evaluation template and two
ments after admission, but prior to the beginning of the school simulated patient interviews: pharmacy students will be able to
year. The program was developed to ensure students’ compe- perform self and peer evaluations, as well as provide con-
tence and thereby facilitate their success in the curriculum. structive feedback; and instructors will be able to assess stu-
Methods: Students are required to complete these assignments dent performance and formulate constructive feedback with
during the summer prior to beginning pharmacy school in the ease of use. Methods: To evaluate third-year pharmacy stu-
fall. These assignments were delivered via the web-based dents’ demonstration of clinical communication skills, two
courseware system “Blackboard.” Students who fulfilled the simulated patient videotaping exercises were conducted. Each

9
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

patient interview was recorded and streamed on-demand. Evaluation of a Leadership and Teaching Skills Program
Students only had access to their peer group videos. In each for Pharmacists. Nancy Fjortoft, Lynn Patton, Midwestern
group, students evaluated their own and peers’ communication University-Chicago. Objective: To evaluate the short-term
skills and formulated feedback for improvement. Students and impact of a leadership and teaching skills continuing education
instructors used the same evaluation template, which was program on pharmacists’ activities. Methods: A five-month,
divided into 15 sections. For each section, instructors could curricular-based program on leadership and teaching skills
provide specific feedback so that students could improve on was developed and offered in 2002–03. Thirty-one pharmacy
that particular topic. For each video exercise, the course coor- practice residents and twenty-four pharmacists participated
dinator could view the overall class performance and assess (N=55) in the interactive workshops. Six months after the con-
topics that needed remediation. This evaluation tool was clusion of the program, a survey was administered via mail to
developed using ASP server-side scripting. Results: At the end determine current leadership and teaching activities. Results:
of the semester, a student survey on the use of this evaluation Fifteen surveys were returned for a response rate of 27%.
tool was administered. Feedback from students was mostly Seventy-three percent of the respondents reported that they are
positive, but also raised valuable questions to improve the currently precepting pharmacy students and 73% reported that
design. Instructors preferred grading when they could assign a they are currently providing lectures. The respondents report-
percentage instead of a point value to each item, which then ed committee membership at their practice setting (66%),
summated to a final score. Implications: This tool facilitates committee chairmanship at their practice setting (13%).
student evaluation, instructor grading, and course coordinator Thirteen percent reported committee membership in profes-
analysis of student performance in simulated patient inter- sional associations. Forty percent reported having new posi-
views. The ultimate goal is to enable students to learn from tions. Implications/Results suggest that the respondents have
instructor and peer feedback, as well as self-reflection. assumed teaching responsibilities. Given the lack of a pre-test,
it is not clear if the program was responsible for this or if these
individuals would have assumed these responsibilities regard-
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL less. Most the respondents are members of committees at their
EDUCATION practice setting; however, very few serve as chair. A small
Completed Research number of respondents are involved in association leadership
activities. This may be explained by the relatively young age
Measurement of Educational Outcomes for a Continuing
of the participants. Continued follow-up is warranted to deter-
Education Course in Veterinary Therapeutics for
mine the long-term impact of this program on career develop-
Pharmacists. Elaine Lust, Creighton University. Objective:
ment.
To assess the effectiveness of a distance-based, online continu-
ing education (C.E.) course in veterinary therapeutics by meas- An Interest Assessment of Community Pharmacy
uring the cognitive knowledge of pharmacists as felt in their “Retooling”: A Program to Update Pharmacists’ Skills in
confidence level to explain animal disease states, summarize Community Practice. Carriann Richey, Sarah Johnson,
veterinary pharmacotherapy options, and explain regulatory Michael Wilson, Butler University. Objectives: Our primary
documents that influence veterinary pharmacy. Methods: objective was to measure pharmacists’ interest in a communi-
Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to assess the ty practice “retooling” course. Additionally, we sought to
effectiveness of the curriculum. A one group, pre-post, quasi- determine the preferred content, format and structure of a
experimental design was used to evaluate the confidence level “retooling” course and establish participant’s willingness to
and application skills of the pharmacists. Reflective qualitative pay. A “retooling” course would provide focused, up-to-date
commentary was collected upon completion of the course. education allowing pharmacists to reenter and/or update their
Results: Cognitive post-course scores improved significantly skills to be successful in a community setting. Methods: The
over the pre-course scores on all 26 pre-and post course survey project’s concept and survey were originally presented to
questions. The Wilcoxan Signed-Ranks analysis for each ques- Butler University’s Community Pharmacy Advisory Board.
tion resulted in statistically significance levels thereby indicat- Due to interest in the project, a validation pilot of the survey
ing that the increase in the cognitive measure was not due to was performed. The survey was then distributed by mail to
error. The reflective commentary on how pharmacists will uti- 5,053 pharmacists. The data were fitted to several statistical
lize concepts learned in the course to their practice was very models to examine characteristics that might identify clusters
positive. Pharmacists conveyed appreciation for having the of respondents with differing continuing education needs and
opportunity to take an online course on this subject matter. preferences for features of an extensive review course. The
Pharmacists reported that increased knowledge in all topic statistical analysis was performed using SAS#8.2 software.
areas would enhance their ability to communicate with veteri- Results: Of the 5,053 surveys distributed, 817 were returned
narians and give them the cognitive resources needed to pro- completed (16.3%). Respondents represented pharmacists
vide insightful counseling to owners on their animal’s drug from 37 states and graduates of 44 colleges of pharmacy.
therapy. Implications: This online course can be used to Overall, 74.9% of the respondents expressed an interest and
increase the confidence level of the pharmacist’s cognitive 60.1% a willingness to pay. A significant percent of respon-
knowledge and skills after completion of the curriculum. The dents (84%-99%) were very or moderately interested in twen-
online offering of this course is an effective method to educate ty of the twenty-four topics identified. Approximately 60% of
pharmacists on topics specific to veterinary pharmacy. these respondents preferred a non-live (online, homestudy

10
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

paper monograph, or homestudy CD-ROM) format. allel pretest, immediate posttest, and second posttest one
Implications: Butler University, COPHS, Office of month following the conclusion of the program. Results will
Postgraduate Education is considering whether to offer this be presented comparing the pharmacists’ satisfaction with both
“retooling” course as a resource to those interested in updating methods, as well as changes in knowledge resulting from par-
their skills in community pharmacy. ticipation in the two different methods. Selected demographic
variables will be used to further evaluate differences among
responses to the study evaluation and tests. Implications:
Work In Progress Results will help the University decide on the most effective
An Update on Facilitators and Barriers to Pharmacists' and acceptable method for future distance learning opportuni-
Participation in Lifelong Learning. Ruth Bruskiewitz, Alan ties. This information can assist other universities choosing
Hanson, James De Muth, University of Wisconsin-Madison. among different distance learning delivery systems for non-
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the traditional undergraduate instruction or continuing education
specific factors that facilitate and/or serve as barriers to programs.
Wisconsin pharmacists’ participation in lifelong learning. To
determine how new technologies and changes in professional
demographics have modified the importance of the selected
EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
barriers and facilitators to pharmacists’ lifelong learning, com- Completed Research
parisons will be made to a similar nationwide study of phar- The Integrated Curriculum at the University of Otago in
macists published in 1991. Methods: As part of a larger study Dunedin, New Zealand. John Murphy, Ian Tucker, Rosemary
focused on the acceptability of different methods of providing Beresford, The University of Arizona. Objectives: Students in
continuing education, a total of 274 Wisconsin pharmacists health professions must both learn facts and be able to inte-
volunteered to participate in this study of facilitators and bar- grate them into the care of specific patients. The goal of the
riers to lifelong learners. The response rate exceeded 87% for integrated curriculum is to challenge students to assimilate
this group of volunteer pharmacists. Responses to the 12 facil- knowledge from readings and lectures for treatment of a
itators and 16 barriers to lifelong leaning will be discussed. patient with specific disease, while focusing on unique roles of
Pharmacist demographics will be analyzed to determine their pharmacists. Methods: Faculty designed the last two years of
effect on the facilitators encouraging and barriers preventing a four year pharmacy curriculum to be completely integrated
greater pharmacist participation in lifelong learning activities. among all disciplinary studies, focused around the quality use
Also, similarities and differences in pharmacists’ responses of medicine for specific diseases. Curriculum development
between 1990 and 2003 will be presented and discussed. evolved with commitment of faculty, strategic planning, topic
Implications: As providers of continuing education programs development, assignment of responsible individuals as section
evaluate delivery systems for providing lifelong learning leaders, implementation and revision. The new systems-based,
activities, a greater understanding of the factors that facilitate modularized curriculum includes emphasis on development of
participation, as well as the barriers that block opportunities to critical thinking, team working and self-directed learning,
lifelong learning, will be important in making decisions to achieved by extensive use of primary literature for learning
reach larger audiences with more convenient and acceptable and workshop preparation. Each module includes at least 5
learning activities. discipline-specific workshops and an integrating one (called
A Comparison of the Acceptability and Effectiveness of DDPP; Disease, Drug, Patient, Pharmacist). Assessment
Two Methods of Distance Learning: CD-ROMs and Audio includes case studies, essays, individual and group presenta-
Teleconferencing. James De Muth, Ruth Bruskiewitz, tions and case-based and oral examinations. Results: The cur-
University of Wisconsin – Madison. Objectives: This study riculum appears successful. Students work well in collabora-
was designed to: 1) develop and present a pharmacy continu- tive groups and are, according to survey results, satisfied with
ing education program using two different methods for dis- the pedagogical approaches. Downsides in initiating the cur-
tance learning; 2) evaluate the acceptability of the two deliv- riculum included initial additional heavy workload for faculty
ery methods; 3) measure and compare the amount of cognitive and continuing work to refine approaches. Implications:
gain using the two delivery methods; and 4) examine the Faculty believe students are learning more effectively and are
impact of selected demographics on the acceptability and cog- able to analyze patient care situations better than in the past.
nitive changes. Methods: A total of 80 volunteers were The poster will provide detail on steps taken to develop and
recruited from a 2003 University of Wisconsin distance-learn- implement the curriculum and provide suggestions for avoid-
ing program on a review of selected new drugs. Of the volun- ing pitfalls.
teers, 47 pharmacists participated in the course using the tra- Epidemiology Scene Investigators: Pop Culture and the
ditional audio teleconference method and 33 participated Medical Literature. Cecilia Plaza, JoLaine Draugalis,
using a home study CD-ROM that contained the same materi- University of Arizona. Objective: The purpose of this educa-
als as presented in the teleconference. Pharmacists completed tional innovation was to fuse popular culture and the medical
traditional course evaluations. Because of demographic simi- literature to incorporate all the epidemiology objectives in an
larities between volunteers and non-volunteers, evaluation interactive review of the material at the conclusion of the mod-
results from the 270 enrolled pharmacists were included in this ule for second year pharmacy students in a pharmacy research
portion of the study. Volunteers were required to complete par- methods course. Overview: The computer-based interactive

11
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

module, designed using Chickering and Gamson’s Seven offering of a medicinal chemistry course sequence with an
Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, was integrated pharmacology and therapeutics course sequence
based on a food-poisoning incident reported in the Journal of will run across the second and third years of the professional
the American Medical Association. The popular television curriculum. A separate recitation course has been created that
program “CSI: Crime Scene Investigators” served as the will allow the integration of multiple disease states and pro-
theme as students worked through the epidemiology problem. vide an opportunity for medicinal chemistry principles to be
Each student was provided with a worksheet that looked like a reinforced in the context of a patient care focus. Success of the
notebook with key questions and information to help guide structure will be assessed using our year-end assessment
them through the exercise. Students asked questions of the exam. The exam is application based and assesses the stu-
instructor, who played the lead ESI investigator. As students dents’ ability to apply what they have learned to simulated
worked through the mystery, they received clues in response to practice scenarios. Feedback from students will be sought
their probing questions. The advantages of this approach were regarding their ability to learn the required concepts. Results:
that students remained engaged while demonstrating a real-life Implementation of this structure will begin with the Spring
application of the material and a re-emphasis of module objec- Quarter of academic year 2003–04. Performance data for the
tives. The primary disadvantage of this approach was that it first class will be available for presentation. Implications:
was time-intensive in terms of instructor preparation and class Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy are pushing integration of
time. Positive comments on course evaluations as well as the pharmaceutical sciences and therapeutic course offerings.
unsolicited student feedback were extremely positive indicat- This trend is gradually diminishing the strong scientific under-
ing that this approach brought the material alive and made it pinnings of the pharmacy profession. Graduates today appre-
memorable. Implications: The approach of melding pop cul- ciate the application of drug therapy to disease state manage-
ture and the medical literature has the potential for wider ment but lack a strong scientific understanding of how and
application in this and similar courses. why drugs actually work. We anticipate that our experience
with this approach will allow us to educate pharmacists who
National Curriculum Survey: The Status of Curricula understand how to use medicinal chemistry to help provide
Addressing Nonprescription Drug Therapy. Tim R. better pharmaceutical care.
Covington and Beth R. Skinner, Samford University.
Objectives: To assess the status of curricula in United States Development of an Online, Interdisciplinary Course in
schools/colleges of pharmacy in addressing preparation of Health Care Informatics. Tina Brock, Scott Smith, Linda
pharmacists for serving current and expanded roles in the Carl, Mary White, University of North Carolina at Chapel
delivery of pharmaceutical care services involving nonpre- Hill. Despite the fact that the Institute of Medicine has identi-
scription drug therapy. The 2003 survey results have created a fied informatics as a priority area of instruction in health care,
benchmark. Follow-up surveys will occur on a biannual basis. many professional curricula include only minimal dialog
Methods: A survey instrument was developed and mailed to about how technology can be used to improve the quality and
all coordinator/lead teachers, deans and pharmacy practice efficiency of patient care. To address this deficit, an interdisci-
department chairs in United States schools/colleges of phar- plinary course has been developed for campus-based and dis-
macy. The survey instrument addressed general faculty beliefs, tance learners at the University of North Carolina at Chapel
course status, course content, course instruction (human Hill. Health Care Informatics is an online, elective course tar-
resources) and course instructional methodology. Responses geted to students in pharmacy, nursing, public health and
were aggregated by group, tabulated and analyzed for variance information and library sciences. The overall objectives of the
of responses between groups. Results: The response rate to the course are to use innovative educational strategies to a)
survey was 54% by the course coordinator/lead teacher, 33% increase knowledge in health informatics by future health pro-
by pharmacy practice department chairs and 23% by deans. A fessionals; and b) disseminate skills to use technology to assist
in developing an evidence-based health care practice. The
descriptive summary of responses from each group will be
course consists of twelve web-based lessons developed with
provided in poster format, as will selected statistical differ-
Macromedia Breeze software and delivered with Blackboard
ences in responses between the three groups surveyed.
courseware. The lesson topics were derived from a review of
Implications: Periodic (biannual) national curriculum surveys
the published literature, an assessment of the current informat-
addressing nonprescription drug therapy can serve as a strate-
ics-associated course topics in the health sciences curricula at
gic assessment process addressing pharmacist preparation to
UNC-CH, and a survey of NC pharmacists’ informatics needs
serve as a therapeutic advisor to the public in the proper selec-
and interests. The lesson format was established to demon-
tion, use and monitoring of nonprescription drug therapy.
strate sound educational pedagogy and instructional design
Coordination of Medicinal Chemistry with an Integrated guidelines. Content and methods underwent peer review by an
Pharmacology and Therapeutics Course Sequence and informatics working group on campus. Student learning is
Combined Recitation Course Structure. Nancy Kawahara, assessed using a combination of weekly online quizzes, week-
Rebecca Gryka, Barry Bleidt, Avis Ericson, Bruce Currie, ly discussion board postings or community-building activities,
Loma Linda University. Objectives: To develop a curriculum and a final online project presentation. Weekly anonymous
structure that would encourage students to apply medicinal online surveys and a comprehensive online review comple-
chemistry principles in decision making associated with the ment instructor reflections of the strengths/weaknesses of the
use of medicinal agents to treat disease. Methods: A parallel course.

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Assessing the Impact of Cooperative Education on Early cycle. Implications: Expansion of class size and increased
Experiential Learning. Mark Yorra, Robert Blaser, emphasis on community practice education necessitate the
Northeastern University. Objective: Cooperative Education recruitment of qualified community preceptors. The model
provides pharmacy students with between 1200 to 2000 hours presented was successful in training preceptors in this envi-
of early experiential education (introductory pharmacy prac- ronment. In the future, detailed student feedback for new sites
tice experiences). While schools of pharmacies provide vari- will be collected and the program transitioned to an Internet-
ous methods of early experiential education, the Co-op pro- based curriculum.
gram provides the most contact hours, within a structured for-
Development of a Distance Education Network. Eugene
mat, which is often as paid employment. The goal of this study
Smith, Glen Farr, Dick Gourley, University of Tennessee.
is to assess how the amount of time in the professional work-
Educational Development and Innovation. Objectives: To
place and a structured program affects the learning pace and
describe the development and continuing improvement in the
applied learning of a pharmacy student. Methods: A question-
quality and effectiveness of a videoconference system for
naire will be developed and used to test various personal and
pharmacists, pharmacy residents, students and faculty, and
professional benchmarks for each student. Demographic infor-
physicians. Methods: The University of Tennessee (UT)
mation, as well as prepharmacy questions will be asked of new
College of Pharmacy has developed and implemented a dis-
students prior to their first co-op experience. Upon their return
tance education system to provide educational outreach
to school after their first experience, a questionnaire assessing
their learning rate, content and satisfaction will be adminis- throughout Tennessee. This program is funded from grants and
tered. Questionnaires will be provided to the same group of registration fees. The participants on the system include three
students prior to and after their upcoming co-op experiences, sites at the college in Memphis, the college’s continuing edu-
for a total of three sample sets per class, over a three-year peri- cation office in Knoxville, two UT Family Medicine Clinics
od. Results: In process. Implications: As schools of pharma- and eight Community Pharmacy Residency sites located
cy assess various methods of providing early experiential edu- throughout the state of Tennessee. Results: UT Community
cation, there could be a relationship between the amount of Pharmacy Residency programs use the network for on-going
time spent in the workplace and the applied learning that oversight/coordination of the residency as well as interactive
occurs in each student. If a minimal amount of time, and/or educational programs on therapeutics and pharmaceutical
pre-experience preparation is determined to be necessary for care. Off-site faculty can participate in college functions such
student learning, this may become a baseline for schools of as Grand Rounds and faculty meetings. The Continuing
pharmacy. Education office utilizes the system to keep pharmacists
throughout the state current with pharmacy practice. The sites
Developing a Comprehensive Community Pharmacy currently host ten monthly two-hour evening continuing edu-
Preceptor Training Curriculum in a Distance Education cation programs that provide a total of 20 live hours annually.
Model. Kristin W. Weitzel, Randell Doty, Michael Ward, For 2004, there are more than 70 pharmacists enrolled. In
Diem Presley, University of Florida. Objectives: To develop, addition, the college has partnered with pharmaceutical manu-
implement, and evaluate a community pharmacy preceptor facturers to bring information on new drugs and therapeutic
training program incorporating instruction on introductory and advances to health-care practitioners in rural areas.
advanced experiences in four metropolitan areas. Methods: Implications: Results indicate that a teleconference distance
The College of Pharmacy expanded its enrollment to include education system can be effective in supporting Community
three distance campuses, increasing class size from ~130 to Pharmacy Residency programs, off -site faculty and continu-
280 in 2002. The curriculum includes required introductory ing education programs for pharmacists and other practition-
community experiences, while the Advanced Community ers.
Practice Experience transitioned from elective to required
rotation in 2004, necessitating an increase in the number of A Description of an Electronically Packaged, Evidence-
qualified community pharmacy preceptors. In Summer 2003, a Based Health Literacy Curriculum. Donna Dolinsky, John
comprehensive twelve-hour training session was developed Lonie, Long Island University. Objective: To help PharmD
and conducted in four metropolitan areas, reviewing principles students, graduate students and pharmaceutical industry pro-
of community practice training, development of clinical serv- fessionals learn to provide medication/health education to
ices in a community pharmacy setting, and incorporation of patients and consumers with low health literacy. Health litera-
students into clinical services. Participants completed evalua- cy is the ability to process new information to understand and
tions and surveys regarding their opinions of the sessions, their solve a health related problem. A person may be literate, but
abilities to implement advanced training in their sites, and the not health literate. Process: The self-instructional/instructor
perceived usefulness of selected resources. Results: led curriculum, packaged electronically, and distributed to
Approximately 200 participants completed the training session each school, will address these health literacy problems: (1)
over a three-month period. Evaluations for sessions were Processing information: receiving or sending, spoken or writ-
favorable; participants identified the establishment of a phar- ten information containing words, numbers or graphics, (2)
macy e-community and provision of online case studies and Choosing to not communicate with a pharmacist because of
videos documenting patient counseling interactions as useful shame/stigma of low literacy/health literacy, past failure, or
resources. Newly trained preceptors will take ~61 advanced because pharmacists have not communicated, (3) Cultural dis-
students for experiential training in the 2004–05 clerkship connection between patient and pharmacist: spoken, non-ver-

13
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

bal, written or graphic, (4) Non-native language speaker. tives determined the best aspects from participating institution
Students or instructors will assess learning through behavioral evaluation tools, published evaluation tools, and feedback
analysis of educational products using criterion checklists. from faculty and preceptors to develop a uniform instrument.
Students produce written, drawn, spoken or practiced prod- The new evaluation tool will be implemented by each institu-
ucts-captured on paper, audio or video media and displayed to tion during the 2005–2006 academic year and will be utilized
live learner groups or posted electronically to virtual groups for all APEs. Results: Prior to implementation, each institu-
for feedback. An example of a product is a difficult to read tion will educate its' students and preceptors on the proper use
medication leaflet rewritten and illustrated at 6th grade level, of the evaluation tool. After the first year of implementation,
that was cohesive, included desired conceptual redundancies we will complete an in-depth assessment of the instrument
and was culturally appropriate. Program Evaluation: We will using feedback obtained from preceptor surveys and stu-
ask faculty and students to describe what they were able to do dent/preceptor focus groups. Implications: Regional
and how they learned. We will use data for curricular revision. schools/colleges of pharmacy share many of the same experi-
Implications: Since the curriculum is electronically packaged ential sites and preceptors. Additionally, they utilize similar
and can be self-instructional or instructor led, it can reach APE objectives and evaluation criteria. If regional schools/col-
many learners at minimal cost. leges of pharmacy can implement a uniform evaluation tool, it
should reduce preceptor stress and confusion that arises from
Effect of an Introductory Practice Experience (IPE) on
using multiple evaluation tools. Proper usage of the instrument
Student Perceptions of Volunteering. Keri Sims, Sneha
by preceptors should also improve due to standardization of
Bhakta, Thomas Zlatic, St. Louis College of Pharmacy.
the process.
Background: Service-learning was introduced into an IPE
course to enhance students’ professionalism and social respon- A Game Show Approach to Provide Asthma Education to
sibility. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine Students. Peggy Odegard, Doris Uh, University of
4th year pharmacy students’ (Y4) perceptions of volunteering Washington. Objectives: A game-show format was used as an
before and after the IPE. The secondary objective was to com- innovative, creative approach to teach students about asthma
pare those perceptions to first year students’ (Y1s) and facul- prior to receiving lecture material. Topics included physiology,
ty’s, within a six-year, Pharm.D. program. Methods: Prior to drug treatments, severity classifications, and patient-based
the IPE, Y4s completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, cases. Methods: Students were divided into four teams of 4–5
which was also administered to Y1s and pharmacy practice students, equipped with lecture notes and “buzzers.” MS
faculty. After the IPE, Y4s completed another survey that PowerPoint and a digital projector were used to project ques-
included seven statements on volunteering from the initial tions/answers on screen in a group-viewing format. Following
questionnaire. Responses were compared for a change in per- question reading, teammates were allowed up to 30 seconds to
ceived value of volunteering. Results: There was a statistical- confer before “buzzing” in with an answer. Points were tabu-
ly significant change in the Y4s’ awareness of the importance lated by game show hosts (faculty). Results: Teams correctly
of a pharmacist understanding of his/her patients’ family and answered the majority of questions. Post-activity, a six-ques-
social environment (p<0.05). The majority perceived benefit tion, Likert-scale survey was administered to students.
from volunteering, but this wasn’t a significant change from Evaluated items included: student satisfaction with game-
baseline. Y1s perceived greater value from volunteering than show format (1=not satisfied, 5=completely satisfied; mean
Y4s (p<0.05), but didn’t perceive as great a need for a phar- 4.13, median: 4.00, SD 0.96), perception of difficulty (1=very
macist to understand the patient’s environment (p<0.05). difficult, 5=easy; mean 3.17, median 3.00, SD 0.80), whether
There was a significant difference between faculty and Y4 activity motivated students to care about asthmatic patients
responses to five of seven statements prior to the course (1=not motivated, 5=very motivated; mean 3.96, median 4.00,
(p<0.05), but only three of seven at the course’s conclusion SD 0.91). 56/60 surveyed students responded. Evaluation
(p<0.05). Faculty responses being more favorable, this demon- comments were positive indicating the approach enjoyable
strated a shift in Y4 perceptions towards a greater value placed and useful. Faculty observers rated student preparation high.
on volunteering. Implications: Service-learning should be Implications: Competition of game-show format appeared to
retained to enhance students’ attitudes toward volunteering promote student preparation for class. This unique approach is
and encourage socio-cultural understanding in counseling. applicable to other topics and appears to be well received by
students. Although not tested by our institution, this approach
Developing a Uniform Advanced Practice Experience
may also be used after receiving lecture material to reinforce
Evaluation Tool Among Regional Schools/Colleges of
the learning process.
Pharmacy. Whitney Unterwagner, Lori Duke, Rusty
Fetterman, April Staton, Mercer University. Objective: To Development and Implementation of a Virtual Advanced
develop, implement, and evaluate a uniform Advanced Teaching Experience. Maria Pruchnicki, Julie Legg,
Practice Experience (APE) evaluation tool among regional Marialice Bennett, Dennis Mungall, Ohio State University.
schools/colleges of pharmacy. Methods: Representatives of Objective: To provide an advanced-level teaching experience
the Offices of Experiential Education from each school met for students in our Non-Traditional Doctor of Pharmacy
over a period of one year. Initial meetings were designed to (NTPD) program. Methods: A virtual (distance-learning)
showcase and critique current APE evaluation tools used by elective teaching rotation was developed to enhance NTPD
each institution. During subsequent meetings, the representa- experiential offerings. The sixteen week longitudinal design

14
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

includes two required components: 1) a web-based Teaching Development of a University-Based Interdisciplinary


Skills Curriculum, which provides core knowledge on learning Diabetes Clinic in a Rural Community. Stephen Durst, Joan
and teaching styles, course construction, cooperative learning Rider, Eric Jarvi, Robert Buckingham, Ferris State University.
environments, and instructional technology; and 2) structured Objective: To develop an interdisciplinary clinic practice
teaching activities including didactic and online case-based designed to enhance the understanding of diabetes and
instruction, course material development, testing/student eval- improve health outcomes for underserved patients in a rural
uation, and course assessment. Student teachers meet with pre- setting. Further, to provide students with “hands-on” interdis-
ceptor(s) two hours each week, using an Internet classroom ciplinary practice in diabetes care. Methods: The feasibility of
(www.elluminate.com). Each student teacher is assigned an interdisciplinary diabetes clinic was discussed among rep-
responsibilities in junior courses in the NTPD program resentative faculty from the colleges of optometry, pharmacy
(approximately ten hours/week); a portfolio system is used to and allied health at Ferris State University. Select students
track progress through these assignments. Collaboration with were asked to create a strategy that would expand the level of
the University Office of Faculty and TA Development pro- diabetes management and education among a rural population.
vides formative feedback of teaching performance, including Patients with diabetes were identified from existing optometry
student self-assessment. Outcomes: To date, one student has clinic records. Patients were then scheduled for an optometric
completed the rotation requirements; four are currently exam. Students collaborated to develop a comprehensive edu-
enrolled. Two students per semester have been scheduled cational intervention. Efficacy of this intervention was meas-
through winter 2005. Grading rubrics are being developed for ured, with patients serving as their own controls, through a
evaluation of teaching performance, including: Understanding multiple-choice assessment administered immediately after
of learning preferences and teaching styles; and demonstrated the visit, at one-week, and at one-month following the initial
use of effective teaching strategies; Understanding of course appointment. Results: The students and faculty gained a
construction/implementation; and application to an existing “working” knowledge of a shared interdisciplinary practice
professional program; Process development for evaluation of model that provides a synergistic learning environment, and
teaching, including self-assessment techniques. Implications: enhanced patient management and education. Student under-
Formal learning activities and a variety of structured teaching standing of an interdisciplinary practice was assessed through
experiences can be used to develop advanced-level teaching preceptor review of patient progress notes prepared by the stu-
skills. This novel teaching rotation uses web-based technology dents. Implications: Pharmacy students in collaboration with
to fulfill requirements for an elective NTPD experience. other healthcare students can augment the standard level of
care. Further, a collaborative practice model greatly enhances
Integration of a Problem Based Learning Activity Into an
the students’ awareness of the scope of practice of other health
Ambulatory Care Rotation: Development of a Pre-post
professions. Academic pharmacy must consider collaborations
Assessment Tool. Yolanda Hardy, Northeastern University.
with other allied health care programs as an effective model
Objective: To assess objectives and develop an assessment tool
for the expansion of student opportunities in advanced practice
for a Problem Based Learning (PBL) activity based on direct
settings.
feedback from students. Methods: The preceptor selects a
patient case relevant to drug related problems seen in the ambu- Put On Your Thinking Caps: de Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
latory care setting. Different cases are used each rotation to min- Method as an Approach to Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.
imize discussion among students from previous rotations. Three Mary Powers, Judy Jones-Walker, University of Toledo.
students are introduced to the PBL process and given a case Objectives: This project allows students to: Develop effective
worksheet listing the patient’s chief complaint, presenting critical thinking skills; Develop effective collaborative prob-
symptoms, and the chalkboard PBL headings. At least once a lem-solving skills; Learn parallel thinking concepts and tech-
week, students meet as a group during the 6-week rotation to niques and apply these to ethical dilemmas faced in pharmacy.
discuss the case. Students also work independently. Weekly, stu- Methods: P-4 pharmacy students participate in a three-hour
dents submit the worksheet and request additional information. session that focuses on Edward de Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
The preceptor does not intervene unless the worksheet indicates Method for critical thinking. Students are assigned to teams
that students are off track or experiencing significant difficulty. consisting of 6–7 members. Ethical dilemmas are assigned to
At case completion, students formally present their findings, each team and each team is required to agree upon a solution
recommendation, and rationale. Also, the students write reflec- for the ethical dilemma. The students’ approaches to resolving
tions on the process and evaluate self and peer performance, the ethical dilemmas are examined before and after learning
including comments on the perceived value of the activity in the Six Thinking Hats Method. Results: Student responses to
improving knowledge, research, and collaborative working questions about their individual experiences with the group
skills. Results: To date, one group as completed the activity. problem-solving process and the groups’ ultimate decisions
Students reported that PBL was an efficient tool for learning are compared for the dilemmas confronted before and after
about multiple disease states and how to work effectively as a learning the Six Thinking Hats Method. Students also evaluate
group. Implications: Student responses will be collected over the course upon completion. Implications: The Six Thinking
the next 6 months and analyzed to determine common themes Hats Method has been used as an approach to clarify and sim-
from reflections and evaluations. Information obtained will be plify complex situations in a variety of work environments.
used to assess objectives for the PBL activity and develop a pre- Pharmacists are often faced with ethical dilemmas and diffi-
post assessment tool that will be integrated into the rotation. cult decisions associated with these dilemmas. The Six

15
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Thinking Hats Method may provide a useful approach to clar- them for experiential rotations. Results: Significant improve-
ify the salient elements involved in ethical decision-making ments have been made to the Discovery Map concept over the
and help pharmacy students as future pharmacists to arrive at last three years. This poster will present and discuss these
satisfactory solutions for ethical dilemmas. improvements with additional discussion of projected
enhancements and applications of the concept. Implications:
Advancing Community Pharmacy Practice Through
Discovery Maps not only assist students by deepening their
Collaboration: Building Upon Didactic Coursework With
understanding of specific disease states, they provide an excel-
Experiential Training to Enhance Student Learning.
lent review of concepts prior to starting experiential rotations.
Kristin Casper, Christine Murphy, Ohio State University.
Information gained from the Discovery Maps can be a signif-
Objectives: Through the collaborative efforts of the instructor
icant part of the curricular review process in the college.
of a community pharmacy elective course and the coordinator
Finally, Discovery Maps provide entering students with a
of intermediate practice experience (Year III), we will; 1)
roadmap to assist them in understanding the professional cur-
Establish a skill set students need to implement expanded
riculum.
patient care services in a community pharmacy practice set-
ting; 2) Assign students to a preceptor who is willing to imple- Use of Health Promotion Posters to Enhance Self-Care and
ment expanded patient care services; 3) Enhance student learn- Awareness. Bruce Clayton, Paula Ceh, Butler University.
ing and patient care via student-driven projects. Methods: A Objective: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate to
two-hour community pharmacy elective course is currently students that they can be health promoters. Methods: To assist
offered to students in the Doctor of Pharmacy program. The students in developing skills in health promotion and educa-
students are required to develop a project describing an tion, groups of 3 students prepare three health promotion
enhanced patient care program that could be implemented in a posters targeted to college-age students. Assigned topics per-
community pharmacy. Following completion of the course, tain to issues of nutrition, dietary supplements, herbal reme-
some students are assigned for two consecutive ten-week quar- dies and self-care. Standard poster board is used for the back-
ters to community pharmacies to implement their class proj- drop. The posters are evaluated by faculty and account for
ects. In concert with their preceptors, the students were 20% of the course grade. A paper accompanies the displayed
instructed to identify the most appropriate enhanced patient poster. It contains: a) participants’ names, b) title or subject of
care service, determine both criteria and a timeline for imple- the poster, c) objectives or key points, d) brief discussion of
mentation, and then attempt to implement some portion of the the topic, e) conclusions or recommendations, f) bibliography,
project. After the rotations are completed, (June 2004) the g) critique of quality of references, and h) 5 multiple-choice
projects are sustained by the preceptors and/or staff including questions. Results: The poster presentations have been a
students or interns. Evaluation of the process will include stu- requirement of the Self-Care and Health Promotion course for
dent surveys, preceptor surveys, and optional surveys for 3 years. Observations: The quality and creativity of posters
patients impacted by the newly implemented programs. have steadily improved each year students are exposed to
Implications: 1) Provide students opportunities to implement many more topics than presented in the curriculum course
patient care programs and experience related rewards and evaluations consistently rate the posters as one of the 3 Best
challenges of changing pharmacy practice: 2) Advance com- Things about the course (Posters were good, helped under-
munity pharmacy practice by providing new ideas and extra stand the material; Posters; so nice to have grades other than
manpower: 3) Enhance existing practice sites for future expe- exams!!). Implications: The goal of making students aware of
riential rotations. their responsibility and capability to be health care educators
is being achieved. Poster creation will continue as a part of the
A Continuous Improvement Program for Discovery Maps.
course. In Fall, 2004, recitation has been scheduled for each
Theresa Salazar, Patrica Chase, Butler University. Objectives:
group to briefly present their posters to the class to reinforce
This project continues the scholarly inquiry of the concept of
key points.
Discovery Maps in a capstone Clinical Case Study course, and
represents three years of work in the continued development Public Health From an Environmental Perspective:
and improvement of the concept. The poster will describe Encouraging Students to Save the Rain Forest and Culture
methods to improve Discovery Maps by implementing a vari- a Study of Medicinal Plants in Peru/Amazonia. Ruth
ety of assessment and evaluation techniques thereby continu- Nemire, Dean Arneson, Barbara Brodman, Nova Southeastern
ously improving the curriculum. Methods: Teams of third University. Objective: To develop a course in Amazonia fos-
year pharmacy students were assigned a disease state. Each tering interest in, the ethnobotany of plants, preservation of the
team completed a comprehensive review of the curriculum and rain forest, cultural diversity a new world view and developing
developed a Discovery Map and a monograph. Students an awareness of the impact pharmacists can have on public
review, clarify, and synthesize knowledge, skills and attitudes health. Methods: Three years ago, faculty members visited an
gained from each course in the professional curriculum to animal and plant reserve in Iquitos, Peru to discuss the devel-
develop the Map. Assessment strategies included self, peer and opment of course goals and objectives and activities.
faculty reviews. Each team also prepares a letter to the Researchers from IMET, a Peruvian medicinal plant program,
Curriculum Committee recommending improvements based agreed to teach classes in the ethnobotany, medicinal chem-
on their findings. Students complete end of year evaluations istry, toxicology and pharmacology of various South American
regarding the usefulness of the Discovery Map in preparing plants. An example of the plants is Una deGato, which is wide-

16
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

ly used in the United States The didactic lectures include top- from the National Library of Medicine to fund a project
ics, in pharmaceutics and discussions of research methods and increasing the access of underserved Rhode Islanders to high
ethical issues, in cultural diversity and understanding the Latin quality information on the Internet. Faculty and professional
American cultures. Students participate in the local culture and degree students developed a web portal (www.uri.edu/e-health)
are provided an opportunity to meet with shaman and local which is linked to Web sites that have been systematically eval-
indian tribe members. Results: Upon completion of the uated for their content and quality. Students in several courses
course, students who achieve the goals and objectives are bet- evaluated Web sites for inclusion using standard tools, as well
ter prepared to assist patients, physicians and other health care as students on the Internet Health Education clerkship. A
professionals in decisions about use of non-traditional medi- Spanish language version has also been created. Results: Over
cines and use in Latin American culture. Implications: 400 Web sites have been included in the web portal which
Involving students in courses that stretch their knowledge, undergoes continual revision. Our experience using standard-
their perseverence and their cultural awareness enables them ized tools has identified basic problems in that many high qual-
to become a well rounded health care professional. They learn ity Web sites intended for consumers have a very high reading
that becoming a pharmacist is not just about learning drug level. The web portal is currently being advertised to con-
facts. Courses like this require that students work on extending sumers, as well as to colleagues in other health professions
their professional attitudes. Training students to practice in this especially for their advanced practice students on clinical rota-
manner, will further the professional practice of pharmacy. tions in the community. Implications: Pharmacists should be
increasingly aware of consumer use of the Internet for health-
Development of an Advanced Practice Experience in
care decision-making especially with regard to limitations to
Internet Health Education. Anne Hume, Erica Estus, Brian
the available on-line information. (Funded in part by NIH grant
Felice, Clinton Chichester, University of Rhode Island.
G07 LM0774–01.)
Objective: To develop an advanced practice experience in
Internet Health Education. Methods: As part of a National An Elective Course to Prepare Students to Meet
Library of Medicine grant to develop a portal of quality Web Pharmacist Responsibilities in Bioterrorist Response
sites, an advanced practice experience in Internet Health Teams. Richard D'Elia, Allana Panzarella, Palm Beach Atlantic
Education was created for fourth year Doctor of Pharmacy stu- University. Objectives: To develop and implement a course
dents. The primary goals are to develop an understanding of the enhancing knowledge of opportunities for pharmacists and
application, as well as potential risks and benefits, of using pharmacy students in bioterrorist emergency response. To sur-
health information from the Internet in promoting consumer vey pharmacy schools to investigate faculty and student aware-
involvement in their own healthcare, as well as to improve the ness and participation in the National Pharmacist Response
students’ appreciation of health literacy, adult learning and cul- Team (NPRT), a subsidiary of the National Disaster Medical
tural issues affecting healthcare decision-making. Every week, System. Methods: A joint collaborative effort between instruc-
the student was at four sites serving poor or elderly consumers tors and students to discuss infectious diseases with potential
who varied in their experience with the Internet. Later rotations for use as bioterrorism agents. Instructors provide students a
incorporated a major project evaluating a recent controversy basic understanding of the history and use of selected diseases
and Web sites related to the issue such as PSA screening for in bioterrorism: anthrax, smallpox, plague etc. Integral to the
prostate cancer. Results: Six students completed the 5-week course is a detailed presentation by the Palm Beach County
rotation during the 2003–2004 academic year. Activities Emergency Preparedness Coordinator about local mass casual-
involved working with consumers at the sites to encourage and ty response preparedness. With this perspective on bioterrorist
support use of the Internet, teaching computer use and Internet potential and local response capabilities, students contribute to
searching strategies, and answering healthcare questions using the course by delivering formal presentations on the potential
the Internet. Student feedback from successive rotations result- use of viral hemorrhagic fevers, Q-fever, ricin, and agents caus-
ed in continual revisions. Greater understanding of health liter- ing tularemia and brucellosis. Course outcomes encourage and
acy issues was identified by all students as a primary benefit prepare students for involvement in the NPRT. Student evalua-
and was applicable to subsequent rotations. Implications: As tion includes the ability to: recognize clinical presentations of
consumer use of the Internet for healthcare decisions grows, selected biological agents; recommend appropriate antimicro-
pharmacists must be aware of the potential risks and benefits of bial and supportive treatments; and plan for mass prophylaxis
many Web sites. (Funded in part by NIH grant #G07 and/or vaccination administration. Implications: This course
LM0774–01.) prepares students for current and future involvement in meeting
pharmacists’ responsibilities in large-scale disaster response
Facilitating Effective Use of On-line Health Information by
teams. The national survey will evaluate faculty and student
Consumers. Anne Hume, Clinton Chichester, Brian Felice,
awareness and participation as health care professionals in anti-
Erica Estus, University of Rhode Island. Objectives:
terrorist activity response teams. Survey results will be used to
Implement a web portal containing links to high quality health
monitor and/or stimulate involvement of pharmacists and phar-
information, educate pharmacy students to assist consumers in
macy students in the NPRT.
Internet navigation and search strategies, and facilitate inter-
pretation of healthcare information by consumers using fourth Development of a Distance-Based Advanced Experiential
year Doctor of Pharmacy students on advanced practice rota- Education Program. Maryann Skrabal, Rhonda Jones,
tions. Methods: In October 2002, the College received a grant Creighton University. Objectives: To develop and implement

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

a distance-based advanced experiential education program for Fostering Diversity in the Health Care Professions: The
the web-based doctor of pharmacy pathway. Objectives of the “Creando Futuros” (Creating Futures) Program. Ana
new program included: (i) adequate site development/acquisi- Quiñones, George Alvarez, Nader Acevedo, George
tion to accommodate additional students, (ii) insure quality Humphrey, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy-Boston.
preceptors, sites, and experiential education, (iii) develop a Intent: The “Creando Futuros” (Creating Futures) Program,
preceptor training program, and (iv) integrate the distant and sponsored by the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and
campus-based clerkship scheduling process. Methods: The Health Sciences (MCPHS) is a school to health professions
Office of Experiential Education was formed to enhance the college-based experience for high school students from
cohesiveness and integration of the experiential program. An Latino(a) origin. Students can select one of two academic
additional faculty and staff member were hired to develop and offerings: 1) an academic yearlong program consisting of
implement the distance-based program. The Office addressed courses and meetings held at MCPHS two Saturdays a month
the issues of: new site/preceptor acquisition and development; from February through June, or 2) a more intensive Summer
preceptor/site quality assurance and training; clerkship sched- Institute held at MCPHS on every Saturday in July and
uling logistics; and budget. Results: Sixty students per class August. The program’s curricular and the extracurricular proj-
are enrolled in the web-based pathway. Students were allowed ect-based learning activities planned for both offerings are
to contact potential sites in their local area. Preceptor and site designed to continue and further enhance the academic
information was submitted to the Office via a web form. The achievements of the students by directly focusing on the health
Assistant Director contacted the potential preceptors to assess professions and health sciences courses. The recruitment goal
quality of the site, preceptor, and student training according to for both programs is 30 students. Students interested in the
established criteria. Students unable to find quality sites in program have to complete an admissions process consisting of
their local area were assigned to Omaha sites. The Office an interview with the instructor, academic assessment, appli-
implemented the Education Management System (EMS) soft- cation form and a letter of academic purpose. Upon the suc-
ware to assist with clerkship scheduling logistics. The Office cessful completion of either program, the student will receive
structure, number of acquired new sites, both local and distant, a certificate of completion from MCPHS. Implications: The
preceptor training program, and logistical challenges will be long term goal of the “Creando Futuros” program is to
presented. Implications: The information presented will be increase the number of educationally underserved students
used to (i) assist with quality improvement of the experiential who stay in school, enroll in college, earn college degrees, and
program and Office and (ii) assist other schools who face sim- return to the community as health professionals, health care
ilar issues and challenges. leaders and mentors to future generations of pharmacists and
other health care professionals.
Utilization of Longitudinal Case Studies in a Graduate
Course in Women’s Health. Damary Castanheira, Maria Student Self-Reflection on Serum Blood Glucose
Sulli, St. John’s University. Objectives: To determine the fea- Monitoring During a Diabetes Care Course. Kenneth
sibility and student satisfaction with the incorporation of lon- Keefner, Karen O'Brien, Maryann Skrabal, Creighton
gitudinal case studies as a teaching tool in a practitioner-option University. Objectives: To determine what learning, insights
Doctor of Pharmacy course in women’s health. Methods: The and discoveries occur when students are required to self-mon-
course is offered as a graduate-level elective for students itor blood glucose (SMBG) with no meter training. Methods:
enrolled in the Practitioner-option Doctor of Pharmacy Eighty-five P3/P4 students registered for a diabetes care elec-
Program. To maximize student participation in the course, tive. One day prior to the program, students were issued a new
interactive workshops were incorporated. The students were glucose monitor kit and told to monitor three times daily at
divided into small groups that would work together throughout specific times, over a three-day period. One 3AM reading was
the semester. Each group was provided a case study patient required. No further instructions were provided. At the con-
that matured from puberty to a post-menopausal state through clusion of the course a self-reflection (SR) was required.
the semester. At each workshop, the students were to present Results: Student SR responses were categorized into SMBG
their patient update and pharmaceutical care plan to the class. Technical Skills (learning SMBG technique), Attitudinal Self-
The students assessed the course and utility of the longitudinal discovery (identifying educational needs, support, understand-
case studies with a survey using a Lichert scale and some areas ing, judgmental attitude and patience with patients),
for free text for students to offer suggestions. Results: In Professional Realization (needed background information,
Spring 2003, 21 students enrolled in the class and divided into ability to transfer information to patient), Quality of Life
4 groups with 4–6 students per group. Overall the students felt Issues (pain/discomfort associated with SMBG testing, incon-
the class met the objectives, workshops were helpful, amount venience, frustration, need for daily planning, personal real-
of outside of work was appropriate and peer assessment was ization of the impact that recommending SMBG has on
useful (mode=5 for all). Implications: Women’s health is a patients daily lives). Nineteen students did not perform the
longitudinal topic. The new design of the course allowed stu- 3AM determination and their reasons for noncompliance were
dents to gain a greater appreciation for this and allowed them shared with the class. Implications: SR exercises revealed to
to practice their pharmaceutical care planning skills in a more students their attitudes about caring for patients with a chron-
realistic simulation during the workshops. We plan to alter the ic disease. Students perceived that education empowers
topics and to revise the assessment forms to reflect the ele- patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications.
ments of the workshops. Additionally, most students became cognizant of the quality of

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

life issues associated with diabetes and chronic illnesses. This faction surveys submitted anonymously indicated that students
new awareness should foster an attitude of empathy and com- embraced the technology and virtuality it afforded them to
passion in students caring for diabetic patients. learn on their individual timetables. Furthermore, students
wanted the comfort level provided by the ready availability of
The Use of Video Critiques as a Patient Counseling
an interdisciplinary support staff. Implications: Librarians,
Assessment Tool in the Classroom. Erin Holmes, Alicia
academic computing specialists, and pharmacists working
Bouldin, University of Mississippi. Objectives: While the
together can provide students with quality, state-of-the-art,
most effective means of evaluating a student’s ability to coun-
diverse drug information instruction on a level beyond that
sel patients is by assessing their skills in a simulated pharma-
realized in the same time frame using traditional methods. The
cy setting, not all pharmacy schools are equipped with facili-
importation of technology into a curriculum is a cost-effective
ties or curricular space to accommodate simulated counseling.
way to instruct large numbers of students without compromis-
Employing subjective rating scales or other measures upon
ing the quality of instruction.
viewing a recorded counseling session in lieu of simulated
counseling may fall short of adequately assessing students’ Large Class Clinical Case Discussions on Multiple
abilities to effectively counsel. To overcome these limitations, Campuses Using Interactive TV. Timothy Stratton, Rodney
the investigators developed a video critique assessment based Carter, Melissa Bumgardner, University of Minnesota.
on the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient counseling model Objectives: Evaluate the effectiveness of conducting clinical
to enable students to: 1) identify activities most likely to con- case discussions for 161 first year pharmacy students simulta-
tribute to optimal patient outcomes, 2) identify major flaws in neously on two campuses 160 miles apart using Interactive
the counseling pharmacist’s contributions to the interaction Television (ITV) and faculty facilitators at each site. The
and 3) explain how the interaction could be improved. process would be considered successful if it 1) Engaged stu-
Methods: The investigators scripted and recorded counseling dents on both campuses; 2) Inc the broader experience base of
sessions that were conducive to assessment questions that fol- more students; 3) Used technology to enhance the richness of
lowed each of eight video segments for the purpose of captur- the discussion. Methods: 111 first-year students on the
ing assessable counseling elements or counseling “mistakes.” University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy Twin Cities
During evaluation, each segment was played with adequate campus and 50 students on the Duluth campus utilize ITV to
pauses in between for students to respond to corresponding discuss Pharmaceutical Care Plans which they develop from
assessment questions. Students’ assessments were evaluated clinical cases. Faculty facilitators at each site jointly moderate
according to a point system integrated into the assessment discussion for all 161 students. A “Code of ITV Etiquette” is
tool. Implications: Overall, students responded well to this followed to optimize speakers being seen and heard at both
assessment methodology and were confident in their ability (as ends. Students connect to the College’s wireless Internet net-
were the instructors) to meet the above objectives as a result of work using their PDAs to provide feedback on questions or
this evaluation. This assessment served as part of students’ controversies in the case. Results are displayed at each sites to
overall patient counseling evaluation, whereby supplemental stimulate further discussion. Students and faculty are surveyed
assessments were employed to provide a broader picture of regarding the perceived usefulness/effectiveness of ITV.
students’ mastery of patient counseling. Results: Faculty and student ratings of their experiences in the
discussion are mixed. On-site faculty are comfortable interact-
Applying Technology to Drug Information Instruction: An
ing with remote students via ITV but find it difficult to assess
Interdepartmental, Cooperative Approach. Amy Allison,
remote students’ understanding through body language and
Sheila Newman, Laurel Ashworth, Mercer University
facial expressions. Implications: ITV provides a unique
Southern School of Pharmacy. Objective: To describe an
approach for conducting clinical case discussions in large
interdisciplinary approach to utilizing technology in entry-
classes involving two campuses. Students may benefit from
level drug information (DI) courses to provide quality individ-
the broader background of a larger group of discussants and
ualized instruction to large classes while simultaneously creat-
the immediate feedback from online class responses.
ing an environment wherein the training process mimics phar-
macy practice settings. Methods: First year pharmacy stu- Message Board Assignment - A Rudimentary Journal
dents were schooled in the systematic approach to answering Club. Karen Sauer, University of Arizona. Objectives: An
DI inquiries. A programmed learning text was written and assignment using message board software was developed to
loaded onto WebCT. A databank of 300 DI questions was cre- increase student awareness of medical information provided
ated. Respondus was used to randomly generate 20 question by the lay press, increase student skills in locating literature
exercises for each student and to facilitate grading exercises resources, and develop skills for conducting an article critique
within WebCT. In a separate exercise to develop students' abil- similar to a journal club. Methods: The assignment was
ities to create and execute search strategies, personal instruc- implemented in a drug information course offered the second
tion by librarians and online tutorials were used to train these year of a four-year program after completion of a research
same students in ways to procure primary and tertiary litera- design course. The assignment was developed using
ture through online databases including the National Library UBB.classic TM software, a message board program. Each
of Medicine, STAT!Ref, and Ovid. Results: Instructors were student located a health-related research article from a news-
able to cover more material in greater depth through the use of paper and compared this article to the associated biomedical
innovative technology-supported teaching tools. Student satis- journal article reporting the research. Students prepared and

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

submitted responses to 14 questions using both sources. The courses using the paper process. A survey of students’ percep-
instructor gave feedback and, after revision, the responses tions regarding web-based vs paper format was conducted.
were posted on the message board by the instructor. Students, Results: Over 80% of the students completed the web-based
using anonymous display names, then began the discussion evaluation. Results reveal students’ believe the web-based for-
phase with the “author” student answering questions and pro- mat allowed them to provide more effective and constructive
viding clarification. Results: Students were assessed by the feedback than the paper format (>79% and >73% agree to
instructor using a scoring rubric developed for this assign- strongly agree). Their comments included: The online evalua-
ment. Based on course evaluations, 85% of the responding stu- tions allowed me to think about what I was going to comment
dents felt their assignments were useful. It was apparent from on; also it was much more convenient. I think the online eval-
posted comments made during the discussions that students uations are a much better gauge of how we feel about the class.
were connecting information covered in the research design One suggestion is that we not have just one evaluation at the
course to their understanding of the posted material. end of the semester because we tend to forget things we
Implications: Students were provided a skill-building oppor- like/dislike about the lecturers/material early in the
tunity outside of the scheduled class time. This experience semester.our classes are broken up into blocks of material with
helped prepare for a journal club presentation required during different lecturers for each section. It may be beneficial to com-
fourth year rotations. Slight modifications have been made for plete a survey after each instructor finishes his/her section.
the second application of the assignment. Implications: Collecting immediate feedback from students
while the information is fresh may provide valuable data for
Incorporation of Triage Skills Into the PharmD
course review.
Curriculum. Catherine White, Cham Dallas, Ed Rollor,
University of Georgia. Objective: To develop, implement and A Series of Three Competency-Based Introductory
evaluate a program for teaching triage skills to PharmD stu- Pharmacy Practice Experiential Courses. Christopher
dents. Methods: Triage skills were incorporated into Disaster Turner, Ralph Altiere, Carrie Maffeo, Connie Valdez,
Training for Health Care Professionals, an elective course in University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Objective: To
the PharmD program. Several triage methods were taught in a implement three competency-based introductory pharmacy
didactic setting, including Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment practice experience (IPPE) courses in a new entry-level
method. Computer exercises, which presented a series of vic- Pharm.D. program with the objective to improve students’
tims from a mass casualty event, were used to illustrate how understanding of, and ability to utilize, the CAPE competencies
quickly medical services can become overwhelmed and to required to render pharmaceutical care. Method: A sequence of
allow students to separate patients into immediate care, delayed three 2nd and 3rd year IPPE courses integrated with the
care, minimal care or expectant (no care) categories. Finally, school’s organ system-based didactic and laboratory skills
students participated in a live exercise, which included 20 to 75 classes were created. The primary component of each course
victims. Students were evaluated by their performance on com- was eight community pharmacy visits to conduct OTC coun-
puter and live exercises. Results: Ninety-eight students have seling and health-promotion and disease prevention activities.
completed the elective over a 3-year period. Overall evaluation The primary method of assessment was based on the CAPE
of the triage computer exercises (mean score of 4.3/5) and the outcome competencies. Students were required to write state-
live exercise (mean score of 4.4/5) was positive. Students want- ments that described their counseling activities, link each state-
ed additional class time and feedback for triage training (4.0/5). ment to a CAPE competency, and self-assess their level of
In the analysis of the computer simulated patients and live exer- competency. Each student, for selected CAPE competencies,
cise, students had the greatest difficulties in differentiating was required to reach a pre-set number of competency state-
which patients needed immediate care from those who should ments graded exceeds or meets expectations by the course
be placed in the delayed care category and in accepting that directors to pass each course. Students whose work was graded
some patients will not be treated. Implications: Pharmacists below expectations were required to revise and re-submit their
will play a significant role in triage during natural and terrorist work or submit replacement statements. Results: Preceptors
mass casualty events. It is essential that we provide PharmD and students agreed that the course objective was met. The stu-
students with the triage and first aid skills required for first dents reported that they derived satisfaction from interacting
receivers of patients after a mass casualty event. with patients and that their level of competency increased
throughout the three courses. The preceptors reported that the
Moving Student Course Evaluation Into the 21st Century:
students’ activities were appropriate and that their work was
Results of Pilot-Study. Heidi Anderson, Eleanora Bird, Jeff
valuable. Conclusions: 2nd and 3rd year students in a series of
Cain, Stephanie Aken, University of Kentucky. Intent: The use
three new entry-level Pharm.D. IPPE courses improved their
of web-based course evaluation systems is relatively limited in
CAPE pharmacy practice competencies, increased their self-
higher education (Thorpe, 2002). Literature indicates various
confidence in rendering pharmaceutical care, and provided
advantages and disadvantages of using this approach. A pilot-
valuable patient care services.
study was conducted to compare web-based course evaluation
with traditional paper format. Methods: A web-based evalua- Implementation of a Public Speaking Component in
tion was prepared containing the university course evaluation Communications Skills Course. Karen Daniel, Miriam
questions and pilot-tested in 3 required courses in each of the 3 Metzner, Michelle Assa-Eley, Nova Southeastern University.
professional years. Students in each year evaluated the other Objective: To incorporate a public speaking component in the

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

communications skills course and to provide public service by Cultural Competency Curriculum Enhancements and
educating high school students about the dangers of tobacco. Evaluation. Sarah Westberg, Patricia Lind, Melissa
Methods: Second-year pharmacy students at Nova Bumgardner, University of Minnesota-Duluth. Objectives: To
Southeastern University received a didactic lecture on the evaluate and improve the cultural competency curriculum at
transtheoretical model in relation to smoking cessation. the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. Methods:
Students were given a reading assignment to provide them At the completion of the 2002–2003 school year, first year
with baseline knowledge of the dangers of tobacco and meth- (PD1) students were assessed as to how prepared they felt to
ods for assisting patients in smoking cessation. Over the care for patients from different cultures. A new cultural com-
course of two weeks, students practiced their skills in small petency curriculum was developed and introduced in the fall
group exercises. For the presentations, students were divided of 2003, which included a small group activity, a lecture with
into teams of three. Each team was equipped with videotaped case discussions, the BaFa BaFa cultural simulation game, and
vignettes, accompanying exercises, and materials for the pre- the reading and discussion of a cultural narrative. Pre-surveys
sentations. Teams then visited local high school health classes were administered to the entering PD1 students in Fall 2003,
and presented the tobacco education to each class period. with follow-up post surveys to be administered in Spring
Homeroom teachers evaluated the presentations. The tobacco 2004. These surveys will be evaluated to determine the impact
project accounted for fifteen percent of the pharmacy students’ of this new curriculum. Students also completed a written
communications skills grade. Results: Forty-four teams of reflection of the BaFa BaFa experience, and the major themes
pharmacy students visited twenty-two high schools in from these reflections will be evaluated. Results: After com-
Broward County, Florida. The dangers of tobacco were com- pleting the original curriculum, only 5% of the 2002–2003
municated to an estimated 5,440 students in ninth and tenth PD1 students felt strongly that they were confident in caring
grade. Based on evaluations from the high school teachers, the for patients from a different culture. Preliminary reviews of the
program was very positively received by the high school stu- BaFa BaFa reflections illustrate that the students have gained
dents and the teachers. Pharmacy students found the public an understanding of the impact of culture. The evaluation of
speaking experience to be both challenging and the pre and post surveys of the 2003–2004 PD1 students will
be conducted at the end of the semester. Implications: As
rewarding.Implications: Incorporation of a public speaking
spring of 2004 marks the completion of the first implementa-
component in a communications skills course provides valu-
tion year of this new curriculum, it is premature to predict the
able experience for pharmacy students and is an effective
impact until the surveys are completed. However the BaFa
means of conveying important public health information to
BaFa reflections and anecdotal student feedback has been pos-
high school students.
itive.
Developing a Protocol for Health Screening Events
Introducing Pharmacy Students to the Management of
Sponsored by Butler University College of Pharmacy and
Clinically Complicated Geriatric Patients Through an
Health Sciences Professional Student Organizations. Lauren
Innovative Geriatric Elective Course. Monica Mathys, Tara
B. Angelo and Carrie Maffeo, Butler University. Objective: To
Storjohann, Michelle Chui, Midwestern University-Glendale.
create and implement a best practice model for college-spon- Objective: To assist students in developing enhanced evalua-
sored health screening events. Methods: A protocol was devel- tion skills to accurately assess geriatric patients with multiple
oped to provide student and faculty advisor members of profes- disease states and polypharmacy issues. Methods: Four
sional organizations with a step-wise approach to health screen- patient charts are given throughout the academic quarter, two
ing activities. The protocol accounts for legal and regulatory ambulatory and two inpatient. Each patient has at least 5 active
requirements, testing proficiency, documentation of patient care diagnoses and 10 medications. Patient information is organ-
activities, and financial accountability. Additionally, checklists ized in a chart format containing all sections included in a real
were created to guide the preparation and screening process for medical chart. Students perform an extensive review based on
four common disease states: dyslipidemia, diabetes, hyperten- the material given in the chart and document their recommen-
sion, and osteoporosis. These checklists contain information dations using a SOAP note format. Students participating in
pertaining to supplies and testing equipment needed, facility the elective are in their last quarter of didactic studies. The two
assessment and space allocation, documentation forms, and course instructors are pharmacy practice faculty who special-
patient education materials. The protocol and checklists were ize in geriatric pharmacy, one at an outpatient geriatric clinic
presented to faculty for review and discussion. Professional stu- and the other at an inpatient skilled nursing facility. Results:
dent organizations interested in offering the screening services A total of 72 students were enrolled in the elective course for
will be educated on all components of the protocol. Outcomes: the year 2003. Repeated Measures MANOVA indicated statis-
All health screening events planned by faculty and/or profes- tically significant increases in project grades over time, sug-
sional student organizations of Butler University College of gesting that students’ review processes improved with prac-
Pharmacy and Health Sciences will be based on the protocol and tice. Based on course evaluations, students have been extreme-
checklists provided to them. Implications: A standard of prac- ly pleased with the projects and felt they have learned valuable
tice for health screening events will be implemented to ensure information in assessing geriatric patients. Implication: This
an organized preparation process, screening efficiency, testing course helps bridge the gap between what the students have
reliability, and adherence to regulatory requirements. This will learned in their didactic teachings and applying this knowl-
provide consistent and high quality care for patients. edge to a complicated clinical patient scenario. This course

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

further prepares students for assessing the typical geriatric This program may ease the burden of offering specialty elec-
patient during their clinical rotations and future careers. tives and ultimately aid in reducing the national shortage of
nuclear pharmacists. It will also serve as a model for further
Concept Mapping Aids Learning of the Pharmaceutical
elective offerings.
Care Process. Kara Townsend, Janelle Krueger, Wendy
Duncan-Hewitt, Kem Krueger, Auburn University. Students “Silver Scripts”: Practicing Pharmaceutical Care Through
are often asked to follow stepwise procedures while learning Community Outreach to Underserved Seniors. Teresa
to provide pharmaceutical care. Many students are unaware of Donegan, Melissa Somma, Meredith Rose, Gary Stoehr,
the reasons for those steps and the cyclical nature of the University of Pittsburgh. Objectives: The “Silver Scripts”
process. Purpose: To use concept mapping to integrate the project provided first year students with an environment to
process and components of pharmaceutical care in a group of develop interpersonal skills, professionalism, culturally
first, second, and third year students. Methods: The idea of responsive caring, and social responsibility. Methods: In the
concept mapping was briefly presented. Students developed a classroom, faculty modeled expected site/patient interactions
list of concepts associated with the care process based on one and taught students how to measure blood pressure. Faculty
student’s case presentation. Then they used two sample phar- preceptors and groups of ten students visited one of ten senior
maceutical care methodologies to develop their individual centers in underserved communities. During the first visit, stu-
concept maps. Working in trios, students developed hybrid dents measured blood pressure, performed a medication regi-
maps. From these maps, the best one was selected and modi- men review, and assessed senior's access to medications using
fied by the entire group. Results: Students reported the fol- a “Pharmaceutical Care Work-Up” and a “Patient Medication
lowing insights from the process: The map diagrams what we Accessibility” instrument. Preceptors assisted students with
think subconsciously and provides a process to follow. Putting patient education and provided interventions when drug thera-
the process on paper showed us what we knew and what we’re py problems were identified. Results: Fifty-one percent of the
missing. It underscores the fact that the care process is dynam- 127 patients screened required drug therapy interventions.
ic and if one part is neglected, every other part is affected. During the follow-up visit students helped eligible seniors
Using small groups to compare our individual maps was use- enroll in pharmaceutical assistance programs. A multi-method
ful because it forced us to think about the process more than evaluation approach assessed student learning and the overall
we would have in a large group. Having P1, P2, and P3 stu- effectiveness of the initiative. Preceptors and site contacts
dents in each group was useful because each class has areas evaluated students' professionalism (ie courtesy, respectful-
expertise based on their courses. Implications: The pharma- ness, organization), interpersonal skills (ie communication,
ceutical care process concept map can be used to facilitate stu- approachability), and cultural sensitivity (i.e. efforts to reach
dent’s understanding of the care process. audience, responsiveness to special needs). Application of
clinical principles was assessed through evaluation of student
Introduction to Nuclear Pharmacy: An Online Course
SOAP notes. Students submitted reflections on lessons learned
Available for Elective Offerings. Nicki Hilliard, Carla Coley,
and their perceptions of the significance of the service provid-
Kristina Wittstrom, Buck Rhodes, University of Arkansas for
ed. Preceptors, site contacts, and students evaluated the over-
Medical Sciences. Objectives: To expand pharmacy student
all effectiveness of the initiative, identified barriers encoun-
access to elective didactic courses and to allow them to learn
tered, and suggested improvements during de-briefing ses-
about career opportunities within the specialty area of nuclear
sions. Implications: Student and preceptor feedback validated
pharmacy. Methods: Introduction to Nuclear Pharmacy is an
the project's clinical and educational efficacy and contributed
online course utilizing WebCT that was developed by the
to students' sense of professional identity and appreciation of
Nuclear Education Online (NEO) (www.nuclearonline.org),
the value of patient-centered practice.
an educational consortium between the University of Arkansas
for Medical Sciences and the University of New Mexico. This Designing and Developing Pharmacotherapy Instruction
course, together with an accompanying reference library will for Health Professional Students. Sherry Welliver, Kristin
be available to schools of pharmacy for use by faculty (or local Janke, University of Minnesota. Objectives: To develop
nuclear pharmacists) to facilitate course instruction. Students online pharmacotherapy instruction for physical therapy (PT)
will have access to the course materials and learning will be students. To repurpose the content for nursing, radiation ther-
facilitated by instructors that have designer access to manage apy and respiratory care students. Methods: To aid in under-
the course or adapt the material and assignments as desired. standing a new student audience, physical therapists were
The Introduction to Nuclear Pharmacy course will be available shadowed and interviewed and patient charts were reviewed.
for the fall semester 2004. Results: Nuclear pharmacists are A two-credit, online pharmacotherapy course in Rehabilitation
often interested and available to teach at their local college of Pharmacotherapy was developed with each module including
pharmacy, but they have limited time and resources to devel- learning objectives, handouts, audio presentations, practice
op course materials, including lectures, course notes, exams, cases, self tests and a reflective exercise. Pharmacy students in
and reference materials. All of these course materials have the honors program and on clerkships contributed to writing of
been developed for the online course. This will allow the stu- the course materials. Following the first offering, physical
dents to be introduced to the field of nuclear pharmacy and therapy students evaluated the course. Results: As a result of
allow the colleges to expand their elective course offerings the evaluation, the content’s depth was reduced and the course
with very little time and resources invested. Implications: workload was redistributed. In addition, one instructor was

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

replaced and the exam format was made less complicated. site specific instruments focus on the primary elements that
Content was revised to increase the emphasis on patient mon- affect safe medication use: patient information, communica-
itoring parameters. A presentation from a physical therapist is tion of drug orders, drug storage and distribution, staff compe-
being added to increase the relevance of the content to physi- tency and education, patient education, and quality process
cal therapy practice. Using input from additional professions, and risk management. P1 students enrolled in a Practice Skills
a general online pharmacotherapy course was developed based Lab course were required to evaluate their workplace using the
on the Rehabilitation Pharmacotherapy course. In addition, instrument. Groups of seven students, facilitated by a faculty
Rehabilitation Pharmacotherapy is being repurposed for con- member, shared information from this instrument and reflect-
tinuing education. Implications: When developing a pharma- ed on their work experience as it relates to medication safety.
cotherapy course for health professional students, input from This learning activity was graded pass/fail as determined by
faculty and practitioners is vital to ensure that the content is completeness of the instrument and participation in group dis-
practice relevant. Previous successes and problems can be cussion. Results: Faculty-facilitated student discussions iden-
used to positively influence future new courses. tified deficiencies and highlighted systems which might
Comparison of Student and Faculty/Preceptor improve medication safety. Each student reflected upon how
Professional Attitudes, Values and Beliefs: Is There a their workplace scored on the various elements within the
Disconnect? Beverly Talluto, Jennifer Tilleman, Amy instrument, what processes were in place to ensure patient
Schwartz, Creighton University. Objective: Discover and safety, and how these processes were circumvented for timeli-
compare the order of importance of professional attitudes, val- ness without realizing the relationship to medication safety.
ues and beliefs (professional factors) of faculty and students Implications: The Medication Safety Self-Assessment pro-
using survey instruments. Methods: Two questionnaires were vided an introductory experience to medication safety issues in
developed by compiling professional factors from previously the pharmacy workplace. Faculty agreed to retain the success-
validated professionalism survey instruments. The faculty/pre- ful learning activity, but move it later in the curriculum for
ceptor instrument, Professionalism Factor Analysis (PFA), improved integration with didactic teaching of similar con-
was administered (Spring 2003). The student instrument, cepts.
Pharmacy Profession Questionnaire (PPQ), was administered Mapping of Professional Attitudes, Values and Beliefs in
to first, second, and third professional year Campus students Courses Offered, Time of Exposure and by Course
(Spring 2003) and to second and third professional year Web Activities. Beverly Talluto, Jennifer Tilleman, Creighton
students (August 2003). Ranking and means of similar profes- University. Objectives: Discover where professional attitudes,
sional factors from the two instruments were compared values and beliefs (professionalism factors) were introduced
between the Campus and Web students and between all stu- and/or reinforced to the students by courses offered, time of
dents and the faculty. Results: Forty-one faculty/preceptors exposure and course activity in the School of Pharmacy and
completed the PFA, 159 Campus and 32 Web students com- Health Professions. Methods: A Professionalism Analysis
pleted the PPQ. The means for each professional factor for Pharmacy Faculty Survey (PAPFS) was developed by using
both student groups were similar; however, the overall ranking previously identified professionalism factors. Categories were
between the students was different. A comparison of student created to map student exposure to professional factors using
and faculty results identified a disconnect in the order of time spent in reported courses and types of course activities.
importance of the common professional factors. Implications: Activity types included: class objectives, classroom lecture,
The observed disconnect in professional factor ranking informal discussion, lab exercise, formal event,
between faculty/preceptors and students may be a potential assessment/evaluation and feedback to students. The survey
cause of miscommunication and misunderstanding on the was designed to elicit self reported, voluntary feedback from
expectations of professional behavior in the classroom and on pharmacy Instructors of Record. Results: Review of the data
experiential rotations. Faculty/preceptor and student aware- indicated that a few faculty from the other two disciplines in
ness of the results may lead to self-reflection and modification the School (OT and PT) may have responded to the survey.
of professional behavior for both faculty/preceptor and stu- The majority of responders were pharmacy faculty. The stu-
dents. Activities to promote behavior modification will be dents were exposed to all identified professional factors in
developed and evaluated to ensure awareness and demonstra- varying degrees except participation in religious events which
tion of professional behavior. received no responses. The professionalism factors were pre-
Use of the ISMP Medication Safety Self-Assessment to sented a minimal mean of 2 hours in the following activities
Teach Medication Safety in a Pharmacy Practice Skills (mean number of responses): feedback to students (3.9),
Lab. Shauna Buring, University of Cincinnati Medical Center. assessment/evaluation (3.8), class objectives (3.3), informal
Objectives: To implement a learning activity that teaches stu- discussion (3.6), classroom lecture (1.8), formal event (1.5),
dents to evaluate medication safety processes and systems in a lab exercise (1.2). Implications: The survey can be used as a
pharmacy. To provide students opportunity to reflect upon tool to map the extent of student exposure to and faculty
work experiences that relate to medication safety strategies. awareness of professionalism in the curriculum. To provide a
Methods: The Medication Safety Self-Assessment from more accurate curricular mapping, the survey should be com-
ISMP is an instrument designed to help pharmacists assess the pleted by all Instructors of Record in the required pharmacy
safety of medication practices in their pharmacies. Practice curriculum.

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Caring and Learning With the Homeless: A Service harmful errors, it did identify labeling as a critical area requir-
Learning Pilot Program. John Conry, St. John’s University. ing special emphasis. Future strategies continue to push
Objective: To provide a service learning experience for clerk- toward the goal of no “likely harmful” and S- ratings.
ship students, in which students provide medication consulta-
MTGEC Interdisciplinary Geriatric Clinical Training.
tion to the homeless. Process: Project Renewal is an organiza-
Gayle Cochran, University of Montana. University of
tion dedicated to renewing the lives of homeless men and
Montana School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences
women in New York City (NYC). Similarly, St. John's
hosts the Montana Geriatric Education Center (MTGEC), a
University is devoted to helping the poor. The College of
consortial effort of UM, Montana State University Bozeman
Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions at St. John's
and Rocky Mountain College, Billings. Eight academic disci-
University has developed a partnership with Project Renewal
plines are involved in the MTGEC: pharmacy, social work,
to improve the healthcare of the homeless. Project Renewal
physical therapy and clinical psychology (UM), nursing and
provides free medical service to the homeless via a mobile
first year medical studies (MSU) and physician assistants
health van that travels around NYC. The mobile health van
(RMC).The MTGEC initiative directly relating to health pro-
staff includes physicians, nurses and outreach workers. As part
fessions students is Initiative IV: Interdisciplinary Geriatric
of the partnership, a pharmacy practice faculty member from
Student Training. The goals of the training are to involve stu-
the College provides medication consultation to Project
dents: 1) in the care of geriatric patients, 2) in interdisciplinary
Renewal medical providers and patients approximately two
days per month. This faculty member has students on clerkship care planning, and 3) in working with students from other dis-
throughout the year. As part of their clerkship experience, stu- ciplines. Health professions student teams are formed in acute
dents are invited to participate on the mobile health van. care hospitals, long-term care facilities and home health agen-
Student activities include, providing medication recommenda- cies. The teams meet weekly for at least three sessions, includ-
tions to providers, utilizing physical assessment skills, writing ing an orientation; discussion and preparation of an interdisci-
SOAP notes, labeling medications, and medication counseling plinary (ID) care plan for a case study from the MTGEC cur-
of patients. Students are provided the opportunity to apply riculum at the second; and discussion and preparation of an ID
their pharmacotherapeutic knowledge in a setting in which care plan for an actual patient at the third meeting. Between
they simultaneously help the urban poor. This clerkship expe- sessions, students are expected to interact in patient workup
rience provides students with the unique opportunity to see the and care plan preparation. Students evaluate the experience at
challenges associated with caring for the poor and needy. its end with follow-up evaluations at 1, 6, and 12 months.
Assessment of student satisfaction and documentation of phar- Student performance is evaluated by the site coordinator.
macotherapeutic interventions is ongoing. Student response to the training is excellent, not only for the
opportunity to obtain geriatric training, but for the chance to
Development and Use of a Rubric to Evaluate Parenteral work with students from other disciplines. The biggest barrier
Products. Michael Brown, University of Minnesota. Intent: has been the difficulty in coordinating training schedules
Rubrics provide an objective, systematic method to assess stu- among the programs.
dents and identify areas requiring additional emphasis.
Methods: A rubric was designed to evaluate students’ par- Incorporating Interprofessional and Chronic Illness Care
enteral product preparations. 100 students each completed 5 Training Through the Development of a Primary Care
preparations: two in rotations 1 and 2 (collaboration allowed) Practice Experience. Lisa Kroon, Andrew Leeds, Robert
and one in the practical (individual). Preparations were of dif- Baron, Susan Janson, University of California-SF. Objectives:
ferent products of similar difficulty. Using the rubric, instruc- 1) To develop, implement and evaluate a curriculum for phar-
tors evaluated students’ preparations in these areas: calcula- macy students and residents, nurse practitioner students and
tions, written procedure, product, and labeling. (Technique medical residents (learners) on interprofessional care, chronic
evaluated separately.) Components were scored as “exception- illness care (CIC), and quality improvement (QI). 2) To devel-
al,” “acceptable,” “needs improvement,” or “likely harmful” op a novel primary care practice site to provide the above cur-
based on corresponding descriptions. Preparations received ricular training. Methods: Clerkship schedules were revised
overall ratings: #S+#: 3+ “exceptional” and no “needs so learners could be assigned at two UCSF primary care clin-
improvement” or “likely harmful,” #S-#: any “likely harmful” ics providing care to 450 adult patients with diabetes. Faculty
or 2+ “needs improvement,” and #S#: all other combinations. (pharmacy, medicine, and nursing) were identified to super-
Results: In rotation 1, 44% of preparations received S+, vise learners. Interprofessional learner teams were formed to
48.5% received S, and 7.5% received S-. In rotation 2, 88% provide patient care and collaboratively develop QI projects. A
received S+ (p<0.001 vs rotation 1), 8.5% received S, and diabetes patient registry was created to assist learners in these
3.5% received S- (p = 0.062 vs rotation 1). In the practical, projects. At the start of each rotation, learners were provided
results were 61% (p = 0.004 vs rotation 1), 33%, and 6% (p = with didactics on CIC, QI principles and interprofessional
0.414 vs rotation 1), respectively. On the 500 preparations care. The half-day/week clinical experience consisted of a 90-
there were 25 “likely harmful” ratings: 18 (72%) for labeling, minute QI conference followed by patient visits. Learners
4 for procedures, 3 for calculations, and 2 for products. completed pre/post-surveys evaluating their knowledge and
Implications: The rubric was successful, as its implementa- skills on CIC/QI and the rotation. Results: Since July 2002, 30
tion demonstrated improvement in optimal performance. pharmacy and 25 nurse practitioner students, and 42 medical
Although it did not demonstrate significant improvement in residents have completed the training. Learners initiated 20 QI

24
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

projects aimed at improving patient care/outcomes and cov- ulated patients during the skill assessments and rated perform-
ered multiple components of the CIC model. 85% of learners ance. At day’s end, students reviewed their Pre-NAPLEX
rated their knowledge of CIC as good to excellent and 83% of scores and skill assessment results and received compiled
learners indicated a good to excellent likelihood that they will evaluations, class means, and feedback from rotations com-
apply their new knowledge, skills and attitudes to their future pleted during the first four rotation cycles. Results: Students
practice. Implications: Interprofessional, CIC and QI curricu- evaluated the day positively and performed well on practice
lar training is achievable through a primary care clinic experi- skill assessments. Planners found the activities and procedures
ence. QI projects will be illustrated. manageable with available facilities, faculty, and staff.
Implications: The mandatory assessment day will be incorpo-
A Module Using Group Discussion for Learning the Basics
rated into PEP quality control procedures. Analysis will com-
of Obesity Prevention in an Interdisciplinary Practicum.
pare students’ self assessments with results of preceptors’ rou-
Marion Slack, University of Arizona. Intent/Objectives:
tine evaluations and other skill assessments. These compar-
Health sciences students from pharmacy, nursing, medicine,
isons will enable the PEP Committee to plan strategies for
public health, nutrition, and social work through an interdisci-
strengthening pre-rotation year skill development, disseminat-
plinary rural practicum serve a disadvantaged Hispanic popu-
ing assessment instruments and procedures for their use during
lation at high risk for obesity and diabetes. To assure that stu-
clerkships, modifying instructional practices, and teaching stu-
dents have a basic understanding of obesity prevention, a mod-
dents how to use self-assessment in conjunction with feedback
ule was developed. Learner objectives are to: recognize the
from preceptors for professional growth. Analysis and plans
relationship between obesity, chronic disease, and nutrition
will be presented.
and physical activity; apply nutrition and physical activity
assessment tools; recognize cultural issues; and identify Facilitation of a Diabetes Mellitus Education/Support
patient resources related to nutrition and exercise. The module Group by Doctor of Pharmacy Students Through an
consists of readings on the epidemiology of obesity, including Elective, Independent Study Course. Deborah Harper
obesity in Hispanic populations, basic definitions (eg, BMI), Brown, University of Illinois at Chicago. Objectives:
the relationship between obesity and chronic disease, and Conceptualize and design an elective, independent study
basic nutrition and physical activity definitions and concepts course for third professional year students to facilitate month-
that are posted on the web. After students complete the read- ly diabetes mellitus (DM) education/support group meetings at
ings, they participate in a group discussion of the vocabulary, a community health center. Methods: This course was offered
identify the author’s primary message and subtopics then they to groups of 4–10 students following completion of the dia-
apply the material to other readings and relate the material to betes module in the core therapeutics course. As an underpin-
their experience. Faculty facilitate the discussion and are ning, students were assigned readings on current treatment
available for questions. Students also assess their own nutri- strategies, learning theories, and “how to” design patient edu-
tion and physical activity, discuss methods they could use to cation materials. Through reference materials, students devel-
improve their lifestyle, and discuss cultural issues. oped marketing strategies, designed educational materials, and
Implications: Using assigned readings and group discussion cooked healthy foods for attendees to sample. The education
are advantageous with an interdisciplinary group because stu- /support group sessions were facilitated by the students under
dents from each discipline can provide their perspective while the direct supervision of the course instructor and health cen-
learning the perspective of other disciplines. The group dis- ter clinical pharmacists. The sessions were interactive, fun and
cussion also provides a forum for evaluating the module. provided patients with a non threatening environment to learn
Additionally, students complete an evaluation in which they about DM, ask questions, share personal concerns and encour-
are specifically asked for comments on the content of the ori- age fellow attendees with DM. Student performance for the
entation. course was evaluated through direct observation of sessions,
discussion sessions, review of developed educational materi-
Pilot Interim Assessment During the Advanced Practice
als, and a reflective essay. Implications: 1.Instructor review
Year. Jay Currie, Bernard Sorofman, Christine Catney, Sandra
of materials developed, observations and student reflective
Johnson, University of Iowa. Objective: All students are
essays indicated that the course increased the skills and confi-
assessed and graded during individual rotations; however,
dence of participating students when working with the patients
monitoring practice skill development and providing feedback
in a group session. 2. Monthly meetings became bi-monthly
and stimulus for self-reflection for a class cohort is often dif-
meetings largely due to the number of students enrolling in the
ficult. We piloted a mandatory day-long session to administer
elective. 3. Elective courses that encourage direct interaction
skills assessments and to provide feedback. Methods: The
with patients can be a valuable tool to facilitate student confi-
Professional Experience Program (PEP) Committee and the
dence and proficiency as well as development of performance-
Office of Academic Affairs planned 4 components:1) Pre-
based abilities.
NAPLEX exam 2) Practice skills assessments: measurement
of vital signs, demonstration of oral inhaler technique, and Reflective Journaling: A Win-Win Situation for Students
SOAP note writing with drug therapy problem identification and Faculty. Deborah Harper Brown, University of Illinois at
and classification 3) Self-assessments of professionalism, rota- Chicago. Objective: Within a six week, academic clerkship,
tion preparation, and clinical skills 4) Informational sessions fourth professional year doctor of pharmacy students shared
about graduation, licensure, and career planning. Faculty sim- teaching responsibilities with the course coordinator for the

25
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

design, implementation, execution, and evaluation of a core, Applying Advocacy: A Legislative Experiential Elective.
early experience course. This course was an introduction to Cynthia Boyle, Hoai-An Truong, University of Maryland.
patient skills development for second professional year doctor Objectives: The Legislative Experiential Elective (LEE) will
of pharmacy students. The course coordinator, who also served prepare students to: Discuss the importance of political advo-
as the clerkship students' preceptor, implemented a daily cacy, with emphasis on healthcare issues; Relate preceptors’
reflective journal assignment. This was intended to serve as a governmental roles and responsibilities to those affecting
method to record activities and to promote student, learning, healthcare; Communicate effectively with legislators, legisla-
reflection, and growth from their teaching experiences. Also, it tive staff members, and constituents; and Advocate for health-
was intended to help the student develop and address a per- care issues. Methods: The LEE is offered for graduating
formance-based skill student outcome adopted by the Doctor of Pharmacy students interested in applying advocacy
College’s faculty (ie written communication ability). after completing “Effective Leadership and Advocacy,” an
Methods: Four “student-instructors” kept a written log/record innovative course recognized with the March 2003 American
of their daily activities and reflections as they created and pre- Pharmacists Association Academy of Pharmacy Practice and
pared learning materials/assignments, facilitated recitations Management Presentation Merit Award. During the LEE, the
and group discussions, and provided students with feedback. student will be assigned a preceptor who is a legislator or
Entries were word-processed and included reflections on involved in governmental relations in the state legislature. The
things learned from the teaching experience and how this ben- preceptor will mentor and assess the student according to the
efited them as they instructed second year students. The jour- syllabus objectives and professionalism criteria. The student
nals were submitted to the preceptor at the end of weeks three and preceptor together will determine specific opportunities
and six of the rotation for review. Implications: 1. Students and responsibilities and will meet regularly for discussion and
felt that the reflective journal assignment helped them become feedback. The student will also write a reflective paper and
more reflective and aware of how their experiences benefited deliver a presentation advocating a healthcare issue. Results:
their education and personal development. The reflective jour- The LEE will be assessed in three areas: 1) the preceptor’s
nal assignment provided the preceptor with insight into how evaluation of student relative to course objectives and criteria;
students viewed their development as educators. 2) the student’s evaluation of preceptor, site and experience;
and 3) both the preceptor’s and student’s course evaluations
Learning by Doing–Pharmacy Student Participation in a
and feedback, to be used to improve course implementation.
Diabetes Care Quality Improvement Process. Connie Kraus,
Implications: The LEE will prepare students to develop advo-
University of Wisconsin – Madison. Objective: To have phar-
cacy expectations and skills for the pharmacy profession,
macy students actively participate in a quality improvement
apply legislative advocacy, consider future legislative careers,
process designed to improve diabetes care in a family medicine
support the advocacy efforts of organizations, and ultimately
clinic. Methods: Doctor of Pharmacy students may complete
increase pharmacy’s voice in legislative processes.
an eight-week elective rotation at Wingra Family Medical
Center. During this rotation, the pharmacy student works col- Development and Use of a Rubric to Evaluate
laboratively with the clinical instructor to provide case man- Extemporaneous Capsule Products. Michael Brown,
agement services for patients with diabetes. The pharmacy stu- University of Minnesota. Intent: Rubrics provide an objective,
dent determines which patients have appointments with their systematic method to assess students and identify areas requir-
primary provider. The student retrieves the chart, enters labora- ing additional educational emphasis. Methods: A rubric was
tory data and information from previous visits into a diabetes designed to evaluate students’ extemporaneous capsule prepa-
database, reviews standards of care for diabetes, and prepares rations. 100 students each completed 3 preparations, 1 every 4
recommendations for the primary provider regarding disease weeks. Preparation 2 involved a solid-solid aliquot (highest
and medication management. These recommendations are difficulty), preparation 3 was a practical requiring the students
evaluated by the clinical instructor. When the patient comes for to work alone, and preparation 1 was the simplest. Using the
the visit, the pharmacy student is available to visit the patient rubric, instructors evaluated students’ preparations in these
with the primary provider. Results: The providers have posi- areas: calculations, procedure, product, documentation, and
tively responded to pharmacy student interventions. Current labeling. Components were rated as “exceptional,” “accept-
laboratory information, longitudinal comparisons of key moni- able,” “needs improvement,” or “likely harmful” based on cor-
toring parameters, and recommendations from the students responding descriptions. Results: There were 47 “likely harm-
have been viewed as beneficial in organizing visits. Pharmacy ful” ratings (LHR) given to 42 (14%) of the 300 preparations:
students have commented that preparing for these visits has 3 on capsule 1, 17 on capsule 2, and 27 on the practical. Of the
improved their understanding of integrating standards of care 47 LHR, 34 (72.3%) were for labeling, 7 for calculations, 3 for
into practice, chart reviewing skills, and communication skills documentation, 2 for procedures, and 1 for products. Of the 34
with other health care professions. From the clinical instruc- LHR for labeling, 28 (82.3%) were for mis-writing the year
tor’s perspective, this type of teaching allows for a more colle- (2003, not 2004) on an otherwise appropriate beyond-use-
gial relationship with the student and an opportunity to evalu- date. This precise error was impossible in capsule 1 as the cor-
ate student’s learning from several different perspectives. rect beyond-use-date was still in 2003. This error accounted
Implications: Student participation in quality improvement for 18 of 27 (64.3%) LHR on the practical and 59.6% of all
process is an excellent way of fostering the development of LHR overall. Implications: Although the described beyond-
clinical and interdisciplinary skills. use-date error drastically hampers any additional analysis of

26
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

the data, the rubric met its goal of providing systematic, objec- of $87 in obtaining their last 30 CE credits. They stated that
tive assessment and highlighting labeling as an area requiring promotional materials need to clearly communicate date/time,
immediate educational attention. Strategies to address the cost, topic, number of CE credits, and registration process.
problem have been implemented and will be assessed. When discussing certificate programs, participants stated that
they would be more likely to enroll if the topic was something
An Analysis of a First Professional Year Early Practice
they hadn't learned previously eg, immunizations. Participants
Experience Exercise: Discussions With Preceptors in
also reported being less likely to take part in CE or certificate
Hospital and Community: “What is Professionalism?”
programs, if there were required meetings. Web site features
Beverly Talluto, Anne Bruckner, Creighton University.
considered positive included: interactive quizzes, free trials,
Objectives: Develop student verbal and written communica-
and live help. The feature inviting visitors to “join an email
tion skills and enhance student awareness of personal and pre-
list” was missed by all. Implications: Certificate programs are
ceptor professional beliefs, attitudes and values (professional-
a significant commitment of time and resources. Marketing
ism factors). Methods: A workbook exercise, “What is
must be fine tuned to assist in decisions to participate.
Professionalism?” was developed for first year professional
students in Early Practice Experience I. The student provided Development and Evaluation of a Bioterrorism Rotation
a short reflective paragraph on professionalism before going for 4th Year PharmD Students. Catherine White, Cham
on their Community and Institutional site visits. At each site, Dallas, Ed Rollor, The University of Georgia. Objective: To
the student engaged the preceptor in a conversation about pro- develop, implement and evaluate a PharmD rotation in
fessionalism and wrote a summary of the discussion. From Bioterrorism/ Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Defense.
these summaries, a list of professional values, attitudes and Methods: This is a 5-week rotation available to students in
beliefs mentioned by hospital and community preceptors was their 4th year of the PharmD program and sponsored by the
prepared and ranked. A discussion of professionalism factors Center for Leadership in Education and Applied Research for
was conducted with the class during a reflective laboratory Mass Destruction Defense. Rotation objectives were designed
session. The written summaries prepared by the students were to demonstrate the various roles pharmacists assume in WMD
also evaluated for appearance, content and grammar. Results: events. Students work with Public Health for deployment of
Community pharmacists listed 48 factors and hospital phar- the Strategic National Stockpile, receive advanced first
macists listed 34 factors that described professionalism. Eight aid/triage training, train with Disaster Medical Assistance
identical items were ranked in the top ten by both community Teams/American Red Cross, participate in emergency com-
and hospital preceptors: respect, patient care, knowledgeable, munication drills, complete a 1-week WMD Technical
responsible, caring, communication, ethical and trustworthy. Emergency Response Training course at the Noble Training
Hospital pharmacists included life long learning and involve- Center (Department of Homeland Security), and work with
ment in professional organizations while community pharma- local HAZMAT. Students completed an evaluation form that
cists included hard working and professional dress as their included closed and open-ended questions. Results: This rota-
additional top ten professional factors. Implications: Student tion was first offered in 2002 and 23 students have completed
awareness of professional factors described by preceptors the rotation. Overall students felt the rotation stimulated their
reinforces expectations of professional behavior in the student. interest in this area (mean score 4.71/5) and would recommend
This exercise has provided an opportunity for discovery as the rotation to others (4.7/5). Open-ended comments referred
well as communication between student and preceptor, student to the value of involvement with the community, first aid skills
and faculty and faculty and preceptor on a critical issue of including suturing, and working with first responders.
pharmacy education, professionalism. Implications: The need for pharmacists to respond to natural
or man-made disasters as first receivers of patients will only
Findings From a Pharmacist Focus Group on Certificate
increase in the future and they will be expected to fulfill tradi-
Programs and CE Marketing. Priya Bardal, Stephanie
tional dispensing functions as well as expanded roles in triage,
Loegering, Kristin Janke, University of Minnesota. Objective:
incident command, and planning. This type of hands on train-
To identify components of effective continuing education pro-
ing is essential to prepare pharmacists to meet this challenge.
motional materials. To gain insight in to pharmacists' decision-
making processes, when selecting CE programs. To under- Experiential Recovery. Jeffrey Baldwin, University of
stand pharmacists' perceptions of the value of certificate pro- Nebraska. In 1992, we introduced an elective in the College of
grams. Methods: An invitation to participate in a focus group Pharmacy as a one-semester hour independent study course
was emailed to six Minnesota pharmacy organizations request- designed as an abstinence experience to help students better
ing a pharmacist participant. During the one-hour focus group, understand addiction recovery; in 1995, it was adopted as the
participants completed a demographics survey followed by a elective course “Recovering From Addictions.” Students iden-
facilitated discussion and hands-on evaluation of a CE Web tify a habit that is causing them problems, document the pattern
site. During the discussion, participants: critiqued promotion- of that habit, then give up the habit for six weeks. During the
al materials, identified the four most important items in CE “abstinence experience,” students journal in “Recovery”logs
promotional materials, described the pros and cons of certifi- and discuss their experiences in weekly class meetings, where
cate programs in pharmacy, and discussed the role of cost in phase-specific topics, such as triggers, support mechanisms,
decisions to enroll in a CE program. Results: Four pharma- and relapse, are discussed. Course worksheets document stu-
cists participated. Participants reported paying an average cost dent application of the topics to their abstinence experience.

27
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Logs are submitted for grading after completing the abstinence pleted and returned. For each potential option or activity pro-
period. The role of health professionals in dealing with addict- posed, graduates were asked to indicate the value of the option
ed and recovering clients and colleagues is then discussed in in fostering the student’s education/professional growth and
several class sessions, and students submit a paper on this sub- where in the curriculum the option would be of greatest value.
ject. A pharmacist experienced in substance abuse education Options rated to be of great value by the graduates included:
(JB) and an addiction counselor facilitate and grade the experi- 1) Patient communication exercises in labs with simulated
ence. Grading is based on class participation, submitted work- patients; 2) taking drug histories of actual patients; 3) shadow-
book sheets, logs, and the required paper. The course is offered ing faculty or practitioners; 4) some type of required work dur-
to first-through-third-year pharmacy students who are enrolled ing the early professional years in a pharmacy environment; 5)
in or have completed the College’ Substance Abuse elective. incorporation of exercises involving patient databases into the
Over the past 12 years, student enrollment has grown from curriculum; 6) regular participation in practitioner forums
~10% of pharmacy classes to ~50% (average 30 students). throughout the curriculum; and 7) participation in service
Course evaluations indicate that students feel that the course learning projects or experiences. The input from the recent
prepares them to deal with pharmacy issues related to addiction graduates was used extensively by the committee charged with
and recovery. Course evaluation, workbook and schedule will developing the plan for implementing IPPE into the curricu-
be available for review. lum. The input was especially valuable in identifying potential
limitations of early experience options as viewed by students.
Evaluation of Student Therapeutic Debates During APPE.
Michael Gonyeau, Margarita DiVall, Northeastern University. Basic Biodefense Project: Initial Progress and Results of
Objectives: To evaluate students' perceptions of an alternative the Core Curriculum. Jean Carter, Sandra Kuntz, Earl Hall,
APPE assignment, therapeutic debates. Debates' purpose was Steve Glow, Wade Hill, Michael Minnick, Michele Sare, Lisa
to assess students' ability to critically evaluate a controversial Wrobel, Steven Fehrer, Jacqueline Elam, The University of
therapeutic topic and argue the pros/cons utilizing evidence Montana. Objectives: In response to concerns about the readi-
based medicine. Methods: Each student pair was given 24 ness of healthcare practitioners to participate in disaster
hours to prepare a 25-minute debate presentation. Each was response, HRSA initiated the Bioterrorism Training
given 2–3 clinical trials with opposing conclusions for back- Curriculum Development Program (BTCDP). To this end, our
ground information. Students were then instructed to perform goal is to educate entry-level practitioners in pharmacy, nurs-
a literature search to obtain additional evidence to support ing, and allied healthcare disciplines who are knowledgeable
their position. The debate structure consisted of a 5-minute in the basic concepts and skills used during a disaster
introduction followed by a 5-minute rebuttal, with a 2-minute response. This will be accomplished through curriculum
conclusion, followed by discussion with students and faculty. enhancements offered to students while they are completing
A survey then assessed student perspective on educational their academic programs. Methods: The project team repre-
value of debates. Results: Thirty five students were surveyed sents nine programs, three institutions and five disciplines. To
using a 5 point Likert scale. An average score of ¡Y4 (agree) make the curricular enhancement as flexible as possible, the
was observed for all survey questions except ¡°the debate for- team determined contents for a core curriculum that can be
mat enhanced my time management skills.¡± All students taught as eight, one-hour modules in either the classroom or by
agreed that debates should be continued. Common comments self-taught learning modules. To reduce communication barri-
on beneficial aspects of debates included: shorter preparation ers caused by discipline-specific jargon, the team is incorpo-
time mimics real practice, increased ability to critique and rating the same “Disaster language”for all disciplines. The
increased exposure to literature. The most common weakness modules incorporate both pedagogical and andragogical ele-
cited was not enough time to adequately prepare. Suggestions ments. Modules use informational presentations, cases, and a
multidisciplinary disaster response simulation. The first mod-
for improvement varied from allowing more preparation time
ule was tested in January 2004 with 24 nursing students.
to less time, and changing to a point/counter point concept.
Additional modules are scheduled for spring semester, 2004.
Implications: Use of a debate as an alternative assessment
Results: An evaluator is preparing, collecting, and analyzing
during APPE provides students with increased exposure to lit-
data characterizing student knowledge and attitudes as well as
erature, increased ability to critique literature and exposure to
student and teacher satisfaction. The collaborative dynamics
current therapeutic controversies. This format will continue to
of the team are also being evaluated. Implications: Although
be utilized.
it is early in the process, initial products and results indicate
Use of Input From Recent Graduates in Designing that the enhancement will provide students with fundamental
Introductory Practice Experiences in the Pharmacy knowledge and skills required for disaster response activities.
Curriculum. Steven A. Scott, Purdue University. In the
process of developing a plan for Introductory Pharmacy
Practice Experiences (IPPE) in the curriculum, graduates from
Work In Progress
the two most recent classes were surveyed for their opinions Development of a Faculty Learning Community based on
about various options being considered for the IPPE program the AACP Education Scholar Program. Mary Monk-Tutor,
at Purdue University. During the summer of 2000, question- Education Scholar Learning Community, Samford University.
naires were sent to 100 recent graduates from the two most Objectives: To form a Faculty Learning Community (FLC) at
recent graduating classes. Forty-five questionnaires were com- the McWhorter School of Pharmacy (MSOP) based on the

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Education Scholar program(ES),an online faculty develop- vative way in which caring can be taught to students. The find-
ment program developed by Western University of Health ings have application to the larger pharmacy curriculum in the
Sciences and AACP. Methods: Using a combination of grant potential to use animals as teaching tools in courses with sim-
funds from the Samford University Teaching and Learning ilar educational objectives.
Center and the office of the Dean, MSOP became the first
AACP institutional member to purchase an ES site license.
Sixteen faculty members (40%) committed to participate in the
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
program. Additional funds contributed by the school were Completed Research
used to purchase notebooks for each participant and copies of A Survey of 2003 Teachers of the Year Award Recipients
16 required texts that were placed on reserve in the MSOP From United States Colleges of Pharmacy. Frank
Global Drug Information Center. A FLC facilitator was Romanelli, Jeff Cain, Kelly Smith, University of Kentucky.
appointed by the Dean and participants agreed on a schedule Objectives: To survey 2003 teachers of the year (TOY) award
that would allow them to complete all readings and exercises recipients at United States Colleges of Pharmacy (COP) to
for the program by fall 2004. Success of the program will be assess their academic training and opinions on education relat-
evaluated both quantitatively (outcomes and cost) as well as ed issues. Methods: A pre-tested, web-based survey was
qualitatively (faculty reflections and lessons learned from the delivered to COP TOY as identified by the AACP 2003 awards
process). Results: The FLC became active in September 2003 program bulletin. Results: 60 of 121 surveys were returned for
and was included in a national listing of FLC programs. a response rate of 49.5%. The majority of respondents were
Participants work individually to complete assigned readings 45–55 years of age and the most common rank was that of
and online exercises then discuss the material in a monthly assistant professor. The majority of TOY respondents were in
meeting; participants rotate responsibility for leading discus- tenure track lines and the mean percentage teaching effort in
sions and preparing reading assignments. Implications: individual job descriptions was 44.7%. Most TOY reported
Development of an ES-based FLC has allowed MSOP to having both a B.S. in Pharmacy and a Pharm.D. degree. Of
become part of a national trend in education while providing clinical faculty (n = 52), 46 reported having completed resi-
an opportunity for interdepartmental collaboration regarding dency training, while seven were BPS certified. Twenty-nine
ways to improve student learning and the scholarship of teach- respondents had no formal training in the area of teaching,
ing. eight had completed the AACP teacher’s seminar, and two had
advanced degrees in education/instructional design. Thirty-
one reported that this was not their first teaching award. The
Theoretical Model majority of TOY had been selected by students (n = 45) and
Volunteer Experience at the Nebraska Humane Society: the most common honor pursuant to being selected was recep-
What Do Pharmacy Students Learn From Animal tion of a plaque and public recognition. Implications: The
Interactions? Elaine Lust, Kim Galt, Kelli Coover, Creighton majority of pharmacy TOY appear to be in the earlier stages of
University. Background: Veterinary Therapeutics is an elec- their academic careers and are more likely to be clinical facul-
tive course on disease states and therapeutic drug choices for ty members. Additionally, the majority of recipients appear to
animal patients. Each student volunteers for a 2-hour learning have advanced clinical training but not necessarily advanced
experience at the Nebraska Humane Society for “hands-on” or formal training in the area of teaching or instructional
interactions with dogs and cats. Objective: Identify what stu- design.
dents are learning from animal interactions at the Humane Development of an Elective Course in Native American
Society and how these lessons help them to become better Culture, Health and Service. Victoria Roche, Rhonda Jones,
health care providers. Methods: Students (n = 45) submitted Clint Hinman, Creighton University. Objectives: To develop
written responses to reflective questions immediately after an elective course which stimulates interest in IHS careers
volunteering at the Humane Society. The qualitative data gen- through focused, reflective study of the culture and health
erated by students was analyzed by a team of experts using the practices of Native Americans, and through provision of pro-
open-coding method to determine themes and constructs. fessional and community-related service to Native people.
Results: Animals can be used as positive teaching tools in this Methods: Four second year pharmacy students assisted in the
course. Qualitative data revealed a theoretical framework development of the elective. One was enrolled in the web-
encompassing four themes. Theme #1 reflected the state of the based pathway and participated in classroom activities by
patient characterized by the vulnerability of the animals. phone. Native and non-Native guest speakers addressed topics
Students reported learning humanistic factors such as compas- of reflection, journaling, Native American health, social and
sion, empathy, and the importance of patient contact. Theme spiritual issues, tribal government, and USPHS careers.
#2 reflected the structure and process in the Humane Society Students researched and presented seminars on Native
system and the environment of animals. Theme #3 reflected American health concerns, highlighting the potential for phar-
individual and society issues such as preventative veterinary macist intervention, collected artwork depicting Native
care, volunteerism, and benefits of pet therapy. Theme #4 was Americans for use in a “stereotypes and biases” assessment,
the ability to operationalize caring behaviors and attitudes cen- and read a variety of texts in order to make recommendations
tral to the model where students learned how to be more car- on required readings. Students spent five days in Chinle, AZ
ing. Implications: This teaching method highlights an inno- providing social and healthcare services to Diné people under

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

the supervision of an IHS pharmacist. The semester-long expe- dents completed the assignment. 46 (23%) students responded
rience concluded with sharing of personal reflections and to the survey. Response categories were collapsed into two
career plans. Results: The students’ input allowed the faculty main groups: agreement vs disagreement. 69.6% agreed that
to finalize the elective for regular offering. All students they learned a lot about different information resources. 63.1%
claimed to have grown personally and professionally, and agreed that the assignment was more enjoyable as a group
intend to pursue careers in the IHS. Three of the four applied project. 78.2% agreed that using technology made the assign-
for Junior COSTEP, and all intend to elect an IHS clerkship. ment more enjoyable. 93.5% agreed that their grade fairly rep-
Implications: Awareness of minority health disparities and resented their contribution. Implications: Drug Information
positive cultural immersion and service experiences can shape courses are sometimes criticized by students for tedious or
career choices. Faculty will track the professional plans of boring assignments. This assignment allows for learning about
enrolled students to monitor the course’s ability to stimulate information resources while still engaging students and pro-
election of IHS clerkships and careers. moting creativity. Future plans include further standardization
of assignment grading and enhancing student understanding of
Pharmacy Student Motivation: Does It Change as a
other groups’ presentations.
Student Progresses Through a Professional Curriculum?
Janette Hastings, Donna West, University of Arkansas for Pharmacy Calculations: Impact of Instructional
Medical Sciences. Objectives: This study was conducted to Approaches on Outcome Performance. Jane Mort, Rebecca
determine whether a shift in pharmacy students’ goal orienta- Baer, Manisha Sonee, South Dakota State University.
tion (ie motivation for learning) occurs during their profes- Objectives: Determine the equivalency of online (OL) and
sional education. Goal orientation consists of three constructs: classroom (C) calculations instruction. Determine the impact
mastery, performance, and academic alienation. Methods: of a P2 review. Methods: Students took an online or class-
Pharmacy students were followed from entry into the profes- room based P1 calculations course (P1 2000 and P1 2001).
sional program until graduation. Year one results were previ- The same students took a calculations exam as P2s. A P2
ously reported. Sixty-eight students completed the survey review was given only to 2001 P1s. Instructional equivalence
instrument, which measured students’ goal orientation, in the was determined by comparing mean scores for online and
fall semester and again in the spring semester of their first classroom students (2000 P1). Regression analysis was used to
year, then each successive year in the spring semester until test for a correlation between P1 course scores and P2 exam
graduation. Results: The findings indicate that over the course scores. The impact of a P2 review was also evaluated by com-
of the four years, student scores on the mastery scale paring exam scores of 2000 P1s to 2001 P1s. Results:
decreased an average of 0.33 per item (P<0.008) and scores on Comparison of online to classroom instruction showed no dif-
the academic alienation scale increased an average of 0.24 per ference between P1 course scores or P2 exam scores (mean +
item (P<0.006). Students also exhibited an average decrease of SD: 2000 P1 Course 90.1+8.4 OL, 89.7+8.2 C, p>0.05; and
0.52 per item (P<0.0001) on internal locus of control scores. Exam 76.2+16.4 OL, 77.0+17.7 C, p>0.05). Regression analy-
Implications: Although the students’ goal orientation sis showed a correlation between course scores and P2 exam
remained mastery, these results suggest that students shifted scores (2000 P1s r=0.67 OL, r=0.63 C). The P2 review for
from this goal orientation towards academic alienation. 2001 P1s negated the correlation between course and exam
Further research is needed to determine exactly what factors scores (r=0.23 OL, 0.21 C) and improved performance as
within the educational process stimulated these changes. shown by better exam scores for 2001 P1s compared with
2000 P1s who did not have the review (2000 P1s 76.7+17.1,
Assessing Students’ Perceptions of a Book Review
2001 P1s 87.9+11.0, P<0.001). Implications: Students
PowerPoint Presentation Assignment in an Introduction to
achieved similar results with the two instructional methods,
Drug Information Course. Jacob Gettig, Patricia Lurvey,
indicating that online instruction is a viable approach for
Midwestern University-Chicago. Objectives: To develop an
teaching calculations. A P2 review session substantially
assignment that allows students to critically compare and con-
improved calculations skills.
trast different tertiary information resources within a particu-
lar specialty. To assess students’ perceptions of the assign- Assessment of a Web-based Entry Level Doctor of
ment’s contribution to achieving course objectives, promotion Pharmacy Pathway. Naser Alsharif, Patrick Malone,
of group work, using technology, and overall fairness. Creighton University. Objectives: This poster reviews the
Methods: Student groups were assigned two tertiary informa- assessment and continuous quality assurance process that is
tion resources within a particular specialty of medicine or part of the first web-based entry-level Doctor of Pharmacy
pharmacy (eg,herbal medicine, compounding, and adverse degree pathway. Methods: Indicators for the assessment and
drug reactions) to compare and contrast in a PowerPoint pres- continuous quality improvement of the administrative and aca-
entation. All students reviewed the PowerPoint presentations demic aspects of the pathway were identified. Each area in the
using Blackboard to gain familiarity with the resources, and to school were asked to follow the indicators identified, develop
provide feedback to the other groups. Students also rated their a mechanism to measure/gauge the indicator(s), analyze the
own group members’ contributions. A survey was distributed data/information collected, develop an executive summary and
to students after completing the course to ascertain the stu- recommend changes based on the analysis. The steering com-
dents’ perceptions of the assignment using a Likert strongly mittee for the web-pathway met with all the key individuals in
disagree to strongly agree four point scale. Results: 200 stu- each area and further made recommendations based on the

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

data/information collected. Motions to full faculty based on macy students was selected to complete a questionnaire. A list
the above recommendations were made to implement the full of seventeen behaviors was presented to first-year students
process of continuous improvement. Results: In the area of (n=435) and they were asked if they felt that the behavior was
admission, an admission criterion was developed to help in the cheating, and if they engaged in this behavior prior to phar-
recruitment of qualified students. A computer skills survey macy school. The same list of behaviors was also presented to
was developed to assess student preparation for web-based third-year pharmacy students (n=379) and they were asked if
education. Data/information from the focused groups with stu- they felt that this behavior was cheating and if they engaged in
dents during orientation and the summer sessions was utilized this behavior while in pharmacy school. A contingency table
to make changes in the orientation process, course sequence, analysis was employed using Fisher’s Exact Test to investigate
and in improving the learning community. Formative assess- differences between enrollment years. Results: Results show
ments were also essential in implementing changes in web statistically significant differences between first-year and
course delivery, instructional methods, testing, and the use of third-year pharmacy students both in perceptions of what con-
educational mentors. Implications: The assessment and con- stitutes cheating behavior and frequency of engaging in the
tinuous quality assurance process of the web pathway has con- behaviors. Additionally, a consistent pattern emerged in that
tributed to an overall improvement of the administrative and first-year students possessed a “stricter” attitude toward cheat-
academic environment for both web and campus-students. ing but a greater frequency of engaging in these behaviors.
Implications: This study adds to the research base on cheat-
Pharmacy Students' Use and Knowledge of Herbal
ing within pharmacy schools and provides educators with
Products. Diane Pacitti, Bertram Nicholas, Edward Kelly,
insights into the multifaceted model of cheating and cheating
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-
related behaviors.
Worcester. Objectives: The focus of the study reported here
was to examine the knowledge level of pharmacy students Enhancing Student Knowledge About the Prevalence and
with regard to herbal products. Further, the objectives of this Consequences of Inadequate Health Literacy and
study were: to determine the familiarity of students with the Strategies to Assist Patients in Addressing Health Literacy
top-selling herbal products, to examine the ability of the stu- Barriers. Lilian Hill, Brigitte Sicat, Virginia Commonwealth
dents to identify the uses of these products, to determine the University. Objectives: To enhance students’ knowledge of 1)
sources of information utilized by students for herbals, to iden- the prevalence and consequences of inadequate health literacy,
tify differences between groups of students with respect to 2) use of strategies to identify and assist patients with inade-
their level of knowledge of these products. Methods: A self- quate health literacy, and 3) methods for selection and/or revi-
administered questionnaire was developed to assess knowl- sion of patient education materials to address the needs of this
edge and personal use of herbal products. Additionally, a series patient population. Methods: This educational approach con-
of questions focused on the following issues: regulation, side sisted of a 50-minute presentation in a Communications course
effects, drug-interactions and sources of drug information of in which 109 first-year pharmacy students were enrolled,
the herbal products. The top-selling herbal products in the small-group activities for a 2 ½ hour conference session, and
market were used as the focus of the research parameters. The c) a 19 item pre- and post-test. A t-test for paired means was
questionnaire was developed, pre-tested, and administered to used to compare pre- and post-test results. Four questions
two classes of first-year and second-year professional regarding student opinions of the approach were added to the
PharmD. Students. The data was analyzed using frequencies post-test. Results: Students gained knowledge and increased
and cross tabulations of both group’s responses. Results: The comfort with their abilities to serve this patient population, and
data indicates that although students at this stage of their edu- the change was statistically significant on most items. Students
cation are aware of herbal products, and potential drug inter- enhanced their ability to assess the reading level required to
actions, many lack the specific knowledge needed for practice. read a patient education brochure excerpt and their knowledge
Assessment of student pharmacists’ knowledge of herbal prod- of strategies to improve its readability became more sophisti-
ucts demonstrates a need for further education. Implications: cated. In evaluating this educational approach, most students
Concepts were identified that would be applicable for inclu- agreed that 1) they had previously underestimated the preva-
sion in review sessions and eventually a separate mechanism lence of low health literacy, 2) the small-group activities were
based course of study. Expansion of the required curriculum useful, and 3) they could apply what they learned to practice.
should be examined with regards to these student needs. Implications: Pharmacists play an important role in identify-
ing and assisting patients with low health literacy. Pharmacy
A Measure of Cheating Behaviors Between First and
educators need to ensure that students are able to fulfill this
Third-Year Pharmacy Students. Patrick Hardigan, Paul
responsibility. This educational approach can be adapted for
Ranelli, Nova Southeastern University. Objective: The impor-
use with students in the advanced pharmacy practice experien-
tance of studying cheating and cheating related behavior is that
tial program and practicing pharmacists.
students who cheat in academic settings are more likely to
demonstrate future professional misconduct. As part of a larg- Pharmacy Residents Create and Publish a Monthly Drug
er study, this project investigated the incidence of several Information Newsletter for Family Medicine Residents.
cheating behaviors within pharmacy schools, and associated Samantha Eichner, Andrea Franks, L Cross, University of
this information with current enrollment year data. Methods: Tennessee. Objectives: A monthly drug therapy newsletter for
In the fall of 2002, a non-proportional quota sample of phar- medical residents was developed to provide primary care and

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

drug information specialty residents with experience in pro- dard setting was inconsistent between the SP and faculty
fessional writing and the provision of drug information. The graders. Therefore, faculty members are required to use the
goals of this project were to develop the pharmacy residents’ Angoff method for standard setting.
skills in professional writing and newsletter development and
Survey of First Year Pharmacy Student’s Classroom
to produce an information resource that would be valued by
Expectations, Concerns, and Prior Experiences. Craig
medical residents. Methods: Pharmacy residents were educat-
Richard, Bonnie East, April Fonger, Michael Rolen,
ed on professional writing and newsletter publication through
Shenandoah University. Objective: To examine first year
topic discussions and assigned readings. Self-efficacy assess-
pharmacy students’ expectations, concerns, and prior experi-
ments of ability and confidence related to professional writing
ences at the start of the Integrated Basic Health Sciences
and newsletter publication were completed at baseline and six
(IBHS) sequence in a Doctor of Pharmacy program. Methods:
months. The residents prepared, edited, and distributed a dis-
A survey was developed by one of the authors and anony-
ease state focused newsletter each month. Family medicine
mously completed by all 78 members of the class of 2007 on
residents were surveyed regarding their interest in a drug ther-
the first day of class. The survey included open-ended
apy newsletter and suggested topics of interest. A follow-up
unranked questions, open-ended ranked questions, and Likert-
survey assessed the educational value of the newsletter and the
scaled questions. Open-ended unranked responses were
impact on prescribing behaviors. Results: Pharmacy resident
grouped into common themes and ordered from most frequent
self-rated ability and confidence in the skills required to pub-
lish a drug information newsletter improved. The majority of to least frequent. Open-ended ranked responses were weighted
family medicine residents (61%) were very interested in according to their ranking and frequency, grouped into com-
receiving a monthly drug therapy newsletter. In the follow-up mon themes and ordered by calculated weight. Specific scien-
survey, every medical resident (n=18) indicated the newsletter tific disciplines were evaluated by Likert-scale for prior
was a valuable contribution to their education, and 17 of 18 knowledge, interest in learning, and perceived importance for
stated that the newsletter impacted their prescribing practices. future classes. Results: Open-ended unranked responses
Implications: A drug therapy newsletter created and edited by demonstrated that top prior positive learning experiences
pharmacy residents improved self-efficacy in newsletter pub- involved lectures that were interesting, organized, and interac-
lication and strengthened resident professional writing and lit- tive. The top prior negative learning experiences were uninter-
erature evaluation skills. The newsletter contributed positively esting lectures, unorganized lectures, and instructors not inter-
to the practice and education of physicians in training. ested in student success. Top weighted concerns were the pace
of the course, complexity of content, and grades. Top weight-
Comparing Inter-rater Reliability between Faculty and ed expectations of the course were basic science knowledge,
Standardized Participant (SP) graders in an Objective application to pharmacy, and knowledge of pharmacology.
Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE). Cindy Stowe, Stephanie Top weighted expectations of the instructors were interesting
Gardner, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. lectures, being approachable, and respect for students. Top
Objective: To determine the feasibility of using SP actors as weighted expectations the students had for themselves were to
graders for a therapeutics final examination using the OSCE understand and retain content, keep up with material, and get
format by comparing SP checklist scoring and standard setting good grades. Implications: Understanding student experi-
to that of faculty. Methods: All students enrolled in ences, concerns and expectations can assist instructors in cre-
Therapeutics I participated in a 5 station OSCE, 3 of which ating mutually successful classroom experiences for pharmacy
assessed verbal communication skills. Two examinations were students and instructors.
given (morning and afternoon). Each station included direc-
tions to the student, directions to the SP, and performance cri- Cultural Competency Education in Colleges and Schools
teria. The performance criteria were in the form of a dichoto- of Pharmacy. Patricia Lind, Sarah Westberg, Laura Hubbard,
mous checklist. Students were given 10 minutes for prepara- University of Minnesota. Objectives: To evaluate the cultural
tion and 10 minutes for performance at each station. Faculty competency education in colleges and schools of pharmacy
and SP actors graded student performance in real-time. across the United States. Methods: An online survey was
Standard setting was done using the borderline method. Inter- developed and emailed to colleges/schools of pharmacy in the
rater reliability between the SP and faculty was determined for United States. Results: Of the 83 colleges and schools of phar-
each station. Results: The morning examination (n=51 stu- macies surveyed, 47 responded. Of these, 34 stated that cul-
dents) standard determined by SPs and faculty was 63.8% and tural competency was included in their curriculum. The major-
64.8%, respectively. The afternoon examination (n=30 stu- ity (74%) stated that cultural competency material is integrat-
dents) standard determined by SPs and faculty was 73.1% and ed into courses across the curriculum. Integration occurred
65.5%, respectively. The inter-rater reliability for the follow- most commonly in pharmaceutical care, pharmacy/health sys-
ing six cases are given along with examination and therapeu- tems, or therapeutics courses. In addition, 82% of respondents
tic topic content: morning examination - atrial fibrillation 0.88, state that they have community-based learning opportunities
hepatic encephalopathy 0.84, stress ulceration 0.93; afternoon for students to work with diverse patients. These opportunities
examination - angina 0.90, ulcerative colitis 0.92, peptic ulcer included: service learning (39%), clerkships (29%) and com-
disease 0.98. Implications: This data supports the use of SP munity service (18%). Seventy percent of respondents stated
actors functioning as graders for high-stakes comprehensive that experiential students are not evaluated on their skills relat-
therapeutics examinations using an OSCE approach. The stan- ed to cultural competency. The most common method used to

32
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

teach students cultural competency was lectures (91%), fol- mine how closely professional students identify with
lowed by readings (62%), case studies (56%), and role-playing Generation X characteristics. The aim of this research was to
(44%). Of the 47 responses, 26 (55%) felt that their graduates compare and contrast responses of pharmacy and dental stu-
were minimally prepared for providing pharmaceutical care to dents. Results: Sixty-seven percent of dental students were
patients from diverse cultural backgrounds, and 11 felt their male compared with 33% of pharmacy students. Results were
graduates were moderately well prepared. Implications: As similar in all three study groups: dental students, first profes-
the population of our country grows more diverse, there is a sional year pharmacy students, and third professional year
need to prepare pharmacists to be able to provide pharmaceu- pharmacy students. Pharmacy and dental students ranked the
tical care to diverse patients. Although many colleges and most important quality of an instructor as being warm and
schools of pharmacy across the country are addressing cultur- friendly. Most thought grades should be primarily based on
al competency, the majority of pharmacy graduates are con- knowledge and performance in a subject. The majority of stu-
sidered only minimally prepared to provide pharmaceutical dents thought the average letter grade in their respective col-
care to diverse patients. lege should be a B. Implications: Generation X students, irre-
spective of discipline, manifest a collective group of charac-
Evaluation of the Use of Drug Cards as a Learning Tool in
teristics and traits that may affect learning aptitude.
a Nonprescription Drug Course. Diane Casdorph, Jan
Knowledge and awareness of these traits both by faculty and
Kavookjian, Tara Whetsel, Kristy Lucas, West Virginia
students may improve teaching and learning.
University. Objectives: Students need knowledge about non-
prescription, or over-the-counter (OTC), drugs to accurately A Survey About Pharmacy as a Profession for High School
answer patient questions. This study assessed student self- Students. Carriann Richey, Yazied Nazzal, Butler University.
learning of OTCs utilizing the Sigler-Flanders Objectives: A high school exploratory program was initiated
Nonprescription Drug Cards. Methods: A required nonpre- by Butler University to introduce high school students to the
scription drug course and pharmaceutical care lab are taught in profession of pharmacy. The program was structured within
the third professional year. Students took a baseline test to the Boy Scout Exploring Program. “Exploring” is a nation-
assess OTC product name, active ingredients, and therapeutic wide program administered by the Boy Scouts of America
class knowledge. Five case-based quizzes were administered which supports career exploration by pairing high school stu-
during the laboratory to assess students’ ability to apply drug dents with professionals. A survey was developed to determine
cards information to patient scenarios. At the end of the semes- if the exploring program improved high school student’s
ter, a post-test was administered. Results: Seventy-five stu- knowledge of pharmacy as a profession. We were also inter-
dents completed the pre-test with a mean score of 30.08% ested in whether the program might encourage high school stu-
(sd=13.13). For the post-test, n=45 and mean=79.40 dents to pursue a career in pharmacy. Methods: Two survey
(sd=25.42). There were no significant gender differences for instruments were developed based on a literature review of
either test (p>.05). Students were more successful at identify- career exploration programs. The first and second surveys
ing OTC name and therapeutic class than active ingredients in were administered at the first meeting and sixth meeting,
both tests. Students exhibited increased knowledge of thera- respectively. Informed consent was obtained from each study
peutic class for all products except Nix, Excedrin, Neosporin, participant. The overall program was limited to 30 students.
Pepcid Complete, Tylenol Cold, Aleve, Colace, and Lamisil; Results: Twenty-six of the 30 students participated in this
students scored lower in the post test for active ingredients for study; their average age was 16.5 years old. Responses to the
each of these except Nix, Neosporin, and Lamisil. Most sig- first survey indicated that 21 out of 26 students (81%) had a
nificant improvement in therapeutic class recognition occurred limited knowledge of the profession of pharmacy. Responses
for Mylicon, Gax-X, Femstat 3, Tavist and Naphcon A; for of the second survey indicated 11 of the 12 students (92%) had
active ingredient recognition, Nix, Abreva, Compound W, and a good knowledge about the profession of pharmacy and 10 of
Delsym. There was no significant correlation between scores the 12 students (83%) planned to apply to pharmacy school.
and final course grade or quiz grades. Conclusions: Results Implications: These results suggest that the exploring pro-
suggest that students were more successful in using the drug gram improves student’s knowledge of the profession of phar-
cards to learn about less commonly used or advertised OTCs. macy. Initiating this type of program may be helpful for col-
leges of pharmacy to target informed students on careers in
Comparison of Generation X Characteristics Between
pharmacy.
Pharmacy and Dental Students. Melody Ryan, Frank
Romanelli, Judith Skelton, Paul Osborne, University of Students' Perceptions of the Value of Determining Their
Kentucky. Objectives: To compare the Generation X charac- Learning Style. Jennifer Trujillo, Michael Gonyeau,
teristics of dental students to first- and third-year professional Margarita DiVall, Jennifer Kirwin, Northeastern University.
pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky. Methods: Purpose: To evaluate students’ perceptions of the value of
Two surveys were employed. The first instrument was mod- completing a learning styles questionnaire and attending a lec-
eled after a survey administered and described by Peter Sacks ture devoted to learning strategies. Methods: Freshman phar-
in his text Generation X Goes to College. The survey instru- macy students complete a seminar course entitled College: An
ment was meant to ascertain attitudes and beliefs of Introduction. During this course, students completed The
Generation X students. The second survey was a validated Index of Learning Styles questionnaire (ILSQ) to assess pref-
Generation X scale. Little information is available to deter- erences in learning on four dimensions (active/reflective, sens-

33
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

ing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global). Students instruction on how to use perceptive and insightful self-assess-
viewed their ILSQ results and attended a lecture on style spe- ment along with expert-assessment to drive their learning and to
cific learning strategies. Seven weeks later, students complet- improve their performance on course ability outcomes (Thinking
ed an evaluation to assess perceptions of the value of the ILSQ and Decision-making and Self-Learning). Students were
and learning strategies lecture. Results: 98 students complet- required to complete a formal self-assessment on assigned
ed the ILSQ and evaluation. Over 45% of students exhibited patient case work-ups throughout the course and received expert
balanced learning styles in each dimension. One-third of stu- feedback on these. At the beginning and end of the semester, stu-
dents agreed or strongly agreed that completing the ILSQ and dents were asked to provide reflective responses on their per-
attending the lecture were valuable (34% and 35% respective- ceived value of the self-assessment process to improve their abil-
ly). However, more students agreed or strongly agreed that the ities. The end-semester reflective responses were evaluated and
instructors should continue to administer the ILSQ and teach ranked using a 3-point Likert scale (1=not valuable, 2=neutral,
the learning strategies lecture (52% and 54% respectively). 3=valuable) to ascertain if students who valued the self-assess-
Only 9% and 5% of students indicated that these activities ment process performed better in the course. Results: A total of
should be discontinued. Many students were unable to accu- 188 students provided a reflective response. Of these, 67% found
rately recall their learning style just seven weeks after taking the self-assessment process to be a valuable learning tool.
the ILSQ. Implications: Many students did not perceive value Seventy percent of A and B students valued the self-assessment
in completing the ILSQ or attending the learning strategies process compared with 50% of C students (p < 0.05). Excerpts
lecture and could not accurately recall their individual learning from student reflective responses will also be shared.
styles. Despite this, the majority agreed that these activities Implications: This data was given to students currently enrolled
remain in the course. Revising our current approach to intro- in this introductory professional course to encourage utilization
ducing students to different learning styles and strategies is of the self-assessment process to improve performance and take
necessary. responsibility for their own learning early in their academic
career. Instructors gained insight on how to foster self-learning
Important Factors for Student Success in a Multiple
through the self-assessment process for future students.
Instructor Course. Machelle Davison, University of Oklahoma.
Objectives: To identify key factors which make a course with Assessing an Abilities-Based Curriculum. Michael Monaghan,
multiple instructors successful. To develop a training program or Rhonda Jones, Creighton University. Objectives: Our program
list of guidelines that course coordinators can use to enhance the adopted an abilities-based curriculum and established 12 termi-
success of a course with multiple instructors. Methods: A survey nal educational ability-based outcomes. Multiple choice testing
instrument was developed and distributed to all students on both may be inappropriate when evaluating student achievement in
campuses (Oklahoma City and Tulsa) of the University of such a curriculum. We developed performance-based assess-
Oklahoma, College of Pharmacy. The survey represented ques- ments to measure students’ ability to accomplish the program’s
tions related to items that students felt made a multiple instructor ability-based outcomes. The purpose of this report was to evalu-
course successful (i.e. coordination among lecturers from one ate the reliability of the first year assessment process. Methods:
subject to another). The survey contained ten items ranked on a Faculty teams defined expected outcomes and tasks for each of
Likert Scale and four open-ended questions. Results: The major- the 12 ability-based outcomes for the P1 year in the curriculum.
ity of students at all levels felt that the top items needed for suc- These expected outcomes and tasks then became the basis for
cess in a multiple instructor course included: sample test ques- cases used in designing the P1 performance-based assessment.
tions from each lecturer, coordination among lecturers from one Faculty drafted 12 cases and corresponding performance criteria
subject to another, and learning objectives clearly stated at the used in grading student performance. All cases were validated by
beginning of each lecture. An analysis of variance among each a national review panel. The P1 cases were then converted into
class and location of classes revealed differences in responses computer-based simulations for programmatic assessment at the
between campuses (i.e. Tulsa second year students ranked the end of the 2003 school year. All P1 students participated in the
ability to have lecture videos available online for review after 12-case assessment in which each case centered on one ability-
each class number one in importance). Implications: From the based outcome. Two faculty members graded all cases.
results, guidelines have been developed for courses with multi- Spearman’s correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the
ple instructors and will be used starting Fall 2004. The survey interrater reliability between the two graders; Cronbach’s coeffi-
will be administered a second time to evaluate any changes. This cient alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency of
study should be replicated by other Colleges of Pharmacy and the assessment. Results: Ninety-four students participated in the
other Professional Education programs for a clear representation P1 assessment process. The overall interrater reliability was 0.94;
of the outcomes on a national basis. the Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was 0.86. Implication:
Performance-based assessments produce reliable data that can be
Utilizing Self-Assessment to Foster Self-Learning and
used to evaluate an abilities-based curriculum.
Improve Performance-Do Students Perceive Any Value?
Tricia Berry, Brenda Gleason, Ashley Butler, St. Louis College of Assessment of Learning Style for the Second-Year
Pharmacy. Objective: To correlate overall course performance Pharmacy Class at University of Georgia College of
with student perceived value of utilizing self-assessment to cul- Pharmacy. Henry Cobb, Keith Herist, Michelle McElhannon,
tivate self-learning. Methods: Students (n=191) enrolled in a Christopher Cook, University of Georgia. Objectives: The
required introductory professional course in 2003 received study was undertaken to assess the learning style of the second

34
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

year pharmacy class. The information will be used in disease classroom setting, and the same course taught via interactive
management courses and pharmacy practice laboratories to video technology. Methods: This investigation was conducted
better design the teaching methods and presentations with for a three credit hour clinical pharmacokinetic course deliv-
recent changes in the second year curriculum. Methods: All ered during the spring semester of 2004. One course was
students in the second year class were asked to complete the taught in a traditional, live classroom setting to 38 students at
Index of Learning Styles (ILS). Each student filled out the 44- Shenandoah University Bernard J. Dunn School of Pharmacy,
item questionnaire and scoring sheet. There are four dichoto- and the same course was also taught in separate sessions via
mous dimensions of the ILS model used with 11 items interactive video technology on a digital ISDN network to 75
assigned to each dichotomous dimension (active-reflective, students at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy. Both
sensing-intuitive, visual-verbal, and sequential-global). The groups of students received the same lectures, by the same
data was entered into Excel, downloaded and analyzed using instructor with the exception of six one-hour lectures out of the
SAS 8.2. Results: One hundred and nine members of the 2004 42 contact hours. A student course and instructor evaluation
class completed the questionnaire with results different from will be administered to each group at the conclusion of the
the 2000 class survey. The 2004 second-year class appeared semester. The results of these evaluations will be analyzed for
balanced in the dichotomous dimensions of the active-reflec- significant differences using a t-test. Results: To be deter-
tive scale, but the class had a moderate preference for sensory mined. Implications: The increase in number of satellite cam-
dimension on the sensory-intuitive scale, verbal over visual, puses and the remote location of some faculty have lead to an
and sequential over global. Project Implications: It is impor- increased interest in the use of various methods of interactive
tant that the teaching methods used in the disease management video technology. Therefore, the perception of students
courses and the pharmacy practice laboratories match class- towards videoconferencing and the effectiveness of teaching
learning styles. via this method compared with traditional classroom delivery
of content needs to be more thoroughly assessed.
Work In Progress Implementation of an Early Practice Experience in
Conjunction With an OTCs and Herbal Remedies Course
Exploring Changes in Pharmacy Student's Empathic
for First Year Student Pharmacists. Sharon Hanson, Nancy
Communication Styles Using the La Monica Empathy
Kawahara, Loma Linda University. Objectives: The OTC
Profile. John Lonie, Rola Alemam, Long Island University.
early experiential program develops students’ abilities to:
Objectives: This study will examine the effect of entry-level
Interview patients to obtain medical and medication histories;
communication skills education on pharmacy student’s pretest
Assess patients’ complaints/symptoms for appropriateness of
and posttest La Monica Empathy Profile (LEP) scores. The
self-care; Develop treatment plans for self-care issues;
LEP measures the relative frequency with which one uses dif-
Educate patients about proper use of nonprescription products
ferent empathic communication styles when one is engaged in
or herbal remedies; Perform follow-up monitoring to deter-
a helping role. The LEP measures empathic communication
mine the effectiveness and safety of recommended treat-
styles along five dimensions: (i) nonverbal behavior; (ii) per-
ment(s); Utilize quick reference “Drug Cards” to respond to
ceiving feelings and listening; (iii) responding verbally; (iv)
patient care questions. Methods: Pairs of first year student
respect of self and others and (v) openness, honesty and flexi-
pharmacists were assigned to community pharmacy sites as a
bility. It is hypothesized that the course will expose students to
“living lab” for their OTCs and Herbal Remedies course. The
new modes of empathic communication and this will be evi-
students served on-site 4 hours/week for winter and spring
denced in posttest LEP scores. Methods: Prior to any formal
quarters 2004. They responded to patients needing assistance
instruction in the concept of empathy, ninety-six pharmacy
with self-care issues by facilitating the communications
students were given a La Monica Empathy Profile in a com-
process with the pharmacist. The course and on-site work
munication skills course early in the semester (pre-test). This
emphasized establishing the appropriateness of self-care
served as a baseline measure of empathic communication
(patient assessment), developing a therapeutic plan (product
styles. After didactic instruction and practice (recitations) in
selection), verifying patient understanding (patient education),
empathy skills, the students were given the LEP a second time
and monitoring outcomes (follow-up). The students’ docu-
(post-test). Results: This is currently a work in progress.
mentation was reviewed and signed by the supervising phar-
Implications: As an instructional methodology, the use of the
macist. The course emphasized Common Sense + Drug
LEP forces students to examine and gain insight to their most
Knowledge = Competent Pharmacist. Results: Consultation
frequently used empathic communication styles. In addition,
forms documenting the students' services were reviewed by
by comparing pre and posttest scores, the educator is able to
faculty. Course learning and application of material was
determine which areas of the course have had the greatest
assessed by case-based exams. The students and supervising
impact in adding new behaviors to the student’s repertoire of
community pharmacists completed program evaluations.
empathic communication skills.
Implications: Early practice experience, coordinated with a
Comparison of Student Evaluations for a Course Delivered nonprescription drug therapy course, facilitates the develop-
Live and by Interactive Video Technology. Robert Kidd, ment of patient care skills. Case-based exams demonstrate
Mary Stamatakis, Shenandoah University. Objectives: The gaps in student understanding of course content and its appli-
purpose of this study was to compare students’ course and cation to patient care. Exam results and program evaluations
instructor evaluations of a course taught in traditional, live will be available.

35
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Students’ Self-Assessment of Service-Learning Outcomes. their preceptor experts or whether their self-assessments fit the
Kevin Kearney, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy- pattern found in the academic medicine literature.
Worcester. Objectives: To determine the learning outcomes, Implications: Self-assessment of student learning and prac-
based on students’ self-assessment, of a Service-Learning (SL) tice skills may be an additional source of information available
course, and what factors may affect that learning. Methods: to verify. We will investigate whether graduate pharmacists’
As a step toward evaluating learning outcomes from service- self-ratings are a viable indicator successful completion of cur-
learning, pre- and post-course surveys were administered to P1 ricular goals when employed in conjunction with other assess-
students in a required SL course in fall quarter 2003. Similar ment measures in a hybrid distance education program.
surveys had been administered in fall 2002, with 84 respon-
Curricular Outcomes Assessment at Colleges and Schools
dents to the surveys. The course was revised for the fall 2003
of Pharmacy. Harold Kirschenbaum, Martin Brown, Michelle
offering (enrollment: 150 students), and the results of the 2003
Kalis, Long Island University. Objectives: Outcomes assess-
surveys make it possible to confirm and expand on previous
ment is a much-discussed topic within the academy and is a
conclusions, and to assess the effectiveness of the revisions. In
major component of the ACPE accreditation standards.
the anonymous surveys, respondents reported information
However, the majority of information available specific to col-
about themselves, their experiences, their attitudes and their
leges/schools of pharmacy are reports from single institutions
abilities in a variety of areas (oral and written communication,
on a specific project/activity. Therefore, a survey was designed
critical thinking, knowledge of various populations, etc.).
Results: Self-reported attitudes and abilities at the outset and to gather more data on assessment techniques/methods.
conclusion of the course were compared, and statistically sig- Methods: A 16-item survey was developed and reviewed by
nificant changes were taken as preliminary indications (sub- experts, revised, and submitted to the institutional review
ject to future confirmation by more objective measures) of board for approval. The Deans of the 89 colleges/schools of
positive learning outcomes. The results of the study indicate pharmacy were emailed and asked to identify the person
that SL contributes to the achievement of a broad range of edu- responsible for curricular assessment and the survey was then
cational outcomes, to different extents in various areas. mailed to the designated person in fall 2003. In five week
Implications: The study demonstrates the educational effica- intervals a follow-up mailing and then emails/telephone calls
cy of SL, including both strengths and limitations. Beyond were made to non-responders. Results: To date 67 (75%) sur-
this, it also elucidates factors that affect students’ learning, and veys have been returned. Preliminary review of the data indi-
features of course design that enhance educational outcomes. cate that colleges/schools utilize various methods of curricular
Finally, it suggests ways in which educators may be able to assessment including surveys of alumni and preceptors, stu-
build on successful service-learning experiences and positive dent exit interviews, standardized formative and summative
outcomes. course evaluations by students, and direct observation by fac-
ulty (most frequently during practice experiences).
Pharmacists’ Self-Assessment of Pharmacy Practice Colleges/schools rarely benchmark curricular outcomes with
Knowledge and Skills After Graduation From a Distance similar institutions, although most respondents indicate that
Education Post-Baccalaureate Pharm.D. Program. L. they compare desired outcomes to those required by ACPE.
Douglas Ried, Gayle Brazeau, University of Florida. Administrators (eg,Deans, Associate/Assistant Deans), an
Objectives: Student self-assessment of their knowledge and assessment office/officer, and curriculum committees are
skills is essential to self-directed life-long learning and, if reported to have the greatest responsibility for conducting cur-
valid, could be a key element in an overall curricular assess- ricular assessments. Implications: The information gathered
ment plan. In the academic medicine literature, physician will serve as a benchmark for colleges/schools of pharmacy to
experts evaluating medical students’ communication skills gauge their assessment strategies. Complete data analysis will
found that individuals in the middle or upper third of their abil- be presented.
ities were able to accurately self-assess or under-assessed their
abilities, respectively. Students in the lower third consistently Use of an Audience Response System to Measure Physician
over-estimated their abilities. The goal of this study in and Pharmacist Knowledge of Anticoagulation Guidelines.
progress is to investigate whether post-baccalaureate PharmD Philip Trapskin, Kelly Smith, John Armitstead, George Davis,
students’ self-assessments could be used to evaluate whether University of Kentucky. Objectives: The objective of phase I
they have achieved the College’s educational outcomes. was to measure participant’s knowledge of anticoagulation
Methods: After graduation, we ask post-baccalaureate guidelines with an audience response system (ARS) pre and
PharmD students to assess their own skills on practice-related post-education in a university hospital and college of pharma-
competencies. In addition, the College incorporates expert- cy. Phase II was designed to measure compliance with the war-
based clinical practice assessments into student’s feedback farin initiation component of the guideline following imple-
about their performance throughout the curriculum. This mentation. Methods: Phase I: Seven case-based anticoagula-
ongoing feedback gives students the opportunity to calibrate tion questions with multiple choice answers were presented to
their knowledge and clinical skills relative to those of an internal medicine residents, clinical pharmacists, pharmacy
expert practitioner. Students’ self-assessments will be com- residents, and pharmacy students. Responses utilizing ARS
pared with the clinical experts’ assessments and cumulative were obtained prior to guideline education to assess baseline
grade point average. We will assess whether the pharmacists’ knowledge and afterwards to test participants’ ability to use
knowledge and skill self-assessments directly mirror those of the guideline. Results were discussed with the audience.

36
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Statistical analysis was performed with a paired student’s t-test Students were asked to estimate the amount of time spent
to compare pre-education and post-education scores. Phase II: responding to an average DI request. Additional demographic
A retrospective chart review of all hospital patients receiving information including years in school and years working in DI
warfarin under the care of internal medicine residents from were collected. Students were then provided training in use of
December 2003 to May 2004 will be performed to assess algorithms for certain categories of DI requests. A follow-up
adherence to the warfarin initiation component of the guide- survey to assess the same parameters as the baseline survey
line (target threshold of 75%). Results: Fifteen physicians and will be distributed after approximately six weeks of algorithm
24 pharmacists were analyzed showing a significant positive use. Results: Baseline survey data are available, other data are
difference in pre-education and post-education scores pending. It is anticipated that student comfort will increase in
(P<0.05). Pharmacists’ mean scores were (3.79 +/- 1.02 and responding to DI requests for categories where algorithms are
6.79 +/- 0.41); physicians’ mean scores were (2.8 +/- 0.86 and available. It is also that students will report increased use of
5.93 +/- 1.33). Results of data collected at the lecture to third resources previously not utilized. Additionally, student-
year pharmacy students and phase II will be presented at the assessed quality of responses is expected to improve.
meeting. Implications: An ARS is an effective tool to help Implications: For DI settings with a large number of under-
teach and implement guidelines to medical residents, pharma- graduate students the provision of algorithms to determine
cists, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy students. appropriate resource use may dramatically impact student per-
formance while representing only a minimal investment in
Comparison of Instructor Workload: Campus Vs Web-
time.
Based Patient Assessment Course. Thomas Lenz, Rhonda
Jones, Creighton University. Objectives: Our School recently A Longitudinal Study of Student Performance and
implemented a web-based doctor of pharmacy pathway. The Perception of a Required Pharmacogenomics Course.
objectives of this study were to compare the following Gayle Brazeau, Daniel Brazeau, University at Buffalo.
between a campus and web-based patient assessment course: Objectives: To longitudinally evaluate student performance
(i) total amount of time and time invested per student to teach and perceptions of a required pharmacogenomics course.
and maintain/coordinate the course, and (ii) number of emails Methods: A pharmacogenomics course has been required for
received and sent, questions received, phone conversations students in the P3 year since 2002. It was included because
and office visits. Methods: PHA 326 Patient Assessment is a faculty believe the future practice of pharmacy will require an
required course in the pharmacy program. Course content is understanding of pharmacogenomics as it applies to the opti-
identical in both the campus and web-based pathways. mization of effective and safe pharmacotherapy and because
Instructor workload was measured for each pathway by docu- patients and health care professionals will assume pharmacists
menting daily the total time required throughout the semester. have this knowledge. The learning objectives provide a practi-
A spreadsheet was developed to record the time per day for: cal understanding of human genetics and pharmacogenomics
class preparation, coordination, lecturing, and grading; num- as applied to therapeutic optimization. Readings included cur-
ber of emails received and sent; number of verbal questions rent literature and/or textbooks. Faculty members from phar-
received in class; phone conversations; and office visits. maceutical sciences and pharmacy practice are involved in this
Results: Forty-five students were enrolled in the web-based course. Student performance was evaluated with essay exami-
course and one hundred seven students were enrolled in the nations, in-class exercises and a short research paper. Course
campus course. Weekly and total semester results will be pre- and instructor evaluations included both quantitative and
sented for: time for class preparation, coordination, lecturing, open-ended questions. Results: This course has been offered
and grading; number of emails received and sent; number of in spring and fall 2002 and fall of 2003. Student performance
verbal questions received in class; phone conversations; and in this course has improved over time, but 1/3 of the students
office visits. Implications: Distance education through the use still received a C or lower. Course evaluations for the most part
of a web-based delivery system is becoming an established have been positive. The most consistent student comments
means of instructing students. Published reports regarding relate to a perceived infancy of the field and, as such, they
web-based instructor workloads are conflicting and have not could not see its potential importance and relevance to their
been conducted in a pharmacy education program. The results future pharmacy practice. Implications: Given their present
of this study will provide further insight into instructor work- pharmacy practice environment, students do not see the rele-
loads for web-based courses. vance of this course. Future course improvements include
increasing the involvement of practice faculty whose prac-
Use of Resource Algorithms by Undergraduate Students in
tice/research currently utilizes pharmacogenomics.
a Drug Information Center. Kelly Shields, Ohio Northern
Furthermore, it may be important to place this course earlier in
University. Objectives: To design, implement and evaluate
the curriculum.
algorithms to facilitate appropriate resource use for respond-
ing to drug information (DI) requests. Methods: Algorithms Multi-lecture Style Based Lectures: Development and
were developed for three common categories of drug informa- Implementation for Second Year Professional Pharmacy
tion requests received by students working in the DI center. Students. Bradley Cannon, Annette Pellegrino, Alethea Little,
Current undergraduate student employees were surveyed to Maria Flores, University of Illinois at Chicago. Objectives:
assess their ability to select DI resources appropriate for DI Conceptualize and develop a lecture using student-generated
responses, as well as their ability to use the resources selected. learning style preferences; Identify common strengths and

37
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

weaknesses of various learning style lecture approaches integrated with discussions and cases to improve students' per-
through a lecture evaluation form; Evaluate the student pro- ception of course relevance, time utilization, and course con-
vided feedback; Assess the impact of a multi-lecture style tent and confidence as it applies to pharmacy practice.
based lecture on the learning comprehension of pharmacy stu-
A Global Study of Pharmacy Faculty Salaries: Are They
dents. Methods: Second year pharmacy students completed an
Satisfied? Sujit Sansgiry, Sujata Jayawant, University of
initial survey identifying student learning style preferences
Houston. Objective: The remuneration of pharmacy profes-
upon entering the Contemporary Pharmacy Practice course.
sionals may vary as per their job profile, responsibilities, and
The Senior Student Instructors and their preceptor reviewed
differ based on geographic region. This project is a pilot study
these to design a three-hour lecture on patient counseling
designed to evaluate pharmacy faculty salaries across the
based on the most prevalent learning styles obtained from the
world. Methods: Participants in this study included pharmacy
surveys. The lecture was divided into four sessions that includ-
faculty identified based on an Internet search of Colleges of
ed: a Power Point interactive mini-lecture, a verbal critique of
Pharmacy across the world. Around 155 Colleges of Pharmacy
a videotaped student counseling session, a simulated counsel-
were selected from different countries. A survey was sent to
ing session, and a review session. An evaluation tool was
850 pharmacy faculty via email. Participants were requested to
administered at the end of the session, allowing ten minutes
complete the survey by replying to email. A five-point Likert
for completion. Results: The initial survey results identified
scale was used to assess the level of satisfaction of the faculty
five prevalent learning styles: “hands on,” visual, reading,
examples/demonstrations, and listening. The evaluation forms with their current salary, job responsibilities and annual
will be analyzed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of growth in salary. Demographic and compensation information
the multi-lecture style based lecture as well as the students’ was also collected. Data collected was coded and analyzed
perception of knowledge obtained from this approach. using SAS statistical package to perform descriptive analysis.
Implications: Implementing a multi-lecture style based lec- Results: Analysis was performed on 41 completed surveys
ture based on student learning style preferences should create received so far. Mean age of the respondents was 45.8 (SD
a learning environment conducive to most prevalent learning 9.80) with majority being males (51.2%). Median of salary of
styles. In addition, this lecture environment should enhance pharmacy faculty in U.S.D was $27,000 (Range $2,487 to
the confidence in the application of knowledge learned from $100,000). Preliminary results show that respondents were
the lecture. somewhat dissatisfied with their current salary (2.68 SD 1.17)
and annual growth in salary (2.44 SD 1.28). Implications:
Effect of Reorganization and Incorporation of Active- Data collection is still in progress and should yield some inter-
Learning Approaches in Pharmaceutical Care Courses on esting results. Detailed analysis of the compensation received
Students' Perception of Relevance, Time Utilization, by pharmacy faculty may help organizations offer productive
Knowledge and Confidence to Practice. Tak Li, Patricia incentives to recruit new faculty, thus helping colleges of phar-
Grace, Gayle Brazeau, University at Buffalo. Objectives: To macy attain or exceed their goals in a global competitive mar-
investigate reorganization and additions in instructional ket place.
approaches in pharmaceutical care courses, namely reorgani-
zation of the course content and incorporation of more active A Longitudinal Study of Retention Utilizing a Comparison
learning exercises, on students' perception of relevance, time the MBTI preferences of First Year Pre-Pharmacy Majors
utilization, knowledge and confidence to practice in intern- and Pharm.D. Graduates. Jeanne Van Tyle, Butler
ships or experiential programs. Methods: Students have been University. Students with certain Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
divided into groups according to their graduation year: (MBTI) preferences appear to graduate from the Butler
P2–2006, P3–2005 and P4–2004. The P3 and P4 classes com- University (BU) Pharm.D. Program as compared with the gen-
pleted their pharmaceutical care courses using the original eral college student population. All incoming students to
course syllabus, while the P2 class is being conducted using a Butler University take the MBTI as part of freshmen testing. A
revised syllabus. The revised syllabus involved reorganization study of more than 200 students was conducted to compare the
using a disease management approach, discussion groups and frequency of MBTI preferences among pre-pharmacy majors
case studies. Students' perception of the relevance of course and Pharm.D. Graduates (graduation 2002, 2003, and 2004) in
material, time utilization, knowledge and confidence to incor- a longitudinal, retrospective study. Graduating Pharm.D. stu-
porate this knowledge and skills to their internship or experi- dents preferred type ESTJ and subtypes S and J. Students who
ential program are being evaluated using an on-line survey. did not graduate with a Pharm.D. degree preferred types INTP
The survey includes 24 pharmaceutical care topics on work- and ENTP, and subtypes N, and P. Statistical analysis used the
flow, communication, disease management and information Chi square and Fishers Exact. Previous authors have reported
pertinent to future career choices. The results will be analyzed the preference for type ISTJ, ISFJ, ESTJ and ESFJ but this
using appropriate statistical methods. It is hypothesized that study shows that the preference becomes more prevalent as the
P2 students will report that current course activities are more student move toward graduation. In particular, this informa-
relevant, time is better utilized, and content is more appropri- tion can be examined by committees in the college as it per-
ate. An alternative hypothesis is that there will be no differ- tains to selection criteria for the professional program and for
ences because of the additional experiences in the P3 and P4 the curriculum. While the MBTI should not be used to select
classes. Implications: These findings may potentially suggest candidates for a program, it can give a great deal of informa-
the importance of utilizing a disease management approach tion on what type of students the program attracts and how

38
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

well the students are retained over time. It can be used to pro- school instructors will be compiled and compared with the lit-
vide the curriculum committee with information useful for erature concerning community pharmacists.
curricular planning such as the need for inclusion of commu-
Health Behaviors of Pharmacy Students. Marianne
nication courses. The MBTI can also be used to help students
McCollum, Susan Paulsen, University of Colorado.
learn more about themselves and how to effectively participate
Objectives: To gather information on the health status, risk
in teams.
behaviors, and preventive health practices of pharmacy stu-
Generation X Characteristics of United States College of dents. Methods: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
Pharmacy Faculty. Melody Ryan, Frank Romanelli. System (BRFSS) 2003 Questionnaire was administered in a
Objectives: To determine the degree to which faculty mem- written format to first through third year University of
bers in United States Colleges of Pharmacy identify with Colorado pharmacy students. Questions covered areas such as
Generation X characteristics. Methods: A World Wide Web health status, demographics, hypertension and cholesterol
survey was developed and pre-tested. The survey incorporated awareness, tobacco and alcohol use. Responses in each area
demographic information, general questions regarding were compiled and analyzed to determine differences by gen-
Generation X educational attitudes, and a validated Generation der and year of school. Responses will be compared against
X scale. The survey captured the following demographic state BRFSS data and Healthy People 2010 objectives.
information for each faculty member: year of birth, gender, Results: Questionnaires were completed by 345 students, 67%
and college department or division. The questions regarding of them female. The majority indicated very good or excellent
Generation X educational attitudes were based on Generation health status (n=196). Ninety students (59 female, 31 male)
X Goes to College, a book regarding Generation X attitudes reported smoking more than 5 packs of cigarettes in their life-
toward education. These questions were previously used by time; 34 (38%) indicated they had not tried to quit in the last
the investigators to characterize Generation X pharmacy and 12 months. Eighty percent of students (n=276) reported drink-
dental students. The Generation X scale contains questions in ing during the last 30 days, 58% reported binge drinking (48%
four domains: jobs, parents, shopping, and yuppies. A link to of women and 28% of men), and 7% of those reporting binge
the survey was sent via e-mail to all faculty members at United drinking also reported driving afterward. Ninety eight percent
States colleges of pharmacy as identified by the AACP roster. reported they had their blood pressure checked, 59% had their
Faculty members responded via a World Wide Web survey cholesterol checked, and 40% of students received a flu shot in
site. Results were returned in an anonymous fashion to the the last 12 months. Implications: The mixed results concern-
investigators. These results will be analyzed according to age ing the extent of risk behaviors and preventive health practices
group, gender, and college department or division. The data among pharmacy students may indicate the need for increased
will also be compared with previous survey results for phar- public health content in the pharmacy school curriculum.
macy students.
The Student Portfolio as an Assessment Tool for the
Domestic Violence Content in United States Pharmacy Development of the Professional Abilities in a Pharmacy
Curricula. Melody Ryan, Ann Amerson, University of Curriculum. Wanda Maldonado, Gladys Miro, University of
Kentucky. Objectives: Identify the scope of domestic violence Puerto Rico. Objective: To document the development of the
training in pharmacy schools nationwide. Determine knowl- professional abilities throughout the curriculum with the use of
edge and attitudes regarding domestic violence among phar- the student portfolio as an assessment tool. Methods:
macy school instructors. Methods: A World Wide Web survey Pharmacy students from each professional year submit a port-
was developed and pre-tested. The survey consisted of two folio each semester. The purpose of the portfolio is to docu-
parts. The first part of the survey collected information on the ment how the students develop the professional abilities with-
presence of domestic violence instruction in the curriculum, in the context of the courses being offered during that particu-
the amount of time devoted to this topic, and the instructional lar semester. The portfolio is structured in such a way that the
methodologies employed. The second part of the survey con- students can document and reflect on the integration between
sisted of a modified version of an instrument originally devel- the curricular content and the development of the abilities that
oped to capture experience and attitudes of community phar- are identified as outcomes of the curriculum. Faculty and stu-
macists regarding domestic violence (Ford 1996). A link to the dents participate in the development of criteria for the collec-
survey was sent via e-mail to all academic affairs deans of tion of students’ work, as well as the guidelines for self-reflec-
United States colleges of pharmacy as identified by the AACP tion and criteria for evaluation. Results: Aggregate analysis
roster. These individuals were instructed to forward the survey for the first three years of implementation of the program will
to the most appropriate person within each college. If there be presented. The analysis presents how the different courses
was no instruction on domestic violence in that college, the have contributed to the development of the professional abili-
academic affairs dean was asked to forward the survey to the ties, and the extent to which the different abilities are being
course coordinator of the class where the topic would most developed. Implications: Portfolios offer a way of assessing
likely be taught. Results were returned in an anonymous fash- student learning that is quite different from traditional meth-
ion to the investigators. These results will be analyzed to deter- ods. It offers the opportunity to observe students in a broader
mine the extent to which domestic violence training is per- context, developing creative solutions and learning to make
formed in United States colleges of pharmacy. The knowledge judgment about their own performance. The student portfolios
and attitudes regarding domestic violence among pharmacy can be incorporated as an assessment tool to document the

39
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

development of the professional abilities in the program. The provide average student performance for each control ques-
portfolios can also be used to assess how the proposed cur- tion. We will analyze the following: Student performance on
riculum is being implemented. It represents a cornerstone for the assessment test. Student performance on the IOS control
continuous program assessment. exam questions in comparison to performance on the assess-
ment test control questions. Student perception of clinical con-
A Longitudinal Approach for Enhancing Student
fidence in comparison to actual performance on the assess-
Confidence and Ability to Research and Answer Drug
ment test. Results: One hundred and twenty second year phar-
Information Questions. Hilda Bi, Connie Valdez, Susan
macy students completed the survey and assessment test.
Paulsen, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.
Results of the data are in the process of analysis.
Objective: To develop and implement a longitudinal approach
Implications: Student retention of knowledge is a looming
for teaching drug information in order to enhance student con-
question. Data from this research will be used to drive curric-
fidence and ability to efficiently and accurately research drug
ular changes, if necessary, and to explore teaching methods
information questions. Methods: A survey to measure student
that will support long-term retention of knowledge and confi-
confidence in selecting appropriate drug information resources
dence.
and a test to assess their ability to accurately answer drug
information questions was administered to second-year phar-
macy students at the beginning of the spring semester. The test Theoretical Model
examined 1) student ability to use tertiary resources to answer
Online Learning at Shenandoah University School of
drug information questions and reference their sources appro- Pharmacy: Implications for Mentoring the Online
priately, and 2) student ability to use secondary resources to Learner. Scott Stolte, Evan Robinson, Shenandoah
find primary literature to answer drug information questions University. Objective: The growth in distance education has
and submit their search strategies to demonstrate efficiency. been unprecedented in the past ten years, and that growth has
Six drug information activities will be implemented in the stimulated concern regarding the ability to mentor students
Professional Skills Development class. The confidence survey who only interact with peers and faculty in an online domain.
will be re-administered and their ability to accurately answer The nontraditional doctor of pharmacy program at
drug information questions will be retested at the end of the Shenandoah University is an Internet-based distance-learning
semester. Data will be analyzed to identify significant changes program where the students participate in didactic and case-
in student confidence and to evaluate their ability to efficient- based learning online. The faculty who interact with these stu-
ly and accurately answer drug information questions. Results: dents serve not only as online facilitators but also fulfill the
The survey and pre-test were administered to 118 students dur- roles of advisor and mentor. This case study evaluated the
ing the first week of the spring semester. Preliminary data degree to which advising and mentoring took place online, and
reveal that students are most confident using Medline as a pre- then identified some implications of the online advising and
ferred secondary database and least confident with mentoring experience. Methodology: A qualitative, case study
International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Students are moder- approach was used to review the experiences of two online
ately confident using all general references. Implications: faculty who interacted with non-traditional students as teach-
Pharmacy schools prepare students to effectively provide drug ers, advisors, and mentors. These experiences included prior
information. Continuous exposure to drug information activi- communication, online chat logs, and reflection upon student
ties may enhance student confidence and ability to answer interactions. Results: It was determined that a significant
drug information questions. amount of the interaction occurring between the faculty and
Assessing Pharmacy Student Retention of Knowledge: A the online learners could best be defined as advising, not men-
Comparison of Student Clinical Confidence and Test toring. The advising that took place could be broken down into
Performance. Connie Valdez, Hilda Bi, Susan Paulsen, three areas; academic, professional life and home life. It was
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Objectives: also identified that the advising that occurred within the syn-
To assess student retention of knowledge and clinical confi- chronous (real-time) online discussions and one-to-one emails
dence when managing patients with hypertension and dyslipi- fostered the development of a trusting relationship that facili-
demia. Methods: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are taught tated the mentor relationship. Implications: Online mentoring
during the fall semester of the second year pharmacy program is possible, however it requires hard work and considerable
in the Integrated Organ Systems (IOS) course. A survey and time to develop the mentoring relationship. Online mentoring
assessment test was administered to second year pharmacy occurs less frequently than online advising.
students on the first day of Professional Skills Development Assessing Prerequisite Information Processing and
IV (PSD IV) class. The survey assessed student clinical confi- Metacognitive Skills of Entering Pharmacy Students. Judith
dence and the assessment test evaluated their retention of Garrett, Stephanie Gardner, Charles Born, Martha Alman,
knowledge related to the management of hypertension (based University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Rationale and
on JNC VII guidelines) and dyslipidemia (based on NCEP Objective: When students fail exams, they are often told to get
ATP III guidelines). Approximately, 50% of the pre-test ques- help learning how to learn. Learning how to learn involves skills
tions were attained from IOS exams to serve as control ques- such as developing knowledge bases, monitoring understand-
tions. The remainder of questions were based on the JNC VII ing, and applying information and skills. These activities and
and NCEPT ATP III guidelines. The IOS course director will related information processing prerequisites are often referred to

40
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

as metacognitive skills. Our objective was to use a model of WIP


learning as the basis for translating metacognitive skills into
observable behaviors and to develop and beta-test an instrument Drug Interaction Resources on the Internet and Student
to assess these skills. Methods: An instrument was developed to Preferences. Oluwaranti Akiyode, Bisrat Hailemeskel, Arjun
assess students’ abilities to visualize and summarize spoken, Dutta, Salome Bwayo, Howard University. Objectives: To
text and graphical information, and was administered to 83 1st introduce students to various Drug Interaction (DI) online
year students during the first week of the semester. A criterion resources, increase students’ awareness and familiarity with
score was established for each part of the test and each student pharmaceutical informatics, and to assess their preferences of
received a report indicating areas of strengths/weaknesses. Item internet based DI resources. Methods: A lecture was given on
analysis was used to identify revision needs. Results: the basic concepts of DI to first year pharmacy students. At the
Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha=.82) was acceptable but the num- end of the lecture, they were asked to use each of the assigned
ber of items exceeded time allotted to complete the instrument Web sites to answer a drug interaction question randomly cho-
so only three sections were scored: visualizing spoken informa- sen from our drug information center. The students were
tion by producing a drawing, interpreting diagrams by produc- expected to rank the Web sites based on the criteria developed
ing a written summary, and interpreting written information. and provided to them. The Web sites included in this study
Item-total correlations provided information about the contribu- were: Drugs.com; HealthScout; Discovery Health;
tion of each item to overall reliability. Conclusions and AdvanceRx.com; Drug interaction tool; My Drug-Reax; Drug
Implications for Future Study: Preliminary analyses suggest Digest.com; and Walgreen.com. A total of 106 students partic-
that the test did differentiate among students at different infor- ipated in the study. Results: Students were asked to rank each
mation processing and prerequisite skills levels. In future stud- database based on how much time and effort it took them to
ies, the impact of level of prerequisite information processing obtain answers to assigned questions, the level of difficulties
skill and level of web-based metacognitive skills instruction use they experienced in searching the database, the depth and the
on course achievement, will be examined. quality of information they obtained, and whether they recom-
mend the Web site for a friend. The response rate was 100%
and all students ranked the databases after completed doing the
LIBRARIES/EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES assignment. The analysis of the survey is currently in progress.
Completed Implications: As the number of drugs reaching the market and
Collaborative, Comprehensive Library Services for Faculty the aging population increases, the significance of DI
and Students. Geraldine Wanserski, University of Wisconsin- resources knowledge will become more critical. The skills
Madison. Objectives: To provide broad, easy, and seamless gained from reviewing and evaluating various DI Web sites in
access to library materials and services for instructors, clini- this exercise will contribute positively to the students’ future in
cians, preceptors, researchers, students, and staff in School of pharmacy.
Pharmacy and other areas of the health sciences. Methods: Staff
members of the UW-Madison Health Sciences Libraries (HSL) PHARMACEUTICS
collaborate with more than 40 campus libraries and other UW-
System libraries to ensure seamless service for remote users, Completed Research
distance education students, preceptors, and people based on Identification of the Compounding Habits and Attitudes of
campus. HSL currently provides: electronic reserves via student Pharmacy Preceptors. Bill Bowman, Michelle Chui, Louise
portal; Library Express Service that electronically delivers print Helle, Midwestern University-Glendale. Objective: There has
journal articles, book chapters, and microfiche that have been been ongoing debate regarding the need to teach compounding
converted to .pdf; customized course-related instruction; and skills within the PharmD curriculum. The objective of this
liaison service. The Library collaborates on book delivery study was to determine the compounding habits and attitudes
between some 40 UW-Madison Libraries and 13 UW-System of pharmacy preceptors. The data will be used to help deter-
libraries, and the campus Live Reference Service. Results: mine which compounding skills, if any, should be taught with-
Library patrons have rapid access to print journal articles with- in our curriculum. Methods: A compounding survey was dis-
out having to go to another library. Clerkship students and oth- tributed to our local pharmacy preceptors. Survey items
ers living outside of Madison have expanded access to resources included practice site demographics, frequency of compound-
while away from campus. Access to library resources is avail- ing, types of dosage forms compounded, types of compound-
able from anywhere in the world via the library proxy server. ing equipment and techniques being employed, and the practi-
Students have access to late night reference help even if their tioner’s views on compounding. All respondents were provid-
primary library is closed. Implications: Library patrons are not ed with a self-addressed stamped envelope to return the sur-
bound to a particular library or campus to gain access to vey. Results: Eighty-seven percent of the preceptors that
resources. Expectation for rapid delivery of materials has risen, returned surveys (n=22) reported that less than 25% of all pre-
as has demand for electronic access to materials. Libraries can scriptions were compounded. However, 77% of community
avoid duplication of materials by developing collaborative independents reported that at least 25% of all prescriptions
delivery services. HSL is considering adding staff time for Live required compounding. The most commonly compounded
Reference service to ensure health expertise is available.
dosage forms were solutions, suspensions, and ointments.
While only 27% of preceptors stated that they compound both

41
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

non-sterile and sterile products, 86% felt that pharmacists was created, generating a 400-question preliminary test bank.
should be able to compound both types of products and 67% Faculty then reviewed the test bank for readability, applicability
felt that such skills should be taught to pharmacy students. to practice and consistency with objectives. The test bank was
Overall, 77% of all preceptors agreed or strongly agreed that divided into 5 subsets and piloted by 150 students to determine
compounding is an important part of the pharmacy profession. level of difficulty and validity, based on total correct response
Implications: While the majority of compounding is done rate and point biserial, respectively. Results: Following the
within independent pharmacies, most pharmacists feel that administration of the pilot, test questions with high difficulty or
such skills are a necessary component of pharmacy practice. poor discrimination scores were eliminated. This yielded a test
The results of this project confirm the importance of teaching bank with 40 questions in each topic area. Remaining questions
compounding skills within our pharmacy curriculum. were stratified by level of difficulty, and then randomized into
assessments for the implementation phase. Implications: This
process allows for the development of paired baseline (week 1)
PHARMACY PRACTICE
and end-rotation (week 5) multiple-choice tests to determine
Completed Research student learning on rotations. Further research involves testing
Developing Communication Skills Using Email in the practical application of the instrument to: 1) determine the
Conjunction With Compounding Prescription Activities. potential to target and direct pharmacy student learning and 2)
Susan Jay, University of Kentucky. Objectives: To integrate determine if post-test scores are significantly and consistently
communication skills into compounding activities; to assess higher at the conclusion of the rotation as compared with pre-
PY1 students in effective interactions with prescribers; to test scores.
determine if students respond differently in a teaching activity
Pre and Post Rotation Assessment of Pharmacy Student
involving an unknown prescriber. Methods: Three com-
Learning: Outcomes and Implications. Susan Bruce, Laura
pounding prescription activities included dosing errors to
Peppers, Janet Ritter, Angela Sohn, Albany College of
assess the effectiveness of PY1 students in communicating
Pharmacy. Objectives: To determine if post-test scores are sig-
dose chances to prescribers. For activity 1, students were
nificantly and consistently higher at the conclusion of the rota-
instructed to consult a specific reference and contact the pre-
tion as compared with pre-test scores. To evaluate the qualitative
scriber, an instructor known to them, by email to discuss pos-
implications of a pre/post-assessment tool utilized during an
sible dosing regimen changes. Activity 2 included the same
ambulatory care or advanced community rotation. Methods:
instructions but allowed the use of any primary reference. For
Thirteen pharmacy practice faculty members with diverse clini-
activity 3, the contact prescriber’s email address could not be
cal practice sites developed learning objectives and multiple
connected to an instructor and more than one reference was
needed to solve the dosing problem. Results: The percent of choice questions for eight commonly encountered topics in
students citing references in discussing dose changes with the chronic disease state management. The questions were stratified
prescriber increased from 36.6% to 67.3% from activity 1 to by difficulty level and then randomly assigned. Students (n=66)
activity 2. However, only 57% cited appropriate references for completed ten questions per topic area for a total of thirty ques-
activity 3. Patient specific dose recommendations, as opposed tions on the first day. Scores were reviewed with students.
to reiterating complete dosing ranges, were made by 50% of Thirty questions of similar difficulty in the same topic areas
students for activities 1 and 2, but only 35.5% of students were administered during the last week (week 5) of the rotation.
made specific dose recommendations for activity 3. Quantitative indicators of improvement included overall and
Interestingly, only 1/3 of students identified themselves as topic specific pre and post-test scores. Preceptor feedback was
“pharmacists” when they were familiar with the prescriber obtained to determine qualitative implications. Results: Fifty-
contact while 55% of students properly identified themselves three complete sets were evaluated. Statistically significant
when contacting the email address of the prescriber whose improvements from pre-tests to post-tests were noted in the
identity was unknown. Implications: An email format can be areas of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and anticoagulation
used to assess professional interactions between students and (p<0.001). Overall improvements from pre-test to post-test
prescribers as well as provide immediate feedback to students. scores in the combined topic areas were also statistically signif-
icant (p<0.001). Implications: Administering a standardized
Pre- and Post-Rotation Assessment of Pharmacy Student assessment tool provides quantitative and qualitative benefits to
Learning: Development and Implementation. Jill
students and preceptors including 1) identification of deficien-
Burkiewicz, Kathleen Chavanu, Tammi Garzanelli, Julie
cies in the individual’s pharmacotherapy knowledgebase early
Weberski, Midwestern University-Chicago. Objective: To
in the rotation, 2) ability for students to tailor self-learning activ-
develop a pre- and post-rotation instrument utilized by clinical
ities to address those deficiencies during the rotation, and 3)
preceptors for assessing pharmacy student learning over the
provision of additional evidence to the students supporting their
course of an ambulatory care or advanced community rotation.
accomplishments on rotation.
Methods: Thirteen pharmacy practice faculty established a set
of learning objectives for eight commonly encountered topics in Assessment of a Contract Grading System in a Drug
chronic disease state management. Pharmacotherapy topics Information/Literature Evaluation Course. Stacy Haber,
included: dyslipidemia, anticoagulation, asthma, diabetes, Midwestern University-Glendale. Objectives: To develop,
hypertension, thyroid disorders, atrial fibrillation and smoking implement, and evaluate a contract grading system in a drug
cessation. A set of fifty multiple-choice questions for each topic information/literature evaluation course. Methods: A contract

42
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

grading system was used from 1998 to 2001 at The University Enabling Students for Decision-Making Regarding
of Arizona College of Pharmacy. Students earned their grades Handheld Drug Information Software Through a
by selecting the number of activities they wanted to complete Laboratory Exercise. Laurie S. Mauro, Mary F. Powers, The
(successful completion of 6 activities was required for an A, 5 University of Toledo. Objective: To introduce pharmacy stu-
for a B, 4 for a C, etc.); all activities were graded as pass/fail dents to a variety of drug information (DI) databases for hand-
and students were allowed to repeat most activities until a held devices, enabling them for decision-making regarding
passing score was achieved. Students were given a question- preferred handheld delivered DI software for purchase.
naire to assess their opinions of the contract grading system at Methods: A lecture providing an overview of PDAs and hand-
the beginning and end of the course. Twelve statements were held DI databases was provided in the fourth-year Professional
provided and students ranked their opinions on a 7-point Practice Development course. Handheld devices containing A
Likert scale. Results: Over four years, 225 students complet- to Z Drug Facts, ePocrates Rx, LexiDrugs, and
ed the course; the combined response rate for the questionnaire mobileMICROMEDEX were made available on an extra cred-
was 99% at the beginning and 92% at the end of the course. it basis to 95 students. Students completed an exercise con-
During each year, the students’ overall opinion of the contract sisting of 8 DI questions, which demonstrated breadth, depth,
grading system was positive at the beginning and end of the and relative strengths and weaknesses of the installed pro-
course. For three of the years, their opinion increased at the grams. Students also completed a survey documenting the
end of the course, though not significantly. When all years impact of the exercise on their decision to purchase a PDA
were combined, the mean score for their overall opinion was and/or select handheld DI software in the future. Results: Of
5.62/7 (SD: 1.51) before the course and 5.56/7 (SD: 1.70; the 43 students completing the exercise, 13 currently owned
p=0.73) after the course. Implications: The students’ overall handheld devices. Twenty-nine students stated that the exer-
opinion of the contract grading system was positive. cise impacted their decision to purchase a PDA, with 20 stu-
Continued use is warranted and expansion into other cours- dents planning to purchase a PDA within the next year. Thirty
es/curricula could be considered. students felt that the exercise enabled them to select a pre-
ferred software program. Of the 4 databases evaluated,
Student Interventions in an Advanced Ambulatory LexiDrugs was preferred by 37 students. Of the students
Clerkship in Community Pharmacies. Fraidy Maltz, Brooke already owning a PDA, ePocrates was the most commonly
D. Fidler, Sweta Chawla, Beth Isaac, Long Island University. installed software (n=10). Implications: A laboratory exercise
Objectives: To determine the types of interventions accom- introducing students to handheld DI software effectively
plished by senior pharmacy students during a 2.5-week, enables student decision-making regarding purchase of hand-
Advanced Ambulatory Clerkship in the community pharmacy held devices and related DI software.
setting. Methods: This was a review of documentation forms
Development of Policies and Procedures in the Formation
completed by students during spring semester 2003. During
of a University-Affiliated Pharmacy Care Clinic Within a
their clerkship, students were required to document a mini-
Physician’s Office. Michelle McElhannon, Keith Herist,
mum of 2 interventions per day onto documentation forms.
Christopher Cook, Matt Perri, The University of Georgia. The
Types of interventions listed on these forms included blood goal of policy and procedure development is to establish a
pressure (BP) screenings, asthma inhaler training, drug infor- documented standard of care to which a service is held
mation, and prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medica- accountable. The challenge exists in creating a guideline that
tion counseling. Students were also asked to check off expect- allows consistency of care and yet provides flexibility for
ed/actual outcome(s) resulting from the intervention. Outcome growth and clinical judgment. In a multi-specialty environ-
categories included gained education by the patient or ment, policy and procedure development is an interactive
provider, improved patient adherence to therapy, and promo- process which requires pharmacist interchange and multi-dis-
tion of cost savings. Students provided a brief description of ciplinary collaboration. Objective: To establish clinic proto-
their counseling session and recorded the time spent on each cols for each clinical service provided in a faculty-run phar-
intervention. Documentation forms were reviewed by three macy care clinic utilizing a standard format to ensure continu-
community pharmacy preceptors and one community pharma- ity of service quality among clinicians, faculty, residents, and
cy resident and were entered into a database for analysis. students. Methods: Utilizing the expertise of each faculty cli-
Results: Approximately 985 interventions were documented nician and multi-disciplinary collaboration, policy and proce-
by 36 students at 5 community pharmacies (3 chain and 2 dures were developed for each clinical service. Each included
independent) in New York City. Students spent an average of the following required sections: Referral procedures;
7.5 minutes performing these interventions. About 71% of Referring physician criteria and responsibilities; Admission
documented interventions were related to OTC counseling, and discharge criteria; Patient care protocols; Provider compe-
with “cough/cold/allergy” as the most frequently documented tencies; Continuous quality improvement; Adverse drug reac-
subcategory (35%). Other notable activities included drug tion reporting; Medical director responsibilities; Appendices
information (18%) and BP screenings (12%). The most com- of forms, educational materials, etc. Results: Policies and pro-
monly reported expected/actual outcome category was cedures were developed for anticoagulation management, dia-
“patient gained education” (70%). Implications: Results illus- betes management, lipid screening, smoking cessation, asthma
trate that students perform extensive OTC counseling during management, weight management, pharmacotherapy review,
this clerkship and help to promote patient education. and wellness screening. Policies and procedures were devel-

43
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

oped through an iterative process by clinical faculty. After cover the clinic’s operational expenses. A profit sharing agree-
approval by the pharmacy care clinic physician Medical ment detailed the sharing of profits above this minimum. A
Director, physician referrals began October 1, 2003. sequential pre-numbered superbill eliminated the clinic’s man-
Implications: Defined policies and procedures provide the ual recording system at the end of the third month of the pilot
framework on which a service operates. Utilizing a standard- program. Monthly reconciliations allowed for correction of
ized format facilitates consistent policy and procedure devel- discrepancies, with error rates decreasing substantially by the
opment, thus ensuring a uniform measure of quality care fourth month of operations. Cumulatively, 37% of the month-
across a compendium of pharmacy services. ly minimums were obtained by the end of the third month.
Implications: Starting a clinic within a physician’s office
Assessing Student Perceptions of Proposed Curricular
requires a financial plan and a system of internal control. The
Changes Prior to Implementation. Christopher Cook,
learning curve during the pilot program was extensive. The
Michelle McElhannon, Keith Herist, Henry Cobb, The
poster details the processes of reconciling, reporting, and max-
University of Georgia. Background: Clinical faculty observed
imization of billing and reimbursement in a pharmacy care
difficulty among the third and fourth year pharmacy students
clinic. These principles can be applied to other new collabora-
in optimal drug selection in experiential settings. Exposing
tive practice arrangements.
students to medication knowledge earlier in the curriculum
was proposed to allow a greater window of time to introduce, Graduate Employability: A Longitudinal Comparison of
reinforce, and differentiate medication selection. Objectives: Preceptors' Opinions About Hiring Clerkship Students
1) Assess students’ perceived need and demand for increased After Multiple Professional Experiences: 2000–2003.
drug knowledge focus in the first year pharmacy curriculum. Lynda Oderda, Elizabeth Young, Gary Oderda, University of
2) Assess students’ perceived rigor of the first year work load. Utah. Objectives: To evaluate the impact that additional expe-
Methods: First year pharmacy students were informed by fac- riential education had on pharmacy students’ non-academic
ulty of proposed curricular changes during class. The proposed qualities that might affect their employability. Methods: PEP
change involves moving the “Top 200 drug cards” testing from preceptors were mailed surveys after each 4-week experience
second year to first year and adjusting second year pharmacy and asked to rate Pharm.D. and B.S. students using a Likert
practice curriculum to focus on optimal drug selection within scale in areas of interest to employers: communication, team-
specific patient considerations. Questions and discussion time work, independence, maturity, motivation, problem-solving,
was allowed to clarify the proposed changes. The survey professionalism, punctuality, self-initiative. They were also
administered consisted of 8 items and an open comments sec- asked to comment about whether they would hire the student.
tion. Results: 116 of 127 students in the first year class Dependent variables included gender, degree and graduation
responded to the survey. The perceived rigor was 7.13 /10 (s.d. year. Independent variables included ratings for each instru-
1.67) with students reporting 2.89 (s.d. 1.58) hours of daily ment item, and whether or not the student would be hired.
study out of class. A mean score of 4.32 /5 (s.d. 0.86) was Means were calculated for each survey item, gender, degree,
reported for need to learn more about drugs in the first year and “would/would not” hire. An independent t-test was per-
pharmacy curriculum. 102 of the 116 (87.9%) students were in formed to compare means. Results: 702 surveys were returned
favor of the curriculum changes with 89 students providing for 190 students in four years. The mean of “would hire”
substantive comments regarding the changes. Implications: responses overall was 87%. 66.3% received unanimous
Results indicate students strongly favor earlier exposure and “would hire” comments from preceptors; this increased to
increased depth of medication knowledge despite the creation 95.2% for students with one or fewer “no hire” responses.
of a more rigorous curriculum. PharmD and female students had greater “would hire”
responses compared with BS students (90% vs 83%, p=.006)
Development and Implementation of a Financial Business
and male students (89% vs 84%, p=.017), respectively.
Plan in the Formation of a University-Affiliated Pharmacy
Statistically significant differences were seen in most survey
Care Clinic Within a Physician’s Office. Keith Herist,
items for females and Pharm.D. students. Implications: In
Michelle McElhannon, Melody Hart, Matt Perri, The
moving to the Pharm.D. degree, students complete an addi-
University of Georgia. Objectives: Implement a financial
tional 20 weeks of directed experiential education. An impor-
business plan for a faculty-run community-based pharmacy
tant outcome to students and employers of this extended expe-
care clinic within a physician’s office. Develop a system of
riential education is the achievement of higher ratings by phar-
internal control to ensure appropriate clinic billing. Maximize
macy graduates in all areas of interest to employers.
reimbursement for services. Methods: A collaborative prac-
tice agreement was developed with a family medicine practice. Evaluating the Impact of a Drug Interactions Elective
Initial planning consisted of determining which services Course. Jennifer Trujillo, Alisha Dunn, Northeastern
would be provided and the appropriate ICD-9 coding for “inci- University. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a Drug
dent to” billing. A financial forecast, with viability of the entire Interactions (DI) elective course on student knowledge of drug
project, was prepared. Recording of all services was achieved interactions one year later. Methods: A 2-quarter-hour DI
through the use of a “Superbill.” Monthly reconciliations com- elective was developed by a clinical faculty member and
pared the manual records of the pharmacy care clinic to the offered during the third professional year in 2002 and 2003.
computerized records of the physician’s office. Results: A The course focused on assessment and application of drug
monthly minimum of $2000 in collections was established to interaction information and identification and management of

44
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

commonly encountered drug interactions by therapeutic cate- Objectives: To identify the specific topics taught in United
gory. Students were expected to 1) determine whether a given States schools and colleges of pharmacy that are related to
interaction was clinically significant or required pharmacist mental health and psychiatric pharmacy, identify the pedagog-
intervention and 2) make rational, scientifically sound, practi- ical strategies used to teach these topics (eg,lecture, case-
cal recommendations for management of drug interactions. based, problem-based, experiential), and determine the disci-
During the fourth professional year, students completed an pline of the persons who teach this content material (eg,phar-
eight item multiple-choice quiz designed to assess students’ macist, nurse, physician) and their level of training in this spe-
ability to identify clinically significant drug interactions. cialty area (eg,psychiatric residency, fellowship, board certifi-
Scores of students who took the course were compared with cation). Methods: A survey was developed that addressed the
scores of students who did not. Results: 127 students com- study objectives; the survey was mailed to the total population
pleted the assessment including 59 who had taken the course of United States schools of pharmacy in February 2004 using
and 68 who had not. Scores were significantly better in stu- the modified Dillman method. Data will be entered into a
dents who took the course compared with students who did not spreadsheet and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results:
(74.6% vs 66.9%, p=0.02). Students who took the course were In progress. Implications: This research will provide needed
more likely to identify a significant interaction between amio- documentation of current teaching practices related to mental
darone and warfarin compared with students who did not health and psychiatric pharmacy and serve as a foundation for
(88.14% vs 73.5%, p=0.04). No other significant differences future research on ways to best incorporate these important
between groups were observed for individual questions. topics into a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum.
Implications: Identifying significant drug interactions is an
essential role of pharmacists. Offering a course devoted to the Education of Doctor of Pharmacy Students Through a
identification and management of drug interactions can University-Based, Pharmacist-Coordinated Wellness
improve long-term knowledge and skills and potentially Center. Christine O'Neil, Hildegarde Berdin, Duquesne
improve pharmaceutical care. University. Objectives: To enhance student learning and con-
fidence in their abilities to provide wellness screenings and
disease counseling for health prevention. Methods: In
Work In Progress October 2002, the School of Pharmacy launched the Pharmacy
Student Attitudes Regarding Use of a Reflective Journal in Care Awareness Program to increase awareness of disease pre-
a Psychiatric Pharmacy Advanced Practice Experience. vention among employees and students and to raise awareness
Marshall Cates, Mary Monk-Tutor, Samford University. about unique services that may be provided by pharmacists in
Objectives: To determine attitudes of students completing a a community setting. The program offers on-campus preven-
psychiatric pharmacy advanced practice experience (APE) tive health screenings in the Center for Pharmacy Care, risk
regarding the use of a reflective journal in the course. assessment, patient education, medication and lifestyle coun-
Methods: All students enrolled in a 4-week elective psychi- seling, educational seminars, and referral for common health
atric pharmacy APE were required to maintain a reflective conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis.
journal about the experience. The reflections were to be The preventive screening programs include: blood pressure,
focused on students’ personal reactions, thoughts, feelings, lipid panels, bone density, body composition, and facial skin
and emotions related to psychiatric disorders and their treat- analysis. Since its inception, students have been involved in
ment. The preceptor reviewed journal entries and discussed providing screenings and counseling to over 600 participants
the issues with students on a weekly basis. At the conclusion under pharmacy faculty preceptorship. Fifth and sixth-year
of the APE, students completed a 15-item, Likert-scale survey students participate in these activities through service opportu-
containing questions related to the value and mechanics of the nities sponsored by student organizations and as part of ambu-
reflective journal activity. This project began in Fall 2003 and latory experiential education. A brief survey consisting of both
will be conducted over a two-year period, with a total sample open-ended questions and ratings of perceived abilities and
size of at least 30 students. Results: The six-month interim confidence to provide screening and counseling is adminis-
results (n=9) thus far reveal positive attitudes of students tered prior to and upon completion of the experience. Results:
toward the use of the reflective journal in the course. Almost Results of the surveys are being compiled. Preliminary com-
all of the students either agree or strongly agree that the reflec- ments from students indicate that the experience enhanced
tive journal activity should be continued in the course, and fur- their preparedness and confidence to conduct community-
thermore, believe that this type of activity should be used in based wellness programs. Implications: This experience
other types of advanced practice experiences as well. endeavors to be an excellent teaching model in which students
Implications: Students perceive that keeping a reflective jour- gain confidence to implement and conduct wellness programs
nal is useful for guiding self-exploration of attitudes and and become motivated to incorporate such programs into their
beliefs concerning psychiatric disorders and their treatment. future practice.
There may also be implications for the use of reflective jour- Junior Pharmacy Practice Faculties. Minh-Tri Duong,
nals by students in other types of practice settings. Aigner George, Florida A&M University. Objectives: The pri-
Instruction on Mental Health and Psychiatric Pharmacy in mary objective is to determine junior pharmacy practice facul-
United States Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy. Marshall ty members’ opinions and perceptions regarding the tenure
Cates, Mary Monk-Tutor, Stephanie Ogle, Samford University. system and the impact on faculty satisfaction, recruitment, and

45
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

retention. Secondary objectives are to assess junior pharmacy The Rx for Change: Pharmacist-Assisted Tobacco Cessation
practice faculty members’ preferences for tenure vs non-tenure Program–An Update on its Dissemination to the United
positions (eg, teaching tracks) and their distribution in differ- States Schools of Pharmacy. Robin Corelli, Karen Hudmon,
ent track positions. Methods: A prospective survey using a 5- Christine Fenlon, Kenneth Lem, University of California-SF.
point Likert scale will be used to ascertain junior pharmacy Objectives: With a goal of enhancing the tobacco education of
practice faculty members’ opinions and perceptions regarding pharmacy students across the nation, our research aimed to (a)
tenure and the impact on faculty satisfaction, recruitment, and characterize the tobacco-related content of pharmacy school
retention. The survey will be distributed to junior pharmacy curricula, (b) make available a turn-key, comprehensive tobac-
practice faculty members identified as individuals below the co cessation curriculum for pharmacy students, and (c) equip
rank of associate professor (eg, assistant professor) who are in key faculty at all United States schools of pharmacy with the
the first six years of their academic appointment. The survey necessary knowledge, skills, and resources to teach the Rx for
population will be identified through a group mailing list pur- Change training program. Methods: An 8-page survey assessed
chased from the American Association of Colleges of the tobacco-related content in pharmacy school curricula prior
Pharmacy (AACP). The survey will be hosted on www.sur- to dissemination of the Rx for Change program. Two faculty
veymonkey.com. Descriptive statistics will be used to summa- members from each school then were invited to attend a 2-day
rize responses to the survey questions. Results: Data to be col- Rx for Change train-the-trainer workshop. Post-training surveys
lected, analyzed, and results completed by May 2004. assessed faculty perceptions regarding adoptability of the Rx for
Implications: The growing emphasis on delivery of clinical Change program at their school. Results: 98.8% of schools
services and the concomitant decrease in time allocated for completed the baseline survey, which revealed a median of 170
research/scholarly activities can jeopardize the satisfaction, minutes of tobacco-related content in the Pharm.D. programs. A
recruitment, and retention of pharmacy practice faculty. By total of 140 faculty members representing 75 schools of phar-
understanding junior pharmacy practice faculty members’ macy have attended a train-the-trainer program; as of April
opinions and perceptions about the tenure system, the aca- 2004, 50 of these schools will have implemented Rx for Change
demic community may have insight to developing strategies to at their pharmacy school. An estimated 5,046 pharmacy students
promote job satisfaction that will lead to better overall success will have received the training in the 2003–04 academic year.
in faculty recruitment and retention. Implications: Our profession is making great strides toward
preparing future pharmacists with the necessary skills to
Patients’ Perceptions of Pharmacists as Influenza become a cornerstone for the nation’s tobacco control efforts.
Immunizers in Massachusetts. Matthew Machado, Joseph Rx for Change continues to evolve and improve concurrent with
Calomo, James Gagnon, Karen Lee, Massachusetts College of its dissemination, because it benefits from the collective feed-
Pharmacy-Boston. Objectives: To evaluate if pharmacists can back of knowledge and wisdom from all faculty who adopt the
assist in improving immunization rates in the Commonwealth program.
of Massachusetts and to evaluate patients’ perceptions of com-
munity pharmacists as immunizers. Methods: As of October Pharmacy Student Exposure to Emergency Contraception
2003, four faculty members of the Massachusetts College of During Clerkship. Veronica Bandy, Berit Gundersen,
Pharmacy and Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy-Boston, Shamima Khan, University of the Pacific. The primary objec-
administered influenza vaccinations during pharmacist run tives of this study were to determine the amount of exposure to
immunization clinics. These clinics were conducted at three Emergency Contraception Counseling opportunities University
pharmacies within two different national chains. The clinics of the Pacific senior year pharmacy student’s encounter during
targeted adult patients (greater than 18 years of age) seeking their clerkship year, as well as ascertaining the value of an
influenza vaccination. Following administration of the vac- Emergency Contraceptive Certification to clerkship students
cine, each patient received a signed cover letter from the during their advanced pharmacy practice experience. A survey
immunizing pharmacist with an IRB approved survey. The was developed to determine the extent of a student’s exposure to
cover letter explained that the survey would be used to assess pharmacist provision of Emergency Contraception and the stu-
the patient’s perception of pharmacists as immunizers. The dents’ perceived value of obtained a certificate in Emergency
survey was comprised of six questions assessing the patient’s Contraception. Students were asked to complete the survey dur-
experience receiving the influenza vaccination from the phar- ing the annual board review held post clerkship experience.
macist. Patients were asked to answer the questions by rating Statistical analysis will include frequency counts and other rele-
their opinion on a scale of 1–5, 1 being the least and 5 being vant statistical analysis. The potential benefits of this study
the most. The survey was anonymous and was completed prior include the increase in scientific knowledge regarding Pacific’s
to the patient leaving the clinic. Results: A total of 512 indi- pharmacy student’s exposure to Emergency Contraception dur-
viduals were immunized at the three sites with 56% of the sur- ing their clerkship experience as well as Pharmacy Practice
veys collected. The results were overwhelmingly positive with Departmental benefit to use the information gathered in making
95% of the individuals responding to all survey questions with decision related to time spent on this topic in the PharmD. cur-
a rating of either a 4 or 5. 21% of patients completing the sur- riculum.
vey were not immunized last year. Implications: Patients Initial Assessment of Health and Wellness Attitudes of
view pharmacists as a viable and accessible option to obtain Pharmacy Students at Butler University College of
influenza vaccination and other immunizations. Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Kevin Tuohy, Bonnie Brown,

46
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Carrie Maffeo, Patricia Chase, Butler University. Objective: To SOCIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES
determine and analyze the attitudes toward and practices of Completed Research
health and wellness in professional pharmacy students at Butler
University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. This sur- Civility in the Pharmacy Classroom. Kimberly Broedel-
vey will be used to assist in the implementation of health and Zaugg, Catherine Paik, Ohio Northern University. Objective:
wellness concepts throughout the curriculum. Methods: An To determine what Ohio Northern Pharmacy Students consid-
anonymous survey regarding students’ attitudes toward health ered uncivil classroom behavior and what type of student is
and wellness issues was developed. All students in the P1 prone to this behavior. Classroom incivility is defined by
through P4 classes will be asked to complete and submit the 42 Feldman as “an action that interferes with the harmonious and
question survey via an anonymous drop-box. In addition to cooperative learning atmosphere.” This study is important
demographic data for each student, survey data to be collected because it looked at classroom incivility from students’ points
includes current participation in the health care system and cur- of view rather than professors' views, which have already been
rent practices related to diet, exercise, and sexual activity. The studied by others. Methods: Students enrolled in the first year
survey also contains questions regarding average time spent Profession of Pharmacy were surveyed to determine their feel-
studying, sleeping, watching television, working, and dealing ings about types of uncivil behavior, their participation in the
with stress. Information regarding student use of tobacco, alco- behavior, and preferences concerning the classroom.
hol, illicit drugs, and over-the-counter stimulants will also be Demographics of age, gender, grade point, type of high school,
sought. Finally, students will be asked to express their attitudes and family background were used to identify differences
toward the status of their health, weight, and diet. Results: The between groups. Results: Cheating was found to be the most
survey will be administered during the spring semester 2004. uncivil behavior (4.6/5, sd = 1.1), while chewing gum during
Data will be analyzed and presented at the 2004 AACP Annual class was considered the least uncivil behavior (1.7/5, sd =
Meeting. Implications: This data collection will provide base- 0.9). Certain students were more prone to uncivil behavior. For
line data for current professional pharmacy students at Butler example, those students with a lower grade point average
University prior to the inclusion of health and wellness topics skipped class most often. Students indicated that teachers car-
into the college’s curriculum. The results of the survey will help ing about their learning experience was most preferred (4.4/5,
to identify specific areas of health and wellness that will need to sd = 0.7) while phoning the educator’s home was the least pre-
be addressed within the curriculum. ferred method of communication (2.1/5, sd = 0.9). Several sig-
nificant differences were found among groups to indicate that
Examining the Value of a Pre-Admission Experiential certain demographics may influence the students’ behaviors,
Requirement to External Stakeholders of a New School of actions and preferences. Implications: This study will help
Pharmacy. Michelle Easton, Carolyn Ford, Larry Fannin, Pharmacy educators have a better understanding of classroom
Arcelia Johnson-Fannin, Hampton University. Objective: To incivility.
determine the value of the pre-admission experiential require-
ment to preceptors and employers who have worked with our The Influence of Students, Faculties, and Practitioners on
students since the inception of the School’s first class in 1998. Professional Behavior. Abir Kahaleh, Marc Sweeney, Ohio
Northern University. Objectives: To assess professionalism
Preliminary data collected from students has revealed that they
among pharmacy students and evaluate the impact of other
feel the experience is beneficial and worthwhile. After five
students, faculties, and practitioners on their behavior.
years, the question of the value by external stakeholders is not
Methods: The study has a cross-sectional design. A 14-items
known. As a result a survey has been developed to determine the
survey was administered among 228 pharmacy students at a
value of this required experience in light of increasingly chal-
large college of pharmacy in the Midwest. The students ranked
lenging dynamics in the pharmacy workplace such as manpow-
their level of agreement or disagreement with the survey items
er constraints or HIPAA. Methods: The survey was mailed to
on a 5-point Likert scale. Descriptive, reliability, and factor
pharmacists and their regional/district supervisors who have
and regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data.
participated in the pre-admission experience activity. The sur-
Results: A 95% (216) response rate was obtained. Being trust-
vey assesses the participant’s awareness of the School, under-
worthy {mean = 4.86 (±.37)}, adhering to the pharmacy code
standing of the activity, and perceived value/benefit of the activ-
of ethics {mean = 4.84 (±.39)}, and respecting others {mean =
ity to their institution, students training, and the profession in
4.82 (±.47)} were ranked as the highest items by the students.
general. Results: The data from the survey is still being collect-
A multi-item scale was computed for professionalism.
ed. Anecdotal information has indicated that pharmacists find
Cronbach’s alpha for the professional behavior scale was 0.75.
the activity rewarding and important to future pharmacist devel-
Factor analysis showed that the items included in computing
opment. Implications: The Pre-Admission Experience has pro-
the scale loaded highly on one factor. Regression analyses
duced numerous benefits for the school which include expan-
showed that the model was significant and the adjusted R2 =
sion of practice sites and increased national visibility. Early
.37. Enforcing consistent policies by the faculties (beta = .43)
recruitment and assistance in professional identify development
and practitioners’ professional behavior (beta = .25) signifi-
are benefits to the practicing pharmacists and employers. As a
cantly predicted students’ professionalism. Interestingly, the
result, this activity could be modeled at other schools of phar-
appropriateness of pharmacy students to “police” one another
macy for incorporation into their experiential program.
did not significantly predict students’ professionalism.
Implications: Results of the study showed that having consis-

47
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

tent policies and displaying professional behavior significant- 60/65 (92%) reported having at least one required course con-
ly affected students’ professionalism. Faculties at the colleges taining HRM (range 1–10, median 1) and utilize S/COP facul-
of pharmacy must be consistent in enforcing their policies ty to deliver this instruction. Lecture was the primary peda-
towards unprofessional behavior. Also, practitioners need to gogical method used, however most respondents reported
display and reinforce professional behavior to enhance stu- employing multiple instructional methods. Instruction was
dents’ professionalism. usually offered in the P3 (37/60, 62%) or P2 years
(24/60,40%), while 8/60 (13%) offered courses with HRM in
Professionalism and Moral Reasoning of Thai Pharmacists
more than one academic year. Complete results and respon-
in Three Practice Settings. Chanuttha Ploylearmsang,
dents’ demographics will be presented. Implications: Data
Petcharat Pongchareonsuk, Nancy Lim, Mahidol University
show the majority of schools offer some HRM curricula.
Thailand. Objectives: To examine the differences in profes-
Further research is needed to determine whether or not the
sionalism and moral reasoning among pharmacists in three
quantity and nature of content in these programs is satisfacto-
practice settings; public hospital, private hospital, and com-
ry to prepare future Pharm.D.s for supervisory/management
munity pharmacy; and to explore the relationships of educa-
responsibilities.
tional integration variables and personal variables to profes-
sionalism and moral reasoning. Methods: A cross-sectional The Abilities Transcript in a Graduate Program: Assessing
mail survey was conducted. 850 randomly selection Likert- the Assessment. Alicia Bouldin, Noel Wilkin, The University
scale questionnaires were sent out. A total of 510 (60.0%) of Mississippi. Objectives: The “Abilities Transcript” has
questionnaires were completed by practicing pharmacists in been used for five years to assess the graduate program in
three settings. The differences of professionalism and moral Pharmacy Administration and to drive curricular revision. This
reasoning among the three settings were analyzed by MANO- process employs performance assessment principles to evalu-
VA. To predict professionalism and moral reasoning, multiple ate student progress on each of the program’s seven educa-
regression analyses were conducted. Results: Results revealed tional outcomes (abilities). An evaluation of the Abilities
that community pharmacists had significantly higher score of Transcript process was conducted. Methods: Faculty, current
the belief in self-regulation (F=3.599, p<0.05) and the belief in students, and recent alumni were asked to complete an anony-
autonomy (F=4.458, p<0.05) than public and private hospital mous online evaluation of the process. The survey included
pharmacists. There was no significant difference of moral rea- items pertaining to perceived value, logistics of the process,
soning among three groups of practitioners. The important and other attitudes. Results: The average amount of time
predictors of professionalism were three educational integra- devoted annually to this process by students was 3 hours. Both
tion variables (academic development, peer group interaction, students and faculty reported personal value in the process,
and perception of faculty concerns), social integration in with ratings of 8.1 and 6.7, respectively (on a 0 to 10 scale .)
workplace and professional satisfaction. These variables With regard to perceived value to the department, faculty rat-
accounted for 30.2% of the variance in professionalism. No ings increased to 7.8; while the value to the department as per-
significant relationship between professionalism and moral ceived by students was rated as 7.9. The direct faculty involve-
reasoning was found. Only two factors, work position and ment in the form of a “developmental mentor” as a useful
monthly income explained 2.2% of the variance in moral rea- means of guiding professional development was recognized
soning. Implications: To meet a patient-based practice among by both students and faculty (means 6.3 and 5.5, respectively,
Thai Pharmacists, professionalism and moral reasoning are on a 1 to 7 attitudinal scale.) Implications: The formalization
two of the most important factors. To enhance professionalism of faculty mentorship of the students’ acquisition of abilities
and moral reasoning in all Thai pharmacists, good supportive throughout the program is a positive byproduct of the process.
environments both in education and practice are needed. Also, as students were neutral about the likelihood of going
through the process of self-reflection and assessment if the
Assessment of Human Resources Management
Abilities Transcript process did not exist, the process may
Coursework in Pharmacy Curricula: phase II. John Pedey-
facilitate development through the encouragement of those
Braswell, Dana Hammer, University of Washington.
behaviors.
Objective: Determine specific amounts and characteristics of
Human Resources Management (HRM) curricula in pharmacy Investigation of the Association of Graduate Student Stress
education. Method: A 13-question survey was developed and With Health-Related Quality of Life and Perceived
piloted in an online format. After revisions, an introductory e- Academic Success Among Pharmacy Administration
mail was sent to instructors likely to provide HRM coursework Graduate Students. Matthew Borrego, Niranjan Konduri,
(based on personal knowledge, AACP directory listing, and Gireesh Gupchup, Marcia Worley-Louis, University of New
School/College of Pharmacy (S/COP Web site information) Mexico. Objective: To investigate associations between stress,
asking if they or another faculty member would be the appro- health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and perceived academic
priate respondent. Identified respondents or another represen- success among pharmacy administration graduate students.
tative from the 87 AACP member schools were then emailed a Methods: The study was a nationwide, cross-sectional, self-
hyperlink to the survey Web site. Follow-up e-mails were sent administered mail survey conducted in United States schools of
four and seven weeks after the hyperlink. Responses were pharmacy with pharmacy administration graduate programs. The
automatically aggregated, then downloaded in an anonymous sampling frame was pharmacy administration graduate students
format. Results: Of the 65/87 (75%) S/COPs responding, enrolled either in a M.S. or Ph.D. program. The number of grad-

48
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

uate students at each pharmacy administration graduate program first time in Fall 2003, for the purpose of student self-reflec-
was determined through e-mail from each graduate program tion as a tool for deeper learning of course concepts. To eval-
coordinator/chair who subsequently distributed questionnaire uate student perceptions of various aspects of the weblog
packets to their students. Each packet consisted of a cover letter assignment, formal input was solicited in the form of a ques-
and questionnaire consisting of four sections: 1) stress question- tionnaire. Methods: The two-page evaluations included items
naire, 2) perceived academic success scale, 3) SF-12 Health related to assignment logistics, student perceptions of learning
Survey, and 4) demographic information. Results: A total of through the assignment, and the assignment’s relationship to
46.5% (172/370) useable survey responses were received after students’ level of awareness of communication concepts in the
two mailings/distributions. There was a significant negative cor- environment outside the classroom. They were administered
relation between the overall stress score and the mental compo- during a class period near the end of the semester. Results:
nent of HRQOL (r=-0.31, p=0.000) and the overall stress score The average weblog entry took 15 to 30 minutes; two entries
and perceived academic success (r=-0.21, p=0.005). There was a per week were required. Student perceptions were generally
significant negative relationship between the mental component positive regarding the logistics and structure of the assign-
of HRQOL and academic stress (r=-0.23, p=0.002), stress about ment. 45% agreed that writing in the weblogs about class con-
feedback (r=-0.24, p=0.002) and economic stress (r=-0.21, cepts made them less likely to forget them. 58% agreed that
p<0.005), respectively. There was a significant negative correla- they thought of communication concepts outside of class more
tion between perceived academic success and academic stress than they would have without the assignment; however, only
(r=-0.23, p=0.002) and perceived academic success and student- 11% actually enjoyed thinking outside of class time. 42%
faculty interaction stress (r=-0.26, p=0.001). Implications: agreed that thinking about the concepts outside of class made
Interventions to minimize stress among pharmacy administration them more conscious of their own communication skills.
graduate students could lead to better academic success and men- Implications: One of the main purposes of the assignment-to
tal HRQOL. get students to think about class concepts outside of the class
Evaluation of Introduction of Sildenafil Citrate on the Self- setting-was apparently accomplished for most students.
Report and Diagnosis of Erectile Dysfunction. Lesa Reading the students’ actual weblog entries suggested that
Lawrence, Shravanthi Gandra, The University of Louisiana at more learning may have occurred than was acknowledged by
Monroe. Objective: To present the pattern of self-report and students on the evaluation.
diagnosis of erectile dysfunction (ED) in United States ambu- From Blackboard and Chalk to WebCT and CD ROM:
latory care settings and to examine the influence of the intro- Revision of a Biostatistics Course. Zack Grapes, Richard
duction of sildenafil citrate. Methods: This retrospective Jackson, William Kelly, Laurel Ashworth, Mercer University.
study utilized data from the 1995–1997 and 1999–2001 Objective: To revise and evaluate a switch from tradition to
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). active learning format in a Biostatistics, Research Design and
Sildenafil citrate was introduced in March 1998, which was Literature Evaluation (Biostatistics) through the use of infor-
considered the intervention year. Male patients 40 years and mation technologies. Methods: The Biostatistics course has
older who reported (National Center for Health Statistics been taught using lecture methodology. The course was
(NCHS) code 1160.3) and/or were diagnosed (ICD-9-CM revised to incorporate active and cooperative learning through
code 607.84 or 302.72) with ED were included. Data were the utilization of information technologies. Data were gathered
analyzed using Statistix v7 Analytical Software. Two-sample z on students’ objective and subjective evaluation of the course
test for proportions was used to compare proportions for diag- and grades. Results: Lectures were recorded on CD and stu-
nosis, self-report, and self-report and diagnosis between the dents were instructed to review the assigned lecture module(s)
pre and post intervention data sets. Results: Higher propor- prior to the class. Students were given a short quiz over the
tions of patients presented with a self-report of ED but were assigned modules using the Classroom Response System. The
not diagnosed with ED after the introduction of sildenafil cit- appropriate instructor(s) reviewed the quiz and any questions
rate (p< .0004). A higher proportion of patients presenting on the module(s) and/or active learning exercise(s) (~30 min-
without a self-report of ED were diagnosed with ED post inter- utes). The students then went to breakout groups of 3 students
vention. The proportion of patients who presented with a self- per group and worked over 200 active learning exercises (~1
report of ED and were diagnosed with ED was lower post ½ hours per session). The WebCT system was utilized for the
intervention (p< .0000). Implications: Results indicate that following functions: grade book, posting active learning exer-
the introduction of sildenafil citrate influenced the self-report cises, practice examinations, threaded discussions, and e-mail.
but not the diagnosis of ED. The advent of FDA approval of Students rated this course significantly higher than other
sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in 1998 and the ensuing direct-to- courses taken that semester on an 8 item likert scale (p > 0.01)
consumer advertising may be responsible for the increased and favorable on subjective evaluations by a 2:1 ratio. Letter
awareness and a large population of patients seeking treat- grades were significantly higher (p > 0.01) than the course last
ment. year taught in the traditional method. Implications: Results
Weblogs as a Self-Reflective Tool in Communications indicate that utilizing information technology (CD ROM,
Class. Alicia Bouldin, Erin Holmes, Michael Fortenberry, The WebCT and Classroom Response System) freed students’ time
University of Mississippi. Objective: Web log technology was for active learning and increased students’ evaluation of the
applied in Professional Communications in Pharmacy for the course and grades.

49
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Assessment of the Reliability and Validity of a Perceived was 4.32 (sd = 2.68). Regarding management electives, 40%
Academic Success Scale in Pharmacy Administration of respondents (n=24) offer none; when offered, Marketing
Graduate Students. Gireesh Gupchup, Niranjan Konduri, (n=18), Hospital/Institutional Pharmacy (n=14), and Managed
Matthew Borregi, Marcia Worley-Louis, University of New Care (n=14) were most frequent. Conclusions: Management
Mexico. Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the offerings vary significantly. Findings could assist in decision-
modified perceived academic success scale (PASS) among making about updating required management content and
pharmacy administration graduate students. Methods: The developing electives.
original six-item PASS developed for graduate students was
Use of Nontraditional Assessments in the Prediction of
modified with the addition of six new items pertinent to phar-
Academic Performance. William Lobb, Noel Wilkin, David
macy administration graduate students. The modified PASS
McCaffrey, Marvin Wilson, John Bentley, The University of
(M-PASS) had 12 Likert-type items and was part of a ques-
Mississippi. Objectives: This study was performed to examine
tionnaire containing a stress scale and the SF-12 HRQOL sur-
the utility of non-traditional measures in predicting academic
vey. Responses to a nationwide survey were subjected to prin-
performance in the first professional year. Pre-pharmacy GPAs
cipal components analysis with varimax rotation to identify
and PCAT scores have been shown to be the two major pre-
the latent components. Cronbach’s alpha reliability for M-
dictors of academic performance. The non-traditional meas-
PASS and the identified components were determined.
ures investigated were the Learning and Study Skills Inventory
Validity coefficients were obtained by correlating the M-PASS
and its components with stress and SF-12 scores. Results: (LASSI), the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal
Cronbach’s alpha for the M-PASS was 0.90 indicating high (WGCTA), and the Defining Issues Test (DIT). Methods: This
internal consistency. A two-component solution was identified study used six years (1997–2002) of pharmacy student data.
with retention of all 12 items. The two components explained The nontraditional assessments were added to the base model
50.61% and 14.22% of the shared variance, respectively. that included pre-pharmacy GPA and PCAT using an enter
Component one had nine items and was named “progression model. The LASSI is comprised of ten individual scores; the
and academic issues” (á = 0.90). Component two had three DIT and the WGCTA each had one score. Results: After
items and was named “program appropriateness.” (á = 0.87). accounting for pre-pharmacy GPA and PCAT score, none of
M-PASS and its component scores were not significantly relat- the assessments added significantly to the prediction of first-
ed to either the physical or mental component SF-12 HRQOL semester or first-year pharmacy school GPA. Implications:
scores. The stress scores were significantly negatively related While they may have limited value in the admission and pro-
to overall M-PASS scores (r = -0.21, p<0.005) and the com- gression decision process, non-traditional assessments such as
ponent one M-PASS scores (r = -0.25, p<0.001), respectively. the LASSI, WGCTA, and DIT may have considerable value in
Implications: The M-PASS was a reliable measure of phar- programmatic assessment. These measures, especially the
macy administration graduate student perception of academic DIT, seek to capture abilities, including ethical development
success. Correlation with the stress scales demonstrated the and lifelong learning, which may not be captured by an indi-
convergent validity of the M-PASS. vidual grade or performance within pharmacy school course
assessments. In other words, their lack of prediction may indi-
A Description of Management Course Structure in United cate that each has value in assessing abilities that may not be
States Schools of Pharmacy. Jan Kavookjian, West Virginia assessed by traditional assessments from pharmacy school
University. Objective: Pharmacy is rapidly changing and courses.
diversifying. Management is a curriculum area that schools
should examine for relevance to contemporary practice in a Use of School of Origin in the Prediction of Academic
dynamic business environment. This study describes a survey Performance. William Lobb, Noel Wilkin, David McCaffrey
of management course structure within United States Schools III, Marvin Wilson, John Bentley, The University of
of Pharmacy. Methods: A brief questionnaire regarding man- Mississippi. Objectives: This study examined the viability of
agement course structure and electives was sent via e-mail to a school of origin variable, defined by the predominance of
targeted faculty at each of 92 Schools of Pharmacy. E-mail completion of the math/science pre-pharmacy component, in
addresses were obtained from the 2003/04 AACP Roster. predicting academic performance. Methods: This study used
Recipients were instructed to attach the completed question- six years (1997–2002) of pharmacy student data. Pre-pharma-
naire to a reply e-mail, or to print it out and fax it. The initial cy GPA and PCAT scores have been shown to be the two major
contact yielded 34 responses; a second e-mail was sent two predictors of academic performance. A school of origin vari-
weeks later to non-responders, yielding 26 additional respons- able was added to this traditional model. School of origin was
es, for a total of 60 (65.22%). Results were adjusted for differ- defined as the institution at which more than 75% of the pre-
ences in semesters vs quarters. Results: Respondent schools pharmacy math/science coursework was completed. Results:
had a mean 116.13 students per class (sd = 50.62); 76.7% were The GPA for transfers from two-year schools was higher than
public institutions. Half (n=30) reported only one required the GPA for transfers from four-year schools. School of origin
course for management content. Twenty-three (38%) schools accounted for almost 6% of the variance above the GPA/PCAT
require two or more courses or portions of other courses; three model in the prediction of first-semester GPA. This variance
schools require four or more courses; seven (11.67%) offer was contributed by the four-year vs two-year designation. The
management content only as a part of other courses. Across all unstandardized coefficient for the four-year dummy-coded
options, mean credit hours for required management content school of origin variable was 0.263. Similar results were found

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

using a 50% cut point for school of origin. The school of ori- ed to facilitate student practice of pharmaceutical care skills
gin variable also accounted for more variance than did posses- such as patient assessment, problem-solving, interventions,
sion of a prior degree. When school of origin was included in and arrangement of follow-up evaluations. Student demonstra-
the model, prior degree was no longer a significant predictor tion of communication and pharmaceutical care skills were
of academic performance. Implications: Although the GPAs assessed with pre and post simulated patient interviews. The
were higher for students transferring from two-year schools videotaped interviews were graded and compiled using a web-
than those from four-year schools, the two-year students’ per- based evaluation tool. Results: Pre and post class percentages
formance was 0.263 grade points lower in the first profession- on relevant patient care activities were as follows: assess
al year. Regardless of the reason, this measure may improve patient understanding of medication purpose (pre=61.90,
the ability of schools of pharmacy to predict academic per- post=97.14); assess patient understanding of medication regi-
formance. men (pre=55.65, post=90.83); assess patient experience of
medication problems and side effects (pre=48.06, post=90.89);
An Assessment of the Change in Knowledge and Attitudes
assess medication effectiveness (pre=52.38, post=93.74);
of Students Regarding Human Resources Management.
assess medication use (pre=55.80, post=92.20); assess other
Jennifer Johnson-Tribino, West Virginia University.
health concerns and problems (pre=57.47, post=89.16); inter-
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of third-year
vene to address problems (pre=50.89, post=91.07); arrange a
pharmacy (P3) students prior to and following a 4-week
follow-up evaluation (pre=34.82, post=90.23). Implications:
human resources management (HRM) module. Methods: A Results indicated improved student use of pharmaceutical care
questionnaire was developed by instructors of our required 2- skills during simulated patient interviews. Pharmaceutical care
hour Pharmacy Systems course that assessed knowledge and skills can serve as a framework in which to use effective com-
attitudes toward relevant topics incorporated in the HRM mod- munication skills.
ule. HRM topics included group organization, leadership/man-
agement, conflict management, motivation, performance eval-
uation, recruitment, selection, negotiation, and interview Work In Progress
skills. Three sections were included in the questionnaire: Efficacy of Educational Intervention on PharmD Students’
knowledge about specific topics, attitudes toward the impor- Ability to Assess Readability and Develop Health-Related
tance of specific topics for pharmacists, and demographics. A Educational Materials for Patients With Low Health
Likert scale was used to evaluate the knowledge statements Literacy. Conrad Dhing, Donna Dolinsky, John Lonie,
from strongly agree to strongly disagree and the attitude ques- Nathaniel Rickles, David Mihm, Long Island University.
tions from absolutely important to not important at all. The Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of an educational interven-
questionnaire was given both prior to the first lecture and after tion aimed at teaching PharmD students to assess readability
the last lecture of the module. The questionnaire was anony- of package inserts and developing health-related educational
mous. Participation was voluntary. Results: The students materials for patients with low health literacy. Process: A con-
improved their knowledge in most areas assessed. Significant venience sample of 96 fourth-year PharmD students enrolled
changes occurred on knowledge of the difference between in a communication skills course was presented with an inter-
group and team, what leadership means, what leaders need, active lecture on the fundamentals of health literacy, including
and the importance of goals (p<0.05). For attitudes, significant the criteria for assessing and developing health-related educa-
changes occurred in rating the importance of leadership devel- tional materials based on the Suitability Assessment of
opment, recruitment, and conflict management (p<0.05). No Materials (SAM) developed by Doak and Doak. Pre-test data
significant differences occurred in knowledge or attitudes were collected before the lecture where students were asked to
across demographic variables for pre- or post-questionnaires. assess and edit a package insert (Ibuprofen) for a patient with
Implications: Results indicate that students’ attitude and an 8th grade readability level. Post-test data were collected
knowledge about HRM and its importance in the practice of after the lecture using the same package insert. The pre- and
pharmacy can change after introduction to the topics. Further post-test samples of edited package inserts will be evaluated
expansion of the course to an elective should be considered. using selected criteria from the SAM. Results: The faculty in
Translating Pharmaceutical Care Skills into a Clinical the Division of Social and Administrative Science will evalu-
Communication Course. Lourdes Planas, University of ate the pre- and post-test data. Inter-rater reliability will also be
Oklahoma. Objective: To optimize patient outcomes from presented. Implications: The ability of pharmacists (and phar-
drug therapy, pharmacy students must be proficient in phar- macy students) to assess the health literacy of patients and
maceutical care and communication skills. The objective of develop appropriate health-related materials for them is perti-
this research was to improve pharmacy student use of pharma- nent in providing pharmaceutical care.
ceutical care skills during simulated patient interviews in a Using a “Diabetes Tool”to Promote Cardiovascular Health:
clinical communication course. Methods: Pharmaceutical Feasibility in Community Pharmacy. Mara Kieser, Lisa
care principles and practice were introduced into a third-year Guirgis, Nathan Kanous, Betty Chewning, University of
communication course. Lectures were designed to present per- Wisconsin-Madison. Objective: Two thirds of diabetes mortal-
tinent pharmaceutical care topics such as patient-centered ity is due to cardiovascular disease, yet 60% of diabetic patients
care, the patient care process (assessment, care plan, evalua- do not feel at risk for high blood pressure or cholesterol. The
tion), and drug therapy problems. Lab activities were conduct- American Diabetes Association is promoting the ABCs of dia-

51
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

betes (A1c, Blood pressure,Cholesterol) with a pamphlet avail- School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences University at
able in PDF format (ABC Tool). This study is at the midpoint Buffalo, Christine Sauciunac, Instructional Technology Services
of evaluating the feasibility of pharmacy students using the University at Buffalo, Travis Piper, Creative Approaches, Inc.
ABC Tool in community pharmacies. Consistent with social Objectives: We developed an interactive, web-based software
cognitive theory, a combination of modeling and role rehearsal application for the pharmaceutical biotechnology drug research
will be used to train PharmD students toward actively assessing and development process. The “Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
patient outcomes. Methods: Fourth year pharmacy students Virtual Lab” was offered as a hybrid course. We evaluated the
will use the ABC Tool with a sample of 10 diabetic patients in software’s pedagogical effectiveness, and how students utilized
their community pharmacy clerkship site. IRB consent proce- the software in the teaching / learning process. Methods: This
dures will be maintained. Students enter data on their experi- project had two phases: phase 1 – Software Development and
ence using the tool via a WEB site. Data submitted includes: phase 2 – Course Implementation. For software development,
number of patients agreeing to be interviewed, patients’ ABC we developed a prototype module that involved software
targets, and knowledge of ABC goals. At the end of the clerk- authoring tool selection, mock-up layouts of content screens,
ship, pharmacy students will complete an evaluation of the educational content creation, storyboard development with art-
ABC Tool. Focus groups with both students and clinical work, animation and programming. Successive modules were
instructors will address the implementation of the ABC Tool. developed and refined with student usability testing. For course
Preliminary Results: At this time, eighty students have used implementation, students chose from hybrid or on-line course
the tool with ~700 diabetic patients. Clinical instructors were formats. Student learning was assessed through quizzes, pre-
receptive to the program and stated that the ABC tool fits into and post-tests; assessment of student mode of learning (eg, how
their workflow. Implications: This project suggests the feasi- the students used the software and course participation format);
bility of pharmacy students using the ABC tool to promote car- and transference of learning from the course to other situations.
diovascular health of diabetic patients in community pharma- Results and Implications: Student post testing results and quiz
cies through assessment of specific patient outcomes. scores were not influenced by student choice of course partici-
Impact of a Health Behavior Change Exercise on Student pation format. Students felt that the software was a valuable
Learning and Behavioral Change. Kimberly Plake, John learning tool. However, hardcopy materials were rated more
Bentley, Purdue University. Objectives: To assess students’ per- important than the software or electronic-materials! Students
ceptions of learning from a health behavior change exercise and preferred to use their “tried & true” study strategies – using
the impact journaling has on health behavior change in a college- hardcopy notes! (Funded in part by The Procter and Gamble
aged population. Methods: Students enrolled in courses focused Curriculum Development Grant.)
on chronic illness at Drake University (N=54) and health care Development and Implementation of a Scholarship of
delivery at University of Mississippi (N=85) participated in a Teaching and Learning Certificate Program for Pharmacy
health behavior change exercise as a part of a course activity. Residents – Teaching Residents How to Teach. Frank
Students were asked to change one of their “bad” health behav- Romanelli, University of Kentucky, Kelly M. Smith and
iors or start a “good” behavior for a four-week period. Although Barbara F. Brant, University of Minnesota (formerly University
students were allowed to choose their target behavior, they were of Kentucky). In 1999, the University of Kentucky (UK)
given examples such as quitting smoking or exercising. Students College of Pharmacy developed the first Scholarship of
at the University of Mississippi were required to journal as a part Teaching and Learning Certificate (STLC) Program for
of their assignment. To assess the activity, all students wrote a Pharmacy Residents. The STLC program was born from a real-
paper reflecting on their experiences, which included: 1) their ization of several deficiencies within our own program as well
success in changing their behavior, 2) what they learned from the as an awareness of national trends in academia. The primary
exercise, and 3) their appraisal of whether they found the exer- goal of this program was to provide a forum for participants to
cise valuable. Results: A qualitative assessment of the students’ gain knowledge of contemporary health professions and phar-
papers focusing on their perceptions of what they learned from macy education issues, to develop experience in teaching/learn-
the exercise is currently underway. The two groups of students ing, and to document accomplishment in this area. The incep-
also will be compared with determine the impact journaling had tion of the program recognized the shortage of well-trained
on the students’ success in health behavior change as well as dif- pharmacy teachers, and the primary philosophy of the program
ferences between students’ perceptions of learning. was built upon the Carnegie Foundation’s work on teaching as
Implications: This exercise was intended to help students devel- scholarship. The STLC program was designed as an elective
op an appreciation of changing health behaviors and demonstrate experience which would provide residents with training in var-
the impact of journaling on health behavior change. Formally ious teaching methodologies and offer a forum through which
assessing the exercise may suggest improvements. accomplishment in the area could be documented. Since its
inception the program has grown beyond UK and now involves
INNOVATIONS IN TEACHING AWARD one other on-site program and two-way teleconferencing to two
other residency programs. Since 1999, over 50 residents have
WINNERS been awarded certificates. Feedback from residency candi-
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Virtual Laboratory: Student dates, residents, and employers has been overwhelmingly pos-
and Instructor Experiences with Courseware Creation and itive. Future plans involve increased multidisciplinary involve-
Subsequent Pedagogical Implementation. Kathleen Boje, ment and continued outreach to other offsite programs.

52
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

A Series of Three Competency-Based Introductory 2005. Grading rubrics are being developed for evaluation of
Pharmacy Practice Experiential Courses. Christopher teaching performance, including: Understanding of learning
Turner, Ralph Altiere, Larry Clark, Carrie Maffeo and Connie preferences and teaching styles; and demonstrated use of effec-
Valdez, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center School tive teaching strategies; Understanding of course construc-
of Pharmacy. The innovation is a series of three required intro- tion/implementation; and application to an existing profession-
ductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) courses intro- al program; Process development for evaluation of teaching,
duced for 2nd and 3rd professional year students as part of the including self-assessment techniques. Implications: Formal
University of Colorado’s entry-level Doctor of Pharmacy pro- learning activities and a variety of structured teaching experi-
gram. The course objectives are to improve students’ under- ences can be used to develop advanced-level teaching skills.
standing of, and ability to utilize, the CAPE competencies This novel teaching rotation uses web-based technology to ful-
required to provide pharmaceutical care, and to enhance their fill requirements for an elective NTPD experience.
ability to self-assess their pharmaceutical care skills. The pri-
mary components of each course are eight community pharma-
Not Presenting a Poster
cy visits to conduct “OTC” counseling and health-promotion
and disease prevention activities, and two visits to introduce Center for Pharmacy Practice Exercises: Integration,
students to hospital pharmacy practice. The primary method of Reinforcement, and the Enhancement of Learning. Marsha
assessment is based on the CAPE outcome competencies. A. McFalls-Stringert, Thomas J. Mattei, Paula A.Witt-Enderby,
Students are required to submit competency statements that R. Pete Vanderveen, Duquesne University. The Center for
describe their pharmaceutical care activities. Each statement Pharmacy Practice Exercises were developed to bridge the gap
addresses a CAPE competency and, to successfully complete between lecture material and pharmacy practice. The goal of
each course, students must reach a required number of state- these exercises was to enhance the process of learning. It was
ments graded as “exceeds” or “meets expectations” by the hoped that these exercises would help alleviate some of the stu-
course director. Students and preceptors agreed that the objec- dent frustration that occurred with their inability to appreciate
tives of the three courses were met and that the students’ per- the applicability of course material, especially the pure phar-
formed valuable work. In conclusion, 2nd and 3rd year phar- maceutical sciences. These exercises were self-developed and
macy students in a series of three IPPE courses improved their have been integrated in participating Professional Pharmacy
general and professional pharmacy practice competencies, Courses for four (4) academic semesters. There is not any evi-
increased their self-confidence to provide pharmaceutical care, dence that this concept is being practiced in any other universi-
and provided valuable patient care services. ty, thus providing enhanced learning possibilities for the phar-
macy curriculum at Duquesne University. Although the stu-
dents at times found the exercises long and difficult, they
INNOVATIONS IN TEACHING AWARD appeared to understand the utility of the exercises and appreci-
HONORABLE MENTION ated the ability to apply their knowledge during their intern-
Development and Implementation of a Virtual Advanced ships and upon graduation.
Teaching Experience. Maria Pruchnicki, Julie Legg, Marialice
Bennett, Dennis Mungall, The Ohio State University. ADDITIONAL ENTRANTS IN INNOVATIONS
Objective: To provide an advanced-level teaching experience
IN TEACHING COMPETITION
for students in our Non-Traditional Doctor of Pharmacy
(NTPD) program. Methods: A virtual (distance-learning) elec- A Case-Based Approach to OTC/Herbal Therapeutics in
tive teaching rotation was developed to enhance NTPD experi- Advanced Community Pharmacy Clerkship. Oluwaranti F.
ential offerings. The sixteen week longitudinal design includes Akiyode, Howard University. Objectives: To effectively instruct
two required components: 1) a web-based Teaching Skills 4th year pharmacy students in OTC/Herbal Therapeutics in a
Curriculum, which provides core knowledge on learning and community pharmacy setting during a 5-week clerkship experi-
teaching styles, course construction, cooperative learning envi- ence. Methods: The 4th year pharmacy students initially com-
ronments, and instructional technology; and 2) structured plete a nonprescription knowledge quiz to assess their knowl-
teaching activities including didactic and online case-based edge base and their areas of weakness. Upon completion, the stu-
instruction, course material development, testing/student eval- dents participate in five 1.5-hour weekly sessions on OTC/
uation, and course assessment. Student teachers meet with pre- Herbal discussion along the pharmacy OTC/Herbal aisles. The
ceptor(s) two hours each week, using an Internet classroom sessions are based on 3 case studies that focus on common non-
(www.elluminate.com). Each student teacher is assigned prescription products. The sessions include hands-on interactive
responsibilities in junior courses in the NTPD program review of the OTC/Herbal products and patient counseling role-
(approximately ten hours/week); a portfolio system is used to playing activities. Upon completion of the sessions, the students
track progress through these assignments. Collaboration with retake the knowledge quiz taken at the beginning of the rotation
the University Office of Faculty and TA Development provides to assess the impact of the nonprescription teaching and training
formative feedback of teaching performance, including student experience. Students also complete an evaluation of the teaching
self-assessment. Outcomes: To date, one student has complet- methodology and experience. Results (or Progress): The stu-
ed the rotation requirements; four are currently enrolled. Two dents strongly agreed that the practical session provided greater
students per semester have been scheduled through winter insight on effective patient counseling, as well as improve their

53
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

OTC/Herbal knowledge. The students especially appreciated the ior. This poster describes each of these steps assesses our cur-
hands-on component of the instruction as they can see and touch rent status including successes and areas for ongoing improve-
the products within the community pharmacy shelves. ment and change.
Conclusions (or Implications): As a result of the teaching
Enhancing Professionalism by Engaging Pharmacy
methodology, students have increased interest in OTC/Herbal
Students Early in Their Education Experience. Gary W.
products and plan to study more in beyond the clerkship course.
Bumgarner, Alan R. Spies, C. Scott Asbill, Valerie T. Prince,
Thus, the students will have increase confidence of nonprescrip-
Samford University. We have initiated a program that engages
tion medicine knowledge, which may increase their willingness
pharmacy students in the professionalism discussion before
to provide nonprescription counseling to patients.
they enter their first year of pharmacy school. Building upon
A Web-Based Module to Develop Problem Solving and the research of Professor Richard Light at Harvard University
Estimation in Pharmacy Calculations. Shelly Chambers, Matt we recognize that a major criterion for students to take a sub-
Hudelson, Cameron Knudson, Karen Hallgren, Greg Crouch, ject seriously is that they must “do something.” Our strategy is
Washington State University and University of Idaho. Using based on this simple premise. In defining professionalism we
Web-based, interactive computer technology, a pharmacy math have emphasized the concept of pharmacy as a “calling” whose
module was developed that promotes collaborative problem primary obligation is to “serve” the patient. We propose that at
solving and permits the instructor to track successful and unsuc- the core of professionalism is the willingness to make sacrifices
cessful learning pathways. This module presents the systems of self for the betterment of the patient. We think by nurturing
used to measure length, weight, volume, and combinations of the connection between the head and the heart of our student
these units, and how to convert between the systems of measure- we can enhance their desire to serve (the core of professional-
ment used in science, commerce and medicine. The innovation ism) and increase overall professionalism during their transfor-
focuses the learner on problem analysis and strategies, requires mation from pharmacy student to pharmacist. We have pre-
students to write to learn while working collaboratively, and uses pared a booklet that includes several short stories/essays that
a case-based approach to engage the learner. The module was deal with this core of professionalism. The works of great
pilot tested by a small focus group, revised, and then implement- authors, such as Anton Chekhov and Nathaniel Hawthorne,
ed as a mandatory unit in the first year calculations course at have been included to utilize their abilities to impact the whole
Washington State University. The Units and Conversion module person (intellectually, emotionally and spiritually) through sto-
has been a successful experiment and the process of authoring a ries. This booklet is sent to all first year pharmacy students dur-
module that sought to engage students in higher order thinking ing the summer prior to their entry into the first year of our pro-
about calculations has revised the primary instructor’s classroom gram. The contents of the booklet are discussed, in small
methods as well. Ultimately, the entire pharmacy math course groups with faculty facilitation, during orientation when the
may be presented using a series of modules with similar design. students first arrive on campus. A survey has been devised to
assess the impact of this innovative approach to enhance pro-
2004 SCHOOL POSTERS fessionalism.

Developing Our Professional Culture at Auburn University Professionalism: Mind, Body and Spirit. Barry Bleidt,
Harrison School of Pharmacy. Bruce A. Berger, Wendy C. Nancy Kawahara, Sharon Hanson, Rebecca Gryka, Gamal
Duncan-Hewitt, R. Lee Evans, Paul W. Jungnickel, Robert E. Hussein, Jennifer Hillman, Bruce Currie, and Avis Ericson,
Smith, Auburn University. Professionalism encompasses Loma Linda University. New programs typically struggle for
knowledge, abilities and values that a school of pharmacy must years to develop a culture of student professionalism. The new
identify, nurture, and assess throughout its program - from School of Pharmacy at Loma Linda University was designed
admission, through graduation. At Auburn University’s to emphasize such values from the start as part of our adver-
Harrison School of Pharmacy we are creating, sustaining, and tising and within the application and interview process. Nine
continually improving a culture directed towards this vision. values play significant roles: Competence, Scholarship,
We have started by identifying our goals: the responsibilities Integrity, Global Outreach, Service, Leadership, Life-long
and attitudes that we must first embrace ourselves and then Learning, Wholeness, and Spirituality. Bringing professional-
inculcate in our students in order to graduate exemplary phar- ism to the forefront required incorporation of such values into
macy professionals. Our second step has been to elucidate our the curriculum and into student activities. Didactic coursework
origin: the attitudes, abilities and knowledge of our entering can only teach professional ideals. To enhance professional-
student pharmacists and - equally importantly - the faculty who ism, all LLU students are required to be members of a select-
we expect to mentor them. Then we have instituted a broad ed group of local, state, and national pharmacy organizations.
range of mutually binding policies and covenants, learning The student chapters afford multiple opportunities to learn,
opportunities, and mentoring structures to facilitate the practice, and perform service activities that build the knowl-
achievement of our goals within the relatively short time-span edge base, hone communication skills, and elevate an under-
of a four-year professional curriculum. Critical pedagogical standing of the high level of professional practice needed with-
issues highlighted include: 1) successful methods for enhanc- in pharmacy. A weekly Professional Development session also
ing faculty modeling and mentoring of professionalism, and; 2) serves to support this culture. In addition, a dress code is in
the choice of teaching and learning strategies to encourage stu- place. Preparing the student’s mind, body, and spirit to be a
dent responsibility and accountability for professional behav- compassionate, caring health professional is integral to the

54
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

overall motto of LLU: “To Make Man Whole.” This motto Operation Immunization, Operation Detect Diabetes, and a
readily articulates with the university’s mission of furthering poison prevention program for school age children. By partic-
the healing and teaching ministry of Jesus Christ. LLU is com- ipating in these activities under the supervision of faculty, stu-
mitted to the education of a diverse student body, imbued with dents learn and demonstrate profession behaviors and atti-
the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors required of tudes. Students are evaluated during small class groups and
health care professionals, actively supporting a global out- throughout the experiential education courses for professional
reach and mission mentality, providing humanitarian service behaviors including: responsibility and follow-through, setting
and promoting healthful living. priorities, professional appearance and attitude and empathy.
Faculty and preceptors are also encouraged to model profes-
Creating a Culture of Professionalism: The First Step in a
sional attitudes and behaviors including participating in pro-
Life Long Journey. Cynthia B. Watchmaker, Donald T. Kishi,
fessional organizations and involvement with student commu-
Michael E. Winter, University of California-San Francisco.
nity service programs. The University of Southern California
Objective: To cultivate a culture of professionalism as stu-
has a multi-faceted approach to the development of profes-
dents enter the PharmD program. Methods: A series of orien-
sionalism in students, faculty and preceptors. Formal course
tation activities, which begin in the summer and continue
activities, community-based programs and evaluation prac-
throughout the first quarter, encourage students to reflect on
tices reinforce professionalism and student development.
professional issues. Through contact with faculty and alumni,
these programs welcome students to the School of Pharmacy Howard University Professionalism Workshop and White
and professional community, engage students in discussions of Coat Ceremony. Anthony K. Wutoh, Joseph R. Ofosu, Olu A.
the professional academic environment and foster a sense of Olusanya, E. Jeannette Andrews, Pedro J. Lecca, Howard
pride and responsibility for their pharmacy education. These University. According to a recent report submitted by The
activities culminate in a White Coat Ceremony sponsored by Taskforce on Professionalism to study and promote Pharmacy
the School of Pharmacy and the Alumni Association. Results: Student Professionalism (Taskforce, 2000), it is important to
Evaluation of these initiatives by students, faculty and alumni develop professionalism in pharmacy students, in order for
has been overwhelmingly positive. These sessions provide an them to serve the profession of pharmacy with integrity and to
avenue for faculty to be explicit about their expectations of provide the highest standard of pharmaceutical care. Howard
students at the professional level, build a sense of community University School of Pharmacy faculty, in conjunction with
and create enthusiasm among students for their professional the Center of Excellence, has developed a Professionalism
education. Student evaluations consistently rate these activi- Workshop and White Coat Ceremony to be part of the annual
ties as the most useful and inspiring in their orientation. The orientation program for incoming first professional year stu-
connection with alumni reinforces the extent to which alumni dents. The goal is not only to welcome the students but also to
support our students now and in the future. Finally, these pro- introduce early in their career the concepts of professionalism
grams operationalize a concept that has long existed in the and professional behavior. During the orientation program,
School of Pharmacy – that the development of professionalism pharmacy students are required to participate in workshops
is a cornerstone of the academic experience from day one. and seminars regarding professionalism and professional
Implications: These sessions represent only the beginning of behavior. The program culminates in a “White Coat and
a process that extends throughout the curriculum. We have Pinning Ceremony” where students are cloaked in the tradi-
learned that as we articulate our expectations of students, they tional white coat of a pharmacist by School faculty. After their
in turn are more outspoken about what they expect from fac- cloaking, students read and sign a pledge of professional
ulty and the educational program. behavior. Family and friends are encouraged to attend this cer-
emony to witness the occasion. The third annual event, which
Professionalism in Pharmacy Education: The University of
was co-sponsored by CVS Corporation, has already shown
Southern California School of Pharmacy. Kathleen H.
improvement in student dress code, behavior, and attitude. The
Besinque, University of Southern California. The USC School
specific objectives of this program are: to develop and incul-
of Pharmacy has demonstrated a tradition of innovation and
cate professionalism and ethical behavior necessary in the
excellence in pharmacy education. USC has developed sever-
practice of pharmacy, to provide a forum to recognize profes-
al initiatives to foster professionalism in students including:
sional role models, and to introduce pharmacy students to the
identifying leadership and professional commitment in appli-
professional environment of pharmacy education in a ceremo-
cants for entry into the school, early introduction of profes-
nial manner.
sionalism concepts through IPPE in the first semester, a
“White Coat Ceremony” for newly admitted students, and for- Relationships Between Pharmacy Student Professionalism
mal coursework in leadership, professional communications and Religious Background and Behavior. B. DeeAnn Dugan,
and career planning is included in the first professional year. David A. Gettman, Wagdy W. Wahba, Seena L. Zieler-Brown,
An “Honor Code” for student conduct and an honor council Christine R. Birnie, Katherine M. Heller, Palm Beach Atlantic
with student and faculty membership have been established. University. Background: Professional development in phar-
Campus-based professional organizations involving both stu- macy students has long been of interest within the profession
dents and faculty participate in a wide variety of community and scrutiny has intensified in this time of transition for the pro-
service programs that reinforce professionalism throughout fession. In an article by Hammer et.al. (2004), six elements of
the curriculum. Examples of the programs include: Kid’s Day, professionalism are identified: altruism, accountability, excel-

55
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

lence, duty, honor and integrity, and respect for others. These Successful Professionalization of Pharmacy Students at
elements are also fundamental in a Christian worldview. Mercer University. James W. Bartling, Jordana L. Stephens,
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate Mercer University Southern School of Pharmacy. The Mercer
the overall relationship between student professionalism and University Southern School of Pharmacy has a long, rich histo-
religious background and behavior among two hundred profes- ry of developing student professionalism. This success is due in
sional pharmacy students at a Christian-oriented University. large part to the emphasis placed upon professionalism in the
The secondary objective was to compare scores among third, School’s mission, core values, profile of the graduate, and cur-
second, and first year students. Method: Professionalism ricular outcomes. Professionalism is sought, fostered, assessed,
among pharmacy students was assessed using items adapted and recognized from the admissions process and on to gradua-
from an instrument developed by Hammer, Mason, Chalmers, tion. The significance which professionalism plays at Mercer
Popovich, and Rupp (2000). Religious background and behav- begins with the recruitment strategy. In the admissions process,
ior was assessed using a 3-item instrument developed by an applicant’s community service, personal qualities, and
Connors, Tonigan, and Miller (1996). Relationships were test- knowledge of the pharmacy profession are reviewed.
ed between the scores on the adapted student professionalism Interviews, essays, and external recommendations are evaluated
instrument and the religious background and behavior scale, for characteristics of professionalism. A White Coat Ceremony
and the other variables using a three-way contingency table and launches new student orientation. Entering students make their
categorical data analysis. Results: Sociodemographic data for initial pledge of professionalism during the Ceremony in front
students is presented. The Chi-squared test or, when appropri- of family, friends, faculty, and peers. Orientation also introduces
ate, Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether statisti- students to a wide selection of professional student organiza-
cally significant differences existed in the responses according tions available on campus. The curriculum exposes students to
to reported respondent’s characteristics, eg,age and previous a variety of role models within the pharmacy profession.
education. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are report- Professionalism is fostered and assessed as part of shadowing,
ed as appropriate. A probability level of 0.05 was used to deter- service learning, community and institutional practice out-
mine statistical significance. Implications: This study provides comes, and advanced practice experiences, which make up the
novel information for the design and effective teaching of phar-
students’ experiential education. A Pinning Ceremony held at
macy student professionalism.
the end of the third professional year marks the transition from
Establishing Professionalism in Pharmacy Distance the primarily didactic portion of the curriculum to full-time
Education. Carol Anne Motycka, Tom Andrew Robertson, Erin experiential education. During this Ceremony, students renew
Lyn St. Onge, Jennifer Schoelles Williams, Sven Allan the pledge of professionalism that was taken on the first day of
Normann, L Douglas Ried, Michael W McKenzie, University of pharmacy school. At annual commencement exercises,
Florida. Objectives: To describe the opportunities for profes- Pharm.D. graduates take the “Oath of a Pharmacist.” This marks
sionalization of students at the distance campuses. Methods: the culmination of the professionalization process at Mercer.
The College’s goal is to provide the same opportunities for pro-
Development, Adoption, and Implementation of a
fessionalization to students at the distance campuses as are cur-
rently available in Gainesville. Professional organizations were Curricular Competency Addressing Professionalism.
established on each distance campus, including ASP, KE, FSHP, George E. Francisco, Pharm.D., Lori J. Duke, Pharm.D., Keith
Student Council, SNPhA, CPFI, PLS, and Rho Chi. Also, the N. Herist, Pharm.D., Charles H. McDuffie, Pharm.D.,
College sponsors professional activities including a coating cer- Catherine A. White, Ph.D., University of Georgia. Due to
emony, pledge of professionalism signing, and patient care. In growing concerns, individual faculty members had expressed
addition, students complete introductory practice experiences an interest in developing specific college policies and proce-
(IPEs) at local community and institutional pharmacies during dures directed toward improving student professionalism.
the first two years of the pharmacy curriculum before beginning While attending the May 2003 AACP Institute, an ad hoc fac-
clinical clerkships in the third and fourth year. Finally, practic- ulty committee developed the framework of a curricular com-
ing pharmacists act as course facilitators and professional role petency on professionalism. Terminal and enabling objectives
models. Results: The College provides distance students with were identified using Bloom’s Taxonomy. Following comple-
opportunities to enhance their professionalism. The organiza- tion of the competency framework, the ad hoc committee fur-
tions, professional activities, and IPEs were duplicated at the ther developed criteria for each objective in an effort to create
three distance campuses using the Gainesville model. By also measurable outcomes and expectations. The completed docu-
utilizing practicing pharmacists as course facilitators and men- ment was presented to the faculty for discussion and modifi-
tors, the distance campuses have an additional opportunity for cation. The final document was adopted as the 10th Curricular
development of professionalism. Implications: Given the Competency for the Doctor of Pharmacy degree program at
growth of distance learning in the education of pharmacists, nur- the Fall 2003 faculty meeting. After adopting the new compe-
turing the growth and development of professional attitudes and tency, a faculty / student committee was organized to develop
behaviors is of great importance. It is necessary to continually an implementation policy for the professionalism competency.
develop new ideas for professionalization via distance learning The intent is to have the policy foster student professional
and to share those ideas with other colleges to insure standards development throughout the curriculum as opposed to being
are maintained within our program and to serve as a model for punitive in nature. We expect to have the policy finalized by
future distance learning programs. the end of the Spring 2004 semester.

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Preparing Leaders in Pharmacy. Joseph F. Steiner, Paul S. individual behaviors assessed, six are considered critical.
Cady, Andrew Gauss, Idaho State University. The faculty, staff Failure in any one of the six core behaviors addressing confi-
and students of the Idaho State University College of dentiality, ethical behavior, punctuality, cooperation, account-
Pharmacy collaborate to achieve professionalism in pharmacy ability, and reliability results in an automatic failure in that
education through the exchange of ideas, the promotion of fac- rotation. Next steps are presented and include assessments of
ulty excellence and the development of support from staff, program outcomes that measure changes in students’ percep-
alumni and friends. Professionalism at the ISU College of tion of professionalism and preceptors’ evaluations of stu-
Pharmacy begins with the entering class. The college, repre- dents’ professional performance.
sentatives and the student members of state pharmacy organi-
“Conversations About Teaching.” Nicholas G. Popovich,
zations join together during the Annual White Coat Ceremony
Susan L. Peverly, University of Illinois at Chicago. The
when first-year students commit to the profession by signing
accrediting body of academic pharmacy, the Accreditation
the Code of Ethics for Pharmacists. Professionalism continues
Council for Pharmacy Education, has challenged each college
to develop as students learn to be technically competent and
to have an organized professional development program for its
ethically responsible pharmacy practitioners. The college’s
faculty. Specifically, the professional development program
new module-based curriculum encourages the exchange of
“should enhance teaching and assessment skills and should
ideas, collaboration and focus on the individual patient’s
assist faculty in efforts to become and remain productive
needs. Equally important is student participation on all college
committees, student organizations and state and national phar- scholars.” In response to this challenge, a “Conversations
macy associations. During the 2003 national APhA Annual about Teaching,” series was created as one approach to allow
Meeting, ISU students won the APhA-ASP Policy and interested UIC College of Pharmacy faculty the opportunity to
Legislative Award. Pharmacy students also implement annual discuss and explore various teaching topics (eg,how to create
diabetes health care education fairs, immunization clinics, course behavioral objectives, how to write examination ques-
cholesterol education clinics, poison prevention education pre- tions, how to write letters of recommendation) in a relaxed,
sentations for elementary school students and fundraisers for interactive format. Each semester, this series meets weekly for
local residents in need. The Professional Pharmacy Student 60–90 minutes as a means to mentor interested faculty. At the
Alliance, an umbrella organization formed in 2003, advocates beginning of each semester faculty complete a needs assess-
the enhancement of all pharmacy student organizations. This ment to identify topics for the subsequent sessions. Weekly
Alliance sponsored the 2004 11th Annual Spaghetti Feed and attendance is voluntary and faculty encouraged to attend
Auction, which raised approximately $3,000 for a Pocatello whenever their schedules permit. The intent of the investiga-
boy to travel to Disney World through the Make-A-Wish tors is to come alongside participating faculty to help them
Foundation®. Thus, preparing leaders in pharmacy requires focus their effort toward their professional development and
the commitment of the student, the profession and the College. improvement of their teaching within the classroom, clinic,
and other learning environments. Because this approach to
Blueprint for Professionalism. Cheryl M. Gallagher, Amy faculty development in academic pharmacy is unique, it was
Lullo, Susan Cornell, Kathy Price, Midwestern University- important to assess the value of the “Conversations,” series as
Chicago. A commitment to professional conduct is a vital a means to improve future offerings of it and to share its
attribute of the competent pharmacist. The associated values impact with others throughout the academic pharmacy com-
and behavior can be taught to students to enable them to build munity. Thus, a retrospective pre-post survey with a brief
a professional identity. The MWU CCP Office of Experiential demographic survey was developed and demonstrated positive
Education has developed and continues to refine a working faculty outcomes.
definition of professionalism that includes establishing behav-
ioral criteria and integrating professionalism into didactic A Curricular Roadmap of Professionalism. Carriann E.
work, exposure to preceptor and faculty models, and evaluat- Richey, Sue Bierman, Trish S. Barton, Patricia Chase, Butler
ing student performance during externship experiences. This University. Butler University COPHS has integrated profes-
descriptive poster details the blueprint for student exposure to sionalism longitudinally across the six year program, develop-
professional expectations and assessment throughout the cur- ing a roadmap for student professional development. This
riculum from the early classroom and practical experiences poster describes our carefully developed courses and activi-
through advanced rotations. In the PS-1 and PS-3 years, stu- ties. At Butler, professionalism begins during recruitment by
dents have classroom lectures detailing the elements of pro- offering a career exploration program. Starting in the freshman
fessionalism, including honesty, integrity, accountability, and sophomore years, preprofessional activities initiate our
responsibility, respect for others, compassion, technical com- formal program utilizing Faculty Orientation Guides, shadow-
petence, knowledge of professional limits, communication, ing experiences, ethics and panel discussions, and service
collaboration, and altruism. Reinforcement of the principles is learning projects, to name a few. First year professional (P1)
maintained through group activities in the classroom and dur- students complete professional orientation and an Introduction
ing introductory practical experiences in community, hospital to Pharmacy course, receive their white coat at a formal cere-
and other clinical practice site visits. During each 6-week rota- mony, and learn the value of health and wellness in a program
tion of the PS-4 year, students receive a midpoint and final called “My First Patient.” Required rotations introduce second
professional evaluation by their preceptors. Students also eval- year (P2) students to future employers, while laboratory
uate their preceptors using the same criteria. Of the twenty assignments guide physician consultations, and case-based

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

activities support early interactions with clinical faculty. Third ioral attributes of a professional and incorporate small group
year (P3) students interact with residents through clinical case activities facilitated by second and third year Pharm.D. students.
conferences and a Residency Showcase. Professionalism and Professional practice courses throughout the first three years
preparedness for rotations is demonstrated and measured require community service participation each semester, discuss
through participation in debates, Discovery Maps, and publications on professionalism in small group meetings, have
Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee presentations. self and peer evaluations that include professional behavior rat-
Students on rotations in their P4 year complete research proj- ings, and continuous exposure to practitioners who model pro-
ects with onsite preceptors and faculty mentors. These projects fessional behaviors and attitudes. An elective course utilizes
are displayed via poster presentations for potential employers guest speakers and reflective writings to stress values, behaviors
and oral presentations at a University-wide undergraduate and beliefs of professionals. Other activities include group pub-
research conference. Activities across class years include serv- lic service projects, a Professional Protocols Program, a
ice projects, networking and interviewing EXPOs, and labora- Leadership Dinner, a Legislative Initiative covering advance-
tory courses requiring demonstration of professional ment of professional legislative agendas and visits with the gov-
demeanor. Following graduation, students are encouraged to ernor and/or lawmakers, and extensive student involvement in
participate in continuing education programs and as future pre- recruiting and admissions. Students provide constructive feed-
ceptors. Our professionalism roadmap is regularly evaluated back on college programs through targeted focus groups and
through a college-wide continuous improvement program. liaison meetings. The student organization and committee struc-
ture, combined with a student “mentor/mentee” process and
Encouraging Professional Development in Pharmacy development programs, teach how to manage groups/commit-
Education. Cynthia P. Koh-Knox, Steven A. Scott, Purdue tees effectively. The combined activities of the official and unof-
University. From the beginning of the first Prepharmacy year ficial curriculum have increased professional attitudes and
through rotational experiences in the fourth professional year, behaviors of the student body, have resulted in 20%-30% of the
Purdue University pharmacy students are mentored and fos- student body attending professional meetings annually and gar-
tered to develop a sense of professionalism as health care pro- nered national recognitions for professionalism from APhA-
fessionals. At the White Coat Ceremony, the Oath of the ASP in two of the last three years.
Pharmacist is read and spoken aloud by the first professional
year students and heard by the audience, emphasizing the Professionalism Is More Than a White Coat: Beyond Rules
importance of dedication, lifelong learning, competence, and Rituals. Cynthia J. Boyle, Jill A. Morgan, Robert S.
patient-focused care, and moral, ethical, and legal conduct that Beardsley, University of Maryland. Background:
will be instilled in pharmacy school. Expectations for continu- Professionalism is an evolving issue that must be addressed in
al development of professional attire and behavior are includ- the context of expectations and goals for pharmacists and soci-
ed in syllabi of core courses. Students write reflections during etal change. For example, manners are rarely taught; and reali-
the professional program about personal growth and profes- ty TV creates negative influences that must be overcome. It is
sional development. A Professionalism Committee of students easier for schools to implement rituals, such as white coat cer-
was formed to survey all pharmacy students of attitudes about emonies, than to systematically create expectations and
professionalism at school. This study will be ongoing to cap- accountability for professionalism throughout the entire educa-
ture changes in students’ attitudes throughout pharmacy tional enterprise. Increased incorporation of technology has
school. Implementation of introductory pharmacy practice also introduced new challenges for students’ professional
experience requires students to observe and work with phar- development. Description: In support of professionalism, the
macy personnel. Preceptor conferences are held yearly to pro- School has implemented strategies, including faculty and staff
vide updates on the program as well as help preceptors civility training, explicit support of student extracurricular
improve their roles as mentors and educators. Research is activities, and enhanced remediation efforts for cases that come
before the student disciplinary committee. A continuum of
being conducted to study the attitudes of pharmacists in part-
expectations and accountability has been articulated for major
nership with students as preceptors/mentors and to further
components of the curriculum from early practice laboratory
develop commitment to life-long learning among graduates.
experiences through advanced experiential learning. The
Students are recognized throughout the program on their
School has also benefited from effective student peer-to-peer
accomplishments in professionalism with awards selected by
interventions. Emerging Issues: The School values the tradi-
peer students and faculty/staff. Pharm.D. projects are recog-
tion of the White Coat Ceremony and other strategies promot-
nized at the senior banquet to showcase graduating students’
ing professionalism. However, additional approaches are need-
hard work to their friends and families.
ed to develop students’ ability to confront difficult professional
Developing Professionalism Through the Official and issues throughout their careers. Future initiatives include
Unofficial Curriculum. Regina G. Caldwell, Dwaine K. Green, addressing professionalism competency throughout all sixteen
Phyllis E. Nally, Peggy Piascik and William C. Lubawy, experiential rotations; providing professionalism sensitivity
University of Kentucky. Student professional development training for residents and graduate students who serve as teach-
begins with a one day summer Pre-Professional Workshop for ing assistants and role models; conducting student civility
admitted students/parents and a three day Professional workshops; and developing appropriate communication guide-
Workshop for new students immediately prior to the start of lines within the school and with other healthcare practitioners.
classes. Both required programs stress expectations and behav- Our goal is for professionalism to become a life skill, devel-

58
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

oped and practiced everyday, even after the white coat is hung and that embrace professionalism. Implications: Attempting to
in the closet. characterize and promote the concept of professionalism is a dif-
ficult task that likely will be an ongoing process. It is critical to
A Multi-faceted Approach to Enhancing Professionalism of
identify for students the core set of values that are embraced by
Pharmacy Students. Caroline Zeind, Michelle M. Kalis, Joseph
professionalism, and thus what is expected of students. Constant
M. Calomo, Martin Zdanowicz, Mehdi Boroujerdi,
reinforcement of those values by the faculty is part of the ongo-
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-
ing process.
Boston. The School of Pharmacy – Boston initiated several proj-
ects aimed at enhancing professionalism of Pharm.D. students Developing Professionalism in an Ability-based Program.
and to meet educational outcomes that entail professionalism. Thomas D. Zlatic, Keri Mattes, Tricia Berry, Ashley Butler,
Professional socialization is a process that requires time and rein- Shelly Enders, St. Louis College of Pharmacy. Though it is in
forcement of attitudes and behaviors. The faculty and adminis- some ways “ineffable,” professionalism can be taught and
tration have all participated in efforts to enhance professionalism assessed within an ability-based curriculum. A goal of the
throughout the curriculum and a Professional Affairs Committee Division of Pharmacy Practice’s strategic plan was to enhance
was created to coordinate the efforts. The approach we took is to professionalism. Action plans included creation of a profession-
begin with applicants to the program and continue throughout the alism task force and the appointment of a divisional assessment
professional curriculum. Beginning in 2003 the faculty interview coordinator. Faculty development programs were held to pro-
all qualified transfer applicants and applicants are asked to pro- mote a shared vision of professionalism consistent with current
vide an impromptu writing sample. During the first few weeks of scholarship. Seven traits of professionalism were identified and
the first professional year, students attend a White Coat subsumed under two pharmacy practice divisional outcomes:
Ceremony and recite the “Oath of a Pharmacy Student.” During “Professional Valuing/Ethical Decision Making” and ”Social and
one of the students’ early practice experiences in the second pro- Professional Responsibility.” Ability-outcome committees
fessional year, a two hour session with active learning exercises developed measurable criteria and levels of performance for each
is devoted to professionalism. During this same experience, stu- ability. Then the abilities were mapped across required pharma-
dents begin to develop a portfolio which includes a self-assess- cy practice courses in 2nd through 6th years, with particular
ment of the educational outcomes, personal goals, and a person- emphasis in early experiential courses. Practice opportunities
al definition of pharmaceutical care. The portfolio development have been incorporated into years 2–4 and are being planned for
continues during the third and fourth professional years. new courses in years 5–6. Students are assessed individually
Guidelines for promoting academic honesty that address profes- within courses, and a long-term project is to measure change in
sional attitudes and behaviors were designed and approved by professionalism over a six-year curriculum by administering a
faculty. Faculty and preceptor development programs provide questionnaire to students in their 1st, 4th, and 6th years. A com-
guidance to faculty/preceptors regarding professionalism of the mittee of course coordinators reviews data and suggests course
students. Assessment of the success of the initiatives is ongoing. modifications that will enhance development of the abilities
However, the White Coat Ceremony is a highly regarded and The divisional strategic plan also called for efforts to coor-
valued event by the students. dinate with other areas of the College to develop professionalism
through curricular and co-curricular activities. Workshops were
Promoting Professionalism in Pharmacy Education at The
held to promote dialog and cooperation.
University of Mississippi. John P. Juergens, John P. Bentley,
Alicia S. Bouldin, and Marvin C. Wilson, The University of A Strategic Approach to Student Professional Development
Mississippi. Objective: To describe the efforts at The University at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of
of Mississippi School of Pharmacy over a five year period to Pharmacy. Maureen Knell, Mary L. Euler, Patricia A.
understand the nature of professionalism, its components, how to Marken, University of Missouri- Kansas City. In 2001, as part
instill the concept within students, and how to operationally of the Schools strategic planning process, we systematically
define it. Methods: A working group of School of Pharmacy fac- evaluated current efforts in student professional development
ulty was formed in 1999 to examine all aspects of the concept of and are implementing several strategies to improve perform-
professionalism. The Student/Faculty Relations Committee also ance in this critical domain. The Task Force on
provided input. Multiple approaches were pursued including sur- Professionalism, Curriculum Committee and Committee for
veys of students and faculty using the critical incident technique, Admissions and Academic Requirements are implementing
seminars, guest speakers, orientation activities, ceremonies, and several initiatives based on the strategic plan. One example is
workshops. An entire faculty retreat was also devoted to profes- that the admissions interview was modified to incorporate
sionalism. Results: It was recognized that professionalism is a behavioral interviewing techniques that assess competencies
very elusive concept that can have a wide range of meanings determined to be key in pharmacy student success. The
depending on the perspective being considered. UM has not set- Student Orientation Program includes discussions of profes-
tled on an operational definition; however, a variety of insights sional identity and responsibility, professional dress and con-
have been gained. It is important to distinguish between the con- duct and the “Student Code of Professional Conduct.” The
cepts of professionalism and professional competencies, and to Task Force is seeking ways to re-institute the Professional
differentiate the notion of incivility, even though civility can be a Development Advisor program for the all Pharm.D. program,
component of professionalism. Some success was achieved in as it was dissolved after the closure of the track-in program.
developing a core set of values that were accepted by the school The Schools newly approved Curricular Outcomes have an

59
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

entire section on Behavioral-Based Abilities containing six mal events and lab exercises. Site visit exercises were incor-
competencies and fifteen specific competencies. New syllabi porated directing students to discuss professionalism with
requirements mandate that faculty include behavioral expecta- their preceptors and to submit a paper titled “What is
tions in their syllabus. A skill path map using the “Curricular Professionalism.” The factors cited by the preceptors were
Outcomes” as the framework is under development. It will then compared with the professional factor ratings of students
match the behavioral-based competencies with individual and faculty from the previous survey data. Two committees
courses and help determine whether there are gaps or redun- have been formed to address professionalism. The Ad Hoc
dancies in our students’ professional development. Individual Professionalism Committee (pharmacy specific) recommends
student professionalism is measured with the clerkship evalu- activities to promote professional behavior. The school-wide
ation tool as a minimum of 20% (depending on what sections Professionalism Workgroup (pharmacy, occupational therapy
of the tool apply to the site) of the points comes from assess- and physical therapy) recommends the development and adap-
ment of their professional behavior. UMKC has an active pro- tation of universal expectations of professionalism and elec-
gram to enhance the professionalism of our students and future tronic documentation for highlighting student excellence as
practitioners. well as noting unprofessional behavior.
Achieving Professionalism in the Pharmacy Program at Increasing Student Exposure to Professional Pharmacy
the University of Montana. Lori J. Morin, Jean T. Carter, Organizations. Harold L. Kirschenbaum, Martin E. Brown,
Gayle A. Cochran, University of Montana. The pharmacy pro- Long Island University. Objective: Involvement in profes-
gram has made a significant commitment to achieving profes- sional associations is recognized as a means to accomplish
sionalism among the student body. This commitment has been change within the profession and move it forward.
incorporated into didactic coursework and practice experi- Associations also provide continuing education that is needed
ences as well as extra-curricular activities. Some of these for personal growth and re-licensure. To expose students to a
activities include: having all applicants to the program com- professional association, a program was implemented that
plete at least sixty hours of experience after which they are required senior students to attend a national or local meeting.
evaluated as to those qualities they possess for professional Methods: Arrangements were made with local pharmacy
study, having all first-year students and their families partici- organizations to allow a select number of students to attend a
pate in a white coat ceremony, having ethical discussions in professional association meeting on a complimentary basis. In
many integrated studies sessions, promoting travel to profes- addition, students could meet the requirement by attending a
sional meetings, and involvement in service activities within national pharmacy meeting. Students were advised of the
the school. The School of Pharmacy and Allied Health requirement at the beginning of the academic year, and were
Sciences is situated on a liberal arts campus which gives rise told that they needed to provide proof of attendance and a 1-
to a unique opportunity to expose pharmacy students to a sub- to 2-page typed overview of the program. Students were
stantive general education requirement. Included in this advised of local meeting dates and sponsors throughout the
requirement is a course in ethics instruction, which pharmacy year via e-mail. Results: More than 200 students participated
students satisfy with a course in applied pharmacy ethics. A during the academic year. Students reported that they were sur-
portion of the School’s annual faculty retreat centers on stu- prised by the degree of networking that occurred and the qual-
dent issues surrounding professionalism. This topic is often ity of the continuing education presentations. Many students
addressed at faculty meetings as well. joined the association the evening of the program. As a result
of the experience, one student prepared an article for the
Fostering Professional Development in a Multipathway
Student Newsletter of the New York State Council of Health-
Pharmacy Program. Beverly A. Talluto, Joseph Ineck,
system Pharmacists dealing with the benefits of attending pro-
Kenneth Keefner, Frances Moore, Creighton University.
fessional meetings. Implications: Exposing students to pro-
Professional development of students enrolled in the web-
fessional organizations may increase the number of students
based pharmacy program was the impetus for renewed interest
who join societies, learn about issues that impact the profes-
in discovering by which means and to what degree profession-
sion, and improve the level of professional involvement.
alism is being provided throughout the curriculum. An inven-
tory of current components includes a Professionalism Developing Student Professionalism Through a Poison
Ceremony, signing of the Honor Code, professional mentors, Prevention Outreach Program for Elementary Students.
professional meeting requirement, multiple awards, portfolio Karl D. Fiebelkorn, Patricia M. Grace, and Gayle A. Brazeau,
development and evaluation of professionalism while at Early University at Buffalo. All first year professional students in a
Practice site visits. Several surveys were administered to fac- Pharmaceutical Care I Course (PHM 316) are required to par-
ulty, on-campus and web-based students and preceptors which ticipate in a poison prevention program targeted towards stu-
mapped a list of professional beliefs, attitudes and values. A dents in kindergarten and first grade. Schools in local districts
second survey was administered to faculty to discern in what are contacted and respond indicating the number and times
courses professionalism attributes were addressed. It was they would like these presentations to be given to their stu-
determined that these attributes were presented to students a dents. Teams of three to six students are asked to develop pre-
minimum of 2 hours throughout the curriculum by way of sentations that address the following: 1) what is a poison, 2)
activities such as feedback to students, assessment/evaluation, the five routes of poisoning, 3) products that can become poi-
class objectives, informal discussion, classroom lecture, for- sonous if misused, 4) how a medicine can become a poison, 5)

60
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

asking an adult before eating or drinking something, 6) what is in precise quantities, using special preparation techniques and
a pharmacist, 7) who to call in the event of a poisoning (911 or a controlled baking environment. Professional socialization of
the Poison Control Center). The teams are encouraged to student pharmacists similarly confounds pharmacy faculty and
design short interactive programs (10–15 minutes) for children requires comprehensive strategies regarding the elements of a
using games and cartoons. The teams also introduce the chil- plan, professionalization processes, and development of a sup-
dren to “look-alike” products; that when unlabeled, can be portive environment. We employ a comprehensive approach
mistaken for each other, and could lead to serious injury. All that begins with recruitment. Recruitment efforts introduce
children are provided with a letter to take home to their par- professional expectations to potential students. Leadership,
ents, which explains our program, a Household Poison Safety communication and problem-solving skills are assessed
Checklist for the children to complete with their parents along throughout the admission cycle. Orientation for entering stu-
with poison prevention coloring pages and a program comple- dents addresses progression policies, code of student conduct,
tion certificate. Each year the program reaches over 6,500 opportunities for professional involvement, and the patient-
kindergarteners and first graders in the western New York practitioner covenantal relationship. Faculty advisors provide
region. A videotape and DVD are being developed to enhance professional mentoring. Professionalization strategies are
the reach of the program to other school districts as well as woven throughout the curriculum. The Pharmaceutical Care
babysitters. Laboratories and Professional Experience Program provide
Inculcation of Professionalism: The Nevada College of clear behavioral expectations, professional role models, and
Pharmacy Experience. Amy H Schwartz, Renee Coffman, opportunities to participate in diverse practice settings, com-
Thomas H Wiser, Michael DeYoung, Thomas Metzger, Nevada munity service projects and professional organizations. A vari-
College of Pharmacy. The development of a new College of ety of assessment strategies track student development. Other
Pharmacy comes with numerous inherent challenges. The innovative activities include an etiquette dinner and white coat
exponential growth in students, faculty, administration and staff ceremony. The final clerkship year provides students with
creates a unique opportunity to inculcate a culture of profes- opportunities to refine professional behaviors through small-
sionalism. The Nevada College of Pharmacy has faced these group work with faculty mentors in Area Health Education
challenges by incorporating several initiatives to foster profes- Centers. Students may also participate in a Clinical Scholars
sional socialization from recruitment through graduation. The Program that prepares them to compete for post-graduate
first example is the inclusion of professionalism as an admis- training. The clerkship year culminates with a career celebra-
sions criterion. Similarly the Student Handbook contains tion and graduation. Details of these approaches, results of a
Standards for Professional Conduct, which is governed by the recent student professionalism and role-model commitment
Student Professionalism Board. Student representatives sit on study, and a development of core values project will be pre-
the Professionalism Board and several other College sented.
Committees (Admissions, Curriculum, Assessment Appeals Promoting Professionalism at the Raabe College of
and Educational Resources). The annual White Coat Ceremony Pharmacy. Kimberly A. Broedel-Zaugg, Jeffery C. Allison,
introduces students to the profession, while the annual Awards Thomas P. Faulkner, Ohio Northern University.
Ceremony honors student excellence, including professional- Professionalism is promoted by the college of pharmacy
ism. Professional behaviors are assessed during all experiential throughout the curriculum in many ways including code of
training activities (early, core and advanced rotations). Lastly a conduct, ceremony, civic duty, and classroom participation.
variety of professional organizations and fraternities are avail- Both the University and the college of pharmacy provide
able for students, including a newly established Phi Lambda expectations of professionalism through written codes of con-
Sigma chapter. Future initiatives include the development of an duct found in the University catalog and college student hand-
ad hoc Professionalism Committee to ensure the professional book. Faculty present these codes to students during the first
culture is maintained, promote and reward exemplary profes- quarter of their college experience. Ceremony includes the
sional behaviors, and longitudinally monitor profession social- professional commitment ceremony performed during their
ization. Mentoring programs for students, faculty and precep- third year of study, a hooding ceremony prior to graduation,
tors will be developed to foster professional development and and an annual honors day ceremony to recognize leadership
networking alliances. Curricular mapping performed concur- and scholarship within the profession. Students are encour-
rently with analysis of student, faculty, preceptor, administra- aged to participate in providing professional community serv-
tion and staff professional attitudes and behaviors will be ice through an elder care program (presentations given at sen-
undertaken to better appreciate present status (baseline). These ior citizen congregate meal sites), disease state screening pro-
endeavors help prepare for longitudinal assessments to ensure grams (blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol levels taken at
continuous and successful inculcation of professional values. local malls), and wellness programs (supporting community
Intentional Professionalization Strategies Across the pharmacists in promoting wellness and disease state manage-
Pharmacy Education Experience (or Baking the Perfect ment for a local industrial plant). Students are trained in pro-
Soufflé). Pamela U. Joyner, University of North Carolina at fessional dress and communications through a pharmaceutics
Chapel Hill. Baking the perfect soufflé has mystified more laboratory; immunization certification; video interviewed
than a few superb cooks. Whether as a main dish or elegant patient, examination, and review (VIPER); and attendance at
dessert, the soufflé must be prepared with the right ingredients national or state pharmacy meetings.

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

Professionalization as a Continuum: From Prepharmacy political advocacy in pharmacy with the formation of
Student to Alumni. Kenneth M. Hale, Robert W. Legislative Day. On this day, professional classes march on the
Brueggemeier, Gerald L. Cable, Sylvan G. Frank, Milap C. State House, discuss pharmacy practice related topics, and
Nahata, The Ohio State University. The professionalization provide students opportunity to experience the impact that
process is viewed as a continuum that begins at our first contact they have on legislation. Through these diverse activities, pro-
with prospective students and extends into our relationship with fessionalism is exemplified not only in the new programs that
them as alumni. Recruitment materials and functions emphasize we have implemented, but also the enhanced collaboration of
professionalism. Prepharmacy initiatives engage students with the students throughout the college working on these projects.
members of the college community and pharmacy practitioners.
Professionalism: A Critical Element in Pharmacy
These initiatives include a PrePharmacy Club, a living learning
Education at the University of South Carolina College of
program (Pharmacy House), an Early Admissions Pathway for
Pharmacy. L. Clifton Fuhrman Jr, Wayne E Buff, Farid Sadik,
honors students, and a Pharmacy Scholars program. The admis-
University of South Carolina. It is the objective of the
sions process incorporates doctoral student ambassadors, facul-
University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy to incorpo-
ty, practitioners and alumni. Students are encouraged to partici-
rate various aspects of professionalism throughout the timeline
pate in professional associations as early as interview and ori-
of the four-year professional program. Beginning with an
entation days. Professionalism is showcased in college tradi-
interactive focus on professional behavior and the White Coat
tions such as our white coat and hooding ceremonies. These cer-
emonies stress the role of a professional in our society and Ceremony during the First Professional Year Orientation and
incorporate the Student Pledge of Professionalism or Oath of a concluding with the recitation of the Oath of the Pharmacist
Pharmacist, along with participation of our alumni, profession- during Convocation Ceremonies for Fourth Professional Year
al associations, and the State Board of Pharmacy. The graduates, our students are asked to become familiar with and
Professional Experience Program, including clinical rotations in take responsibility for development of their own professional-
the first, third and fourth years of the curriculum, expose stu- ism in a variety of ways. The pharmacy practice laboratory
dents to outstanding practitioners and practices and evaluate sequence, which extends over the first five semesters in the
their conduct as professionals. Community service requirements curriculum, establishes an expectation of a level of profes-
within these rotations emphasize the importance of service to sional behavior similar to the actual practice setting; the early
others. Our Code of Student Conduct outlines behavioral expec- and advanced practice experiences maintain a similar expecta-
tations in the classroom, laboratories, during examinations, and tion with regard to professionalism within actual practice situ-
at experiential sites. Professionalization outcomes are integral to ations. Classroom focus groups in the areas of ethics, medica-
our assessment processes. We recognize student, preceptor and tion errors, impaired pharmacists, and ancillary practice
alumni professionalism with institutional awards, and our alum- opportunities expand on various aspects of professional
ni provide an ongoing support/mentoring structure for student behavior. Participation in student organizations at the local,
development as a professional. Our experience demonstrates the regional, and national level enhances the professional experi-
value of emphasizing professionalism as a continuum. ence. In all of these areas, the faculty plays a critical role in
both teaching concepts related to professionalism and demon-
“Fostering Professionalism Through the Student strating professional behavior in their teaching, research,
Leadership Council.” Anthony G. DelSignore, Joshua Gagne, administrative, and pharmacy practice roles.
Matthew LaCroix, Amy Talati, Katherine K. Orr, The Student
Leadership Council, University of Rhode Island. The Student Professionalism With Elderly Patients: The CARE
Leadership Council (SLC) was established one year ago at the Program. Angela D. Solis, W. Arlyn Kloesel, Jamie C. Barner,
University of Rhode Island and is committed to increasing stu- Steve W. Leslie, Patrick J. Davis, Jennifer R. Myhra, Joanne F.
dent involvement in professional activities. The council brings Richards, The University of Texas at Austin. The CARE (Care
together student leaders of organizations to foster profession- and Respect for the Elderly) Program, established in 1999, is
alism throughout the college. The SLC operates under four an early practice experience associated with a first profession-
fundamental tenets represented through its’ activities. First, we al year course. Program goals include enabling pharmacy stu-
encourage a sense of community within the College of dents to better understand and interact with elderly residents in
Pharmacy. This is seen in the establishment of the annual assisting living facilities; providing opportunity to learn about
College of Pharmacy Picnic, bringing together the college common medical conditions affecting the elderly, the medica-
family to interact not only on a professional level but also a tions used in treatment, drug therapy outcomes, and medica-
personal level. In the White Coat Ceremony senior students tion adherence issues; improving communication skills with
place white jackets on new first year professional degree stu- other healthcare professionals; and exploration of the impact
dents, encouraging a mentoring role amongst students. of values and ethics on healthcare provision. Each student is
Secondly, we promote academic review and revision through assigned to one of six assisted-living facilities, and subse-
participation on the curriculum committee. Constructive com- quently assigned to a resident in the facility. Students visit
ments and suggestions are submitted from the four profession- their residents a minimum of twelve times over two semesters,
al classes and presented as one unified voice. Next, we advo- provide social support to the resident, gather subjective and
cate health and disease prevention through participation in objective patient data, observe visible symptoms of diseases
Kick Butts Day, Making Strides Against Breast Cancer, or and side effects of medications, and observe at least one sched-
other pharmacy related outreach events. Finally, we advance uled medication administration round. Students attend multi-

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

ple one-hour small and large group discussion sessions during specific goals and ideals desired in the pledge. The myriad of
the academic year, give a case presentation on their resident ideas offered by the students were categorized into major
using a modified SOAP format, and complete three written themes such as excellence, accountability, and trust before
assignments – a “Reaction Log,” “Communicating with the being voted upon. After voting, the approved topics (excel-
Elderly,” and “Medication Compliance in the Elderly.” The lence, respect, integrity/honor, service/duty, and compassion)
program is based upon solid pedagogy of service learning, were divided amongst student advising groups for text con-
which includes involving student reflections through journal- struction. The resultant disparate texts were compiled and edit-
ing and writing assignments, thoughtful interactions and sus- ed by the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs before the final
tained relationships with patients, and group sharing of expe- unveiling at the class White Coat Ceremony. The ultimate goal
riences to expand the learning opportunities for each student. of this collaboration was the creation of a singular profession-
Research in progress includes assessing student changes alism pledge to guide our class through our academic and pro-
regarding perceptions of the elderly, exposure to disease states, fessional lives. [Prepared by the Bernard J. Dunn School of
and knowledge of medications. Pharmacy Class of 2007.]
Hampton University School of Pharmacy’s Pursuit of Enhancing the Professionalism of Pharmacy Students at
Professional Excellence in Pharmacy Education. Michelle the University of Washington. Katherine Hale, Gail
R. Easton, Carmita Coleman, Tara Jenkins, Arcelia Johnson- Caballes, Dana Hammer, Nanci Murphy, University of
Fannin, Hampton University. Hampton University School of Washington. The University of Washington School of
Pharmacy (HUSOP) has embraced inculcating professional- Pharmacy (UWSOP) employs a variety of methods throughout
ism in each student as an integral part of the theme and identi- its programs to enhance student professionalism. Efforts are
ty of the program since its beginnings in 1997. These efforts most notable in our recruitment, admissions, orientation,
are seen vividly in three distinct areas of the program: pre- didactic, and extracurricular programs. Recruitment:
pharmacy offerings/activities, professional program, and post- Potential applicants are sent a copy of the UWSOP
graduate educational pursuits. The pre-pharmacy club, cur- Admissions, Retention and Graduation Standards that lists
riculum, pre-admission experiences are defining professional professionalism attributes such as, integrity, compassion,
experiences for our freshman and sophomore students. The altruism, competence, and a commitment to life-long learning.
pre-admission experience is a unique requirement for admis- Admissions: Professionalism is indirectly assessed through
sion to the professional program and is designed to impart the application process via a personal interview, extracurricu-
exposures involving professional expectations. Inclusion of lar and community service activities, written essays, and rec-
ceremonies also foster awareness of professionalism, most ommendation letters. Orientation: A 5-day program incorpo-
notable are the White Coat, Rites of Passage, and Oath rates professionalism workshops and activities, culminating in
Ceremonies. In addition, HUSOP faculty and students partici- a “Welcome to the Profession” ceremony where white coats
pate in recognized professional activities including National are adorned and a class-created Pledge of Professionalism is
Pharmacy and Poison Prevention Weeks. Students are strong- read. A follow-up discussion, “Revisiting the Pledge” is con-
ly encouraged to participate and present original research gen- ducted at various times throughout the Pharm.D. program.
erated from course work in local, national, and international Didactic: Professionalism is addressed, developed and meas-
venues to promote professional development. Rho Chi, ured through core and service-learning courses, pharmacy
Academy of Students of Pharmacy, and the Student National practice labs, and several independent study courses and elec-
Pharmacist Association are the three professional pharmacy tives. Extracurricular: A ‘culture of activism’ is promoted. A
organizations available to HUSOP students. The School has high percentage of students and faculty are active in profes-
supported active student participation at the Virginia sional organizations and community outreach. Student activi-
Pharmacists Association Legislative Day. HUSOP has a ties are strongly supported by faculty, practitioners, and
required dress code, strict class attendance policy, as well as at administration. A mentor program facilitates professional
minimum 2 – 3 didactic lectures per year at each class level the interactions between students, peers, and alumni pharmacist
Professional Development Series (PDS) in the Pharmaceutical preceptors. A Student ad hoc Committee on Professionalism
Care Series to instill and promote professional involvement, discusses ideas and implements programs by which profes-
responsibility and citizenry. These activities continue to foster sionalism can be further enhanced among student peers. Full
student interest and garnering of post-graduate training posi- descriptions of these activities will be described.
tions in a highly competitive profession.
Faculty and Student Perspectives on Classroom Incivility.
Our Prescription for Professionalism. Mary Ann F. Jennifer Clutter, Charles Ponte, W. Clarke Ridgway, Mary
Kirkpatrick, Shenandoah University. The Bernard J. Dunn Stamatakis, Shelly Stump, West Virginia University. Faculty
School of Pharmacy initiated a new program with the class of members struggle to deal with a perceived generation of
2007 to increase awareness and responsibility of professional- aggressive and rudely behaved students. Is today’s millennial
ism. The poster describes the process utilized to collectively generation consciously rude? Or are they simply a product of
and democratically create our class Professionalism Pledge. their upbringing and environment with faculty reluctant to
The initial step in drafting the document was a formal presen- change their own behavior to better interact with today’s stu-
tation on professionalism, delivered by the Associate Dean. dents? Our objective was to interview both students and facul-
Next, the class engaged in a brainstorming session to identify ty to identify common issues inhibiting productive classroom

63
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

learning. Two focus groups were chosen; one with eight facul- ical processes including organ development, metabolism, pro-
ty members selected from each of the major divisions of the liferation and cancer. In one transgenic mouse model, main-
school, and another with ten randomly selected students repre- taining FoxM1b in the liver of old mice restored hepatic pro-
senting the P1 – P3 classes. Each group discussed incivility liferation and regenerative properties to that of a healthy,
behaviors, the severity of the problem, and how it affects young regenerating mouse liver. Increased FoxM1b expression
classroom learning. The study revealed that all participants also restored expression of genes required for cell division
recognize incivility as an issue. Faculty saw it as a much more demonstrating that FoxM1b was sufficient to maintain old
serious issue than students. When asked to name the rudest cells in a young, proliferative state. These results suggest that
conduct displayed by each group, no common behaviors were researching the mechanisms governed by FoxM1b will
identified. All student participants admitted to past incivility, improve our understanding of the aging process. Methods: In
while only 25 percent of faculty participants admitted to ever this project, I have studied targeted FoxM1b expression in
behaving in a discourteous manner. Students clearly articulat- Drosophila melanogaster. The transgenic fly utilized a pro-
ed the need for faculty to lead by example and not to assume moter region to express the yeast transcriptional activator in
that respect is automatic simply based on position. either the posterior part of the developing wing (engrailed pro-
Findings were shared at a faculty meeting and plans are moter) or in the entire developing wing (scalloped promoter).
underway to share the results at a student assembly. It is antic- These transgenic flies were crossed with flies containing a
ipated that guidelines for classroom behavior will be devel- Gal4 responsive-promoter (UAS) driving expression of the
oped and adopted in the near future. human FoxM1b cDNA. Results: Analysis of the phenotype in
these transgenic lines expressing human FoxM1b,
engrailed/FoxM1b (en-Gal4/FoxM1b) and scalloped/FoxM1b
MERCK STUDENT ABSTRACTS (sd-Gal4/FoxM1b) demonstrated that FoxM1b expression in
Lead/Manganese Metal Mixtures: Effect on DNA Content the nucleus disrupted the normal wing development in the
and Cell Cycle Protein Expression in Rat adult transgenic flies. The enGal/FoxM1b transgenic line dis-
Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells. Andrea M. Brown, played malformations in the posterior wing compared with a
Florida A&M University. Introduction: Lead and Manganese wild type fly. The sd-Gal4/FoxM1b transgenic flies that
are examples of some metals commonly found in the environ- expressed FoxM1b in the embryonic wing disk failed to devel-
ment. These metals rank high on ATSDR priority list for haz- op wings altogether. My FoxM1b transgenic fly lines dis-
ardous substances for which mechanistic data are lacking. played a more dramatic wing phenotype than another trans-
Both metals, show a similar health outcome, namely cognitive genic fly overexpressing d-myb, which is known to control
deficits, in children and the elderly. To date, there is scarce proliferation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that FoxM1b is
published data explaining the cytotoxic mechanisms of action stimulating proliferation in the wing disk of Drosophila, dis-
for metals and metal mixtures. With this research, we hope to rupting adult wing development.
determine whether these metals conspire to produce DNA Characterization of Anti-Angiogenic Properties of
damage and altered protein expression, which may be predic- Pigmented Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF). Kimberly
tive of disease initiation or progression. Methods: PC12 (Rat U. Fleming, University of Florida. Introduction: A new trend
Pheochromacytoma) cells were exposed to Pb alone, Mn in cancer therapy is to target the cells that support tumor
alone, and Pb/Mn metal mixtures at various concentrations growth, rather than targeting the cancer cells themselves.
(50, 100, 300, 500 uM). Quantitative methods such as MTS Pigmented epithelial derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to
Cell Viability Assay, Flow Cytometry, Bradford Protein Assay, inhibit angiogenesis, a vital component of tumor growth. The
PAGE Gel Electrophoresis/Western Blot Analysis, and anti-angiogenic properties of this protein have not been shown
Annexin V FITC Apoptosis Assays were all used to using a non-viral gene therapy approach. We would like to
Characterize the effects of these metals on PC12 cells. demonstrate the pharmaceutical possibilities of using PEDF in
Results: Pb had no effect on PC12 cell viability or DNA cell the treatment of brain tumors. Methods: The PEDF gene has
cycle. However, Mn significantly decreased cell viability and been cloned into an expression plasmid and grown in a large
caused cell cycle arrest in the S-phase (Synthesis) of the DNA scale preparation. COS-7, RG-2, T98G, and A172 cells were
cell cycle, but seemed to have no effect on the proteins being cotransfected with PEDF and a green fluorescent protein
expressed during this phase. Pb/Mn metal mixtures caused a (GFP) expression plasmid and cultured in corresponding
slight decrease in cell viability, an arrest in the S-phase and in media for 72 hours. Cells were monitored for percent trans-
the G2/M phase of the DNA cell cycle of PC12 cells.
fection by fluorescence activated cell scanning (FACS) and the
Conclusion: Taken together, our findings show that PC12
supernatant and cell pellet were assayed for the presence of
cells are more vulnerable to Mn alone compared with Pb alone
PEDF by western blot and the amount of PEDF by ELISA.
and PC12 cells are more vulnerable to Pb/Mn mixtures than to
Next, a transwell assay was used to better simulate in vivo
the Pb or Mn alone.
conditions. A172 and T98G cells (tumor cells) were cotrans-
Over-Expression of Human Foxm1b in Drosophila fected with PEDF and GFP in bottom wells and porcine pul-
melanogaster. Margaret B. Dennewitz, University of Illinois monary endothelial cells (PPECs) and human umbilical vein
at Chicago. Introduction: FoxM1b belongs to the Forkhead endothelial cells (HUVECs) were plated on the top wells. Cell
Box family of transcription factors that has been implicated in media that was used in each well corresponded to the type of
regulating the expression of genes involved in diverse biolog- endothelial cell plated on top (PPEC or HUVEC). Samples of

64
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

the supernatant were collected at 24, 48, and 72 hours and test- Relative peptide binding strength on HLA-A*0201 were
ed using ELISA. Cell pellet was collected at 72 hours and will determined using T2 cells and a fluorescein-labeled beta-2-
be tested using a BCA protein assay. Results: PPEC, and microblobulin. Peptide immunogenicity was determined in the
T98G and A172 cells transfected with PEDF in transwell assay HLA-A*0201 transgenic (A2 tg) mice and splenic T cells were
appear to have slower growth than control cells. A172 cells harvested 14 days after vaccination. Frequency of antigen-spe-
transfected with PEDF in the transwell assay displayed an cific T cells was determined using a soluble dimeric HLA-
altered morphology with elongated protrusions from the cells A*0201:Ig fusion protein (DimerXA21; BD Pharmingen)
resembling neurite extensions from cells bodies. This altered loaded with the native peptide and co-stained with anti-CD8
morphology was not observed in untransfected cells or cells antibodies. Results: X-ray data and molecular dynamics sim-
transfected with a GFP expressing plasmid. ELISA test does ulations have suggested that the R6 side chain is flexible.
not show presence of PEDF in any collected supernatant, pos- Molecular modeling studies showed that mutating E7 to an
sibly due to degradation, sticking to the plate, being bound to alanine (E7A) alters the hydrogen-bonding pattern surround-
cells, or being taken up by cells. ing R6 inside and outside the peptide binding groove. Binding
analysis showed that replacing E7 with an alanine (E7A) had
Sensitization of Gliomas to Temozolomide by Gleevec.
minimal effect on stabilization of HLA-A*0201 on T2 cells.
Hsun-Lun (Aaron) Huang, University of California-SF.
The relative MHC binding strength denoted by Mean
Introduction: This study sought to improve gliomas therapy
Fluorescent Intensity (MFI) was 122.3 for the Native peptide
by better understanding the activity of temozolomide (TMZ), and was 110.1 for E7A. Conversely, this mutation greatly
an oral chemotherapy agent. In vitro studies showed TMZ diminishes the ability of the peptide to activate antigen-specif-
induce G2/Mitosis (G2/M) arrest in gliomas. Modulation in ic T cells in A2 tg mice. The frequency of DimerXA21 detec-
G2/M arrest may increase TMZ cytotoxicity. Gleevec was tion of epitope specific T cells in vivo was 4.79%±0.46 for the
demonstrated to inhibit the activity of platelet derived growth Native peptide and 2.81%±0.26 for E7A. Conclusions: These
factor receptors (PDGFRs), C-Abl, C-Kit, and Protein Kinase data support the hypothesis that changing the hydrogen-bond-
3 (PI3). These tyrosine kinases were essential in cell cycle sig- ing pattern at position 7 in GVYDGREHTV can modulate T
naling and growth. Inhibition of these kinases by Gleevec may cell recognition of R6. This work was supported by National
sensitize gliomas to TMZ. Methods: Colony formation assay Institutes of Health Grant R15 CA97990.
was used to assess the long term toxicity of the TMZ +
Gleevec treatment, while ß-galactosidase senescence (ß-gal) Construction and In Vitro Evaluation of a Novel AAV
assay, cell cycle analysis, and MTS metabolic assay were used Vector for Type I Diabetes Mellitus. Keith C. Lowe,
to assess the short term toxicity. Changes in kinases activity University of Florida. Introduction: Type I diabetes mellitus
were detected by Western blotting. Results: Colony formation is an autoimmune disease in which there is strong evidence
assay showed a reduction in colony formation efficiency in that anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory agents can have
U87 GBM cells treated with TMZ+Gleevec vs TMZ alone. a positive effect on the progression and development of the
Cell cycle analysis indicated that Gleevec did not alter TMZ disease. One of the promising agents with anti-inflammatory
induced G2/M arrest. ß-gal assay and MTS metabolic assay properties is alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). We attempted to
showed a higher degree of senescence and reduction in meta- develop a novel gene therapy vector which can mediate regu-
bolic activity in cells treated with TMZ alone or latable expression of hAAT to optimize the protective effect.
TMZ+Gleevec than cells treated with Gleevec alone or with- Methods: A vector was constructed containing a woodchuck
out treatment. No difference in the degree of senescence and hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element, a tetra-
metabolic function, however, was observed between TMZ and cycline transactivator, tetracycline bidirectional promoter, and
TMZ+Gleevec treated cells. Our immunoblotting analysis a recombinant hAAT gene. Two cell lines, 293 human kidney
showed that Gleevec inhibit the activation of PDGFR-ß, and cells and C2C12 mouse muscle fibroblasts, were transfected
with four different gene constructs: pTR-tet-ON-AAT (for-
PDGFR-ß’s downstream effecter—AKT. Conclusion:
ward and reverse orientations), pCB-AT, and pCB-AT
Gleevec increased TMZ induced cytotoxicity in U87 GBM
(WPRE). The cell lines were incubated in a range of doxycy-
cells by decreasing colony formation efficiency without alter-
cline concentrations. hAAT concentrations were assessed
ing G2/M arrest. Increase in senescence and decrease in meta-
using ELISA. Later, C2C12 cells were differentiated to assess
bolic function correlated well with G2/M arrest.
change in gene expression. Results: The vectors with the
TMZ+Gleevec did not show a higher degree of senescence or
CMB/ß-actin promoters (pCB-AT) had a slightly better level
further reduction in metabolic function than TMZ alone.
of expression in the 293 cells. Varying the levels of antibiotic
Gleevec’s inhibition on the activation of PDGFR-ß and AKT
did not appear to have an effect on the level of expression. In
may contribute to the observed synergism between TMZ and
the C2C12 cell lines there was a higher level of expression
Gleevec.
with the pCB-AT constructs compared with the pTR-tet-ON-
Rational Based Design of Anti-Tumor Vaccines. Matthew A. AAT constructs. Changing the concentration of antibiotic did
Joseph, Duquesne University. Purpose: To investigate pair- not have an effect on the level of expression. Differentiated
wise interactions between the arginine (R6) and glutamic acid C2C12 cells exhibited a favorable kinetic profile with respect
(E7) in GVYDGREHTV on T cell activation. This peptide is to hAAT expression. Conclusion: The tetracycline vector sys-
an HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitope derived from tem can be regulated not only with respect to the activation of
MAGE-A4, a melanoma-associated tumor antigen. Methods: transgene expression, but also with respect to the amount of

65
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

transgene product produced. The biggest obstacle to the use of The Effects of the Pollutant Dioxin on Pulmonary
this vector system is the presence of leaky gene expression. Dentritic Cells. Josh J. Neumiller, Washington State
Future experiments should focus on eliminating leaky gene University. Introduction: Exposure to dioxin correlates with a
expression, designing a more feasible study in order to get bet- variety of toxic effects, including immunosuppression. The
ter kinetic data on transgene expression, and using a wider mechanism of this immunosuppression has not been fully
range of doxycycline concentrations to further study its effect explained; however, current data indicate that exposure to
on expression. dioxin suppresses T cell activation and proliferation and
impairs host resistance. One possible explanation for the
Humanization of Anti-Methotrexate Monoclonal
reduced T cell response is a dioxin-mediated decrease in the
Antibodies. Danny McNatty, University at Buffalo.
ability of dendritic cells (DC) to stimulate naïve T cells in the
Introduction: This laboratory has proposed that the systemic
lymph node. The overall purpose of this study was to charac-
administration of anti-drug antibodies may be used within an
terize the effects of dioxin on DC migration by examining 1)
“inverse targeting” strategy to enhance the pharmacokinetic
chemokines important in DC trafficking between the site of
and therapeutic selectivity of intraperitoneal (i.p.) chemother-
infection and lymph nodes, and 2) respiratory dendritic cell
apy. This hypothesis has been supported by the results of pre-
(RDC) numbers within peripheral lymph nodes. Methods:
clinical studies utilizing methotrexate as a model anti-cancer
Chemokine data for MIP-1a was established by enzyme-
drug. In these studies, the administration of murine monoclon-
linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) on bronchoalveolar
al anti-methotrexate antibodies was shown to allow increases
lavage (BAL) fluid collected from female C57Bl/6 mice
in the maximum tolerated dose of i.p. methotrexate, improving
infected with influenza A virus and treated with either peanut
animal survival in a murine model of peritoneal cancer. The
oil (vehicle) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
present work attempts to develop single-chain anti-methotrex-
(10µg/kg). Peribronchiolar lymph nodes were collected and
ate antibodies and humanized anti-methotrexate antibodies.
homogenized in Trizol for isolation of nucleic acids. A cDNA
These modified antibodies may facilitate future clinical inves-
library was prepared, and CCR7 and SLC expression were
tigations of the targeting strategy, as the modified antibodies
examined using RT-PCR. Another cohort of mice was used to
may be expected to be less immunogenic in man (ie relative to
track DC migration. The fluorescent dye CFSE was instilled
murine anti-methotrexate IgG). Methods: The laboratory has
intranasally 6h prior to sacrifice. Immune cells were isolated
previously developed a murine hybridoma cell line (W8) that
from lung and lymph node tissue and stained with fluo-
secretes high affinity anti-methotrexate IgG. W8 cells were
rochrome-conjugated antibodies for differential analysis via
grown within a humidified incubator, and tissue culture super-
flow cytometry. Results: MIP-1a levels are slightly decreased
natant was collected to identify the IgG and light chain sub-
in the lungs of TCDD-treated mice at 24h post-infection.
type. Total RNA was extracted from the cells, and reverse tran-
CCR7 and SLC expression is slightly decreased in lymph
scription was performed to yield W8 cDNA. Polymerase chain
nodes of TCDD-treated mice. Intranasal CFSE instillation suc-
reactions (PCR) were performed with cDNA using light chain
cessfully labeled immune cells within the lung, providing a
(L-upstream, L-downstream) and heavy chain (VH-upstream,
useful method for tracking RDC migration to peripheral lymph
VH-downstream) primers, which were designed to isolate the
nodes. Exposure to TCDD did not affect the efficacy of CFSE
variable regions of cDNA encoding the anti-methotrexate IgG. labeling. However, exposure to TCDD did not alter the per-
PCR products were cloned into a pCR2.1-TOPO vector centage or number of RDC in lung, nor was RDC migration to
(Invitrogen, Carlsbad, C.A.) for sequence confirmation. peripheral lymph nodes affected by TCDD treatment.
Overlapping PCR was performed using a cysteine linker to Conclusions: These data suggest that the infection-associated
build a cDNA vector encoding a single chain FV antibody con- migration of DC from the lung to the peribronchiolar lymph
taining both the VH and VL regions. This vector was transfect- nodes is not adversely affected by exposure to dioxin.
ed into SP2/0 murine myeloma cells for expression of the sin- However, it is possible that dioxin causes defects in the
gle chain antibody fragment. Antibodies were purified by expression of co-stimulatory or accessory molecules on DC,
affinity chromatography and by hydroxyapatite chromatogra- rendering them less effective as antigen presenting cells.
phy, and characterized via binding experiments and through
Microadenomas in the Mouse Lung. Edward P. O’Donnell,
sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
University of Colorado. Introduction: The main cause of can-
Results: Isotyping revealed that the W8 cells secreted an IgG1
cer death in the United States and Europe is lung cancer
antibody with kappa light chains. PCR yielded cDNA for the
because it is seldom diagnosed before metastatic spread.
variable region of the heavy chain and for the variable region
Development of effective chemopreventive therapies for early
of the light chain (VH = 426bp, VL = 664bp). cDNA identity
administration to high-risk patients (e.g., ex-smokers) is thus
was confirmed via sequencing. Antibody purity and affinity
essential for reducing mortality. Characterizing early stages of
for methotrexate were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate
lung cancer progression will greatly aid in designing chemo-
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by binding experi-
prevention regimens. Preclinical trials will provide insight into
ments, respectively. Summary: Molecular biology techniques
dosing schedules for such agents in subsequent clinical trials.
were used to produce, purify, and characterize anti-methotrex-
Adenocarcinoma (AC, a subtype of non-small cell lung can-
ate antibodies. Resultant antibodies may facilitate the clinical
cer) is the most common form of lung cancer, induced in mice
investigation of an inverse targeting strategy that is designed
with the chemical carcinogen, urethane. Mouse AC has molec-
to optimize the i.p. chemotherapy of peritoneal tumors.
ular, morphological, and histological similarities to human

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American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

AC, providing a relevant model to assess early stages of pro-


gression that can be experimentally manipulated. Taking
advantage of the differences between sensitive and resistant
inbred strains should provide insight into the mechanisms of
lung cancer resistance and sensitivity, further aiding the devel-
opment of effective chemopreventive agents. Objectives: The
objectives of this current study were to: 1) quantify early
lesions or microadenomas using a mouse model of lung AC,
and 2) compare differences in timing of microadenoma
appearance and susceptibility to urethane-induced tumorigen-
esis across inbred strains. Methods: Four inbred strains of
mice with differing sensitivities to urethane-induced lung
tumorigenesis (sensitive AJ, intermediate BALB and CXB4,
and resistant B6) were treated with urethane (1 mg/g) or saline Innovative Ways of Incorporating Quality of Life Data into
vehicle (control groups) and sacrificed at 3-week intervals up
Health Economic Evaluations. Sara A. Poston, University of
to 12 weeks. Perfused lungs were embedded in paraffin
Kentucky. Background: A significant challenge currently
blocks, sectioned with a microtome into 4 µm step-sections,
faced in health economics is how to measure and incorporate
and every tenth section stained by hematoxylin for visualiza-
quality of life changes into economic evaluations. Quality
tion. Microadenomas were enumerated on each section using
adjusted life years, or QALYs, are constructed via a simple
Spot Advanced® software (Diagnostic Instruments).
formula: the additional number of life years offered by a par-
Synthesis of Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitors With the ticular therapy are multiplied by a “quality adjustment factor”
Potential to Circumvent Tumor Resistance. Jaclyn Phan, or “utility” which is measured on a scale between 0 (dead) and
Duquesne University. Introduction: Cancer ranks second 1 (full health). An important issue within the field is the ques-
among leading causes of mortality in the USA. Antitumor tion of whether patient or general population utilities should be
agents (antifolates in particular) therefore serve as a significant used in determining QALYs. Objective: To directly compare
area of research capable of impacting afflicted patients. The utilities previously obtained from subjects with heart failure to
goal of the present research is to synthesize compounds the utilities obtained from a community sample of non-heart
designed to overcome the resistance mechanisms that plague failure subjects. Methods: Survey methods were used to
current antitumor agents. Rationale: Our target is thymidylate assess the utilities from a sample of 74 subjects from the gen-
synthase (TS), a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive eral population for Class II (n=33) and III (n=41) heart failure.
methylation of 2’-deoxyuridine-5'monophosphate (dUMP) to Mean age of subjects was 38 years. 45% of subjects were
2’-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP) utilizing 5,10- female (n=33). t-tests were performed to detect differences in
methylenetetrahydrofolate, a cofactor which acts as the source utilities between heart failure patient and general population
of the methyl group as well as the reductant. Since this is the groups. Multiple regression analysis was also performed to
sole means by which de novo synthesis of dTMP occurs, inhi- test whether sociodemographic variables affected the utility
bition of TS arrests cellular proliferation. Once bound to TS, and served as control when comparing utilities between
nonclassical compounds of general structure 2, which are patients and general population groups. Analysis of results is
homologs of compound 1, are expected to mimic the ability of ongoing and will be presented at the July meeting. The results
the 1-TS complex to bind to TS mRNA thereby inhibiting fur- of this analysis will provide important information and evi-
ther TS production and avoiding resistance via TS amplifica- dence that will assist us as we work towards designing a more
tion. Folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the comprehensive future analysis, using a much larger sample,
formation of polyglutamated classical antifolates leading to for comparisons between all four NYHA heart failure classes.
high intracellular concentrations of compound due to
decreased ability to efflux from the cell. Since nonclassical The Role of Celecoxib in Cell Death. Ryan A. Schneider,
compounds lack the glutamate tail needed for FPGS activity, Pharm.D. Candidate. David H. Kinder, Ph.D. Since the advent
FPGS-related resistance should be avoided. These lipophilic of selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as celecoxib for
nonclassical compounds should passively diffuse across cellu- use as NSAIDs with decreased gastric side effects, other uses
lar membranes. Resistance due to defective active transport for these agents have surfaced. It has been shown that the use
should therefore also be circumvented. Methods: Benzyl mer- of celecoxib in patients diagnosed with familial adenomatous
captans substituted with either electron withdrawing or elec- polyposis (FAP) has decreased the number and size of polyps
tron donating group(s) were appended to the 5-position of 2- substantially, and has since been included as a labeled use for
amino-4-oxo-6-methyl-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine via an oxida- this drug. Although there are theories as to the cellular mech-
tive addition reaction using iodine, ethanol, and water. The anism involved in this process, no definitive mechanism has
pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine precursor was synthesized as report- been established. The goal of this project is to determine the
ed previously. Results: These compounds were tested against mechanisms associated with the cytotoxic effects of celecoxib
both E coli and human TS and dihydrofolate reductase on the HT-29, BT-20, MCF-7, and A375 cell lines. Firstly, we
(DHFR). The synthesis and biological activity of compounds have found that celecoxib behaves somewhat like a conven-
of general structure 2 will be presented. tional chemotherapeutic agent in plastico; thus, we have estab-

67
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2004; 68 (2) Article 54.

lished an IC50 for cell growth inhibition for each of the four postmenopausal females, non-D-carriers have a higher basal
cell lines using an XTT assay. Additionally, we visually and CRP-stimulated clotting activity than the D-carriers. The
observed the cells undergoing apoptosis as indicated by bleb- results of this study will contribute to the understanding of
bing and other morphological changes using a trypan blue genetic influences on vascular thromboembolism in post-
assay to assess cell viability. Furthermore, we noted a menopausal women.
decreased number of cells in wells treated with higher concen- The Effects of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate and
trations of celecoxib. We then determined caspase-3 activity Other Compounds on Lung Cancer Cell Lines A549 and
(generally considered a hallmark of apoptosis) using a colori- H1299. Dorothy Surowiec, Rutgers, the State University of
metric assay on each of the four cell lines. Results from this New Jersey. Introduction: Lung cancer is the number one
assay indicated no caspase-3 expression at times 4, 8, 24 and cancer that causes death in the United States. Non-small cell
36 hours post treatment with celecoxib at the IC75 dose. Lastly, lung cancer makes up 80% of all lung cancer cases; however,
we performed gel electrophoresis on the MCF-7 and HT-29 there is yet to evolve one best treatment for lung cancer. The
cell line in order to visualize DNA laddering, which is anoth- major objective of this study was to determine a novel
er hallmark of apoptosis. Results of the gel electrophoresis chemotherapeutic treatment utilizing TPA that would possibly
experiments showed no DNA laddering in either of the two be more effective and less toxic than currently available treat-
cell lines. Our results as of now are intriguing; we are visual- ments for both the A549 wild-type p53 and H1299 null p53
ly observing apoptosis when we treat the four cell lines with non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. In addition, experiments
celecoxib; however, we are not observing two of the hallmark to examine the mechanism of action of TPA in these two cell
identifiers of apoptosis: caspase-3 expression, and DNA lad- lines were also performed. Methods: The effects of TPA alone
dering. We are currently in the process of performing addi- and in combination with other compounds on the A549 and
tional experiments which we hope will indicate the exact cel- H1299 cell lines were studied by performing cell culture and
lular mechanisms involved with the cytotoxic effects of cele- flow cytometry experiments. The mechanism of action of TPA
coxib. in the two cell lines was examined by Western blot experi-
Tissue Factor Polymorphisms in Postmenopausal Women. ments. Results: The A549 cell line was more sensitive to the
Heather M. Sturgill, Virginia Commonwealth University. growth inhibitory effects of TPA than the H1299 cell line in
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of dose response experiments. The best combination treatment
death in the United States. Cardiovascular risks for women for the A549 cell line was TPA with caffeine, while the most
increase after menopause. Although hormone replacement effective combination in the H1299 cell line was TPA with
therapy (HRT) was once considered cardio-protective, it is tomatidine. Furthermore, the p21 protein was upregulated
now recognized that HRT is associated with an increase in after a 24 hour TPA 16nM treatment in the A549 cell line.
thrombotic risk. This increase in thrombotic risk can be par- Conclusion: TPA induced a greater amount of growth inhibi-
tially explained by the rapid rise of the inflammation factor C- tion in the A549 cells than the H1299 cells. This suggests that
reactive protein (CRP) after HRT initiation. CRP induces pro- p53 status may play a major role in a cancer’s sensitivity to the
duction of tissue factor (TF), the initiator of the coagulation effects of TPA. The upregulation of p21 in the A549 cells,
cascade. The TF gene promoter was recently reported to con- which could lead to growth arrest, may be a downstream effect
tain four completely concordant polymorphisms: an 18 bp of the upregulation of p53. Further, the combination of TPA
insertion/deletion at -1208 position of the 5' promoter region. and caffeine could possibly cause a synergistic growth inhibi-
In our previous studies, the TF –1208 deletion (D) allele is tion in the A549 cell line.
associated with increased clotting activity in healthy endothe-
lial cells in vitro using interleukin 1-B (IL1-B) as a coagula-
tion stimulus. Whether the TF –1208D allele is associated with
increased clotting activity with other stimuli (eg, CRP), or in
the postmenopausal population, is unknown. If susceptibility
to CRP-induced thrombosis can be determined prior to HRT
initiation, proper candidates for HRT will be more easily iden-
tified. Methods: Monocytes were isolated from post-
menopausal women’s blood samples. The genotype of each
individual was determined and grouped as D-carriers
(homozygous deletion [DD] or heterozygous [ID]) or non-D-
carriers (homozygous insertion [II]). The monocytes (1x106
cells/mL) were exposed to 3.0 µg/mL CRP for 5 h. The cells
were then assayed for TF activity using a one-stage clotting
assay. Clotting activity was expressed as TF units/1x106
monocytes using a standard curve generated with rabbit brain
TF. Results: Sixteen postmenopausal women have been stud-
ied to date. Conclusion: In contrast to in vitro studies in
endothelial cells, the D-allele is not associated with increased
clotting activity in postmenopausal women. In this group of

68